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Final Review Chapter 19: Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections European merchants got a chance to buy directly

from Indian merchants after the discovery by Vasco da Gama of a sea route to the Indian Ocean. In 1497, the Portuguese mariner da Gama led a convoy from Lisbon, Portugal around the African Cape of Good Hope to Asia. Square and lateen sails allowed the Portuguese to sail in whatever winds arose. An astrolabe or cross staff was used by mariners for determining latitude. The sternpost rudder and the magnetic compass were critical to European exploration, but they were invented by the Chinese rather than the English. He arrived in Calicut, India some ten months later in search of trading opportunities. Da Gama established the first direct overseas trade between Europe and India, but did not seize control of territory in the subcontinent. His expedition opened the door to direct maritime trade between European and Asian peoples and helped to establish permanent links between the worlds various regions. Equipped with advanced technologies and a powerful military arsenal, western European peoples began to cross the worlds oceans in large numbers. The Europeans explored the world's oceans in search of raw materials and mineral resources, new lands to settle, Asian markets and a desire to extend Christianity. The growing European demand for expensive goods such as cloves, nutmeg, ginger, and spices led European monarchs and merchants to conclude that they could gain great profits by establishing direct overseas trade with the Far East. By the middle of the seventeenth century, the Dutch had begun to supplant the Portuguese as the dominant European power in Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. The Dutch mariners, who ruled the islands of Indonesia, concentrated their efforts on controlling the trade in spices, particularly cloves, nutmeg, and mace. Trading post empires established by the Portuguese, Dutch, and English merchants linked Europe to almost all parts of the world, excluding Australia. The English and Dutch merchants had the advantage of sailing ships that were faster, cheaper, and more powerful than those of the Portuguese. English and Dutch merchants formed two especially powerful joint-stock companies: the English East India Company and its Dutch counterpart, the United

East India Company, known from its initials as the VOC. Although the English East India Company and the VOC enjoyed government support, they were privately owned enterprises. Christopher Columbus believed that Japan was only 2500 nautical miles west of the Canary Islands. This mistaken belief led him to attempt to sail from Spain westward across the Atlantic Ocean. The Columbian Exchange, the global diffusion of plants, food crops, animals, human populations and disease pathogens, had profound consequences in the New World. Infectious and contagious diseases decimated indigenous populations, who had no genetic or acquired immunities to diseases such as smallpox, influenza, and measles. European diseases were as devastating for the peoples of the Pacific islands as they were for the peoples of the Americas. Conversely, Native American food crops introduced to Europe resulted in improved nutrition and cuisine and steady population growth. Eventually, commercial competition produced conflict between European states in the Americas and in the Indian Ocean. Chapter 20: The Transformation of Europe The printing press, which first appeared in Europe in the mid-fifteenth century, greatly aided the spread of Martin Luther's criticism of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther argued that good works could not bring salvation, and that humans could be saved only through faith. As a result of Martin Luther's preaching, a number of German cities began to pass laws requiring that religious services follow Protestant doctrine. The desire of princes to build their own power bases encouraged the spread of Protestantism. The Council of Trent was an assembly of high church officials summoned by the Catholic Church to clarify doctrine and address reform in response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation. The Holy Roman Emperor started the Thirty Years' War by attempting to force his Bohemian subjects to return to Catholicism. Tension between Protestants and Roman Catholics fueled social and political conflict, resulting in the violent witch hunts of the sixteenth century. Ninety-five percent of the victims of the witch hunts were relatively powerless poor, old, single, or widowed women on the margins of society.

