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Readings

Wainwright&Tucker(2006).TheOxfordHistoryofChristianWorship. Chapters26(pp.32253) Webber(1994).Worship:OldandNew.Chapters910(pp.93120) White(1993).ABriefHistoryofChristianWorship.Chapters24(pp. 40141)

DevelopmentalHistoryofChristian Worship:EarlyChurchtoReformation
Objectives:
1. SketchahistoricaltimelinefromtheearlychurchtotheReformation 2. Identifykeyhistoricaloccurrencesandfigures 3. Brieflydiscusssignificanttheologicaldevelopments

Outcomes:
Attheendofthesessionthestudentwillbeexpectedtoknowsome1ofthekeyhistoricaloccurrences and the people who helped to shape them. Broadly, the student should understand the manner in whichthisperiodofdevelopmentalhistoryhasinfluencedtodaysChristianworship.

1. The Early Church: AD 500


ThebirthoftheChristianchurchandthemannerinwhichitdevelopedoverthefirstfivecenturiesstill receivesconsiderabledebatefrombiblicalscholarsandhistorians.Specifically,discussionsaroundwhat causedthefollowersoftheWay(Acts9:12)toseparatefromthepracticeofattendingthesynagogue has received a great deal of attention. Regardless of the reasons, synagogue worship had a distinct influenceonChristianworship;perhapsforthefirstfourcenturiesafterChrist.

Thescopeofthishistoricaloverviewislimitedbythesheerexpanseofhistorybeingcoveredagainsttheallottedtimefor thelecture(1hrs).Accordingly,forthemostpartthisreviewwillbeconfinedtotheWesternChurchshistoricaltrajectory. Thisintentionaldesign,whichdoesnotfollowtheEasternChurchshistory,acknowledgestheoverarchingaimsoftheunit which seeks to empower the student with understandings for todays Australian context; through reflection upon the historicalbackgroundandtheologicalassumptions. Page1 DevelopmentalHistoryofChristianWorship:EarlyChurchtoReformation 2012DrDanielK.Robinson
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If weunderstandtheexperiencesofthechurchsfirstfourcenturies,wehavegainedtheheartof thematter(White,2000,p.67).

TheFirstCenturyReligiousEnvironment
LarryHurtado(1999)detailsanumberofimportantpointstoconsiderwhensurveyingthefirstcentury oftheearlychurch;recognisingthatearlyChristianworshipdidnottakeplaceinareligiousvacuum (p.7):
1. Ubiquity: The integration of religion with every aspect of life was almost universal for people in the Romanworld;bothpaganandJudaism. 2. Salience:ReligionintheRomanperiodwashighlyvisible,withgreatattentiongiventotemplesandother religious buildings. Religious ceremonies (during the Roman era) were a largely ceremonious activity whichengagedtheentirecommunity. 3. Diversity:Romanpaganismworshippedmanygods.Thiswasa key difference separating both Jews and Christians who only worshippedonedeity.Ithasbeenarguedthatitwasthevery allowanceofdiversitythatpermittedtheestablishmentofthe JewishsynagogueandtheemergenceoftheChristianchurch. OfficialRomanimperialpolicywastorecogniseandevento support the traditional religious devotion of all subject peoplesThis Roman policy even extended to Jewish religion, with its refusal to reverence other gods and its ThePantheoninRome,builtinthefirstcentury A.D.,wasthefirstlargedomeeverbuilt. polemicagainstotherreligioustraditionsasidolatry.(p.13) 4. Sacred Places: The temples and religious buildings were central to Roman community life; not only as placesofworshipbutalsoasgatheringspacesforsocialactivities. 5. Images:TheuseofcultimagesdepictinggodswasusedwidelyinRomanpagantemples.WhiletheJewish and Christian prohibition against cult images distinguished the two faiths from the surrounding culture they were not completely void of visual representations. Indeed the religious climate might help us to better understand and appreciate the significance of the honorific references to Christ as the image (eikon)ofGod(e.g.,2Cor.4:4;Col.1:15)(p.23).

6. Rituals: Cultic practices such as initiation rituals and animal sacrifices where common activities for the
pagan religions. The events where often elaborate and accompanied by festive celebrations. The unadorned worship of Christians, whether it be the simple water baptism (initiation) or the house worshipsessions,posedasanobviousandapparentlyuniqueexpressioncomparativetothatofthefirst centuryreligiousenvironment.

