Excel Function Dictionary

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Documentation Page 2 of 206

What Is In The Dictionary ? This workbook contains 157 worksheets, each explaining the purpose and usage of particular Excel functions. There are also a number of sample worksheets which are simple models of common applications, such as Timesheet and Date Calculations. Formatting Each worksheet uses the same type of formatting to indicate the various types of entry. North 100 100 100 300 =SUM(C13:C15) Text headings are shown in grey. Data is shown as purple text on a yellow background. The results of Formula are shown as blue on yellow. The formula used in the calulations is shown as blue text.

The Arial font is used exclusivley throughout the workbook and should display correctly with any installation of Windows. Each sheet has been designed to be as simple as possible, with no fancy macros to accomplish the desrired result. Printing Each worksheet is set to print on to A4 portrait. The printouts will have the column headings of A,B,C... and the row numbers 1,2,3... which will assist with the reading of the formula. The ideal printer would be a laser set at 600dpi. If you are using a dot matrix or inkjet, it may be worth switching off the colours before printing, as these will print as dark grey. (See the sheet dealing with Colour settings). Protection Each sheet is unprotected so that you will be able to change values and experiment with the calculations. Macros There are only a few very simple macros which are used by the various buttons to naviagte through the sheets. These have been written very simply, and do not make any attempt to change your current Toolbars and Menus.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Instructions Page 3 of 206

What Do The Buttons Do ?
View View Sort This

button sorts the list of functions into Sort alphabetical order.

This button will display the worksheet containing the function example. 1. Click on the function name, then 2. Click on the View button.

Category This describes

the category the function is a member of. Category Click this button to sort alphabetically.

Location This shows

where the function is stored in

Excel.

Location

Built-in indicates that the function is part of Excel itself. Analysis ToolPak indicates the function is stored in the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Click this button to sort alphabetically.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley

Colours Page 4 of 206

Using Different Monitor Settings Each sheet has been designed to fit within the visible width of monitors with a low resolution of 640 x 480. This ensures that you do not need to scroll from left and right to see all the data. The colours are best suited to monitors capable of 256 colours. On monitors using just 16 colours the greys may look a bit rough! You can switch colours off and on using the button below.
This may take a Colour On few minutes on any computer !

Alan Bob Carol Total

North 100 100 100 300

Sample Colour Scheme South East West 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 300 300 300

Total 400 400 400 1200

The functions cover areas such as Date and Mathematical operations.2000 Peter Noneley Analysis ToolPak Page 5 of 206 Analysis ToolPak What Is The Analysis ToolPak ? The Analysis ToolPak is an add-in file containing extra functions which are not built in to Excel. The Analysis ToolPak must be added-in to Excel before these functions will be available. . Analysis ToolPak Check For Analysis ToolPak Load the Analysis ToolPak UnLoad the Analysis ToolPak Any formula using these functions without the ToolPak loaded will show the #NAME error.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

toward zero Returns a value along a linear trend Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array Returns the greatest common divisor Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value Returns values along an exponential trend Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell Converts a serial number to an hour Specifies a logical test to perform Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array Returns a reference indicated by a text value Returns information about the current operating environment Rounds a number down to the nearest integer Returns TRUE if the value is blank . Undocumented in v5/7/97 Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number Returns the average of selected database entries Converts a serial number to a day of the month Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance m Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database Counts nonblank cells in a database Converts a decimal number to binary Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal Tests whether two values are equal Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria Returns the maximum value from selected database entries Returns the minimum value from selected database entries Converts a number to text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 6 of 206 Age Calculation AutoSum shortcut key Brackets in formula FileName formula Instant Charts Ordering Stock Percentages Project Dates Show all formula Split ForenameSurname Time Calculation TimeSheet For Flexi ABS AND AVERAGE BIN2DEC CEILING CELL CHAR CHOOSE CLEAN CODE COMBIN CONCATENATE CONVERT CORREL COUNT COUNTA COUNTBLANK COUNTIF DATE DATEDIF DATEVALUE DAVERAGE DAY DAYS360 DB DCOUNT DCOUNTA DEC2BIN DEC2HEX DELTA DGET DMAX DMIN DOLLAR DSUM EDATE EOMONTH ERROR. location. Example flexi time sheet.TYPE EVEN EXACT FACT FIND FIXED FLOOR FORECAST FREQUENCY GCD GESTEP GROWTH HEX2DEC HLOOKUP HOUR IF INDEX INDIRECT INFO INT ISBLANK Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Mathematical Logical Statistical Engineering Mathematical Information Text Lookup Text Text Mathematical Text Engineering Statistical Statistical Statistical Information Mathematical Date Date Date Database Date Date Financial Database Database Engineering Engineering Engineering Database Database Database Text Database Date Date Information Mathematical Text Mathematical Text Text Mathematical Statistical Statistical Mathematical Engineering Statistical Engineering Lookup Date Logical Lookup Lookup Information Mathematical Information Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Using DATEDIF() Using Alt and = Sample Using MID() CELL() and FIND() Using F11 Stock Ordering How to calculate various percentages Example using date calculation. using currency format Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after t Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of m Returns a number corresponding to an error type Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer Checks to see if two text values are identical Returns the factorial of a number Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals Rounds a number down. or contents of a cell Returns the character specified by the code number Chooses a value from a list of values Removes all nonprintable characters from text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects Joins several text items into one text item Converts a number from one measurement system to another Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments Counts how many values are in the list of arguments Counts the number of blank cells within a range Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria Returns the serial number of a particular date Calculates the difference between two dates. Using Ctrl and ` Using LEFT() RIGHT() FIND() SUBSTITUTE() How to calculate time. Returns the absolute value of a number Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE Returns the average of its arguments Converts a binary number to decimal Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Returns information about the formatting.

