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Ans Because life situations of people are diff..Give examples Q Do they mean the same? 1.People have diff developmental goals 2.People have conflicting developmental goals Q What is the main goal of development More income What other goals do people have Regular work Equal opportunity Freedon respect .. Q “Development goals are not only about better income but also about other imp things in life “ EXPLAIN If job far away then family facilities, job security etc Women who work get better respect n dignity For work there should be sharing of housework and acceptance of women in workplace Safe n secure environment means more women can work QWhat aspects should national dev keep in min? Diff people/communities have diff goals Find a fair path for all Max can benefit Q How to compare development of diff countries Income Q Why is total income of a country not useful measure for comparing dev of countries
security. Q In a state 28 % of rural pop uses ration shops where as in other 8 % do so..infant mortality etc What are the public facitlies best provided collectively Security. public facilities etc QWhat public facilities must be provided to live well for a community? education facilities for all.Life expectancy. Gross Enrollment Ratio.Per Capita Income Ans page 13 Q write a short note on Sustainability of Development Plus Quest on page 16 n 17 . education.As diff countries have diff population the comparing total income will not tell us what an average person earns Q What is the is the way to measure dev of different countries Average Income or Per Capita Income Q Why is average income an imp criterion for dr development Q How has the world bank classified countries for dev. Q While averages are useful they also hide disparities? Explain?? Or if the average income of a country is increasing does it mean all sections of society are doing better? Q What besides Income are important attributes for development? Literacy .pds.education Q Why does Kerala have a low infant mortality rate? Q Does good health and educational facilities depend only on the govt.Why Q Explain HDI.infant mortality Net attendance ratio or health.health facilitiesunalderated medicines.Pollution free environment.
communication Generate services Highly interdependent --give examples All produce large number of goods and service Have a large number of people working in them Q How do we count the various goods n services n know total production in each sector.Dairy.only value of final goods n services is added 3 The value of final goods n services produced in each sector during a particular year provides the total production of the sector of that year Give example Q Why are only final goods n services counted As value of final goods already includes value of intermediary goods . 1. Sugar from cane.finance.fisheries.IT shows how big the economy is.value of goods n services is added up 2.give eg so if value intermediary goods also counted then double counting will happen QWhat is Gross Domestic Product The sum of production in the three sectors give the GDP IT is the value of all final goods n services produced within a country during a particular year..Mining.cloth from cottin This sector forms the base for all other sectors TERTIARY-Services Sector Activities that help in he development of other sectors Do not produce goods but aid production Transportation.SECTORS OF THE INDIAN ECONOMY PRIMARY-(agriculture n related Sector When we produce goods by exploiting ing natural resources SECONDARY-Industrial Sector Activites that change natural products into other forms through ways of manufacturing Agriculture. .
Over the past decade new services like IT and Communication have become imp and essential Q Is the service sector growing in a uniform manner No as at one end few services employ highly educated n skilled workers At other end many are emp as shopkeepers.Q How is the GDP measured in India 1 Mamoth task done by Central Govt Ministry 2.transport people etc and make little Q Where are most of the people employed . 4 People worked more in manuf 5 Used more goods as they became cheaper 6 Now secondary sector became more imp in total production n employment 7 In the past 100 years further shift has happened from secondary to tertiary sector 8. As income levels rise people demand services like eating out. 1.shopping pvt schools 5. As methods of farming improved more people cld do other jobs. More the dev of PS n SS the more demand for services 4. Over time new methods of manuf introduced and manuf expanded . TS has become most imp in terms of total prod Q Why has the tertiary sector become so imp in India 1.First primary sect was most imp . Dev of Agri and Industry leads to dev n demand for services like transport.tourism. In a developing country basic services like hospital education banks defence etc are managed by govt 2.trade storage 3. Other activities like crafts trading transportation increased 2 Prod happened bust mostly from natural sector products 3.Then GDP is estimated Q What does history of developed countries indicate about the shifts that have taken place during sectors.repair people.This ministry with help of various govt govt depts all over India collects data regarding volume of goods n services n their prices 3.
A better infrastructure ensures a better economic activity leading to overall prosperity. Literacy Rate: The percentage of literate people is another important indicator of development. . what may be development for one may not be development for the other. railways. Once you are in IIT then you get a bright and secure future for you and your family. Male to Female Ratio: Number of female per thousand male is called sex ratio. Combination of Goals Needed for Development: The above mentioned list is not all inclusive but they are more important than other goals which are not mentioned here. airports. Different people have different developmental needs. Education is a big leveler as it opens newer opportunities for the educated person. Each goal influences the other and creates an opportunity for development in a fair way. This is an important parameter as it shows the quality and extent of availability of healthcare in a country. ports and power generation are the lifelines of a nation’s economy.DEVELOPMENT Economic Development Different persons can have different developmental goals and two. Gross National Product: The total income generated in the country is called Gross National Product. Gross Domestic Product: The total income generated minus the income generated by exports is called the Gross Domestic Product. A lesser figure shows society’s aversion to a girl child and worse condition of women in society. Infrastructure: Roads. This creates a need for a development goal which can encompass different needs of different people in a fair way. Goals of Development: Per Capita Income: The total income of a country divided by the population is called the per capita income of that country. It may even be destructive for the other. Infant Mortality Rate: The number of children who die before completing one year out of 1000 births is called the infant mortality rate. These needs are based on their particular life situations. The lesser figure is a better indicator of development. Life expectancy: The maximum age up to which an adult lives is called the life expectancy rate. Especially in a country like India you can see many examples of a brilliant student coming from a lower class family cracking the IITs. Every goal or parameter of development is interrelated. This also shows the overall quality of life in a country.
