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Ans-1 (a): India is a large country having scores o f regional languages, various strains o f culture and different loyalties, single as well as multiple. Amidst the amazing diversities, it is natural that regional feelings, regional parties, regional institutions and similar other organizations meant for voicing the aspirations o f local people and providing forums for them, should emerge. Indeed, with the passage o f years, the multi-faceted aspirations, which together may be described as regionalism, have gained strength. In principle, regionalism need not be regarded as an unhealthy or anti-national phenomenon-unless it takes a militant, aggressive turn and encourages the growth of secessionist tendencies as in the cases o f Punjab, J&K, north eastern states. National unity is not impaired if the people o f a region have a genuine pride in their language and culture. But regionalism develops into a serious threat to national unity if politicians do not go beyond their regional loyalty and claim to stand only for their regional interests if regionalism is to be regarded as an unhealthy phenomenon, decentralization too would be objectionable, which o f course it is not. So there is nothing basically contradictory between nationalism and regionalism. Nor does the growth o f regional values and con solidation o f regional forces as such pose a challenge to the central administration o f the country. Among the causes o f the growth o f regionalism is prolonged maladministration and neglect of an area or State by the Central Government. There has been a creeping disillusionment against Central rule. Regional symbols, regional culture, history and in many cases a common language, all promote regionalism. The Centre's indifference to the development o f certain regions has created imbalances Regionalism will come into conflict with nationalism only when it becomes aggressive and when members o f the various regional parties tend to forget that they are Indians first and last, citizens o f the same country. In the current context, many Indian states are demanding autonomy. The reason being that they are blaming the centre for their backwardness. Many states in the North-East are accusing the centre for its step-motherly treatment and this has given rise to many militant outfits such a ULFA that are demanding the liberalization o f Assam. Same is the situation with Kashmir where we are still debating over the causes o f the Shimla agreement with our neighbor. The argument has to viewed in its entirety. No wonder the government has accepted the division o f Uttar Pradesh into smaller provinces such a Varanchal and Uttaranchal. Although the government states that the division is purely for administrative purposes, the growing tribal unrest in the parts o f Bihar and Uttar Pradesh is one o f the main reasons for this division. The issue o f Telangana has been added to this list. There are some uniting factors which need to be further promoted. The emergence o f a national market, the spread o f communications, the influence o f all India institutions, the widening transport facilities, the vast network o f the electronic media, the establishment o f a common structure o f formal education almost throughout the country . These factors helps to counter regional tendencies.

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Ans 1 (b) Equality is a cherished ideal o f humanity. Art. 14 does not mean that all laws must be general in character. The state can treat different persons differently if circumstances justify such treatment. A reasonable classification is necessary if society is to progress. But, classification does not mean herding together o f certain persons and classes arbitrarily. An improper discrimination by conferring particular privileges upon a class o f persons arbitrarily selected is not permitted. Ans 1 (c) River linking Project is nationwide programme to interlinking rivers. It has two components(a) Himalayan Rivers Development Component (b) Peninsular Rivers Development Component => Several benefits=> 1. 2. Transferring Surplus water to water deficit area. Flood & drought problem will be solved to great extent. Hydroelectricity generation, additional irrigation, drinking water. Water wastefully flowing in river will be used. Ample opportunity for inland navigation and reduce pressure on other means o f transport. Great help in inter-state water dispute. Minimum flow o f water will be ensured in water Deficit Rivers. Critisism on several grounds :Geological Structure:Extremely hard rock structure o f peninsular region. Disturbance in rock strata may be caused hazards. Topographic Complexity:-

Construction o f several dams and canals cutting across various river basins requires engineering skills o f high calibre. - Upliftment o f water requires huge amount o f energy. 3. River regime:- Hydrologists believe that there are hardly any surplus waters anywhere in the country. - Flow o f water in particular river having different range during a year. Low water flow in summer in Himalayan River compared with rainy season. 4. Transferring o f water in rainy season to peninsular river will generate hazard. Environmental aspect:Destruction o f forested area, fertile soils, agricultural lands. Disturbance in ecological balance (degradation o f species.)