away from zero Converts a serial number to a second Returns the sign of a number Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set Estimates standard deviation based on a sample Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population Substitutes new text for old text in a text string Returns a subtotal in a list or database Adds its arguments Sample Using SUM(jan) Sample Adds the cells specified by a given criteria Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period Converts its arguments to text Formats a number and converts it to text Returns the serial number of a particular time .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . as text Rounds a number to a specified number of digits Rounds a number down. toward zero Rounds a number up.2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 7 of 206 ISERR ISERROR ISEVEN ISLOGICAL ISNA ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISODD ISREF ISTEXT LARGE LCM LEFT LEN LOOKUP (vector) LOWER MATCH MAX MEDIAN MID MIN MINUTE MINVERSE MMULT MOD MODE MONTH MROUND N NA NETWORKDAYS NOT NOW ODD OR PERMUT PI POWER PRODUCT PROPER QUARTILE QUOTIENT RAND RANDBETWEEN RANK REPLACE REPT RIGHT ROMAN ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP SECOND SIGN SLN SMALL STDEV STDEVP SUBSTITUTE SUBTOTAL SUM SUM_as_Running_Total SUM_using_names SUM_with_OFFSET SUMIF SUMPRODUCT SYD T TEXT TIME Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Information Statistical Mathematical Text Text Lookup Text Lookup Statistical Statistical Text Statistical Date Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Statistical Date Mathematical Information Information Date Logical Date Mathematical Logical Statistical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Text Statistical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Statistical Text Text Text Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Date Mathematical Financial Statistical Statistical Statistical Text Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Sample Lookup Mathematical Mathematical Financial Text Text Date Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Analysis ToolPak Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Sample Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Built-in Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A Returns TRUE if the value is any error value Returns TRUE if the number is even Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value Returns TRUE if the value is not text Returns TRUE if the value is a number Returns TRUE if the number is odd Returns TRUE if the value is a reference Returns TRUE if the value is text Returns the k-th largest value in a data set Returns the least common multiple Returns the leftmost characters from a text value Returns the number of characters in a text string Looks up values in a vector or array Converts text to lowercase Looks up values in a reference or array Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments Returns the median of the given numbers Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments Converts a serial number to a minute Returns the matrix inverse of an array Returns the matrix product of two arrays Returns the remainder from division Returns the most common value in a data set Converts a serial number to a month Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple Returns a value converted to a number Returns the error value #N/A Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates Reverses the logic of its argument Returns the serial number of the current date and time Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects Returns the value of Pi Returns the result of a number raised to a power Multiplies its arguments Capitalises the first letter in each word of a text value Returns the quartile of a data set Returns the integer portion of a division Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Returns a random number between the numbers you specify Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Replaces characters within text Repeats text a given number of times Returns the rightmost characters from a text value Converts an arabic numeral to roman.