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The influence of the Synagogue on ChristianWorship


It is important to not assume a singularity of worship when reviewing the influence of the synagogue on the early development of Christian worship. Grant SperryWhite (1994) writes, Even after the separation of the Christian movement from Judaism, the relationship between Christian communities and their Jewish neighbours was complex and varied greatly according to geographicallocale(p.11).Keyinfluencesinclude:

FirstCenturySynagogue(Smithetal.,1993,p.150)

1. The New Testament Period: We know that Jesus frequented the synagogue and the disciples continuedtoattendsynagogueworshipafterJesusresurrectionandascension(Matt.9:35;Lk.10:1327; Acts2:42,4647).WeknowlittleofthecontentoftheseJewishservices,butwhatisclearisthatthere wasreadings(takenfromtheTorah,theprophetsandtheShma)andprayer. 2. ThePassoverandtheEucharist:Wecannotascertaintowhatextentthe Passover influenced the development of the Eucharist (aside from Jesus conductingtheLordsSupperonthenightofthePassoverfeast).Thisbeing said, there is considerable evidence to show that first century Christians gatheredfortheagapemeal(1Cor.11:3334)whichwasthenfollowedby the Eucharist. It is also important to note that most homes at this time couldonlyseat810guestsforameal. 3. The Didach: The Didach, also known as the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, stood as a complete set by the end of the first century, though someportionsmayhavebeenwrittenasearlyasthe50sand60s. Chapters9and10[oftheDidach]describearitualmealthatconsists of: (a) a prayer over cup and bread (chapter 9); (b) a meal; and (c) a thanksgiving after the meal (chapter 10). The thanksgiving after the meal of Didach 10 is very similar in content and structure to the Jewishblessingafterthemeal,orBirkathammazon,andappearstobe aChristianversionofthatprayer,aformofwhichappearsasearlyas Jubilees22(secondcenturyb.c.e.).(p.12)

InterestingFact:
FirstcenturyPagans believedthat Christianswereguilty offlagitia(e.g. cannibalism)duein parttotheirreligious practiceofthe Eucharist.

4. TheChristianCalendar: EarlydocumentsattesttothedebatesurroundingthetimingofEasterandits directconnectiontotheJewishPassover.SomehavealsosuggestedthattheChristianappropriationof WednesdayandFridayasspecialliturgicaldays(cf.Didach8)mayberelatedtoanEssenesolarcalendar thathighlightedthoseparticulardaysoftheweek(p.13).

5. BorrowingofJewishPrayers: ThereareanumberofJewishprayersintheApostolic Constitutions;a documentcompiledaroundAD380.


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InhisreviewofJewishinfluences(andthatofthesynagogue)ontheearlydevelopmentsofChristian worshipSperryWhiteconcludes:
We should not expect direct verbal or structural parallels between firstcentury Jewish and Christian worship.Inthefirstcentury,bothliturgicaltraditionswerediverse,notyetcommittedtowriting,andin flux.Tobesure,firstcenturyChristiansandJewsdrewfromafundofliturgicalstructures,terminology, andimagerythateachgroupusedinincreasinglydivergentwaysinsubsequentcenturies.Therefore,the Christian and Jewish liturgical traditions that emerged after the first century were more nearly cousins thansiblings,descendantsofliturgicalancestorsthatinthefirstcenturymayhavebeencloserrelatives (p.14).

KeyHistoricalEvents(AD200500)
Therearemanysignificantdevelopmentsthathappenedduringthehistoricalperiodspanningthefirst tofifthcenturies;typicallyknownastheeraoftheAncientChurchorTheAgeofCatholicChristianity. Thefirstcenturychurchcommencesasahomechurchmovementandarrivesatthedoorstepofthe MiddleAgescompletelyseparatedfromtheirJewishconnections;andwithadefinedtheology. ThefollowinglisthighlightssomeofthekeyhistoricaleventsandtheirinfluencesonChristianityduring thistime:

Justins Apologies (ca. AD 100165): Among a number of early apologists (including Irenaeus and
Origen),JustinMartyrswritingshavegivenussomeinsightintoChristianworshipalongsidehisdefence oftheOldandNewTestamentsauthority.Writtencirca.AD140,JustinsApologyreferencesthereading of scripture, public address, prayer, celebration of the Eucharist and tithing. Justin earned the name JustinMartyrbecauseofhisrefusaltorecanttheChristianfaithresultinginhisbeheading(alongwithsix otherChristians).

CaesarisLord!(AD249251):Attestingtopoliticalalliance,Romancitizenswhererequiredtoattend
theTempleofCaesarsonceayear,burnapinchofincenseandproclaimCaesarasLord.AsBruceShelley (2008) notes, The one thing that no Christian would ever say was: Caesar is Lord. For the Christian, JesusChristandhealonewasLord(p.44).ThusbeganaconflictofpersecutionbyEmperorDeciuswhich isestimatedtohaveclaimed3000Christianmartyrs.