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Ans 1 (d)

Soil texture and composition will be disturbed and changing in crop pattern, water logging, salinity-alkalinity problem. Adverse effects on mangrove and fishing in west Bengal. Mass level displacement Temperature o f Bay o f Bengal will increase Disturbance in Monsoon. Adoption o f in-situ and sustainable initiative will be viable. Regional approach to link the rivers at small scale. A wide study and research in technical aspect is needed and also need o f common consensus.

=> Analysis

Persons with Disability Act, 1995 was passed by the Parliament on Dec. 12, 1995 and notified on Feb. 7, 1996. The Act fixes responsibility o f the Central and State Governments, local bodies to provide services, facilities to people with disabilities to provide equal opportunities for participating as productive citizens o f the country. The Act enlists rights and facilities persons with disabilities would be entitled to and which are enforceable.

This is an important landmark. The act provides for both preventive and promotional aspects o f rehabilitation. Disabilities covered in the Act are:- blindness, low vision, leprosy-cured, hearing impairment, locomotor disability, mental retardation, and mental illness. A person with disability has to be certified by a medical authority that he or she is suffering from not less than 40% o f the disability. The Central Government shall constitute a Central Co-ordination Committee (CCC), headed by the Minister o f Social Justice and Empowerment. Within the limits o f economic capacity and development, the concern authorities, with a view to preventing the occurrence o f disabilities, shall (a) Undertake or cause to be undertaken surveys, investigations and research concerning the cause o f occurrence o f disabilities. (b) Promote various methods o f preventing disabilities. (c) Screen all children at least once in a year for identifying at-risk cases. (d) Provide facilities to trained staff at the primary health centres. (e) Sponsor or cause to be sponsored, awareness campaigns and disseminate information for general hygiene, health and sanitation. (f) Take measures for prenatal and postnatal care o f mother and child. (g) Educate the public through the pre-schools, schools, primary health centres, village level workers and anganwadi workers.

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(h) Create awareness amongst masses through TV, radio and other mass media on the causes o f disabilities and its prevention. Every child with disability should have access to free and adequate education till the age o f 18, integrate students with disabilities into normal schools, set up special schools in government and private sectors and equip these special schools with vocational training facilities. The Government shall reserve at least 3% posts in Government jobs for persons with disabilities. The Government shall provide aids and appliances to persons with disabilities and shall provide land at concessional rates for allotment to persons with disabilities for housing, business, special recreation centres, special schools, research centres and factories by entrepreneurs with disabilities. Government transport shall take special measures to adapt their facilities and amenities so to permit easy access to persons with disabilities. All authorities shall within their capacity, provide auditory signals along red lights, crossings, constructions shall be designed for wheel chair users, and engraving on zebra crossing for blind people. Building and toilets shall be constructed with ramps and other features. No employer shall terminate an employee who acquires a disability during service. No employer shall also deny promotion to an employee on grounds o f disability. The National Trust for the Welfare o f Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act, 1999 The Government have also introduced a National Trust for the Welfare o f Persons with Mental Retardation and Cerebral Palsy Bill, 1995. The trust aims to provide total care to persons with mental retardation and cerebral palsy and also manage the properties bequeathed to the Trust. Ans 2. (a) Examples o f 19th Century peasant mobilization. - Indigo revolt, Deccan riots, Punjab revolt, Bijolia m ovem ent.... They protested moneylenders. against enhancement o f rent, evictions, usurious practices of

In the absence o f class consciousness or proper originations, they did not develop a political matrix. Ans 2 (b) The seven years o f Bentincks administration will be long remembered for the introduction o f a number of social and administrative reforms which have played a great part in modernizing India.