John Calvin's Geneva enforced strict moral codes. Residents of Geneva had to dress modestly, study the Bible, and refrain from dancing and other immoral acts. Calvinism established its most lasting roots in the Netherlands and Scotland. In England, King Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church after the pope refused to grant him a divorce. Following his break with Rome, Henry VIII took control of all church properties in England. The Spanish Inquisition used religious justification to discourage the Spanish nobles from adopting Protestantism. The population of Europe grew dramatically in the seventeenth century because of the introduction of American crops, notably potatoes, which resulted in improved nutrition to the population of Europe. The development of a capitalist economic order was supported by the organization of banks and lending institutions, stock exchanges, joint-stock companies and insurance companies. In Russia, Czar Peter's reforms included military reforms, the introduction of western European fashions, the building of St. Petersburg to serve as a base of naval operations, and the reorganization of government bureaucracies. In the putting-out system, production was moved into the countryside in a system known as "putting -out", which benefited the urban entrepreneurs, merchants and customers, as well as the rural spinner and weavers. Chapter 21: New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania Before the end of the fifteenth century the western and eastern hemispheres existed in almost complete isolation from one another. This situation began to change after the voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. From this point on, the contact between the two would increase dramatically, often with disastrous consequences. The Europeans, with military and technological advantages, imposed their will on the Americas. Ironically, much of the European success was based on a weapon they didn't know they possessed: smallpox. The massive migration of Europeans into the western hemisphere brought an astonishing transformation of American society. Australia and the Pacific islands would undergo a similar experience two hundred years later. After 1492 C.E., European mariners established permanent contacts between the eastern and western hemispheres and Oceania. The resulting encounters profoundly and violently changed American and Pacific cultures and communities,

particularly as a result of the transmission of diseases and superior European technology. Desire for resources led Spanish adventurers from the Caribbean onto the American mainland. After quickly conquering the Aztec and Inca empires, the Spanish created a vast colonial structure stretching from western North America to Patagonia. In eastern South America, the Portuguese steadily developed colonial structures in Brazil, which soon became a vital part of the Portuguese colonial system, particularly as a producer of sugar. Imperial consolidation led to the emergence of settler colonies throughout the Americas. Their presence encouraged the growth and development of a new multicultural civilization, the product of cultural fusion between Europeans, Africans, and American peoples. American resources soon became vital parts of the growing global economy. Silver mining and plantation agriculture in Spanish regions joined sugar from Brazil and the Caribbean and timber and furs from North America as profitable commodities, which stimulated global trade as they moved from the Americas to Europe and Asia. Chapter 22: Africa and the Atlantic World A Portuguese naval expedition conquered the Swahili city states of east Africa in the early sixteenth century. The kings of Kongo converted to Christianity in part because Christian doctrine appeared to endorse strong monarchical rule. Kongo was ultimately destroyed by Portuguese slave traders who undermined the authority of the kings by making alliances with local authorities. For forty years, Queen Nzinga, a descendent of a long line of warrior kings, led the military resistance to the Portuguese. By the mid-sixteenth century, Portuguese mariners learned that they could purchase slaves from African intermediaries. West African societies were most vulnerable to the slave trade because of their proximity to the active slave ports of the western coast. Native Americans either died from disease or fled into the interior, so the Spanish and Portuguese came to rely on African slaves. The triangular trans-Atlantic trade involved European manufactured goods, Africa slaves, and Caribbean sugar and rum. The trans-Atlantic journey the slaves made on filthy and crowded slave ships was known as the middle passage. Olaudah Equiano published his autobiography in 1789, and later traveled throughout the British Isles denouncing slavery as an evil institution.

The vast majority of slaves provided agricultural labor on plantations in the Caribbean or the Americas. In the Caribbean and South America, slave populations fell victim to tropical diseases, brutal working conditions, and poor sanitation and nutrition. Only about five percent of enslaved Africans went to North America. Runaways known as maroons, gathered in mountainous, forested or swampy regions and built their own self-governing communities. Sugar production was dangerous and conducted almost exclusively by African slaves. The slave trade distorted sex ratios in Africa because slavers preferred young men over women. By the late eighteenth century, two thirds of Angola's adult population was women. Despite the involuntary, forced migration of millions of Africans, the introduction of American food crops supported expanding populations. The growing anti-slavery movement, the increasing number of slave revolts, and the declining profitability of slavery resulting from industrialization all combined to help end slavery. Between the eighth and twentieth centuries, over ten million Africans left Africa as part of the Islamic slave trade. Twelve million Africans came to the Americas as slaves, while another four million died en route. Chapter 24: The Islamic Empires Three powerful Islamic empires emerged in India and southwest Asia after the fifteenth century. Beginning with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, Turkish warriors and charismatic leaders established first the Ottoman Empire, then the Safavid dynasty in Persia (1502), and finally the Mughal dynasty in India (1526). Despite their intellectual and social roots among the people of the steppes, three distinct empires emerged with different cultures and traditions. Though all three empires enjoyed strong domestic economies and participation in global trade networks in the sixteenth century, cultural insularity and economic difficulties took their toll. By the late eighteenth century, the Safavid empire had collapsed and the Ottoman and Mughal empires were severely weakened. Autocratic rule. All three empires began as military states in which all power and prestige centered on the person of the ruler. All three were plagued by problems of succession from one ruler to the next. Islamic faith. All three empires embraced Islam. Sizeable Christian minorities in the Ottoman empire and a large Hindu majority in India forced those rulers to