Conversion of Constantine (AD 313): With the conversion of the Roman Emperor, Constantine the
Great (306337 AD), Christianity was afforded freedoms never before experienced. John Sweetman (2012)writes: Christianity became a legal religion. This removed penalties for confessing Christianity and returned confiscated church property. Constantine supported the church financially, built churches,grantedprivilegestoclergyandpromotedChristianstoimportantoffices.[InAD380] Christianity became the official religion of the Empire as its amazing growth was recognised by the State. Pagan practices were punished severely by the EmperorThere were huge changes includingthetendencytomovefromfreedomtoformulainworship.(p.2)

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KeyDevelopmentsinWorship(AD200500)
Wehavelimitedremainingsourceswhichoutlineworshipduringthisperiod.Twoofthemostimportant documents,TheApostolicTradition(ca.220)andtheDidascalia(ca.240),provideuswithaninsightinto thedesignofliturgiesduringthistime.Webber(1994,pp.9698)outlinestwoliturgiesfromthisera: LiturgyoftheWord
Lections:ScripturereadingsandLettersfromBishops Psalmssungbycantors Alleluias Sermon Deaconslitanyforcatechumens(preparingforbaptism)andpenitents(thoseconfessingsin) Dismissalofallbutthefaithful(orbaptised)

LiturgyoftheUpperRoom
Deaconslitanyforthefaithful KissofPeace Offering PresentationofElements:Communion PreparationofElements PresentationofElementsandparticipationincommunion Psalms43and34sungbycantor Thanksgiving Prayer Reservationofbreadforsickandabsent Dismissal

ThesetwoliturgiesrevealthecentralfocusofbothWordandTable.Whilsttheinformalityofthefirst centuryChristianworshiphasallbutceasedWebberhighlightsthattheprayerswerenotfixedandthe liturgywasnotsocompletelystructuredthatfreeworshipcouldnotbecontainedwithinthegenerally acceptedorder(p.98). The two rites instituted by Jesus, Baptism and the Lords Supper, both undergosignificantdevelopmentduringthesecondtofifthcenturies.John D. Hannah (2001) presents the development of these sacraments in the followingway: BaptismintheEarlyChurch(p.39)
o SecondCentury 110: Barnabas Those who place their hope in the cross(EpistleofBarnabas11.8) 160: Justin Martyr Those who are persuaded and believe(FirstApology,Ch.61) ThirdCentury 220:Tertullianopposedinfantbaptism(OnBaptism18)

Anearlychurchbaptism

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ChristianWorshipPC315/515 220:Hippolytusonlybelievers(TheApostolicTraditionv.13) 220:Irenaeusearliestreferencetoinfantbaptism(AgainstAllHeresiesII22.4) 230:Origenearliesttoclaimapostoliccustom(HomilyonLuke14.5) 250:Cyprianearliestexplicitdefencefornewbornbabes(Epistle58) FourthCentury 350:ApostolicConstitutionsthefirstexplicitcommand(VI.15) FifthCentury 430:AugustineusedasanargumentfororiginalsinagainstPelagius Bytheendofthe5thcenturyinfantbaptismisgeneralpractice.

o o

TheLordsSupperintheEarlyChurch(p.41)
o SecondCentury 100: Clement of Rome sacrifice of praise (The first Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians35.12) 120:Didach ThirdCentury 220:Irenaeusnewoblation(AgainstAllHeresiesIV7.5) 250:Cyprianusesthetermpriestforbishop,altarfortheplaceofcelebration,and sacrificefortheobservance. FourthCentury 340:CyrilofJerusalemweofferuptheChristwhowassacrificedforoursins. 340:ApostolicConstitutions(VIII.2:12)weoffertoyouthebreadandcup.

AfinalobservationcanbemadeofworshipsdevelopmentduringthisearlyperiodofChristianity:the difference between the East and the West. Driven by the division of the Roman Empire, Christian worshipdevelopedgeographicalnuances.Webber(1994)explains:
TheEasternworldviewwasinformedbythe Hellenistic love for aesthetic. The great contributions of this culture were poetry, literature, art, and philosophy. All of these interestsaidedthedevelopmentofapoetic mind and a sense of imagery and artistic expressionByzantine worship was highly ceremonial,gloriouslybeautiful,anddeeply mystical.(p.99)

BycontrastWesternworshiphadatendency towards simplicity in both its order and its use of symbols. There was great beauty, a sense of Gods presence, and a feeling of awe and reverence provoked by the simple majestyoftheRomanrite(p.101).