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But, the statement given in question is an example o f eulogistic language (showers more praise than he deserves). Ans 3 (a) Humor sometimes may offend some section o f the society. This statement has been made in that context. When NCERTs Class XI Political Science textbook, Indian Constitution at Work, came to the attention o f some Dalit activists, they objected to the manner in which the Chairman o f the Drafting Committee of the Constitution, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, has been depicted riding a snail representing the Constitution, with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru wielding a whip behind him and an entire crowd smiling and watching the spectacle. Six weeks later, the issue was raised in Parliament and a chorus o f MPs cutting across party lines sought the withdrawal o f the cartoon, and some even o f the NCERT textbooks. Many sections o f the public had not been privy to the contents o f the textbooks in the past six years. It is only now that these textbooks are being debated. The textbook writers may have tried their best to overcome their caste bias, but none of us is exempt from the baggage o f caste, gender or other interests. As the feminist movement has so clearly shown, humour is by no means exempt from prejudice. Cartoons and jokes can be vicious about minorities. Hate speech often masquerades as humour. Jokes and cartoons need to be subjected to critical scrutiny. Theres a lot that is good about these textbooks a result o f the pressure that the womens movement, the Dalit movement, environmental and farmers movements, antiSEZ mobilizations exerted - that may be lost if the final say about what may or may not appear in a textbook is to be with the state.

Conclusion:- In discussion class. Ans 3 (b) In India, all citizens irrespective o f the state in which they are born or reside enjoy the same political and civil rights or citizenship all over the country and no discrimination is made between them. However, this general rule o f absence o f discrimination is subject to some exception, viz, The Parliament (under Article 16) can prescribe residence within a state or union territory as a condition for certain employments or appointments in that state or union territory, or local authority or other authority within that state for union territory. A state may offer concession in fees for education to its residents. The freedom of movement and residence (under Article 19) is subjected to the protection o f interests o f any schedule tribe. In other words, the right o f outsiders to enter, reside and settle in tribal areas is restricted. O f course, this is done to protect the distinctive culture, language customs and manners o f schedule tribes and to safeguard their traditional vocation and property against exploitation.

In the case o f Jammu and Kashmir, the state legislature is empowered to define the person who are permanent residents o f the state and confer any special rights and
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privileges in matters o f employment under the state government, acquisition of immovable property in the state, settlement in the state and scholarships and such other forms o f aid provided by the state government. Ans 4 (a) The Dharmadhikari Committee has recommended 1st April 2007 as the cut-off date for the purpose o f implementing new pay-scales for the employees o f Air India [both erstwhile Air India (Al) & Indian Airlines (IA)]. There will be uniform pay-scales for all employees o f erstwhile AI and IA. For the executive cadre recommended pay-scales are as per the DPE norms and non-executive cadre pay-scales are as per the industry norms. Air India Constitutes Committee to Implement Justice Dharmadhikari Committee Report Civil Aviation Ministry To Seek Dispensations For Incentives To Employees Air India Ltd. has constituted a Committee to implement the recommendations o f Justice Dharmadhikari Committee report in a time bound manner. The Committee constituted on the direction o f Ministry o f Civil aviation has representation from both erstwhile Air India and Indian Airlines. The Committee has already started functioning and had its first meeting on 21st June, 2012 to prepare a roadmap for timely implementation o f Justice Dharmadhikari Committee report

Ans 4 (b) A social change requires multi faceted action viz. politico-legal, administrative, psychological etc. Creating awareness on sensitive social issues such as domestic violence, honour killing, female fratricide, physical disability, etc. media and particularly a programme like SJ can bring the debate, discussion, deliberation at national forum but social change requires efforts more than this. SJ has exposed several corrupt practices perverting in our society the govt, needs to show political will for eradicating such social menaces. Show airing on DD will also promote the social concerns in remote areas people get awareness. Govt, agencies & law enforcement agencies must start acting seriously on the evidences produced by researchers o f such programme. Ans 4 (c) Reports available from across the country demonstrate a serious shortage o f labour for the MSMEs & agricultures farm. In fact, this shortage need to be related to the particular growth phase o f the economy, characterized by enhanced national and international migration.

