# Polar Coordinates

Polar Curves

Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines Diliman

Mathematics 54 (Elementary Analysis 2)

Polar Curves

1/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

The Polar Coordinate System

Polar Curves

2/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = (1, π/4) B = (2, − /4)
π

3 4

C = (−2, π/6) D = (−3, −π/3)

Polar Curves

3/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = (1, π/4) B = (2, − /4)
π

3 4

C = (−2, π/6) D = (−3, −π/3)

Polar Curves

3/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = (1, π/4) B = (2, − /4)
π

3 4

C = (−2, π/6) D = (−3, −π/3)

Polar Curves

3/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = (1, π/4) B = (2, − /4)
π

3 4

C = (−2, π/6) D = (−3, −π/3)

Polar Curves

3/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = (1, π/4) B = (2, − /4)
π

3 4

C = (−2, π/6) D = (−3, −π/3)

Polar Curves

3/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = (1, π/4) B = (2, − /4)
π

3 4

C = (−2, π/6) D = (−3, −π/3)

Polar Curves

3/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = (1, π/4) B = (2, − /4)
π

3 4

C = (−2, π/6) D = (−3, −π/3)

Polar Curves

3/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = (1, π/4) B = (2, − /4)
π

3 4

C = (−2, π/6) D = (−3, −π/3)

Polar Curves

3/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = (1, π/4) B = (2, − /4)
π

3 4

C = (−2, π/6) D = (−3, −π/3)

Polar Curves

3/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = 1, π 4 B = 2, − π 4

3 4

C = −2, π 6 D = −3, − π 3

Polar Curves

4/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = 1, π = (1, 9π/4) 4 B = 2, − π 4

3 4

C = −2, π 6 D = −3, − π 3

Polar Curves

4/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = 1, π = (1, 9π/4) = (−1, 5π/4) 4 B = 2, − π 4

3 4

C = −2, π 6 D = −3, − π 3

Polar Curves

4/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = 1, π = (1, 9π/4) = (−1, 5π/4) 4 B = 2, − π = (2, 7π/4) 4

3 4

C = −2, π 6 D = −3, − π 3

Polar Curves

4/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = 1, π = (1, 9π/4) = (−1, 5π/4) 4 B = 2, − π = (2, 7π/4) 4

3 4

C = −2, π = (2, 7π/6) 6 D = −3, − π 3

Polar Curves

4/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates
Example. Plot the following points:
1 2

A = 1, π = (1, 9π/4) = (−1, 5π/4) 4 B = 2, − π = (2, 7π/4) 4

3 4

C = −2, π = (2, 7π/6) 6 D = −3, − π = (3, 2π/3) 3

Polar Curves

4/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Polar Curves

5/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Polar Curves

5/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Polar Curves

5/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Polar Curves

5/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Conversion Equations Polar to Cartesian
1

Cartesian to Polar
1

x = r cos θ y = r sin θ

2

2

r 2 = x2 + y 2 y tan θ = x

Polar Curves

5/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 1. Determine the polar coordinates of the point having Cartesian coordinates (− 3, 1).

Polar Curves

6/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 1. Determine the polar coordinates of the point having Cartesian coordinates (− 3, 1). Solution. Recall that r 2 = x2 + y 2 and tan θ = x .
y

Polar Curves

6/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 1. Determine the polar coordinates of the point having Cartesian coordinates (− 3, 1). Solution. Recall that r 2 = x2 + y 2 and tan θ = x . Thus, r2 = − 3
2 y

+ 12

Polar Curves

6/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 1. Determine the polar coordinates of the point having Cartesian coordinates (− 3, 1). Solution. Recall that r 2 = x2 + y 2 and tan θ = x . Thus, r2 = − 3
2 y

+ 12

=⇒

r=2

Polar Curves

6/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 1. Determine the polar coordinates of the point having Cartesian coordinates (− 3, 1). Solution. Recall that r 2 = x2 + y 2 and tan θ = x . Thus, r2 = − 3 tan θ = 1 − 3
2 y

+ 12

=⇒

r=2

Polar Curves

6/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 1. Determine the polar coordinates of the point having Cartesian coordinates (− 3, 1). Solution. Recall that r 2 = x2 + y 2 and tan θ = x . Thus, r2 = − 3 tan θ = 1 − 3
2 y

+ 12

=⇒ =⇒

r=2 θ= 5π 6

Polar Curves

6/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 1. Determine the polar coordinates of the point having Cartesian coordinates (− 3, 1). Solution. Recall that r 2 = x2 + y 2 and tan θ = x . Thus, r2 = − 3 tan θ = 1 − 3
2 y

