Paper presentation on, selected figure in History of Architectural Historiography. 21-01-2011, 15:00

Professor Dr. Sevil Enginsoy Ekinci

Submitted by: Rabela Junejo

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
(August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831)


Hegel was born on August 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, in the in southwestern Germany. Receiving his early education in a seminary Tubinger Stift, from where he got his theological certificate. In the seminary he made two very important friends of his life Freidric Holderlin and Friedric Wilhlem Joseph Schelling. After getting his certificate he started teaching as a tutor in Bern from 1793-1796, from where he moved to Frankfurt under the same capacity. While still in Bern he composed the text "Life of Jesus" and a book-length manuscript entitled "The Positivity of the Christian Religion". While in Frankfurt Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on Religion and Love". In 1799 he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate" which was not published during his lifetime.

After the death of his father Hegel went to Jena the then center of cultural and intellectual development. Many important names can be associated with it like Goethe and Hegel’s own friend Schelling. Here he proceeded to become a philosopher under the influence of Jena. He began to publish and teach in Jena under Schelling and wrote “Difference between Fitche's and Schellings system of Philosophy”, his first philosophical publication. His first greatly received book Phenomenology of Spirit came out in 1807 when he was in Jena.

Due to Napoleon’s arrival in Jena the University suspended and Hegel out of work, went to Bamberg, a town in Bavaria and started editing a newspaper for money. During 1808 to 1816 he published Science of Logic, before starting to work as a director of a school in Nuremberg. He then became a chair in University of Heidelberg (1816-1818) and finally moving to Berlin as a chair in University of Berlin (1818 – 1831). He died at the age of 61 and is buried in Berlin. During his years as a chair both in Heidelberg and Berlin he published Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences and Philosophy of Right.

Lectures on Philosophy of Religion. unlike his predecessors and contemporaries.Works of Hegel: Published during Hegel's lifetime Life of Jesus The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy Phenomenology of Spirit Science of Logic. and 3) Philosophical History. Aesthetics and Art: Hegel's philosophy. Hegel is associated with 3 ideas on the basis of which all his philosophical and critical work/dialogues depended. ZEITGEIST the spirit of age/time) and TELEOLOGY (everything has a final cause external or internal to themselves). Hegel thus regards human beings as thoroughly historical creatures2. insisted on the idea of reason in all forms is already caught up in the world at every moment and at all levels. although it’s a major generalization of his body of work but its synthesis boils down to the idea of TRICHOTOMY (Thesis. Lectures on Philosophy of History. Hegel and History: “History”. antithesis and synthesis). and to the writings that strive to comprehend those events and impress their significance upon human consciousness. Hegel emphasized.1 Philosophy according to Hegel is time bound depended on its context. Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences Elements of the Philosophy of Right Published after his death: Lecture on Aesthetics. Lectures on history of Philosophy. The first form of history is accounts of historians . The method of investigating history by Hegel can be divided into 3 parts: 1) Original Hiusotry. has a double meaning: it refers both to the course of the human events. Hegel on History. 2) Reflective history. concerned with the problem of knowledge its discussion on a plane entirely abstract and the evaluations of which further abstractisizing it.

. and they were accordingly free.simply writing about the time they were in. and that freedom of spirit is his very essence”5. 4) The German World. like Herodotus etc. His book “The Philosophy of History”. the third is governed by reason3. They only know that One is free. as during the time Germany was going through intellectual and political awareness. they are not themselves free. History was best seen as directed by a zeitgeist. is divided in four parts/sections: 1) The Oriental World. with the rise of Christianity. revolution counter revolution. The Orientals do not know that the spirit or men as such are free in themselves. Hegel argued that history is a constant process of dialectic clash. but beauty is not Nature bound so it must transcend nature into idealism and from that comes spirit. nature and idea oppose each other there dialect reach a synthesis in the form of art or the spirit as we can say. pragmatic and critical. and not all men as such. but. The consciousness of freedom first awoke among the Greeks. like the Romans. they only knew that Some. According to Hegel. were the first to realize that All men are by nature free. through this dialectical scheme. The principle of spiritual freedom4.. Principle of the Oriental World. 3) The Roman World. Hegel thought that reason accomplished itself. are free. The region of spirit. the second form is further divided into three parts as Universal. but also as a possibly painfully arrived at outcome of a dialectic in which factors working in opposite directions are over time reconciled. philosophic ideas counter ideas all pointed towards freedom of spirit." Hegel's lectures on the philosophy of history contain one of his most well-known and controversial claims about the notion of freedom: “World history is the record of the spirit's efforts to attain knowledge of what it is in itself. For art and aesthetics Hegel suggest that art is beauty. all these notions and terms were expressed to understand History as a cyclic development in which every forthcoming cycle improves itself from the preceding. Schools of thought influenced by Hegel tend see history as progressive. Hegel and Aesthetics / Art: For Hegel art is the sensuous representation of truth7. with each thesis encountering an opposing idea or event antithesis. The Germanic nations. This statement above supports his idea of spirit of time. and traces of the zeitgeist could be seen by looking backward. "World history. Hegel talked about the spirit of time “Zeitgeist” and of the Absolute spirit. 2) The Greek World. represents the development of the spirit's consciousness of its own freedom and of the consequent realization of that freedom. And because they do not know that. in History6. The clash of both generates the synthesis...... This way of looking at art in a philosophical manner did not take away the historical .. The distinction between principles. or Spirit of the Age..

