# Rebecca Wingard-Nelson

Illustrated by Tom LaBaff

Rebecca Wingard-Nelson

Illustration credits: Tom LaBaff Cover illustration: Tom LaBaff

Introduction What Is Division? Why Divide? Division Terms Division and Multiplication Division Facts Zero and One Long Division Dividing Greater Numbers What Are Remainders? The Largest Remainder Dividing by Greater Numbers Powers of Ten Multiples of Ten Division and Estimation Properties and Division Checking Your Answer Division Key Words Word Problems Understanding the Remainder Word Problems and Remainders Further Reading Internet Addresses Index

Contents

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. cooking food. Any time you have a group of things and need to separate them into smaller equal groups. When you decide how many rows of seats your class will need during an assembly. tutor. . and an important part of your life. Get ready to discover math . It can be used on your own or with a friend. reading music. made easy! 5 . When you split a bag of candy or a box of cookies with a friend. you are dividing. you are dividing. and doing any other activity that uses numbers. or parent. Using This Book This book can be used to learn or review division at your own speed. you are dividing. Even finding a television station uses math! Division Is Everywhere You use division in everyday life. telling time. spending money.Introduction M ath is all around. You use math when you are playing games.

You have 20 king cobras. 6 . 1 You can find the number of baskets by subtracting 5 cobras at a time from the total. 20 15 10 5 5 5 5 5 15 10 5 0 1 basket 2 baskets 3 baskets 4 baskets You need 4 baskets to hold all 20 king cobras. A basket holds 5 cobras.What Is D ivision is a way to break something into equal parts. How many baskets do you need to hold all of your king cobras? There are two ways to find the answer.

20 divided by 5 is 4. Division is repeated subtr action. will fill 4 baskets. 7 .Division? 2 You can divide. Division is just another way to subtract over and over again. 20 king cobras. divided into baskets of 5 snakes each.

You also know the number of groups you want to equally put them into. Six divided by three is two. gave each friend two slices. The pizza had six slices. You can divide to find how many items will be in each group. how many slices did each friend eat? Six slices of pizza. 6 3=2 8 . Three friends bought a pizza. divided equally among three friends. If three friends shared the pizza equally.Why S uppose you know a total number of items.

10 2=5 9 . Ten divided by two is five. and how many are in each group. You have ten bees.Divide? Suppose you know the total number of items. You can divide to find the number of groups. You want to divide them into groups of two bees. How many groups can you make? You can make 5 groups of 2 bees.

The number 6 is the divisor. you will have 3 groups. The answer to a division problem is called the quotient. It is the number being divided. 10 . You want to divide them into groups of 6. you say. It is the number you divide by. 18 6 3 When you read a division problem out loud.Division S uppose you have 18 pencils. 18 6 3 Eighteen divided by three equals six. How many groups will you have? The number 18 is the dividend. If you make groups of 6 pencils.

18 6 3 dividend divisor quotient Division is also shown using symbol. 11 . also shows division. Eighteen divided by three equals six.Terms Division can be shown using three different symbols. The symbol 18 6 3 is called the division symbol. the long division quotient divisor dividend All three ways of writing division problems are read the same way. ––. 3 6 18 . dividend divisor quotient The fraction bar.

repeated addit eated Division is rep subtraction.Division and D ivision and multiplication are inverse operations. They undo each other’s work. 12 . inverse opera tions— Operations th at undo each other . 18 is Multiplication ion. Multiplication says six times three is eighteen. 6 3 18 Division says eighteen divided by three is six. Division breaks a whole into equal groups. operation—An action that works to change a number . 3 6 Multiplication puts equal groups together.

12 4 3 13 . 3 4 12 Twelve chairs divided into rows of four chairs each will fill three rows.Multiplication Three rows of four chairs make a total of twelve chairs.

order of the fa er is and the answ the same. then you also know the division fact 21 7 3. Remember: In you multiplication. factor 3 factor 7 product 21 Let’s look at the same fact. written using division. e can change th ctors. Let’s review the terms for multiplication. 14 .Division Y ou can learn division facts by using the multiplication facts. product (dividend) 21 factor (divisor) 7 factor (quotient) 3 When you know the multiplication fact 3 7 21.

15 . When you know you also know 3 7 21.Facts For each multiplication fact you know. 21 3 7. and 21 7 3. 7 3 21. you really know four facts.