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The traditional conceptualization o f MSMEs as the breeding ground o f skills is fast disappearing. Labour has become so volatile that the process o f skill generation has been seriously stalled, with dire consequences on the process o f development itself.

Ans 4 (d) National Green Tribunal (NGT) was established in 2010, under India's constitutional provision o f Article 21, which assures the citizens o f India, the right to a healthy environment. The tribunal itself, is a special fast-track court to handle the expeditious disposal o f the cases pertaining to environmental issues.

During the Rio De Janeiro summit o f United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992, India vowed the participating states to provide judicial and administrative remedies for the victims o f the pollutants and other environmental damage. There lies many reasons behind the setting up o f this tribunal. After India's move with Carbon credits, such tribunal may play a vital role in ensuring the control o f emissions and maintaining the desired levels. This is the first body o f its kind that is required by its parent statute to apply the "polluter pays" principle and the principle o f sustainable development. The Tribunal's dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters shall provide speedy environmental justice and help reduce the burden o f litigation in the higher courts. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code o f Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles o f natural justice. The Tribunal is mandated to make and Endeavour for disposal o f applications or appeals finally within 6 months o f filing o f the same. Initially, the NGT is proposed to be set up at five places o f sittings and will follow circuit procedure for making itself more accessible. New Delhi is the Principal Place o f Sitting o f the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other 4 place o f sitting o f the Tribunal. Ans.4 (e) The government declared that it has taken an in principle decision to link diesel prices with market rates, a move, which the opposition Party asserted would push up the prices o f essential transport fuel. While petrol prices are market-linked, the government fixes the rates o f LPG, kerosene and diesel, which results in a large budgetary expenditure on subsidies. For the current fiscal, the government has made a provision o f Rs 43,580 crore for oil subsidies, o f which Rs 40,000 crore has been earmarked as compensation to oil marketing companies (OMCs) for selling petroleum products at lower than market rates.

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High subsidies are putting pressure on the country's fiscal deficit, which touched 5.9 per cent o f GDP last fiscal and is pegged at 5.1 per cent in 2012-13. The government targets to bring down the subsidy bill to below 2 per cent o f GDP this fiscal and 1.75 per cent in the subsequent years. Ans 4 (f) It has negative as well as positive outcomes:Since most o f the exporters also import raw materials, they have been hit by the rising price o f such imports, he said. Increase in the value o f imports has also in turn pushed up domestic raw material prices, besides soaring inflation and upward movement o f interest rates are adversely affecting exporters. India is running a current account deficit and what has supported the currency so far is capital inflows. So as long as capital continues to flow out this depreciation will continue. A depreciation o f the Indian rupee would lead to a shift in at least a part o f this competitive advantage to the Indian export firms, thus boosting Indian exports. The rise in exports will give a boost to the recovery o f economic growth. Similarly, a weaker domestic currency would make imports dearer. This will act as a barrier against imports, thus improving the trade balance. However, imports of commodities, like oil, whose demand is relatively inelastic, could dilute, fully or partially, the likely improvement in the trade scenario. Although capital imports are needed for economic growth, the need to curb the deficits is more pressing because deficits have an inflationary impact and they can also lead to financial vulnerability. In case there is exchange depreciation, Indian importers would prefer to purchase locally manufactured goods. This would add to the growth in demand for goods and services, thus helping in the economic recovery. Ans 5 (a) Desertification is a process o f fertile land transforming into desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought or improper agriculture practices. Climate change refers to drastic changes in variables o f climate like weather, temperature, rainfall etc. Desertification and climate change can be considered similar in the context of nature and effects o f both o f the phenomena. Similer Nature of Climate change and desertification -> Anthropogenic Natural Process > - Both are interrelated and mutual cause o f each other. Regional, national and international phenomena. > - Immense socio-economic, health related effect.