craft policies of religious toleration. The Safavid dynasty followed the Shia sect of Islam, which brought them into conflict with their Sunni Ottoman neighbors. Agricultural economies. Agriculture was the basis of the Islamic empires, and the majority of the population was engaged in raising and processing food. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Ottoman and Safavid populations grew slowly; the population in India grew more dramatically. By the eighteenth century, the domestic economies of all three empires were declining as expansion slowed. It became difficult to meet the expenses of such large militaries and administrations. Ambivalence toward foreign trade. All three empires existed along important historic trade routes and derived benefit from their locations. The Ottomans and Safavids pursued foreign trade more vigorously than the Mughals. By the eighteenth century, however, foreign trade had declined greatly or had fallen under the control of European powers. Cultural conservatism. The Islamic empires did not seek out new ideas or technologies and proved hostile to innovation by the eighteenth century. In their rise to power the Ottomans were aided by the ghazies, who were Muslim religious warriors. The Ottomans had a formidable military machine the used siege warfare, aided by the use of gunpowder weapons, armored cavalry, and soldiers known as Janissaries. Janissaries were young Christian boys from the Balkans who became slaves of the Sultan and were trained as soldiers. Ottoman imperialism climaxed in the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent, who captured Belgrade and laid siege to Vienna in the 1520s. The Iranian plateau was controlled by the Safavids, not the Ottomans. The Safavid Empire began with the reign of Shah Ismail, who claimed legitimacy by tracing his ancestry back to Safi al-Din. Safavid propaganda suggested that Ismail was the "hidden imam" who had gone into hiding in 874, or even an incarnation of Allah himself. The Safavids, trusting in the protective charisma of Shah Ismail, were defeated by the heavily armed Ottomans at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514. The Ottoman Empires powerful fleets challenged the navies of European states in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean. The Ottomans remained staunchly committed to Sunni Islam, and bitterly and forcefully opposed Safavid promotion of Shiism.

Mehmed waged a naval war against Venice during his reign. Mehmed's successor abandoned his plan to conquer Italy, and Ottoman forces consequently withdrew from Otranto. Chapter 28: In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the industrial powers of western Europe swiftly extended their control over vast areas of Africa and Asia. This new imperialism was rationalized by theories of racial and cultural superiority; it was made possible by new technologies of warfare. While the United States and Japan, and to a lesser extent Russia, joined the western European states as imperial powers near the turn of the century, the previously powerful Ottoman and Qing empires struggled with military weakness and internal problems and soon found themselves under foreign domination. Modern imperialism is characterized by mixed motives. Imperial powers claimed economic necessity, strategic imperatives, and a high-minded "civilizing mission." Frequently motives were confused, so it became "the white man's burden" to convert Africans to Christianity while at the same time enslaving them. In practice, the new imperialism varied considerably; including settler colonies such as Australia, indirect rule as in British Africa, direct rule as in French Indochina, and even the private fiefdom of Leopold II in the Belgian Congo. In all cases, ultimate authority rested with the imperial state, and local rulers had little real power. The purpose of the colony was to supply cheap raw commodities to the imperialist state and to be a market for manufactured goods. All resources, natural and human, were directed to this effort. Forests were transformed into plantations, and workers impressed into service. There was no effort to develop a colonial industry that might compete with the imperial state. Even states such as the Qing dynasty and the Ottoman empire that escaped direct imperial control were subject to informal domination by the industrialized powers. Taking advantage of the relative military and economic decline of the Ottoman and Qing states, imperial powers compelled acceptance of one-sided commercial treaties that placed those once-powerful states in subservient positions. Despite significant top-down reform efforts, neither the Ottoman nor the Qing state proved able to stop their decline or to fend off the imperial powers.