WhilewecommonlyspeakofthechurchintheEastandtheWest becauseofalaterschism,therewasonlyonechurchuntiltheeleventh century.AlthoughthereweredifferencesbetweentheEastandthe West,suchaslanguageandphilosophicalorientation,therewasone CatholicChurchwithoutasingularearthlyhead.(Hannah,2001,p.54)

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Before continuing take a moment to contemplate what might have happened if Christianity had not been registered as the state religion of Rome in AD 380. Hypothetically,howdoyouthinkthiswouldhaveaffectedthedevelopmentandspread ofChristianityanditsworship?

2. The Middle Ages: AD 5001500


TheMiddleAges,byallaccounts,isavaststretchoftimecoveringsome1000years.JamesWhite(1993) quotes Hobbes famous description of this period when we describes medieval life as nasty, and brutish,andshort(p.76).Lifeduringthistimewasnastybecauseofpoornutritionandconsiderably low living standards; which in turn led to the short life span of many (approx. 35yrs). The infamous brutalityoftheeraalsoledtolivesbeingcutshort;dueinparttotheinvasionofNorsemenorwarring neighbours(p.77),imperialandnationalwars(e.g.thecrusades),andmassiveplagues(e.g.theblack deathofAD1353). Forthevastmajority,lifewasspentinsmallvillagecommunities.Eachlocalregioncentredaroundtheir parishchurchservedbyapriestortwoandseveralmeninminororders(p.77). TheMiddleAgescanbedividedintothreeperiods(Schaff&Schaff,1910;Sweetman,2012): PERIODI:ThemissionaryperiodfromGregoryI.toHildebrandorGregoryVII.(AD5901073)
o o Theconversionofthenorthernbarbarians TheoriginandprogressofIslam AD570631:ThelifetimeofMohammedwhorecordedhisrevelationsfromGodintheKoran. BytheendofhislifeallArabiawasMuslim. AD 732: The Muslim advance was stopped after invading Spain. From 638 Muslims had taken Jerusalem,Persia,Alexandria,Carthage,andbesiegedConstantinople. SomesubdividethisperiodbyCharlemagne(AD800),thefounderoftheGermanRomanEmpire TheseparationoftheWestfromtheEast AD 1054: After much infighting on issues like what bread should be used in the Eucharist and the Popes claim to universal jurisdiction, the Great Schism permanently divided the churches of East and West into Eastern Orthodoxy and WesternCatholicism.

o o

PERIODII:ThepalmyperiodofthepapaltheocracyfromGregory VII.toBonifaceVIII.,(AD10731294)
o TheconflictbetweenthePopeandtheEmperor AD 1077: The Holy Roman Emperor stood barefoot in the snow to beg forgiveness of the Pope. This marked the establishment of the Popes power over European heads of statefor450years.
HolyRomanEmperorHenryIV, alongwithhiswifeandyoungson, spentthreedaysbarefootinthe snowatCanossa

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ChristianWorshipPC315/515 o o Theheightofthepapacy,monasticismandscholasticism. TheCrusades AD 10951289: Beginning in 1095, some Christian Europeans heeded the call of the papacytolaunchaseriesofholywarsaimedatgainingcontrolofJerusalemfromthe MuslimArabsandSeljukTurks.Inall,eightcrusadeswerecarriedout.

PERIOD III: The decline of medieval Catholicism and preparation for modern Christianity, from BonifaceVIII.totheReformation(AD12941517)
o o Scholasticism AD11001300:Focusedontheologywithalltruthattachedtothechurch. TheRenaissance(Humanism) AD 13001500: A cultural movement, the Renaissance saw a flowering of literature, science, art, religion and politics; accompanied by a resurgence in learning. The Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity, but they valued human pursuits as well.ManyancientworkswererescuedfromthecrumblingByzantineEmpireandtaken totheWestforscholarstostudy.Thisledtomoresophisticatedtheologicaldefinitions. Thepapalexileandschism AD1378:ThreeclaimantPopeswereelectedsimultaneously.Itwasnotsortedoutuntil AD 1417. This exposed the corruption and powerplays at the centre of medieval Catholicismwithmoneyplayingakeyroleinthecorrosionofspiritualleadershipforthe church. ForerunnersofProtestantism&thedawnoftheReformation JohnWycliffe(AD13291384):Deniedtransubstantiation JohnHuss(AD13731415):DefinedchurchbyChristlikelivingratherthanbysacraments DesideriusErasmus(AD14661536):Attackedinconsistencyandhypocrisyinthechurch