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Effects of desertification and Climate change: Reduction o f natural resources and biodiversity. > Reduction in food production and productivity. -> Effect on human resource related to food, health. - Create mass level migration and adversely affect social harmony. More adverse effect on livestock, poor people >

Burden on national govt. Ans 5 (b) The MoEF constituted WGEEP in March 2010 with a mandate to demarcate areas within the Western Ghats Region which need to be notified as ecologically sensitive, and make recommendations for conservation, protection and rejuvenation o f the Western Ghats following consultations involving people and State government. It was also required to recommend the modalities for the establishment o f the Western Ghats Ecology Authority (WGEA) under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (EPA). Initially, there were no guidelines available on what areas may be considered ecologically sensitive, nor on working out an appropriate management in 2000 by the Pronab Sen Committee. The Sen Committees foremost criterion for identification o f ESA is endemism. Western Ghats harbours well over two thousand endemic species o f flowering plants, fish, frogs, birds ad- mammals amongst the better known groups o f organisms, and thousands more amongst less studied groups. Amongst themselves these span the entire Western Ghats and all conceivable habitats, including highly disturbed ones. The Western Ghats region also qualifies as an ESA under several other Sen Committee criteria. WGEEP thus needed to address manifold challenges; formulate the non-standard concept of ESAs, solicit suggestions from civil society and gram sabhas on constituting ESAs, develop a database on ecological parameters for the Western Ghats region, assign Ecological Sensitivity scores and delineate zones o f different levels o f Ecological Sensitivity over the region, suggest management strategies and finally, suggest mechanisms for building upon what was necessarily a preliminary exercise. WGEEP attempted this in a fully transparent, participatory mode, at the same time observing due scientific discipline. The data base, methodology and conclusions o f WGEEP relating to ESZs need to be widely exposed to scientific, as well as public scrutiny. All this material should be made available in all regional languages as well, communicated to every local body and feedback obtained from people at grass roots. Such an exercise is not a pipe-dream; it was successfully accomplished for Goa Regional Plan 2021. The feedback should then be complied, assimilated and appropriate decisions arrived at the ensure that the rich natural heritage o f the Western Ghats is protected and utilized in a sustainable fashion, while equitably sharing in the benefits that flow.

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Ans 5 (c) Public outcry against indiscriminate pricing o f water and privatization o f water delivery services has forced the Centre to back off on both counts in its revised draft o f the new national water policy. The revised draft, that incorporate suggestions from the public as well as state governments, allows for subsidy to the poor and in non-commercial farming. The new plan, which was considered at a day-long meeting o f the National Water Board, comes after a majority o f people and States like Punjab had opposed pricing o f water and privatization o f services. Most o f the people opposed pricing o f water and privatization o f water-related services. Fearing infringement o f their rights, some States expressed reservations on the proposal for having an over-arching national legal framework as a basis for enacting legislation in water governance. Some States opposed modification in the Indian Easements Act, 1882 that gives propriety right to a land owner on groundwater under his/her land.

Although the idea o f maximizing value from water has been abandoned in the new policy, the natural resource will henceforth be treated as an economic good to promote its conservation and efficient use. Ans 5 (d) Structure refers to geochemical composition and internal features o f rocks and their geomorphic description. Relief refers to slope and its nature, angular position, nature o f peaks and valleys. Indo-Tsangpo Suture Zone: Convergence boundary o f plates. Tethyean Himalaya-Sedimentary and fossil rocks. Great Himalaya- Assymetrical fold, Archean granite-Gneiss-Schist Absence of volcanic Eruption (Batholith structure.) Lesser Himalaya-Metamorphic rocks (Slate, quartzite) Shivaliks- almost unbroken range, lime and sand stone Absence o f volcanic eruption (Batholith structure in inner part.) Large number o f faults-MBF, MCT, HFF Belt o f nappe Syntaxial Bend, Convex shape o f Himalaya Orthoclinal plan Series o f high elevation peaks V-Shaped valley and deep gorges Synclinal valley and anticlinal peaks Lack o f intermontane plateaus and basins => Structure:-

=> Relicf:-

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- Glacial landscape - River terraces - Steeper southern slope than northern slope Ans 6 (a) Ans 6 (b) Singh Sabha In the late 19th century. Aim: revival o f Sikh G urus teachings, Campaign to increase literacy and promotion o f Gurumukhi script. Reaction to the proselytizing activation of Christian Missionaries.