With few exceptions, the imperial powers regarded colonial people as their inferiors and treated them as such. The French made an effort to convert and educate colonial peoples. The British also employed colonials as soldiers and minor civil servants, but made little provision for education. This disrespect contributed to a growing nationalism in India. The scramble for Africa and later for the Pacific islands illustrates the intense competition among imperial nations. The United States took over the Philippines in order to be on an equal footing with other powers already in China. Japan seized Korea and Taiwan for the same reason. Chapter 29: The Great War of 19141919 was a nearly global conflagration that included all the major powers of Europe, their colonies, and overseas allies. The immediate provocation was a relatively minor incidentthe assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian empirebut the causes were long-standing and much more complex. Pressure to seek war and resist compromise had been mounting in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, fed by aggressive nationalism, ambitious militarism, and complex national alliances. When it came, the conflict was not what anyone expected. It led to a new kind of warfare. New technologies transformed the experience of war. Offensive battle plans stalled in the trenches, where soldiers were pounded by heavy artillery, trapped by machine-gun fire, and vulnerable to poisonous gas. Casualties were counted in the hundreds of thousands, and progress was measured in yards gained. World War I engaged civilian populations to an unprecedented degree. On the home front, women took up the work abandoned by recruits. Governments took control of wartime production, and propaganda campaigns demonized the enemy and glorified the war effort. Civilians were also targets of war through aerial bombing and naval blockades. Under cover of war, the Ottoman empire orchestrated the massacre of nearly a million of its Armenian subjects. The Russian Revolution was triggered by the war but sprang from the longstanding failure of the tsarist government to meet the needs of the Russian people. For a while it seemed that a liberal democracy might emerge, but within months the Bolshevik party under the direction of Lenin overthrew the provisional government. Armistice came in 1918, shortly after the United States entered the war. At the Paris Peace Conference, the victors, especially Britain and France, dictated harsh terms to the defeated Central Powers, dismantled their colonial empires, and imposed economic penalties. The bitterness engendered by the peace settlement virtually ensured that another conflict would follow.

Chapter 32: The Second World War (19391945) was a conflagration without precedent. The war left millions dead, mortally weakened the colonial empires, and gave birth to a twilight struggle between competing ideological systems. It was, in sum, the defining event of the twentieth century. The causes of the war are complex but must include the failure of western democracies to take seriously the threat of fascism. When Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931, when Italy seized Ethiopia in 1935, and when Germany claimed the Sudetenland in 1938, world leaders opted for appeasement rather than risk a war. Like the First World War, the Second World War involved whole populations on an unprecedented scale. Women on both sides performed industrial work and joined auxiliary forces. Civilians were targets of war through aerial attacks, blockades, rape, and internment. Civilian casualties were in the tens of millions. The most horrifying aspect of the war was the Nazi attempt to methodically exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe, along with other "undesirable" populations. Nearly six million Jews were killed in the death camps. Capitalist and communist states found common cause in the battle against fascism. By keeping up the pressure on two fronts, the Allies eventually crushed Nazi Germany and its allies. However, by the end of the war, the alliance between Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union was frayed and unstable. By the end of World War II, the differences between the United States and the USSR were increasingly apparent. The two states managed to paper over their divergent perspectives and goals at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences in 1945, but by 1947 Europe was divided into an American-dominated liberal-capitalist west and a Soviet-controlled communist east. Chapter 34: Since the end of the Second World War, new technologies and the migrations of peoples have made national boundaries more permeable. The collapse of Soviet communism resulted in part from and accelerated this development. The growing interconnection of the world's nations has produced many benefits and opportunities, especially for women; it has also created significant challenges. In the early twenty-first century, problems of economic exploitation, environmental

degradation, disease, and terrorism have increasingly been regarded as global issues, rather than merely national ones. Since World War II, the industrial nations have tried to eliminate barriers to free trade, such as protective tariffs and import duties. Many nations have formed trade associations, such as the EU, NAFTA, and ASEAN, which grant special trading privileges to member states. Free trade favors those states with the cheapest manufactured goods and often undermines indigenous handicrafts. The global economy seeks out the cheapest labor and resources, and as a result, millions of workers have relocated to new industrial centers seeking opportunities. Problems of rapid urbanization and environmental degradation often result. Some migrants have been the unwilling victims of trafficking and even slavery. Such dramatic changes have met with resistance from many quarters. Many cultures perceive a threat to their traditions and values. Islamic countries in particular have resisted the sexualized images of western pop culture.