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MedievalWorship:MysteryandDevotion
TheexpressionofChristianworshipduringthemedievalperiodorientated around two major strands: mystery (led by priests) and devotion (led by monks). Both of these strands had a significant impact on the developmentofthechurchanditsworship.Webber(1994)reiterates:
We can trace the beginning of this change from the fourth and fifth centuriestotheearlymedievalperiod,thetimewhentwodistinctlinesof development become discernible. The established church increasingly emphasisedworshipasamystery,whilethemonasticmovementstressed thedevotionalcharacterofworship.(p.102)
MedievalPriest

Sweetman(2012)identifiesanumberofimportantfactorsthatledtothe developmentof(anddifferentiated)bothstrands:

WorshipasMystery(pp.67)
o TheHardshipofLife:Thiswasatimewhenlifewasprimitiveandhard.Atatimewhenpeoplefelt disconnectedfromGodaweeklycleansingthroughtheworshipservicebecameveryattractive.The spiritualpeople(thepriests)coulddosomethingwithGodthatwouldavertGodsangerandmake thingsright.Thiswaslatersupplementedbythebuyingofindulgencesandpossessionofrelicsthat couldmysteriouslysimilarlyofferforgivenessandsalvation. State Religion: Because the Roman Empire was Christian (by decree) many compromises were madeinordertoaccommodatepaganmysteryreligions;includingtheretainingofpaganfestivals under a Christian mantle. As a result, many practices of the mystery cults (including sympathetic magic) where not completely abandoned. This in turn led to many Christians believing in a syncretisticcombinationofChristianityandmysteryreligion. LowLevelsofEducation:Thepeople(andsometimesthepriests)werepoorlyeducated.Theservice was in Latin; so many worshippers did not understand what was happening. All they saw and understood were the actions of the priests. Consequently theology was rarely subjected to constructivereflection. Separation of Clergy and Laity: The priests became more separated from the laity and fromtheworshipservice.Eventuallytheclergy (priests) took over the whole; i.e. the priests werethesingers,thereaders,thecongregation and the celebrant. Specifically, they believed that the service was a holy act and could not afford to be spoiled by unholy people. The congregation became observers and screens were erected to separate the clergy from the laityinordertoquarantinetheholyact.

Thepeoplewererestrictedtothenave (areashownasred)

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ChristianWorshipPC315/515 o The Eucharist:Theseparationandresulting mystery finallyled to theadoptionofthe doctrineof transubstantiation (the belief that the bread and wine actually turn into Christs body and blood duringtheservice). Reduction of the Word: The significance of the service centred on the sacrifice of Christ and preaching was not integral to this. The decline of preaching suited many of the clergy who themselveswerepoorlyeducated. UngodlyLives:Becausethepriestsjobwasperformingtherightactionsandsayingtherightwords thecharacteroftheplayersbecameirrelevant;andthehigherechelonsofpriestlypowerbecame knownfortheircorruption.Similarly,thepeoplespartinthepageantrywastogettherightwords and actions done for them so that they could be right with God; character was a lesser issue. Ofcoursethesecommentsaregeneralizedobservationswithmanygodlyclergyandlaityengaging inanumberofreformmovements,butoverallthechurchdeterioratedinitsspiritualinfluenceand encouragedthesuperstitionofChristians.

WorshipasDevotion(p.8)
o Protest Movement:Originallyaprotestmovementagainstthegrowingworldlinessofthe church, groupsstartedtoseparatethemselves(fromcommunityandreligiouslife)tofocusonobeyingand servingGod.Anthony,whommanyregardasthefirstmonk,wasbornabout250inthevillageof Koma(Shelley,2008,p.118)butitwasnotuntilthefourthandfifthcenturiesthatthemonastic wayoflifestartedtoinfluenceeveryleveloftheChristianpopulation. PrayerasCentral:Themonasticliferevolvedaroundprayer.Webber (1994) writes, prayer had always been important in the Christian tradition, but the new attitude saw prayer as the sole content of lifeeverythinginlifebecamesubordinatedtoprayer(p.105). Piety: The monastic movement sought a depth of relationship with God which was not apparent in the church. However the rigid emphasisonthedisciplineofprayereasilyturnedintoexcessivepiety at best and legalism at worst. The devotional life of the monastery became the standard of true spirituality that lay people could not hopetoemulate.Shelley(2008)citesWillistonWalkerwhenhewrites To enter a monastery was to separate from the world, to abandon the ordinary relationships of social life, to shun marriage and all that the Christian home signifies. And supporting the whole endeavour was an erroneous view of man. The soul, said the monk, is chained to the flesh as a prisonertoacorpse.Thatisnotthebiblicalviewofhumanlife, anditcreatedafundamentalflawinmonasticism.(p.123) o An alternative Path: Monasteries offered an alternative path to eternal life. People could get to heaven by participating in the mass (priestly way) and progressing through purgatory, or by the better wayoflivingalifeofdevotion(wayofthemonk).