Daman-i-koh - Forested area o f Rajmahal hills - Present Sahebganj (Jharkhand) - Santhal revolt. Ans (c) Ans 7 (a) Saliadaran Ayyapan Follower o f Sri Narayan Guru. Social reformer. Respected for his selfless social work. His slogan - Jati Venda, Matham Venda. Daivam Venda The West Bengal government has agreed to set up a three member committee for fact verification o f the Shyamal Sen committee report on the question o f inclusion o f areas from Dooars and Terai in the Gorkha Territorial Agreement (GTA). The High powered committee headed by Justice Shyamal Sen had recommended inclusion o f two maujas from Jalpaiguri and three from the plains o f Darjeeling district in the Gorkha Territorial Administration (GTA). The Gorkha Janamukti Morcha (GJM) had asked for inclusion o f three ninety eight maujas from Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri district to the GTA.

Ans.7 (b) The redesigned PURA program or PURA 2.0, approved by the Government o f India (Gol) in 2011 aims at making doable the overarching vision o f the original PURA concept. It combines infrastructure development for a village cluster with mandatory development o f skills development, economic activity generation and additional revenue generating activities through a PPP modality. The Ministry o f Rural Development (MoRD) supported by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), worked together over a 3 year period from conceptualization o f PURA 2.0 to awareness building and finally rolling out pilot projects. Two o f these pilot projects in

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the state o f Kerala were concessioned through a signing o f contracts between the local panchayat and PPP partner (INKEL Ltd) in the presence o f the honourable M inister for MORD. Ans.7 (c) National Counter Terrorism Center (NCTC) India is a proposed federal anti-terror organisation to be created in India on the lines o f NCTC in USA with some changes to make it more suited to Indian counter terrorism efforts. The proposal gained much significance after the 26/11 attacks as it was strongly felt that India lacked a federal agency with real time intelligence inputs o f actionable value specifically with respect to terrorism. Much blame had been on the states which failed to act on intelligence inputs provided prior to the Mumbai attacks. However, the states themselves were o f the opinion that the inputs were highly vague in nature and no sufficient pre-emptive action could be taken solely on these inputs. Hence, P. Chidambaram, who took over the mantle of India's home ministry from the highly criticized Shiv Raj Patil in Nov 2008, stated that one o f his first tasks was to establish a strong federal counter terror agency that could co-ordinate with the states effectively by properly integrating intelligence inputs with the states. The agency will derive its powers from the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967.

Ans.7 (d) Andhra Pradesh being one o f the few States to implement the Minimum Wages (MW) Act to discourage child labour, the National Commission for Protection o f Child Rights (NCPCR) has sought its execution plan for replication in other States. The Labour Department has, over the past 15 years, awarded penalty o f Rs. 5 crore to employers o f 35,000 children from the State under the MW Act. The prime reason for employing child labour is that children can be paid dismal wages, as against adults who demand a prescribed minimum wage.

Ans 7 (c) In 2012 a record 10 applicants from Jammu and Kashmir cleared the prestigious all-India civil services examination-six o f them Muslims from the conflict-torn Kashmir valley. The State ranked third, behind Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, in its contribution to the civil services pool. Ever since Shah Faesal topped the exam in 2009, seven years after his father was gunned down by terrorists, his status as a media icon appears to have motivated ever-greater numbers o f young Kashmiri Muslims to apply.
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Kashmiri Muslims have long been present in Indias core circle o f bureaucratic powerbut they were few and far between. In 1968, Muhammad Shafi Pandit became the first Kashmiri Muslim to join the Indian Administrative Service. He was followed by Iqbal Khandey in 1978, Khurshid Ganai in 1982 and Asghar Samoon in 1993. In 1994, Abdul Gani Mir and Javed Geelani joined the Indian Police Service. Their success was a turning point.

