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Decentralization: The term Decentralization is the anatomy of centralization.

Centralization refers to the situation when all power and authority are concentrated at the center. Conversely, when power and authority are transferred to lower levels of administration or government, decentralization takes place. Definition: Decentralization is . a plan of administration which will permit the greatest possible number of action to be taken in the areas, provinces, districts, town and villages where people reside. ----- United Nations (A Handbook of public administration) The process of decentralization denotes the transference of authority, legislative, judicial or administrative from a higher level of government to a lower.

------ L.D. White (Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences) Objectives of decentralization: 1. Administrative ------- for greater administrative efficiency and accountability; 2. Better economic planning; 3. Equity ---------for equitable distribution of the benefits of development; and 4. Political ---- for ensuring greater participation in administration, planning and decision making processes, for strengthening power base and others. Forms of Decentralization 1. 2. 3. 4. Deconcentration Delegation Devolution Privatization

Deconcentration: Deconcentration has been the most frequently used from of decentralization in the Third World. Many Asian and African countries such as Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Tunisia, Morocco and Tanzania have adopted this from of decentralization during recent decades. The term deconcentration is used to denote the redistribution of administrative authority or responsibilities within the agencies of central government at the sub national and local-level. According to James W. Fasler, deconcentration is not decentralization at all and it does not provide the opportunity to exercise adequate local discretion in decision-making. Effective deconcentration can be achieved through an efficient field administration system of the central government. There are to discharge such responsibility within the guidelines set the central ministry or agency headquarters.

Delegation: Delegation is considered to be a form of decentralization through which decisionmaking and management authority are transferred by the central government ministries or agencies to semi-independent organizations that are not under their direct control. Under delegation, though the central government passes some authority and decision-making powers on to specialized organizations, it retains the right to overturn local decisions and can at any time take these powers back. Thus it does not signify real transfer of power. Devolution: Devolution creates or strengthens subnational units of governments outside the direct control of central government by legal means. Diana Conyers defined devolution as the transfer of significant power, including

law making and revenue rising, to the locally elected bodies. Mawhood ment decentralization as only the devolution of powers and has clearly distinguished it from deconcentration. However, the process of devolution, with all the prescribed characteristics, can hardly be found in any third world country. Privatisation: Privatisation involves the transfer of responsibility for public services and utilities from the state or parastatal enterprises to private or voluntary organizations. In recent years this has emerged as a major policy prescription of international aid agencies (e.g. the World Bank and the IMF) for Third World countries to facilitate economic growth and overall development. It must be noted that although these four forms of decentralization differ in their characteristics and implications they are not mutually exclusive. In practice, most

government uses some combination of these four forms of decentralization. Thus though it is analytically convenient to distinguish each type of decentralization from the other, in specific situation it may not be possible to distinguish exactly what mix of decentralization a country pursues. Decentralization from its Organizational Dimensions:
Criteria forms Levels Power and functi ons 1. Administr ative 2. Developm ent 1. Developm ent 2. Revenue raising Whom How

Deconce National ntration to subnational

Field officials Execut ive order

Devoluti National on to subnational

1. Local Act/ bodies Ordina 2. Elected nce representative s

Within old governm ent agency or newly created agency Privatisa Power to tion and group marketis and ation undefine d unit and level

Delegati on

3. Service delivery 4. Political 1. Administr ative 2. Technical 3. Promotion al 1. Production 2. Distributio n 3. Service delivery 4. Promotion al 5. Developm ental

1. Local Act/ bodies Ordina 2. Spatial nce/ authorities Execut 3. Field ive agency order 1. NGO Grant/ 2. Voluntary Aid association and 3. Consumer other incenti ves

Source: Tofail Ahmed Decentralization and the Local State under Peripheral Capitalism". p. 30

It is evident from the above discussions that each of the different forms of decentralization has very different implications. Deconcentration and devolution emphasize the territorial dimension, while delegation and privatization highlight the functional aspect of decentralization.