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ECS208 BASIC SOLID MECHANICS CHAPTER 1 STRESS & STRAIN OUTCOME BASE EDUCATION ( OBE) CO1 ; apply basic understanding on components and application of stresses and strains. PO1 ; Ability to acquire and apply basic knowledge of science, mathematics and engineering. PO3 ; Ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems. The Static Equations Of Equilibrium Fx = 0 ( +ve for rightward ) Fy = 0 ( +ve for upward ) M = 0 ( +ve for clockwise ) Basic knowledge Force/ Load ( symbol : F or P ) ( unit : N ( Newton) ) Area ( symbol : A ) ( unit : m2 or mm2 ) Unit : 1mm = 10-3 m 1 N/mm2 = 106 N/m2 = MPa Compression STRESS M N N i) ii) Normal / direct stress Shear stress Tension P P

M N

M N

i) Normal / direct stress Force per unit area, acting normal to A Symbol : ( sigma ) Unit : N/m2 = Pa , N/mm2

Formula :

Direct Stress =

Load Area

x

P A

N = Axial force in tension ( Normal force ) V = Shear force in clockwise ( Vertical force ) M = Bending Moment which cause sagging ( Moment force ) P

P x P

MRJ2011

Tensile stress is taken as positive ( +ve ) Compressive stress is taken as negative ( -ve ) ii) Shear Stress ii) Shear Strain

Force per unit area, acting tangent to A Symbol : ( tau ) Unit : N/m2 = Pa , N/mm2

( phi ) 2

Formula :

Shear Stress =

ShearForce Area

V =

STRAIN i) ii) Normal / Direct Strain Shear Strain

i) Normal / Direct Strain The elongation or contraction ( change in length ) of a line segment per unit of length Symbol : ( epsilon ) Unit : m/m , mm/mm

Before Deformation

( l 'l )

l

P

L L

MRJ2011

Formula : = constant,E x ,

E is constant of proportionality E is Youngs Modulus or Elastic Modulus ( e.g . Esteel = 200GPa ) V : elastic limit on removal of the load W : yield point ( elongation occurs without any appreciable increase in load ) X : the load reaches its maximum value X-Y : the load falls off and there is a reduction in the cross-sectional area Y : fracture occured

= E E=

POISSONS RATIO

O U : straight line Hookes Law strain is proportional to the stress causing it, providing that the limit of proportionality has not been exceeded Stress () Strain ()

Poisson ratio is a ratio of the lateral strains ( y and z ) to the longitudinal strains (x) will always be constant Symbol : ( nu ) Unit : m/m , mm/mm Formula : Poissons ratio, = - lateral ( -ve sign is normally ignored) longitudinal = - lat

long Since, longitudinal strain, long = longitudinal stress, Youngs Modulus, E long =

MRJ2011

FACTOR OF SAFETY (FS, F.O.S) The must suitable strength of stiffness criterion for any structural element or component is normally some maximum stress or deformation, which must not exceeded. The value of stresses known as maximum allowable working stress Formula : FOS = Deformation; FOS = maximum stress = allowable working stress yield stress allowable working stress = max all yield all

Stress ;

TEMPERATURE STRESS Temperature increase, a material will expand Temperature decrease, a material will contract Not resisted , material will be stress-free Formula : = Et Where ; = coefficient of linear expansion t = temperature increase or decrease

G 1 , Shear Strain Modulus of Rigidity is a ratio of stress to strain Symbol : G Unit : N/m2 = Pa , N/mm2 Formula : Modulus of Rigidity = Shear Stress Shear Strain

FAILURE OF MATERIAL DUE TO CREEP AND FATIGUE Creep When a material has to support a load for very long period of time, it may continue to deform until a sudden fracture occurs or its usefulness is impaired.

G=

Fatigue When a metal is subjected to repeated cycles of stress or strain, it causes its structure to brake down, ultimately leading to fracture.

MRJ2011

MRJ2011

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