InterestingFact:
Theorganappearedin the500sandalthough initiallyrejectedas pagan,bythe700sand 800shademergedinthe church,andbythe900s intheBenedictine monasteries.Initially,the organwasusedtosound outthenotetostartoff thechant,buteventually itcametoaccompany thesingingandincrease itscomplexity.By1300, everysignificantchurch possessedanorganand polyphonicmusic(many sounds)hadbecome popular.

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What are the main aspects of worship that stick out to you from the first 1500 years of development? Highlight three major points and comment on their difference/similarityto21stcenturyworship.

3. The Reformation: AD 15001750


Renowned as the birth of Protestant Christianity, the Reformation delivered essential spiritual and theologicalbenefits,ofcourse,intherecoveryofthebiblicalgospelofjustificationbyfaiththroughfaith inChristalone,thetranslationoftheScripturesintothevernacular,administrationoftheEucharistin bothkinds,congregationalsingingandsoforth(Davis,2010,p.79). Aswiththeprevioustwoperiods(theEarlyChurcheraandtheMiddleAges)theReformationdoesnot takeplaceinahistoricalvacuum.Inhisbook,ExploringChurchHistory,Eckman(2002)writes,
The sixteenthcentury world was one of astounding change. Medieval civilization dominated by institutionalized Catholicism was disappearing. Modern nationstates challenged the church for supremacy,andthevoyagesofdiscoverymadetheworldappearsmaller.Inaddition,theRenaissanceof northernItalyhadcausedmanytoturnfromCatholicismtowardthegloriesofancientGreeceandRome. (p.46)

Withinthecontextofthisstudy,thefollowinghistoricaleventsareworthyofnote:
Printing Press (AD 1440): Invented by Johannes Gutenberg, the printing press facilitated the wide distributionforinformationandthought.Thisinturnchallengedthepowerofpoliticalandreligious authorities.ByAD1500printingpresseshadalreadyproducedanestimated20millionvolumes. Luthers 95 Theses (AD 1517): Nailed to the church door at Wittenberg, Martin Luthers document of challenge was not seekingareformationperse.MoreoverLutherwasintenton bringing about renewal from within the established Roman CatholicChurch. Sola Fide, Sola Scriptura (AD 1520): Ulrich Zwingli adopts LuthersdoctrinesofSolaFide(byfaithalone),SolaScriptura (byScripturealone)tobetheheartofhistheology. Diet of Worms (AD 1521): Luther, having burned the papal bull(issuedinresponsetoLuthersTheses)outsidethewalls ofWittenberg,iscalledbeforetheDietofWormsbutrefuses torecantandisconsequentlyexcommunicatedbythe pope whodeclaredhimaheretic.

Luther's95propositions(theses)were motivatedbythepreachingofJohnTetzel whotaughtinfavourofindulgences.

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ChristianWorshipPC315/515 Vernacular of the People (AD 1522): After hiding at Wartburg castle following his ban from the empire, Luther returns to Wittenberg and publishes a German translation of the New Testament. Withtheaidoftheprintingpress,Luthersbibletranslationbecameaprizedbookinthehomesof mostprotestantChristians. ActofSupremacy(AD1534):KingHenryVIII,havingbeenexcommunicatedfromtheRomanCatholic Churchayearearlier,isgrantedthetitletheOnlySupremeHeadinEarthoftheChurchofEngland, CalledAnglicanaEcclesia.Consequently,theChurchofEnglandseparatesfromRome. InstitutesoftheChristianReligion(AD1536):JohnCalvinwritesoneofthemostinfluentialbooksof the Reformation, Institutes of the Christian Religion. A systematic theology (from the Protestant perspective),itstwomainsourcesofauthorityaretheBibleand(adistantsecond,butfaraheadof anyothersource)Augustine.ThevolumeispublishedwhenCalvinis26yearsold. CongregationoftheInquisition(AD1542):LargelyinresponsetotheProtestantthreat,PopePaulIII establishes the Roman Inquisition (Congregation of the Inquisition); also known as the Holy Office. Empoweredtodiscover,try,andjudgeheretics,theHolyOfficewasthefinalcourtofappealincases ofheresy. CouncilofTrent(AD15451563):TheCouncilofTrent(RomanCatholic)declarestheOldTestament, NewTestament,Apocrypha,andunwrittentraditionspassedthroughthoseinlineoftheapostlesto beauthoritative.InsodoingitlauncheswhatisknownastheCounterReformation. The Peace of Augsburg (AD 1555): Recognizing both Lutheranism and Catholicism in the German Empire,ThePeaceofAugsburg,statesthatCuiusregion,eiusreligio:thedoctrinalpreferencesofthe sovereigndictatesthatoftheregion.