+ 12

=⇒ =⇒

r=2 θ= 5π 6

Hence, the polar coordinates are 2, 5π 6

Polar Curves

6/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 1. Determine the polar coordinates of the point having Cartesian coordinates (− 3, 1). Solution. Recall that r 2 = x2 + y 2 and tan θ = x . Thus, r2 = − 3 tan θ = 1 − 3
2 y

+ 12

=⇒ =⇒

r=2 θ= 5π 6

Hence, the polar coordinates are 2, 5π or −2, 11π . 6 6

Polar Curves

6/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 1. Determine the polar coordinates of the point having Cartesian coordinates (− 3, 1). Solution. Recall that r 2 = x2 + y 2 and tan θ = x . Thus, r2 = − 3 tan θ = 1 − 3
2 y

+ 12

=⇒ =⇒

r=2 θ= 5π 6

Hence, the polar coordinates are 2, 5π or −2, 11π . 6 6

Polar Curves

6/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 2. Determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point having polar coordinates −5, − π . 3

Polar Curves

7/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 2. Determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point having polar coordinates −5, − π . 3 Solution. Recall that x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ.

Polar Curves

7/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 2. Determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point having polar coordinates −5, − π . 3 Solution. Recall that x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ. Thus, x = −5 cos − π 3

Polar Curves

7/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 2. Determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point having polar coordinates −5, − π . 3 Solution. Recall that x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ. Thus,
5 x = −5 cos − π = − 2 3

Polar Curves

7/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 2. Determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point having polar coordinates −5, − π . 3 Solution. Recall that x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ. Thus,
5 x = −5 cos − π = − 2 3

y = −5 sin − π 3

Polar Curves

7/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 2. Determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point having polar coordinates −5, − π . 3 Solution. Recall that x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ. Thus,
5 x = −5 cos − π = − 2 3

y = −5 sin − π = 5 2 3 3

Polar Curves

7/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Coordinates

Example 2. Determine the Cartesian coordinates of the point having polar coordinates −5, − π . 3 Solution. Recall that x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ. Thus,
5 x = −5 cos − π = − 2 3

y = −5 sin − π = 5 2 3 3 Hence, the Cartesian coordinates are − 5 , 5 2 3 . 2

Polar Curves

7/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 1. Sketch r = 2.

Polar Curves

8/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 1. Sketch r = 2.

Polar Curves

8/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 1. Sketch r = 2.

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation r = k is a circle centered at the pole of radius |k|.

Polar Curves

8/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 1. Sketch r = 2.

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation r = k is a circle centered at the pole of radius |k|. Note that r = k and r = −k represent the same curve.

Polar Curves

8/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves
Example 2. Sketch θ = π . 4

Polar Curves

9/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves
Example 2. Sketch θ = π . 4

Polar Curves

9/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves
Example 2. Sketch θ = π . 4

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation θ = k is a line passing through the pole making an angle k with the polar axis.

Polar Curves

9/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves
Example 2. Sketch θ = π . 4

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation θ = k is a line passing through the pole making an angle k with the polar axis. Also, its Cartesian form is y = (tan k)x, when non-vertical,
Polar Curves 9/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves
Example 2. Sketch θ = π . 4

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation θ = k is a line passing through the pole making an angle k with the polar axis. Also, its Cartesian form is y = (tan k)x, when non-vertical, or x = 0, when vertical.
Polar Curves 9/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation r = a cos θ is a circle of radius |a/2| tangent to the line θ = π/2 at the pole.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation r = a cos θ is a circle of radius |a/2| tangent to the line θ = π/2 at the pole. We only need to vary θ on [0, π] to trace out the curve.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = 4 cos θ.

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation r = a cos θ is a circle of radius |a/2| tangent to the line θ = π/2 at the pole. We only need to vary θ on [0, π] to trace out the curve. Exercise: Find its Cartesian form.

Polar Curves

10/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation r = a sin θ is a circle of radius |a/2| tangent to the polar axis at the pole.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation r = a sin θ is a circle of radius |a/2| tangent to the polar axis at the pole. We only need to vary θ on [0, π] to trace out the curve.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Equations and Polar Curves

Example 3. Sketch r = −5 sin θ.

Remark. In general, the graph of the equation r = a sin θ is a circle of radius |a/2| tangent to the polar axis at the pole. We only need to vary θ on [0, π] to trace out the curve. Exercise: Find its Cartesian form.

Polar Curves

11/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Region
Illustration. Let R be the set of points satisfying the conditions 1 r 2 π 6 θ π . 3

Polar Curves

12/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Region
Illustration. Let R be the set of points satisfying the conditions 1 r 2 π 6 θ π . 3

Polar Curves

12/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Region
Illustration. Let R be the set of points satisfying the conditions 1 r 2 π 6 θ π . 3

Polar Curves

12/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Region
Illustration. Let R be the set of points satisfying the conditions 1 r 2 π 6 θ π . 3

Polar Curves

12/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Region
Illustration. Let R be the set of points satisfying the conditions 1 r 2 π 6 θ π . 3

Polar Curves

12/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Region
Illustration. Let R be the set of points satisfying the conditions 1 r 2 π 6 θ π . 3

Polar Curves

12/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Polar Regions
Exercises. Graph the following set of points:
1 2 3

1 4

|r| r 5 θ

2,

2π/3

θ

5π/6

π/3

2π/3

Exercises. Find the polar equivalent of the following:
1 2 3 4

x=2 xy = 1 x2 + (y − 3)2 = 9 x = e2t cos t, y = e2t sin t, t ∈ R r 2 = 4r cos θ 4 r= 2 cos θ − sin θ
Polar Curves 13/ 39

Find the Cartesian form of the following:
1 2

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = 0 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = 0 (or x−axis)

Polar Curves

14/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = 0 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = 0 (or x−axis)

Polar Curves

14/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = 0 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = 0 (or x−axis)

Polar Curves

14/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = 0 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = 0 (or x−axis)

Polar Curves

14/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = 0 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = 0 (or x−axis)

Polar Curves

14/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = 0 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = 0 (or x−axis) if whenever (r, θ), in its equation, is replaced by (r, −θ) or by (−r, π − θ), equivalent equation is obtained.

Polar Curves

14/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = π 2 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = π (or y−axis) 2

Polar Curves

15/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = π 2 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = π (or y−axis) 2

Polar Curves

15/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = π 2 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = π (or y−axis) 2

Polar Curves

15/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = π 2 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = π (or y−axis) 2

Polar Curves

15/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = π 2 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = π (or y−axis) 2

Polar Curves

15/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About θ = π 2 A polar curve is symmetric about the line θ = π (or y−axis) if whenever (r, θ), in its 2 equation, is replaced by (r, π − θ) or by (−r, −θ), equivalent equation is obtained.

Polar Curves

15/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About the Pole A polar curve is symmetric about the pole

Polar Curves

16/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About the Pole A polar curve is symmetric about the pole

Polar Curves

16/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About the Pole A polar curve is symmetric about the pole

Polar Curves

16/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About the Pole A polar curve is symmetric about the pole

Polar Curves

16/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About the Pole A polar curve is symmetric about the pole

Polar Curves

16/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Symmetry in the Polar Plane

Symmetry About the Pole A polar curve is symmetric about the pole if whenever (r, θ), in its equation, is replaced by (−r, θ) or by (r, θ + π), an equivalent equation is obtained.

Polar Curves

16/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Limaçons Limaçons are curves whose equations are of the form r = a ± b cos θ or r = a ± b sin θ where a, b > 0

Polar Curves

17/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Limaçons Limaçons are curves whose equations are of the form r = a ± b cos θ or r = a ± b sin θ Testing for symmetry, r = a ± b cos θ where a, b > 0

Polar Curves

17/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Limaçons Limaçons are curves whose equations are of the form r = a ± b cos θ or r = a ± b sin θ Testing for symmetry, r = a ± b cos θ
r = a ± b cos(−θ)

where a, b > 0

Polar Curves

17/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Limaçons Limaçons are curves whose equations are of the form r = a ± b cos θ or r = a ± b sin θ Testing for symmetry, r = a ± b cos θ
r = a ± b cos(−θ) =⇒ r = a ± b cos θ

where a, b > 0

Polar Curves

17/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Limaçons Limaçons are curves whose equations are of the form r = a ± b cos θ or r = a ± b sin θ Testing for symmetry, r = a ± b cos θ
r = a ± b cos(−θ) =⇒ r = a ± b cos θ thus, symmetric with respect to the x−axis

where a, b > 0

Polar Curves

17/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Limaçons Limaçons are curves whose equations are of the form r = a ± b cos θ or r = a ± b sin θ Testing for symmetry, r = a ± b cos θ
r = a ± b cos(−θ) =⇒ r = a ± b cos θ thus, symmetric with respect to the x−axis

where a, b > 0

r = a ± b sin θ

Polar Curves

17/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Limaçons Limaçons are curves whose equations are of the form r = a ± b cos θ or r = a ± b sin θ Testing for symmetry, r = a ± b cos θ
r = a ± b cos(−θ) =⇒ r = a ± b cos θ thus, symmetric with respect to the x−axis

where a, b > 0

r = a ± b sin θ
r = a ± b sin(π − θ)

Polar Curves

17/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Limaçons Limaçons are curves whose equations are of the form r = a ± b cos θ or r = a ± b sin θ Testing for symmetry, r = a ± b cos θ
r = a ± b cos(−θ) =⇒ r = a ± b cos θ thus, symmetric with respect to the x−axis

where a, b > 0

r = a ± b sin θ
r = a ± b sin(π − θ) =⇒ r = a ± b sin θ

Polar Curves

17/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Limaçons Limaçons are curves whose equations are of the form r = a ± b cos θ or r = a ± b sin θ Testing for symmetry, r = a ± b cos θ
r = a ± b cos(−θ) =⇒ r = a ± b cos θ thus, symmetric with respect to the x−axis

where a, b > 0

r = a ± b sin θ
r = a ± b sin(π − θ) =⇒ r = a ± b sin θ thus, symmetric with respect to the y−axis

Polar Curves

17/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

The graph is called a limaçon with a loop.

Polar Curves

18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons
Example. Sketch r = 1 + 2 cos θ.

The graph is called a limaçon with a loop. The type of limaçon depends on the ratio a . Here, it’s a = 1 . 2 b b
Polar Curves 18/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

The graph is called a cardioid.

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 1 + cos θ.

The graph is called a cardioid. Note that a = 1. b

Polar Curves

19/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

The graph is called a limaçon with a dent.

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

The graph is called a limaçon with a dent. Note that a = 3 . 2 b

Polar Curves

20/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

The graph is called a convex limaçon.

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Example. Sketch r = 2 + cos θ.

The graph is called a convex limaçon. Note that a = 2. b

Polar Curves

21/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Types of Limaçons In summary, for r = a ± b cos θ, where a, b > 0, we have

Polar Curves

22/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Types of Limaçons In summary, for r = a ± b cos θ, where a, b > 0, we have i.) 0< a <1 b limaçon with a loop

Polar Curves

22/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Types of Limaçons In summary, for r = a ± b cos θ, where a, b > 0, we have i.) ii.) 0< a <1 b a =1 b limaçon with a loop cardioid

Polar Curves

22/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Types of Limaçons In summary, for r = a ± b cos θ, where a, b > 0, we have i.) ii.) iii.) 0< a <1 b a =1 b a 1< b <2 limaçon with a loop cardioid limaçon with a dent

Polar Curves

22/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Types of Limaçons In summary, for r = a ± b cos θ, where a, b > 0, we have i.) ii.) iii.) iv.) 0< a <1 b a =1 b a 1< b <2 2 a b limaçon with a loop cardioid limaçon with a dent convex limaçon

Polar Curves

22/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Types of Limaçons In summary, for r = a ± b cos θ, where a, b > 0, we have i.) ii.) iii.) iv.) 0< a <1 b a =1 b a 1< b <2 2 a b limaçon with a loop cardioid limaçon with a dent convex limaçon

Polar Curves

22/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

Types of Limaçons In summary, for r = a ± b cos θ, where a, b > 0, we have i.) ii.) iii.) iv.) 0< a <1 b a =1 b a 1< b <2 2 a b limaçon with a loop cardioid limaçon with a dent convex limaçon

Remark. The graph of r = −a ± b cos θ is the same as the graph of r = a ± b cos θ

Polar Curves

22/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

The graph of r = a ± b cos θ is a limaçon oriented horizontally, i.e. symmetric along x−axis. r = a + b cos θ r = a − b cos θ

Polar Curves

23/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Limaçons

The graph of r = a ± b sin θ is a limaçon oriented vertically, i.e. symmetric along y−axis. r = a + b sin θ r = a − b sin θ

Polar Curves

24/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ;

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ where a > 0, n ∈ N

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ where a > 0, n ∈ N

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ))

where a > 0, n ∈ N

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ)) =⇒ r = a cos nθ

where a > 0, n ∈ N

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ)) =⇒ r = a cos nθ thus, symmetric along the x−axis.

where a > 0, n ∈ N

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ)) =⇒ r = a cos nθ thus, symmetric along the x−axis. additionally, symmetric along y−axis for an even n

where a > 0, n ∈ N

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ)) =⇒ r = a cos nθ thus, symmetric along the x−axis. additionally, symmetric along y−axis for an even n

where a > 0, n ∈ N

r = a sin nθ
−r = a sin (n(−θ))

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ)) =⇒ r = a cos nθ thus, symmetric along the x−axis. additionally, symmetric along y−axis for an even n

where a > 0, n ∈ N

r = a sin nθ
−r = a sin (n(−θ)) =⇒ −r = −a sin nθ

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ)) =⇒ r = a cos nθ thus, symmetric along the x−axis. additionally, symmetric along y−axis for an even n

where a > 0, n ∈ N

r = a sin nθ
−r = a sin (n(−θ)) =⇒ −r = −a sin nθ =⇒ r = a sin nθ

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ)) =⇒ r = a cos nθ thus, symmetric along the x−axis. additionally, symmetric along y−axis for an even n

where a > 0, n ∈ N

r = a sin nθ
−r = a sin (n(−θ)) =⇒ −r = −a sin nθ thus, symmetric along the y−axis. =⇒ r = a sin nθ

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ)) =⇒ r = a cos nθ thus, symmetric along the x−axis. additionally, symmetric along y−axis for an even n

where a > 0, n ∈ N

r = a sin nθ
−r = a sin (n(−θ)) =⇒ −r = −a sin nθ =⇒ r = a sin nθ thus, symmetric along the y−axis. additionally, symmetric along x−axis for an even n

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Roses Roses are curves whose equations are of the form r = a cos nθ; or r = a sin nθ Testing for symmetry, r = a cos nθ
r = a cos (n(−θ)) =⇒ r = a cos nθ thus, symmetric along the x−axis. additionally, symmetric along y−axis for an even n

where a > 0, n ∈ N

r = a sin nθ
−r = a sin (n(−θ)) =⇒ −r = −a sin nθ =⇒ r = a sin nθ thus, symmetric along the y−axis. additionally, symmetric along x−axis for an even n

Polar Curves

25/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

The graph is a rose with 4 petals.

Polar Curves

26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses
Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 cos 2θ.

The graph is a rose with 4 petals. In fact, the number of petals is 2n if n is even. And it’s n if n is odd.
Polar Curves 26/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses

Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 3θ.

Polar Curves

27/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses

Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 3θ.

Polar Curves

27/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses

Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 3θ.

Polar Curves

27/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses

Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 3θ.

Polar Curves

27/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses

Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 3θ.

Polar Curves

27/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses

Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 3θ.

Polar Curves

27/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses

Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 3θ.

Polar Curves

27/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses

Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 3θ.

The graph is a rose with 3 petals.

Polar Curves

27/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Roses

Example. Sketch the graph of r = 2 sin 3θ.

The graph is a rose with 3 petals. Here, n = 3 is odd. Hence, n = 3 is the number of petals.

Polar Curves

27/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

r = 2 cos 4θ

Polar Curves

28/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

r = 2 cos 4θ

Polar Curves

28/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

r = 2 cos 4θ

r = 2 sin 4θ

Polar Curves

28/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

r = 2 cos 4θ

r = 2 sin 4θ

Polar Curves

28/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

r = 2 cos 9θ

Polar Curves

29/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

r = 2 cos 9θ

Polar Curves

29/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

r = 2 cos 9θ

r = 2 sin 9θ

Polar Curves

29/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

r = 2 cos 9θ

r = 2 sin 9θ

Polar Curves

29/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Special Curves

Exercises Graph the following:
1 2 3 4

r = 2 cos θ r = −3 cos 2θ r = sin 4θ r = 5 cos 5θ

Polar Curves

30/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. The graph of r 2 = 6 cos 2θ is a lemniscate.

Polar Curves

31/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. The graph of r 2 = 6 cos 2θ is a lemniscate.

Polar Curves

31/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. The graph of r 2 = 6 cos 2θ is a lemniscate.

Polar Curves

31/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. The graph of r 2 = 6 cos 2θ is a lemniscate.

Polar Curves

31/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. The graph of r 2 = 6 cos 2θ is a lemniscate.

Polar Curves

31/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. The graph of r = θ, θ 0 is the Archimedian spiral.

Polar Curves

32/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. r = 1 + 4 cos 5θ

Polar Curves

33/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. r = sin 8θ 5

Polar Curves

34/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. r = esin θ − 2 cos 4θ

Polar Curves

35/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. r = sin2 (2.4θ) + cos4 (2θ)

Polar Curves

36/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. r = sin2 (1.2θ) + cos3 (6θ)

Polar Curves

37/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves
Example. r = ecos θ − 2 cos 4θ + sin3 θ 3

Polar Curves

38/ 39

Polar Coordinates

Graphs in Polar Coordinates Special Curves in Polar Coordinates

Interesting Curves

Example. The "cannabis" curve 9 1 r = 1 + 10 cos 8θ 1 + 10 cos 24θ
9 1 10 + 10 cos 200θ (1 + sin θ)

Polar Curves

39/ 39

Sign up to vote on this title