The answer will always be zero. 6 0 The problem is asking. On the other hand. 0 0 0 2=0 27 = 0 312 = 0 16 .Zero N o number can be divided by zero. zero can be divided by any number. If you have nothing (zero) and divide it into any number of equal groups. there will be nothing (zero) in each group. How many groups of zero items will make six items? You could have as many groups of zero as you want and still never have a total of six. Look at the division problem below.

If you have nine beads and divide them into groups of nine.and One Any number divided by one stays the same number. how many groups will you have? You will have one group. If you have eight baseballs and divide them into one equal group. the group will have eight baseballs in it. the answer is one. 8 1 8 When any number is divided by itself. 9 9 1 17 .

3 1 3 3 2 6 There is one group of 3 in 4. Two groups of 3 is greater than 4. You can use long divison. but not greater than 4. How many groups of 3 can you make from 4? Find the 3s multiplication fact with an answer closest to 4. Divide one place value at a time. 42 3 is written as 3 42 .Long S divisor ometimes you need to divide numbers that are not basic facts. Write the 3 below the 4. 3 42 dividend Divide 3 into the first digit of the dividend (42). 1 3 3. 1 3 42 3 Write a 1 in the answer above the 4. Multiply the number you just wrote (1) by the divisor (3). beginning on the left. 18 .

You are finished! 42 3 14 19 . Bring down the next number (2).Division 1 3 42 3 1 1 3 42 3 12 Subtract. 1 is less than 3. Divide 3 into 12. 12 12 0. Subtract. Multiply. 14 3 42 3 12 12 0 Write a 4 above the 2. 4 3 12. There are no more numbers to bring down. 4 3 1. the difference (1) must be less than the divisor (3). (Think: How many groups of 3 can I make from 12?) The number 12 will make exactly 4 groups of 3 (4 3 12). In long division. Now you have the number 12. Write the product (12) below the 12.

4 6 24. the first number on the left is 2.Dividing Greater Y divisor ou can divide any number by a one-digit number using long division. In the dividend. The next number is 9. so you cannot make any groups of 6 from 2. Write 24 below the 29. The number 2 is smaller than 6. Since you did not use the 2. 294 6 294 dividend 6 is written as 6 294 . 6 294 4 6 294 24 5 Write a 4 above the 9. 20 . the number you are looking at is 29. but not 5 (5 6 30). Multiply. 29 24 5. Subtract. The number 29 will make 4 groups of 6 (4 6 24).

There are no more numbers to bring down. Write the product (54) below the 54. Subtract. You are finished! 294 6 = 49 21 . The number 54 will make exactly 9 groups of 6 (9 6 54). Write a 9 above the 4.Numbers 4 6 294 24 54 49 6 294 24 54 54 0 Bring down the next number. 4. 54 54 0. Multiply. 9 6 54. Now you have 54.

If you put four muffins in each box. You want to put the muffins in boxes. it is called a remainder. When there is a number left over in division.What Are Y ou have nine blueberry muffins. but there would be one muffin left over. how many boxes do you need? You will need 2 boxes with 4 muffins in each. 22 .

Subtract. Can you make a group of 9 from 3? No. so the remainder is 3. There are no more places to divide. will make 3 groups of 9 (3 9 27). The number. Write 3 above the 0. 30 27 3. Look at the next number. 30. Look at the first number. 30 9 30 9 is written as 9 30 . Multiply. 3 9 27. but not 4 (4 9 36). Write 27 below the 30. Write the remainder in the answer using an R to show it is a remainder. 3 9 30 27 3 3 R3 9 30 27 3 30 9 = 3 R3 23 .Remainders? Use long division to find division answers with remainders.

Let’s look at two problems and see why. For example.The Largest T he largest remainder that a division problem can have is one number less than the divisor. remainder—The number left over in a division problem. the largest remainder you can have is 3. if you are dividing by 4. 15 4 = 3 R3 24 . How many groups of 4 stars can you make from 15 stars? You can make 3 groups of 4 with 3 stars left over.

How many groups of 4 stars can you make from 16 stars? You can make exactly 4 groups of 4 stars. If you have more than 3. there would be 16 stars. 25 . 16 4=4 When you divide by 4.Remainder If you had one more star in the original group. the largest remainder you can have is 3. you can make another group.