In the years since, the numbers o f successful Kashmiri Muslim applicants to both the Central and State civil services have risen steadily-a generational transition from their parents, for whom resisting the influence o f the Central services was a key political article o f faith. Ans.7 (f) Recognising the importance of defining a comprehensive strategy for universal health coverage, the Planning Commission has set up a high level expert group to develop a blueprint and investment plan for meeting the human resource requirements to achieve health for all' by 2020. The 15-member high level group on universal health coverage, chaired by K. Srinath Reddy, president o f the Public Health Foundation o f India, is mandated to rework the physical and financial norms needed to ensure quality, universal reach and access to healthcare services, particularly in underserved areas and to indicate the role o f private and public service providers. The expert group will suggest critical management reforms in order to improve efficiency, effectiveness and accountability o f the health delivery system, among other things. Ans 8 (a) In pursuit o f his long-cherished goal o f making India hunger-free by 2020, Sam Pitroda, Adviser to the Prime Minister, along with Delhi C hief Minister Sheila Dikshit announced the launch o f the first Food Bank as part o f the India Food Banking Networking (IFBN). With the implementation o f the Delhi Food Bank, IFBN would get on its hands the first model, which it would seek to modify, strengthen and replicate at a national level, so that by 2020, every district o f India has access to a Food Bank. Ans 8 (b) With the winged scavengers teetering on the brink o f extinction, innovative o f extinction, innovative measures are being undertaken to save the vultures. In a bid to conserve the fast dwindling vulture population, Gadchiroli forest division has established Vulture Restaurants. These restaurants are located strategically with a regular supply o f safe food by collecting dead animals from local people.

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AN INSTITUTE FOR CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATION

YNER

The countrys first Meta university project, which allows students to choose from the study modules offered by different participating universities. The participating universities o f this project Delhi University, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jawaharlal Nehru University and IIT-Delhi are still in the process o f chalking out the modalities. The Meta university project will allow students to create a flexible curriculum, with more choices o f courses. Under the system, the collaborating universities will provide, and recognise, credits to the students for different courses and facilitate student mobility across disciplines.

Ans 8 (d) - Given birth to black soil (regur) and is fertile in nature supporting various crops - Building stones and road building materials. - Precious stones like quartz, agate etc. - Hydroelectricity generation. - Deposits o f minerals like iron, manganese etc. Ans 9 (a) The Kerala Forest Department is all set to modernize its timber sale and plantation management activities by introducing CT scan and other non-destructive testing for trees under a project claimed to be first ever in the country. A CT imaging system, which produces cross-sectional images o f anatomy, can not only assisting diagnosing tumours, fractures and infections in the human body, but also help detect the quality o f trees in your backyard. Ans 9 (b) The United Progressive Alliance government chalked out its first multi-winged operation to tackle the problem o f Naxalism through development programmes, implemented under the protection o f Central security forces. Union Minister o f Rural Development finalized the action plan for Saranda forest area in Jharkhand, considered to be the second stronghold o f the Maoists in the country. Technical help from the Army has also been sought for the plan. The objective was to consolidate the logistic gains registered by the CRPF in the Saranda region and achieve demonstrable success not only to gain experience but also to showcase what could be rolled out in other areas in phases.. The Central action plan entails an expenditure o f about Rs.325 crore, besides the budgetary allocation under various heads covering the 56 villages o f six panchayats of Saranda to benefit a population o f about 36,000 tribals. It includes free distribution o f solar lantern, bicycles, and transistors to 7,000 families at an estimated cost o f Rs.5.2 crore and 200 hand pumps at a cost o f Rs. 1.2 crore. The Jharkhand government would undertake a survey to bring all the families under the BPL list, to include them under the Indira Aawas Yojana, give them pattas for up to four
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hectares o f land under the Forest Rights Act, and provide old age pension to those eligible. The Centre has decided to deploy three battalions o f the CRPF and set up 20 camps in the core area. The CRPF will give protection during construction o f roads under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). Ans.9 (c) Step-I: The person meeting accident should be immediately taken to a nearby safe area. Step-II: Given water & first aid from the vehicle. Step-III: Call the Ambulance Step-I V: Look after to the Hospital Step-V: Call the family members to attend him.