He also needs feritlisers and seeds which is processed in some factory and which will be delivered to his doorstep by some means of transportation.SECTORS OF THE INDIAN ECONOMY Primary Sector When the economic activity depends mainly on exploitation of natural resources then that activity comes under the primary sector. sugar and artificial flavour. Growth and Status of Different Sectors in India. Agriculture and agriculture related activities are the primary sectors of economy. When the food production became surplus people’s need for other products increased. Moreover. . Ultimately. administrative support developed. Secondary Sector When the main activity involves manufacturing then it is the secondary sector. After growth of economic activity a support system was the need to facilitate the industrial activity. Evolution of an Economy from Primary Sector Based to Tertiary Sector Based During early civilization all economic activity was in primary sector. management consultancy. So. more shops were needed to provide goods in people’s neighbourhood. telephony and IT are good examples of service sector. A cold drink contains water. Let us go back to the farmer. Financial services. The growth of secondary sector spread its influence during industrial revolution in nineteenth century. Now to transport sugarcane to sugar mills and sugar to the cold drink plant needs the services of a transporter. other services like tuition. To top it all at every step of these activities we require the proper monetary and banking system. Tertiary Sector When the activity involves providing intangible goods like services then this is part of the tertiary sector. This led to the development of secondary sector. All industrial production where physical goods are produced come under the secondary sector. Certain sectors like transport and finance play an important role in supporting the industrial activity. Interdependency of Sectors: To understand this interdependency. Suppose if there is no sugarcane production then procuring sugar will become difficult and costly for the cold drink manufacturer. A person or system of persons is required to maintain and monitor all these movements of goods from farm to factory to shop in different locations. That is where role of administrative staffs comes. let us take an example of a cold drink. in a nutshell this describes how interrelated all sectors of an economy are.
The first graph shows the rupeewise turnover of various sectors in1973 and 2003. The second graph shows the share of three sectors in the GDP during these 20 years and last graph shows share in providing employment. The first graph shows a massive increase in turnover for all these sectors during 20 years.Closely observe the given graphs. which shows the way our economy grew. Moreover. The agriculture provided employment to 75% workers and this decreased to 60% in 2000. Majority of people are still employed in agricultural activities. The second graph shows that share of agriculture decreased substantially and that of industry remained static and share of services grew. On the other hand the growth in employment provided by other two sectors was substantially low. Particularly the growth of share of services sector was phenomenal from 35% to 55%. As agriculture provides seasonal employment during cropping season so chances of hidden employment are big. The share in providing employment was not in tune with the share in GDP. The meaning of this finding is as follows: 1. Now the third graph paints a distressing picture. as history . which is not as big a drop as agriculture’s drop in GDP contribution.
Labour working organized sector get the benefit of social security net as framed by the Government. In those days Indian entrepreneur was not cash rich so government had to start creating big public sector enterprises like SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited). medical benefits and insurance are provided to workers in the organized sector. leave entitlement. Shcemes like NREG (National Rural Employment Guarantee) is the latest announced by the UPA government in 2004. Although educated and skilled workforce do get employed in secondary and tertiary sector but for unskilled and semi-skilled workers there is still shortage of employment avenues. India needed huge amount of money to set up manufacturing plants for basic items like iron and steel. from time to time. Other Classifications of Economy Organised Sector The sector which carries out all activity through a system and follows the law of the land is called organized sector. labour rights are given due respect and wages are as per the norms of the country and those of the industry. some small scale manufacturing units keep all their attention on profit making and ignore their workers basic rights. These security provisions are necessary to provide source of sustenance in case of disability or death of the main breadwinner of the family. This programme guarantees a minimum of 100 days of employment to at least one person from every rural household. so it can be said that India is still way behind because majority still depend on agriculture. 2. aluminium. health benefits and insurance are beyond the imagination of people working in unorganized sectors. Otherwise the dependents will face a bleak future. Additionally infrastructure like roads. ONGC(Oil & Natural Gas Comission). Unorganised Sector: The sector which evade most of the laws and don’t follow the system come under unorganized sector. Tata are from private sectors. ports and airports also require huge investment. Companies like Hero Honda. Secondary and Tertiary Sector have failed to generate enough employment opportunities making a pressure on primary sector. Private Sector Companies which are run and financed by private people comprise the private sector. Workers don’t get adequate salary and other benefits like leave. fertilizers and cements. After independence India was a very poor country. Small shopkeepers. announces and implements various employment scheme to fight unemployment or hidden employment to help the weaker section of society. railways. This is part of government’s effort to ensure the ‘Right to Work’ to the rural poor citizen. Public Sector Companies which are run and financed by the Government comprise the public sector. . Government Aided Schemes to Fight Unemployment Government.suggests a developed nation’s dependency shifts from primary sector towards tertiary sector in all aspects of economic development. Moreover. Certain benefits like provident fund.