Inthesixthcentury,thedebateconcerningtherelationshipofthedivineandhumancapacitiesinChrist dividedChristendom.TheChalcedonianChurchesexperiencedschismsintheeleventhcentury.TheWestern Churchinturnwasrentinthesixteenthcenturyoverquestionsconcerningsalvation,althoughtherootsof theschismgobacktothethirteenthcentury.TheProtestantmovementverysoongavebirthtoanumber ofProtestantgroupsdividedoverdoctrineandchurchgovernment.(Hannah,2004,p.1) Page12 DevelopmentalHistoryofChristianWorship:EarlyChurchtoReformation 2012DrDanielK.Robinson

ChristianWorshipPC315/515 The Fourth Reformer (AD 1559): Due to a disagreement with the Lutherans over sacraments and churchgovernment,JohnKnox(oftenreferredtoastheFourthReformer)returnedtohomelandto lead the Scottish reformation. Among his notable works are The Book of Discipline (AD 1560) and Book of CommonOrder(AD1562). Birth of the Baptists (AD 1609): Founded by John Smyth (an ex AnglicanPriest),thehallmarksofthese churches are believers baptism by immersionandlocalgovernment.Early BaptistsareinfluencedbyMennonites and Anabaptists. Baptists distinguish them as being separate from both CatholicsandProtestants.

(Galli&Olsen,2000,p.169)

The Great Migration (AD 16291642): The persecution of Puritans in England led to The Great MigrationofimmigrantsfromEuropetoAmerica.Religiousimmigrants(includingPuritans,Quakers, Baptists;aswellasGermanandSwissProtestants)flockedtoPennsylvaniawhichpracticedfreedom of religion. Before it is over, more than 65 million Europeans will have moved to North or South America. Pietism (AD 1675): Emphasizing conversion, individual spiritual responsibility, practical holiness, and a relationship with God that entailsemotionalinvolvement,the Pietisticmovementstartedamong Lutherans but had a great influence on Protestantism TheGreatMigration spawning both the Methodist and Brethren movements. The focus on the spiritual life of Christians arose as a response to the increasingworldlinessoforganizedreligion,bothCatholicandestablishedProtestant.

WhatisProtestantism?ThebestdescriptionisstillthatofErnstTroeltsch,whoearlyinthe twentieth century called Protestantism a modification of Catholicism in which Catholic problemsremain,butdifferentsolutionsaregiven(Shelley,2008,p.238).

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KeyDevelopmentsinWorship(AD15001750)
WhileLutherhasbeenidentifiedandrecognisedastheinstigatorandinitialcatalystofthereformation, hewasreluctanttodirectliturgicalchange.Inthemidstofgrowingenthusiasmforreformation,hewas afraidthatanyliturgicaldictumfromhishandwouldbequicklysnatchedup,widelyprinted,andapplied asanewlaw.Hedidnotwantanyonesaying,ThisproposalLutherwritesistheonlytruewaytodo Christianworship(Lathrop,1994,p.188).Infact,sixProtestanttraditionscontributedtothereformof liturgyduringthisera(Sweetman,2012,p.11): i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.
AFamilyTreeofProtestantDenominationalGroups (Walton,2005,p.73)

Lutheran(mostconservative) Reformed(cerebralanddidactic) Anabaptist(anticlerical,emphasisedfreedom) Anglican(reinterpretationofRomanCatholicrites) Puritan(scripturebased,strongonpreaching) Quaker(removalofliturgies,sermons,music,clergyandsacraments)

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ThefollowingquotefromSeglerandBradley(2006)distillsthedifferencesfurtherbetweeneachofthe reformationgroups:
DuringtheReformation,worshiptookthreemainforms.Themostconservativereformeffortswerethe Lutheran and Anglican. The second was more moderate and produced the Presbyterian or Reformed patterns.ThethirdandmostradicalformcameintheindependentchurchesofPuritantraditions,suchas the Anabaptists and Quakers. These are the forbearers of the patterns of worship among Baptists, Congregationalists,andotherFreeChurchgroups.(p.32)