I will not contradict influence of his time on him. For his time he suggested the art is dead or has reached an end. His partiality in putting Asia and Europe and the two ends of freedom. which pushed art ever forward and towards an absolute of purity9. and so on. aesthetics (fine art. with in the domain of which he explained history. music. classical and romantic. the negative or counter position. Conclusion: The conclusion is in no way stating that I am able to encompass Hegel’s philosophy his ideas on history or aesthetics in its entirety. ideal. by suggesting end of art. present critiques only argue that Hegel was. He was very much influenced by his own time hence his idea of spirit of time contextualizing history into its own time. Being associated with academia he was able to influence . pointing towards the decadence and emptiness of the art of his time. antithesis.). for Hegel. resulted in a dialectic. in the triad of art aesthetics8. which transcends into the Classical form that is Greek classical architecture and the Gothic Cathedral specially is manifestation of Romantic. For Hegel art is divided into three (trichotomy) parts. Symbolic. Hegel was a systematic philosopher his aesthetics can be understood in the light of his ideas and systems he developed. as it was then when a lot of political social and cultural movements were not only growing but reaching their conclusive times as well like the FRENCH REVOLUTION. His impact was widespread not just because of the ideas he proposed but also because of the position he assumed as a professional in his life time. “Architecture’s matter is the material world itself in its immediate externality as mechanical heavy masses”. philosophy. AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT . His life education and context in no way can be detached from his theory and philosophy. One avant-garde movement. assigned the positive position. For Hegel architecture was the lowest of the art forms and music was the highest. Hegel presented Architecture as external art. This notion of his was fairly criticized by his contemporaries. Architecture for him does reach the three stages but symbolic nature of art for him is best exemplified in architectural work. and spirit so on and so forth. but on the other hand is just heading provided to cite my views and understanding of Hegelianism. Realism. from Asia being majorly a despotic domain at that time and Germany where everyone think they are FREE. synthesis Neoclassicism. antithesis and synthesis. architecture of the antiquity is Symbolic specially the Egyptian architecture. First and the foremost what I understood that Hegel developed the idea or explanation of the triad the thesis. opposed another avant-garde movement. So.aspect from it but it gave way to a new method for writing or evaluating art. similarly nature. architecture etc. Hegel’s aesthetics inspire the theory of the avant-garde: thesis. Romanticism.

2009. M. Pg: 29-55. http://en. 2009. Etter. .arthistoryunstuffed. 8. State University of New York Press. Pg: 31-43. 7.adelaide. the free encyclopedia Brian K. References: URL: 1. Stephen Houlgate. His critics acknowledge him for giving a systematic way of investigating art history which before him was dominated by stylistic categories and emphasis on the artist. Hegel. Gombrich. 6. Before and after Hegel. Ibid. Pg: 01. Tom Rockmore. David Kolb. Georg Hegel. http://www. 2. His impact or what is said Post Hegelianism Marxism can be named greatest of them all and as above stated movements of Avant-garde in art are also attributed to him. Article on Wikipedia. 4. William Maker. He is also linked with Post-Modern ideas of the recent past as well. Jeanne S. whether positive or negative. State University of New York Press. Philosophy of History. Cosimo Classics Inc. He influenced Panofsky. ebooks. Introduction. Northwestern University Press.wikipedia.arthistoryunstuffed.edu. Hegel and Aesthetics.wikipedia.org Philosophy of History. (originally published in1899).wikipedia. online article.org Lectures on the Philosophy of History. I found as someone who fits his own theory of triad because he is someone who is highly appreciated and highly criticized. interpreted and criticized by generations to come. Nietzsche and many others and his sphere of influence is not limited to Historians or Philosophers only. 9.more young minds then others. ed. Hegel and His Impact on Art and Aesthetics.au (IMAGE OF HEGEL) www.com Notes: 1. article/essay in.org http://www. Hegel and the Arts. 3. article in. 2007. 2007. therefore generating a thesis and an antithesis whose dialect reach a synthesis in his follower ship today in ideas and concept.com Dr. Hegel and History: Introduction. to make it available to his students and yet again his works after his death got published only because of the position he held as an academician.A historical introduction to Hegel's thought 1993 University of California Press Pg: 47 2. 5. Hegel’s Aesthetic and the possibility of Art criticism. Article on wikipedia the free encylopedia http://en. Will Dudley ed. Hegel’s Architecture. April 2010. Similarly goes why he published his works. His method placed historic investigation beyond the dating and naming of facts into a spiritual idealistic domain to be explored. 3. ed. Willette.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful