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**Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines Diliman
**

Mathematics 54 (Elementary Analysis 2)

Polar Curves 1/ 1

Focus and Directrix of a Parabola

Recall that for a parabola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =1.

Polar Curves 2/ 1

Focus and Directrix of a Parabola

Recall that for a parabola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =1.

Polar Curves 2/ 1

Focus and Directrix of a Parabola

Recall that for a parabola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =1.

Polar Curves 2/ 1

Focus and Directrix of a Parabola

Recall that for a parabola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =1.

Polar Curves 2/ 1

Focus and Directrix of a Parabola

Recall that for a parabola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =1.

Polar Curves 2/ 1

Foci and Directrices of an Ellipse

For an ellipse, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 3/ 1

Foci and Directrices of an Ellipse

For an ellipse, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 3/ 1

Foci and Directrices of an Ellipse

For an ellipse, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 3/ 1

Foci and Directrices of an Ellipse

For an ellipse, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 3/ 1

Foci and Directrices of an Ellipse

For an ellipse, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 3/ 1

Foci and Directrices of an Ellipse

For an ellipse, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 3/ 1

Foci and Directrices of an Ellipse

For an ellipse, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 3/ 1

Foci and Directrices of a Hyperbola

For a hyperbola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 4/ 1

Foci and Directrices of a Hyperbola

For a hyperbola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 4/ 1

Foci and Directrices of a Hyperbola

For a hyperbola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 4/ 1

Foci and Directrices of a Hyperbola

For a hyperbola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 4/ 1

Foci and Directrices of a Hyperbola

For a hyperbola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 4/ 1

Foci and Directrices of a Hyperbola

For a hyperbola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 4/ 1

Foci and Directrices of a Hyperbola

For a hyperbola, we have

We deﬁne the eccentricity to be e =

c

a

.

The directrices are of distances ±

a

e

from the center.

Polar Curves 4/ 1

Conics in Polar Coordinates

Focus Directrix.

Let F be a ﬁxed point (called focus) and let D be a ﬁxed line, not containing F,

(called directrix). Let e be a positive number (called eccentricity). The set of all

points P in the plane such that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

:=

c

a

is a conic section.

Moreover, if

e <1, it’s an ellipse

e =1, it’s a parabola

e >1, it’s a hyperbola

Polar Curves 5/ 1

Conics in Polar Coordinates

Focus Directrix.

Let F be a ﬁxed point (called focus) and let D be a ﬁxed line, not containing F,

(called directrix). Let e be a positive number (called eccentricity). The set of all

points P in the plane such that

|PF|

|PD|

=e :=

c

a

is a conic section.

Moreover, if

e <1, it’s an ellipse

e =1, it’s a parabola

e >1, it’s a hyperbola

Polar Curves 5/ 1

Conics in Polar Coordinates

Focus Directrix.

Let F be a ﬁxed point (called focus) and let D be a ﬁxed line, not containing F,

(called directrix). Let e be a positive number (called eccentricity). The set of all

points P in the plane such that

|PF|

|PD|

=e :=

c

a

is a conic section.

Moreover, if

e <1, it’s an ellipse

e =1, it’s a parabola

e >1, it’s a hyperbola

Polar Curves 5/ 1

Conics in Polar Coordinates

Focus Directrix.

Let F be a ﬁxed point (called focus) and let D be a ﬁxed line, not containing F,

(called directrix). Let e be a positive number (called eccentricity). The set of all

points P in the plane such that

|PF|

|PD|

=e :=

c

a

is a conic section.

Moreover, if

e <1, it’s an ellipse

e =1, it’s a parabola

e >1, it’s a hyperbola

Polar Curves 5/ 1

Conics in Polar Coordinates

Focus Directrix.

Let F be a ﬁxed point (called focus) and let D be a ﬁxed line, not containing F,

(called directrix). Let e be a positive number (called eccentricity). The set of all

points P in the plane such that

|PF|

|PD|

=e :=

c

a

is a conic section.

Moreover, if

e <1, it’s an ellipse

e =1, it’s a parabola

e >1, it’s a hyperbola

Polar Curves 5/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =r ,

and PD =d −FB=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =r ,

and PD =d −FB=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =r ,

and PD =d −FB=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =

r ,

and PD =d −FB=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =r ,

and PD =

d −FB=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =r ,

and PD =d −FB

=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =r ,

and PD =d −FB=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =r ,

and PD =d −FB=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =r ,

and PD =d −FB=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Consider the following conic section C, with eccentricity e:

one focus F at the pole

corresponding directrix D: x =d

If P(r, θ) ∈C, then

PF =r ,

and PD =d −FB=d −r cosθ

Recall that

|PF|

|PD|

=e

Hence,

r

d−r cosθ

=e

Solving for r ,

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

Polar Curves 6/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =

2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

A hyperbola has one focus at the pole, and corresponding directrix at distance 2

units to the right of the pole. If e =

3

2

, ﬁnd the polar equation of this conic.

Solution:

Note: e =

3

2

and d =2 we have

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

=

_

3

2

_

(2)

1+

_

3

2

_

cosθ

=

3

1+

3

2

cosθ

=

6

2+3cosθ

some points on the hyperbola

_

6

5

, 0

_

,

_

3,

π

2

_

, (−6, π),

_

3,

3π

2

_

Polar Curves 7/ 1

Conics in Polar (General)

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

(directrix to the right of the pole)

r =

ed

1−e cosθ

(directrix to the left of the pole)

r =

ed

1+e sinθ

(directrix above the pole)

r =

ed

1−e sinθ

(directrix below the pole)

Polar Curves 8/ 1

Conics in Polar (General)

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

(directrix to the right of the pole)

r =

ed

1−e cosθ

(directrix to the left of the pole)

r =

ed

1+e sinθ

(directrix above the pole)

r =

ed

1−e sinθ

(directrix below the pole)

Polar Curves 8/ 1

Conics in Polar (General)

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

(directrix to the right of the pole)

r =

ed

1−e cosθ

(directrix to the left of the pole)

r =

ed

1+e sinθ

(directrix above the pole)

r =

ed

1−e sinθ

(directrix below the pole)

Polar Curves 8/ 1

Conics in Polar (General)

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

(directrix to the right of the pole)

r =

ed

1−e cosθ

(directrix to the left of the pole)

r =

ed

1+e sinθ

(directrix above the pole)

r =

ed

1−e sinθ

(directrix below the pole)

Polar Curves 8/ 1

Conics in Polar (General)

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

(directrix to the right of the pole)

r =

ed

1−e cosθ

(directrix to the left of the pole)

r =

ed

1+e sinθ

(directrix above the pole)

r =

ed

1−e sinθ

(directrix below the pole)

Polar Curves 8/ 1

Conics in Polar (General)

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

(directrix to the right of the pole)

r =

ed

1−e cosθ

(directrix to the left of the pole)

r =

ed

1+e sinθ

(directrix above the pole)

r =

ed

1−e sinθ

(directrix below the pole)

Polar Curves 8/ 1

Conics in Polar (General)

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

(directrix to the right of the pole)

r =

ed

1−e cosθ

(directrix to the left of the pole)

r =

ed

1+e sinθ

(directrix above the pole)

r =

ed

1−e sinθ

(directrix below the pole)

Polar Curves 8/ 1

Conics in Polar (General)

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

(directrix to the right of the pole)

r =

ed

1−e cosθ

(directrix to the left of the pole)

r =

ed

1+e sinθ

(directrix above the pole)

r =

ed

1−e sinθ

(directrix below the pole)

Polar Curves 8/ 1

Conics in Polar (General)

r =

ed

1+e cosθ

(directrix to the right of the pole)

r =

ed

1−e cosθ

(directrix to the left of the pole)

r =

ed

1+e sinθ

(directrix above the pole)

r =

ed

1−e sinθ

(directrix below the pole)

Polar Curves 8/ 1

Example

Identify the following conic section:

1

3

1−2sinθ

2

2

1+0.5cosθ

3

5

1+sinθ

Answer:

1

e =2 ⇒ Hyperbola

2

e =0.5 ⇒ Ellipse

3

e =1 ⇒ Parabola

Polar Curves 9/ 1

Example

Identify the following conic section:

1

3

1−2sinθ

2

2

1+0.5cosθ

3

5

1+sinθ

Answer:

1

e =2

⇒ Hyperbola

2

e =0.5 ⇒ Ellipse

3

e =1 ⇒ Parabola

Polar Curves 9/ 1

Example

Identify the following conic section:

1

3

1−2sinθ

2

2

1+0.5cosθ

3

5

1+sinθ

Answer:

1

e =2 ⇒ Hyperbola

2

e =0.5 ⇒ Ellipse

3

e =1 ⇒ Parabola

Polar Curves 9/ 1

Example

Identify the following conic section:

1

3

1−2sinθ

2

2

1+0.5cosθ

3

5

1+sinθ

Answer:

1

e =2 ⇒ Hyperbola

2

e =0.5

⇒ Ellipse

3

e =1 ⇒ Parabola

Polar Curves 9/ 1

Example

Identify the following conic section:

1

3

1−2sinθ

2

2

1+0.5cosθ

3

5

1+sinθ

Answer:

1

e =2 ⇒ Hyperbola

2

e =0.5 ⇒ Ellipse

3

e =1 ⇒ Parabola

Polar Curves 9/ 1

Example

Identify the following conic section:

1

3

1−2sinθ

2

2

1+0.5cosθ

3

5

1+sinθ

Answer:

1

e =2 ⇒ Hyperbola

2

e =0.5 ⇒ Ellipse

3

e =1

⇒ Parabola

Polar Curves 9/ 1

Example

Identify the following conic section:

1

3

1−2sinθ

2

2

1+0.5cosθ

3

5

1+sinθ

Answer:

1

e =2 ⇒ Hyperbola

2

e =0.5 ⇒ Ellipse

3

e =1 ⇒ Parabola

Polar Curves 9/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Identify the graph of the following

r =

1

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

Rewrite the equation above as

r =

_

1

2

_

(1)

1−

_

1

2

_

sinθ

=⇒ e =

1

2

, d =1

Hence, it is an ellipse.

Polar Curves 10/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Identify the graph of the following

r =

1

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

Rewrite the equation above as

r =

_

1

2

_

(1)

1−

_

1

2

_

sinθ

=⇒ e =

1

2

, d =1

Hence, it is an ellipse.

Polar Curves 10/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Identify the graph of the following

r =

1

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

Rewrite the equation above as

r =

_

1

2

_

(1)

1−

_

1

2

_

sinθ

=⇒ e =

1

2

, d =1

Hence, it is an ellipse.

Polar Curves 10/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Identify the graph of the following

r =

1

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

Rewrite the equation above as

r =

_

1

2

_

(1)

1−

_

1

2

_

sinθ

=⇒ e =

1

2

,

d =1

Hence, it is an ellipse.

Polar Curves 10/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Identify the graph of the following

r =

1

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

Rewrite the equation above as

r =

_

1

2

_

(1)

1−

_

1

2

_

sinθ

=⇒ e =

1

2

, d =1

Hence, it is an ellipse.

Polar Curves 10/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Identify the graph of the following

r =

1

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

Rewrite the equation above as

r =

_

1

2

_

(1)

1−

_

1

2

_

sinθ

=⇒ e =

1

2

, d =1

Hence, it is an ellipse.

Polar Curves 10/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

2.

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

2−2cosθ

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

2.

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

2−2cosθ

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1

=⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

2.

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

2−2cosθ

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0)

=⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0).

Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center.

Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸

=

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

.

Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Find the polar equation of the following conic.

2x

2

−2y

2

+4x +1 =0

Solution:

Completing the square, we have

(x +1)

2

_

2

2

_

2

−

y

2

_

2

2

_

2

=1 =⇒ c =

_

¸

¸

_

_

2

2

_

2

+

_

2

2

_

2

=1

Thus, the center is at (−1, 0) =⇒ focus at (0, 0). Thus, e =

c

a

=

1

2

2

=

The corresponding directrix is

a

e

to the right of the center. Hence

d =

¸

¸

¸

a

e

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸

_

2

2

__

1

2

_

−1

¸

¸

¸ =

1

2

. Thus, we have

r =

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

1−

2cosθ

=

1

2−2cosθ

Polar Curves 11/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is

an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is

a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0

⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ

+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the area of the region common to both

C

1

: r =

6

2−sinθ

and C

2

: r =

3

1+sinθ

Solution:

Note that C

1

is an ellipse, and C

2

is a

parabola.

Solving for the point of

intersection, we get

6

2−sinθ

=

3

1+sinθ

⇒ 9sinθ =0 ⇒ θ =0, π

Thus,

_

π

0

1

2

_

3

1+sinθ

_

2

dθ+

_

2π

π

1

2

_

6

2−sinθ

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 12/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the perimeter of the ellipse r =

4

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

L =

_

2π

0

_

r

2

+

_

dr

dθ

_

2

dθ

=

_

2π

0

_

_

4

2−sinθ

_

2

+

_

−4cosθ

(2−sinθ)

2

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 13/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the perimeter of the ellipse r =

4

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

L =

_

2π

0

_

r

2

+

_

dr

dθ

_

2

dθ

=

_

2π

0

_

_

4

2−sinθ

_

2

+

_

−4cosθ

(2−sinθ)

2

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 13/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the perimeter of the ellipse r =

4

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

L

=

_

2π

0

_

r

2

+

_

dr

dθ

_

2

dθ

=

_

2π

0

_

_

4

2−sinθ

_

2

+

_

−4cosθ

(2−sinθ)

2

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 13/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the perimeter of the ellipse r =

4

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

L =

_

2π

0

_

r

2

+

_

dr

dθ

_

2

dθ

=

_

2π

0

_

_

4

2−sinθ

_

2

+

_

−4cosθ

(2−sinθ)

2

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 13/ 1

Conics in Polar

Example.

Set-up the integral that will give the perimeter of the ellipse r =

4

2−sinθ

.

Solution:

L =

_

2π

0

_

r

2

+

_

dr

dθ

_

2

dθ

=

_

2π

0

_

_

4

2−sinθ

_

2

+

_

−4cosθ

(2−sinθ)

2

_

2

dθ

Polar Curves 13/ 1

Exercises

1

Find the eccentricity and identify the ff. conics

1

5

1−cosθ

2

1

1+3sinθ

3

2

2+cosθ

4

4

3−5cosθ

5

1

3−2sinθ

2

Write a polar equation for the conic with a focus at the origin and satisifes the

ff. condition

1 Hyperbola, eccentricity =

7

4

, directrix: y =6

2 Parabola, directrix: x =−3

3 Ellipse, eccentricity =

1

2

, directrix: x =5

4 Parabola, directrix: y =2

5 Ellipse, eccentricity =

3

4

, directrix: y =−4

6 Hyperbola, eccentricity =3, directrix: x =9

Polar Curves 14/ 1

- The Notion of Dimension in Geometry and Algebra[Manin]
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- Lecture 4 (Improper Integrals)
- Lecture 3 (Trigonometric Substitution and Partial Fractions)
- Lecture 2 (Trigonometric Integrals)
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