Bring down the 5 to make 55. 26 . You can make 1 group of 16 (1 16 16) from 21. Multiply. 1 16 16. Look at the first number.Dividing by U 2. but not 2 (2 16 32). Subtract. 21 16 5. 16 is written as 16 2154 . You can make 3 groups of 16 (3 16 48) from 55. 1 16 2154 16 5 1 16 2154 16 55 Write a 1 above the 1.154 16 2154 se long division to divide by larger numbers. but not 4 (4 16 64). Can you make a group of 16 from 2? No. Look at the next number.

4 16 64. but not 5 (5 16 80). 74 There are no more numbers to bring 64 down. 16 Multiply. 74 64 10. Write 48 below the 55. 3 16 48. Write a remainder of 10. 48 Subtract. 10 2154 16 = 134 R10 27 . Bring down the 4 to make 74. You can make 4 groups of 16 (4 16 64) from 74. 134 R10 16 2154 Write a 4 above the 4. 55 Write 64 below the 74. Subtract.Greater Numbers 13 16 2154 16 55 48 7 13 16 2154 16 55 48 74 Write a 3 above the 5. 55 48 7. Multiply.

So. which has one zero. For example. and 1. 50 10 = 50. You are dividing by 10. 5. Write the decimal point dividend with a decimal point at the end.000 are all powers of ten. 100. move the decimal point one place to the left for each zero at the end of the number.0 50 10 = 5 28 . 50. To divide by a power of ten.Powers P owers of ten are any numbers that are a one followed by zeros. the decimal point is at the end. In whole numbers. move the decimal point one place to the left. 10.

35. 350. 35. which has two zeros.00 35.000.000 100 = Write a decimal point after the dividend. move the decimal point two places to the left.of Ten 35. decimal point You are dividing by one hundred.000. So.000 100 = 350 29 .

Now divide. 250 50 = 5 30 . The result is the same as the answer to the orginal problem. you can take the same number of zeros off each and then divide. 250 50 250 250 25 25 50 50 5 5=5 Both numbers end in one zero. Take one zero off each number.Multiples W hen both the dividend and the divisor end in zeros.

3. The multiples of ten are 10.200 800 multiple of ten — The product o f ten multiplied by a counting num ber . 30. 24 4 = 6 240 40 = 6 2. 3200 3200 32 32 800 800 8 8=4 Now divide.of Ten Let’s look at another one. 40. . The result is the same as the answer to the orginal problem. .200 800 = 4 One basic fact can be used to find the answer for many division problems.400 400 = 6 54 6 = 9 540 60 = 9 5. 3. Both numbers end in two zeros. .400 600 = 9 31 . 20 . Take two zeros off each number. 50.

a reasonab le guess. 32 . The division facts for 8 that have dividends close to 62 are 56 dividend 8 7 and 64 8 dividend 8.Division and Y ou can use basic division facts to estimate the answer to a division problem. The number 62 is closer to 64 than 56. 62 8 estimate —An ans wer that is n ot exact . so you can say 62 8 is about 8.

The greatest place value in 19 is the tens place. 207 19 If you round 207 to the hundreds place. 33 .Estimation You can estimate the answer to a division problem with larger numbers by rounding each number to its greatest place value. you get 200. 20 is the same as the 20 2 = 10 207 19 is about 10. so 19 rounds to 20. You can reduce the numbers to make the problem easier. The answer for answer for 20 200 2. 200 20 The numbers 200 and 20 each end in zero.

When you multiply.Properties A re the same properties true for division that are true for multiplication? Let’s check. you can change the order of the numbers and the answer will not change. 34 . You cannot change the order of the numbers in a division problem. Is this true for division? 9 9 3 3 3 3 9 How many groups of 3 can you make from 9? 3 How many groups of 9 can you make from 3? None! The number 9 is bigger than 3.

you can group the numbers in any way to multiply them. 35 .and Division When you multiply more than two numbers. Is this true for division? (60 6) 2 60 2 2 5 60 (6 60 60 60 (6 2) 2) (3) 3 20 2) 20 (6 Divide inside (60 6) parentheses first. 10 2 5 2 (60 6) You cannot group the numbers any way you choose in a division problem. (10) Divide again.