Ans.9 (d) Agni-V is an intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) o f India. It is part o f the Agni series o f missiles, one o f the missile systems under the original Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. SKY IS THE LIMIT With the successful test-firing o f Agni V, India has proved it is not a laggard in developing high-end technology. With this missile launch, the country joins the elite missile club of the US, Russia, France and China CATEGORY Surface-to-surface inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM) RANGE Over 5,000 km. It can hit targets in China, including Beijing, eastern Europe, east Africa and the Australian coast HEIGHT 17.5m FUEL Sol id-fuelled,three-stage missile LAUNCH WEIGHT 50 tonnes, including a 1.5 tonne warhead Ans.9 (e) GSAT-7 is a multi-band satellite carrying payloads in UHF, S-band, C-band and Kuband. It is planned to be launched during 2011 onboard GSLV. The satellite weighs 2330 kg with a payload power o f 2000W. The configuration o f the satellite has been finalized and the design o f new payload elements is completed.

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Ans 10 (a) Captain Urmila Yadav, Co pilot Yashoo Pereira and Guwahati airport Director Manvinder Singh and thanked them for ensuring the safe landing o f Alliance Air flight ATR 42 aircraft VT ABD while operating from Silchar to Guwahati and saving precious life o f the passengers. The Minister in particular appreciated the courage and grit of Captain Urmila and her Co-pilot Yashoo with which they acted in the hour o f crisis and ensured safety o f all 48 passengers on board without letting the panic take its grip. The aircraft had separation o f nose landing gear after takeoff from Silchar. Ans 10 (b) Srikanth "Sri" Srinivasan is the Principal Deputy Solicitor General o f the United States and is a current federal judicial nominee to serve on the United States Court of Appeals for the District o f Columbia Circuit. He has argued 18 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court and was also a lecturer at Harvard Law School.

AnslO (c) Tusha Mittal o f Tehelka's Kolkata News Bureau has been chosen for the Chameli Devi Jain Award, 2012. Ms. Mittal has been chosen as the Outstanding Woman Media person for her sterling reportage o f life in the raw at the margins in deep interior Bengal, Orissa and Chhattisgarh, in areas affected by bloody civil strife, Naxal and vigilante violence and dangerous living along the Bangladesh border, where cattle smuggling is rife.

Ans 10 (d) Sharath Gayakwad is an Indian Paralympic swimmer from Bangalore. Coming from a modest financial background, he has over 30 international and 40 national medals to his credit, one o f them being the bronze medal at the 2010 Asian Para Games. He is the first Indian swimmer to qualify for the Paralympics and will be competing in the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London.

AnslO (e) An IPS officer o f 2009 batch was allegedly murdered by mining mafia in the Morena district o f Madhya Pradesh.

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Ans 10 (f) Soumitra Chatterjee is an iconic Bengali actor from India, known among other things for his frequent collaborations with the great Bengali film director Satyajit Ray . On 3 May 2012, he was selected by the Government o f India to be honoured with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, India's highest award in cinema given annually by the Government o f India for lifetime contribution to Indian cinema. Ans 10 (g) Svvami Gyan Swaroop Sanand, a noted environmentalist, Professor GD Agrawal, had begun an indefinite fast over the degradation o f Ganga river here. Agrawal, who has undertaking several fasts in the past over the issue, began his fast at Matra Sadan ashram.

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