Despitethesignificantdifferencesbetweenthegroupstherewerearangeoftheologicalandpractical mattersthatProtestantscollectivelyagreedupon.Sweetman(2012,p.11)notesthatwiththefocuson therejectionofRomanCatholicChurchexcesses,theprotestantreformersheldsimilarviewsregarding worship: TheydidnotholdtotheresacrificeofChristintheMass.LutherarguedthatMassshouldbefor thethanksgivingnotforpropitiatingGod.TheyagreedthattheideaofapriestsayingaMassto setpeoplefreefromsinwasadirectcontradictionofthegospelofgrace. They rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation. They did not hold to the bread and wine actuallyturningintothebodyandbloodofChrist. TheybelievedthattheWordwasanessentialcomponentoftheworshipserviceandshouldnot be subsumed in the Table. They emphasized the need for Scripture and preaching as essential aspectsofworship. The reformers held that worship should be relevant and accessible to theworshippers.Itshouldbeconductedinthelanguageofthepeople and should be simple enough for the worshippers to understand and participatefullyintheservice.

Significantly, the major structural change of the liturgy was its focus: moving from Table (Eucharist) to Word (preaching). We are now starting to realize a balanceisrequired.Inhisbook,ChristcenteredWorship,BryanChapell(2009) writesJustaspreachingrepresentsthegospelinword,andasthesacraments represent the gospel in symbol, so also the liturgy represents the gospel in structure(pp.118119).
WordandTable

Consideringyourcurrentdenominationalaffiliation,whatisyourliturgicalgenealogy? Areyousurprisedbyyourreligiousheritage?Ifso,whataspectsofyourreformational forefathersworship(liturgy)doyoumostresonantwith?Furthermore,whatareasof yourcurrentchurchsworshipwouldyoureform?


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References
Chapell,B.(2009).Christcenteredworship:Lettingthegospelshapeourpractice.GrandRapids,MI:Baker Academic. Davis,J.J.(2010).WorshipandtherealityofGod:Anevangelicaltheologyofrealpresence.DownersGrove,IL:IVP Academic. Eckman,J.P.(2002).Exploringchurchhistory.Wheaton,IL:Crossway. Galli,M.,&Olsen,T.(2000).131Christianseveryoneshouldknow.Nashville,TN:Broadman&HolmanPublishers. Hannah,J.D.(2001).Chartsofancientandmedievalchurchhistory(Vol.1).GrandRapids,MI:Zondervan. Hannah,J.D.(2004).Chartsofreformationandenlightenmentchurchhistory(Vol.2).GrandRapids,MI: Zondervan. Hurtado,L.W.(1999).Attheoriginsofchristianworship:Thecontextandcharacterofearliestchristiandevotion (2nded.).GrandRapids,MI:EerdmansPublishingCompany. Lathrop,G.(1994).Reformationmodelsofworship:Introduction.InR.Webber(Ed.),Twentycenturiesof Christianworship(Vol.2).Nashville,TN:StarSongPublishingGroup. Schaff,P.,&Schaff,D.S.(1910).HistoryoftheChristianchurch.NewYork,NY:CharlesScribner'sSons. Segler,F.M.,&Bradley,R.(2006).Christianworship:Itstheologyandpractice(3rdEditioned.).Nashville,TN: B&HPublishingGroup. Shelley,B.L.(2008).Churchhistoryinplainlanguage(3rded.).Nashville,TN:ThomasNelson. Smith,M.A.E.,Swann,J.,Butler,T.C.,Church,C.L.,Dockery,D.S.,&Publishers,H.B.(1993).Holmanbookof biblicalcharts,maps,andreconstructions.Nashville,TN:Broadman&HolmanPublishers. SperryWhite,G.(1994).TheinfluenceofthesynagogueonearlyChristianworship.InR.Webber(Ed.),Twenty centuriesofChristianworship(Vol.2).Nashville,TN:StarSongPublishingGroup. Sweetman,J.(2012).Definingcorporateworship:Module6.UnpublishedLearningGuide.MalyonCollege. Walton,R.C.(2005).Chronologicalandbackgroundchartsofchurchhistory(Rev.andexpandeded.).Grand Rapids,MI:Zondervan. Webber,R.(1994).Worship:Old&new(Rev.andexpandeded.).GrandRapids,MI:Zondervan. White,J.F.(1993).Abriefhistoryofchristianworship.Nashville,TN:AbingdonPress. White,J.F.(2000).Introductiontochristianworship(3rded.).Nashville,TN:AbingdonPress.

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