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CELLULAR RESPIRATION: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2+ 6 H2O + energy GlycolysisKrebs CycleOxidative Phosphorylation Glycolysis: (opposite Calvin Cycle) --the decomposition

n of glucose to pyruvate. --9 intermediate products are formed. 1. 2 ATP are added 2. 2 NADH are produced. NADH, a conenzyme, forms when NAD+ combine with 2 energy rich electrons and H+. 3. 4 ATP are produced 4. 2 pyruvate are formed. ***Glycolysis takes 1 glucose and turns it into 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, and a net of 2 ATP (made 4, but used 2). Occurs in the cytosol. The Krebs Cycle: At the end of Glycolysis, pyruvate moves into the krebs cycle. (occurs to both pyruvate produced from glycolysis) 1. Pyruvate to acetyl CoA. Pyruvate combines with comenzyme A to produce acetyl CoA. In that reaction, 1 NADH and 1 CO2 are also produced. 2. Krebs Cycle: 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP, CO2. The Krebs cycle begins when acetyl CoA combines with OAA (oxaloacetate) to form citrate. There are seven intermediate products. Along the way, 3 NADH and 1 FADH2 are made, and CO2 is released. FADH2 is a conenzyme, accepting the electrons during a reaction. Because the first product made from acetyl CoA is the 3-carbon citrate (citric acid), the Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle, or the tricarbosylic acid cycle. **CO2 produced is what animals exhale.

Oxidative Phosphorylation:

Process of extracting ATP from NADH and FADH2. Electrons from NADH and FADH2 pass along an electron transport chain. The chain consists of proteins that pass these electrons from one carrier protein to the next. Along each step of the chain, the electrons give up energy used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP. NADH provides electrons that have enough energy to generate about 3 ATP, while FADH2 generates about 2 ATP. ***The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain is oxygen. The O2 accepts the two electrons and, together with 2 H+ forms water.
*The total ATP yield from Cellular Respiration is theoretically 36 ATP. (would be 38 but 2 NADH that are produced during Glycolysis must be transported into the mitochondria for oxidative Phosphorylation)

Mitochondria: The two major processes of aerobic respiration (Krebs cycle and oxidative Phosphorylation) occurs in the mitochondria. Areas of the Mitochondria: 1. Outer membranedouble player of phospholipids 2. Intermembrane spacenarrow area btwn the inner and outer membranes. H+ ions accumulate here. 3. Inner membranealso a double phospholipid bilayer, has convolutions called cristae. Oxidative Phosphorylation occurs here. Within the membrane and the cristae, the electron transport chain, consisting of a series of protein complexes, removes electrons from NADH and FADH2 and transports H+ ions from the matrix to the intermembrane space. 4. Matrixfluid material that fills the area inside of the inner membrane. The Krebs cycle and the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA occur here. Chemiosmosis: the process to produce ATP in mitochondria and chloroplasts. H+, from the electron transport system, build up one side of the membrane and diffuse through an ion channel, known as the ATP synthase complex. This produces an electrochemical gradient, which provides the energy for the phosphorylation of ADPATP.

Two Types of Phosphorylation:

Metabolic processes for generating ATP: 1. Substrate level Phosphorylationoccurs when a phosphate group and its associated energy is transferred to ADP to form ATP. The substrate molecule (the molecule with the phosphate group) donates the high energy phosphate group. **Occurs during Glycolysis. 2. Oxidative Phosphorylationoccurs when a phosphate group is added to ADP to form ATP, but the energy for the bond does not accompany the phosphate group. Instead, electrons in the electron transport chain of oxidative Phosphorylation supply the energy. That energy is used to generate the H+ gradient which, in turn, supplies energy to ATP synthases to generate ATP from ADP and a phosphate group. Anaerobic Respiration: Anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm when no oxygen is present for the cell to continue respiration after glycolysis. There are two common forms of anaerobic respiration: Alcoholic fermentation occurs in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Each pyruvate is converted to a molecule of ethanol and one NADH is used in the reaction. 1. Pyruvate to acetaldehydefor each pyruvate, 1 CO2 and 1 acetaldehyde are produced. 2. Acetaldehyde to ethanol. The energy is NADH is used to drive the reaction, releasing NAD+. For each acetaldehyde, 1 ethanol is made and 1 NAD+ is produced. The ethanol produced here is the source of alcohol in beer. **the purpose is to release NAD+ for use by Glycolysis. Results in 2 ATP from Glycolysis for each 2 converted pyruvate. Lactate fermentation occurs in animals. Each pyruvate is converted to lactate and one NADH is used. In the process, NADH gives up its electrons to form NAD+, which can then be used for Glycolysis.