3. 3 1 Add.Checking B ecause multiplication and division are opposite operations. 3 1 4. we found that 42 If 42 3 1 3 14 3 42. you can use multiplication to check the answer to a division problem. 1 14 is correct. 36 . then 14 14 3 2 Multiply ones. 14 3 42. Regroup. On page 19. so 42 3 14. 14 3 42 Multiply tens. 3 4 12.

Your Answer When the answer to a division problem r emainder—Th e has a remainder. over in a division proble On page 23. 9 3 27 remainder 27 3 30 The result (30) is the same as the number you divided. we found that m. Add the remainder to the number you just found. 30 9 = 3 R3 divisor Multiply the divisor and the part of the answer that is not the remainder. 30 9 = 3 R3 37 . first use multiplication. so the answer is correct. number left then add the remainder.

Words that help you know how to solve problems are called key words. How old is Owen? The word half tells you that you should divide by 2 to find Owen’s age. 14 years 2 7 years Owen is 7 years old.Division O wen is half as old as his sister Lauren. Some key words for division problems are listed in the table below. Lauren is 14. Division Key Words average cut divided divisor each equal parts evenly every half out of per quotient separate shared split 38 .

First write the problem in words. cost of three games divided by three is the cost per game \$51 3 \$17 The cost is \$17 per game.Key Words Some division problems will ask you to change a value for more than one item to a value for one item. If you know the: Price of more than one Size of more than one Length of more than one and you need to find the: Price of one Size of one Length of one A package of three computer games sells for \$51. What is the cost per game? Since you know the cost of three (more than one) games. 39 . you can find the cost of one game by dividing.

Your club bought 168 flowers to give to 12 teachers. Each teacher will get the same number of flowers.Word W ord problems can be solved by following four steps. How many flowers will each teacher get? 40 .

3 Solve the problem. 4 Check your work. Find what you want to know. Check division by multiplying. 41 . Divide the number of flowers by the number of teachers. You know the total number of flowers and the number of teachers. The number of flowers each teacher will get. You are looking for the equal number of flowers each teacher will get.Problems 1 Understand the problem. Find what you know. This is a division problem. There are 168 flowers and 12 teachers. 2 Plan how to solve the problem. 168 flowers 12 teachers 14 flowers per teacher. 14 flowers per teacher 12 teachers 168 flowers.

How many pages will you use if you put all of the coins in the book? You are being asked to divide your 51 coins into groups of 4. A coin collection book displays four coins on each page. You have collected 51 coins. Since 12 1 13. Twelve pages will be full. another page will be needed for the remaining 3 coins. you will use 13 pages. but ask different questions. Let’s look at some problems that use the same facts.Understanding W hen a quotient has a remainder. you must decide what the remainder means. 51 4 12 R3 The question asks how many pages will you use. 42 .

the Remainder A coin collection book displays four coins on each page. which is the remainder. only the full pages are counted. You have collected 51 coins. You have collected 51 coins. How many pages can you fill completely? In this problem. A coin collection book displays four coins on each page. There will be 3 coins on the last page. You will have 12 full pages. How many coins will be on the last page? In this problem. 43 . the question asks how many coins will be on the last page.

Find what you know. You get to eat what is left after the candies are divided equally into 20 bags. There are 2.153 candies to go equally into 20 bags. 44 . Find what you want to know. How many candies are you allowed to eat? 1 Understand the problem.153 chocolate candies in a bag.Word Problems L et’s use the steps from pages 40 and 41 to solve a word problem that uses a remainder. The number of candies left over. There are 2.

4 Check your work.153 20 107 R13 The question asks how many candies you get to eat. so your answer is correct. A large group of candies is being divided equally into smaller groups. This is a division problem.140). Since you get what is left over. first multiply (107 20 2. You get to eat 13 candies. or what remains.140 13 2. 45 .153). 3 Solve the problem. then add the remainder (2. You are back to the original number you divided. When division problems have a remainder. the remainder is the answer. 2.and Remainders 2 Plan how to solve the problem. Divide the number of candies by the number of bags.

Dazzling Division. Indianapolis: John Wiley & Sons.: Evan-Moor Educational Publishers. 1996. Manipulative Math: Multiplication and Division. Jo E. Salt Lake City: Rainbow Bridge Publishing. Deep Space Division Fission. 46 . Lynette. Rainbow Bridge Publishing. Calif.Further Reading Long. 2004. 2000. Monterey. Moore.