2000 Peter Noneley FunctionList Page 8 of 206 -Timesheet TIMEVALUE TODAY TRANSPOSE TREND TRIM TRUNC TYPE UPPER VALUE VAR VARP VLOOKUP WEEKDAY WORKDAY YEAR YEARFRAC Sample Sample Date Built-in Date Built-in Lookup Built-in Statistical Built-in Text Built-in Mathematical Built-in Information Built-in Text Built-in Text Built-in Statistical Built-in Statistical Built-in Lookup Built-in Date Built-in Date Analysis ToolPak Date Built-in Date Analysis ToolPak Sample Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number Returns the serial number of today's date Returns the transpose of an array Returns values along a linear trend Removes spaces from text Truncates a number to an integer Returns a number indicating the data type of a value Converts text to uppercase Converts a text argument to a number Estimates variance based on a sample Calculates variance based on the entire population Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell Converts a serial number to a day of the week Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays Converts a serial number to a year Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Adding time You can add time to find a total time. rather than 12. . 1. To use the am/pm system you must enter the am or pm after the time. There are one or two oddities. Time can be entered in various different formats and calculations performed. To correct this error. such as 12:30. Example 1 : Incorrect formatting Start End Duration 7:00 18:30 11:30 8:00 17:00 9:00 7:30 17:45 10:15 Total 6:45 Example 2 : Correct formatting Start End 7:00 18:30 8:00 17:00 7:30 17:45 Total =SUM(E49:E51) Duration 11:30 9:00 10:15 30:45 =SUM(E56:E58) How To Apply Custom Formatting The custom format for time use a pair of square brackets [hh] on either side of the hours indicators. 1:30 AM 1:30 PM 10:15 AM 10:15 PM Finding the difference between two times You can subtract two time values to find the length of time between. Look at the section about formatting further in this worksheet.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . You may need to reformat the answer. 2. You must leave a space between the number and the text. as in the example below. Click on the cell which needs the format. 3. Choose the Format menu. but nothing which should put you off working with it. Click the Number tag at the top right. Start 1:30 8:00 8:00 AM End 2:30 17:00 5:00 PM Duration 1:00 =D24-C24 9:00 =D25-C25 9:00 AM If the result is not shown correctly. Usually this gives an incorrect result. Start 1:30 8:00 7:30 AM End 2:30 17:00 5:45 PM Duration 1:00 9:00 10:15 20:15 Formatting time When time is added together the result may go beyond 24 hours. 4. This works well until the total time goes above 24 hours.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 B C D E F G H I Time Calculation Page 9 of 206 J Time Calculation Excel can work with time very easily. Choose Cells.30 1:30 12:30 20:15 22:45 Excel can cope with either the 24hour system or the am/pm system. Typing time When time is entered into worksheet it should be entered with a colon between the hour and the minutes. See the TimeSheet example for an example. For totals greater than 24 hours you may need to apply some special formatting. the result needs to be formatted with a Custom format.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Click inside the Type: box. Choose Custom. 8.2000 Peter Noneley A 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 B C D 5. 7. E F G H I Time Calculation Page 10 of 206 J . Click OK to confirm. 6. Type [hh]:mm as the format.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The date is then passed down to the Day column. Custom. 14:45 . Use the format of hh:mm."-") Under worked by Over worked by This is simple example of a timesheet. the Normal Hours. This is used later to calculate if have worked over or under the required hours. Type the amount of hours you are expected to work in G3. the Week beginning. If the [hh]:mm format had not been used the Total Hours would show as : If the [hh]:mm format does not show in the cell format dialog box on your computer. Cells. Number. Type the times you arrive and leave work in the appropriate columns. it can be created using Format. Instructions : Type the week start date in cell C3. the name of the day will appear automatically.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I TimeSheet For Flexi Page 11 of 206 J K TimeSheet for Flexi Week beginning Mon 05-Jan-98 Day Mon 05 Tue 06 Wed 07 Thu 08 Fri 09 Arrive 8:00 8:45 9:00 8:30 8:00 Lunch Out Lunch In 13:00 14:00 12:30 13:30 13:00 14:00 13:00 14:00 12:00 13:00 Normal Hours Depart 17:00 17:00 18:00 17:00 17:00 Total Hours 37:30 Total 8:00 7:15 8:00 7:30 8:00 38:45 1:15 =(F6-C6)-(E6-D6) =SUM(G6:G10) =IF(G3-G11>0. "-") =IF(G3-G11<0.G3-G11. Note The Total Hours cell has been formatted as [hh]:mm. This ensures the total hours can be expressed as a value above 24 hours. Use the format dd/mm/yy.ABS(G3-G11).

1)) =LEFT(C15.LEN(C23)-FIND(" ".""))))) Finding the Middle name Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Middle Name David John Susan =LEFT(RIGHT(C45.LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".1)) Finding the Last Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams =RIGHT(C22.FIND(" ".SUBSTITUTE(C37.C45. Full Name Alan David Jones Bob John Smith Carol Susan Williams Last Name Jones Smith Williams =RIGHT(C37.C15. Finding the First Name Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams First Name Alan Bob Carol =LEFT(C14.1)) =LEFT(C16.C22)) =RIGHT(C23. the last name formula will be incorrect.1)).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1)).FIND(" ".C16. The formula use various text functions to accomplish the task.RIGHT(C45.C23)) =RIGHT(C24.LEN(C37)-LEN(SUBSTITUTE(C37. One of the most common examples of this is when a persons Forename and Surname are entered in full into a cell.FIND(" "." ".C45." ".LEN(C22)-FIND(" ".1)) . Each of the techniques uses the space between the names to identify where to split.LEN(C37)-FIND("#"."#".C24)) Finding the Last name when a Middle name is present The formula above cannot handle any more than two names.FIND(" ".LEN(C45)-FIND(" ".LEN(C45)-FIND(" ". To solve the problem you have to use a much longer calculation. If there is also a middle name.C14.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H Split ForenameSurname Page 12 of 206 I J Split Forename and Surname The following formula are useful when you have one cell containing text which needs to be split up.

