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Q11: Q12: Q13: What do you understand by switchgear? Discuss the various types of switches? What the different between (1) A switch and circuit breaker (2) A fuse and circuit breaker Discuss the different types of bus-bar arrangement. Explain the various methods of accommodating high-voltage switchgear? What do you understand by a short-circuit? Discuss the possible causes of shortcircuit in the power system. Explain the harmful effects of short-circuit fault on the power system. What is the importance of short-circuit calculation? Discuss the possible faults on overhead lines. What is circuit breaker? Describe its operating principle. Discuss the arc phenomenon in a circuit breaker. Explain the various methods of arc extinction in a circuit breaker. Define and explain the following terms as applied to circuit breaker. (1) Arc voltage (2) Restriking voltage (3) Recovery voltage Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of oil circuit breaker. What are the important components common to most of circuit breaker? Discuss Each component briefly. Write note on circuit breaker ratings. What is protective relay? Explain its function in an electrical system. Discuss the fundamental requirement of projective relaying. Define and explain the following terms as applied to projective relaying: (1) Pick-up value (2) Current setting (3) Plug-setting multiplier (4) Time-sitting multiplier Describe the construction and principle of operation of an induction type Directional over current relay. Explain the following principle of distance relays Write the detail note on differential relays. Describe with neat diagram the balanced earth protection for small-size generators.

Q14: Q15: Q16: Q17: Q18: Q19:

Q20: Q21: Q22: Q23:


Describe the construction and working of a Buchholz relay.


Fig 17.8(1) shows the single line diagram of a 3-phase system. The percentage reactance of each alternator is based on its own capacity. Find the short-circuit current that will flow into a complete 3-phase short-circuit at F. A 3-phase, 20 MVA, 10 KV alternator has internal reactance of 5% and negligible Resistance. Find the external reactance per phase to be connected in series with the alternator so that steady current on short-circuit does not exceed 8 times the full load current. A 3-phase transmission line operating at 10 kV and having a resistance of 1ohm and reactance of 4ohm is connected to the generating station bus-bars through 5MVA step-up transformer having a reactance 5%. The bus-bars are supplied by a 10 MVA alternating having 10% reactance. Calculate the short-circuit KVA fed to symmetrical faults between phases if it occurs (1) At the load end of transmission line (2) At the high voltage terminals of the transmission. The plant capacity of 3-phase generating consist of two 10,000 KVA generators of reactance 12% each one 5000 KVA generator of reactance 18%. The generators are connected to the station bus-bars from which loads is taken through three 5000 KVA setup-up transformer each having a reactance of 5%. Determine the maximum fault MVA which the circuit breakers on (1) Low voltage side and (2) High voltage side may have to deal with. The section bus-bars A and B are linked by a bus-bar reactor rated at 5000 KVA With 10% reactance. On bus-bar A, there are two generators each of 10000 KVA with 10% reactance and on B two generator each of 8000 KVA with 12% Reactance. Find the steady MVA fed into a dead short circuit between all phases On B with bus-bar reactor in the circuit.






A small generating station has two alternator of 3000 KVA and 4500 KVA and Percentage reactance of 7% and 8% respectively. The circuit breakers have a Rupturing capacity of 150 MVA. It is desired to extend the system by a supply from the grid via a transformer of 7500 KVA and 7.5 % reactance. Find the reactance of the reactor connected in the bus-bar section to prevent the circuit breakers being overloaded., if a symmetrical short-circuit occurs on an outgoing feeder connected on it. Assume the bus voltage= 3300V. The estimated short-circuit MVA at the bus-bars of a generating station A is 1500 MVA and of another station B is 1200 MVA. The generated voltage of each


station is 33 KV. If these station are interconnected through a line having a reactance of 1ohm and negligible resistance, calculate the possible short-circuit MVA at both station.