$D$18:$D$20) =E25*LOOKUP(D25.$C$18:$C$20. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Frank % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C A Old Salary Increase £10.$C$18:$C$20.$D$18:$D$20)+E50 =E51*LOOKUP(D51.000 £28.$D$18:$D$20) =E26*LOOKUP(D26.$D$18:$D$20) Finding a percentage increase Initial value % increase Increased value 120 25% 150 =D33*D34+D33 Example 2 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.$D$18:$D$20) =E27*LOOKUP(D27.$C$18:$C$20. . You have to use the skills you were taught in your maths class at school! Finding a percentage of a value Initial value % to find Percentage value 120 25% 30 =D8*D9 Example 1 A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.000 £1.$D$18:$D$20) =E24*LOOKUP(D24. Staff on different grades get different pay rises.$C$18:$C$20.$C$18:$C$20.$D$18:$D$20) =E28*LOOKUP(D28. Staff on different grades get different pay rises.000 £20.$C$18:$C$20.2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 C D E F G H I J Percentages Page 13 of 206 K Percentages There are no specific functions for calculating percentages.$C$18:$C$20.000 £20.$D$18:$D$20)+E49 =E50*LOOKUP(D50.000 £1.$C$18:$C$20.000 £38.200 =E48*LOOKUP(D48.200 =E23*LOOKUP(D23.750 £32.000 £6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The wages department need to calculate the increases.000 £30.$D$18:$D$20)+E51 =E52*LOOKUP(D52.000 £25.000 £11.000 £36.$D$18:$D$20)+E48 =E49*LOOKUP(D49.000 £6.000 £23.$C$18:$C$20.$D$18:$D$20)+E52 =E53*LOOKUP(D53.000 £3.$D$18:$D$20)+E53 Finding one value as percentage of another Value A Value B A as % of B 120 60 50% =D59/D58 You will need to format the result as % by using the % button on the toolbar.400 £12.000 £13.$C$18:$C$20.400 £12.000 £3.000 £30. The wages department need to calculate the new salary including the % increase.$C$18:$C$20. Grade A B C Name Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Frank % Rise 10% 15% 20% Grade A B C B C A Old Salary Increase £10.000 £25. Example 3 An manager has been asked to submit budget requirements for next year.$C$18:$C$20.750 £32.

500 Total 39.50% Total Actual Value Vat Value £10. Last years figures Region Q1 Q2 North 9.000 6.000 Finding an original value after an increase has been applied Increased value % increase Original value 150 25% 120 =D100/(100%+D101) Example 4 An employ has to submit an expenses claim for travelling and accommodation.000 150.000 Total 100.00 £35.00 £200.000 I J Percentages Page 14 of 206 K Q3 2.000 9.50 =D115/(100%+$D$110) .000 East 3. Unfortunately the receipts held by the employee only show the total amount.000 9.500 Q4 10.000 9.000 4.000 South 7.500 =G84*$E$88 7.000 West 8.000 46.500 10.500 Q3 9% 9% 7% 6% 31% Q4 7% 5% 3% 5% 20% =G74/$H$78 =G75/$H$78 =G76/$H$78 =G77/$H$78 =G78/$H$78 Q3 13.500 =G83*$E$88 4. VAT rate Receipt Petrol Hotel Petrol 17.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 5.500 3.000 East 2.49 =D113-D113/(100%+$D$110) £235.000 Q4 7.50 £100.500 13.000 23.000 7.000 13.000 Next years estimated budget requirements Region Q1 Q2 North 13.000 5. the manager hopes to predict what will need to be spent in the next year. The employee needs to split this total to show the original value and the VAT amount.500 9.2000 Peter Noneley A B 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 C D E F G H The manger needs to specify what will be required each quarter.500 Total 30.000 West 12.000 Total 26.000 20. The manager knows what has been spent by each region in the previous year.000 34.00 £8.000 South 10. By analysing the past years spending.000 8. The claim needs to show the VAT tax portion of each receipt.000 31.500 =G82*$E$88 7.51 £1.000 Last years Quarters as % of last years Total Region Q1 Q2 North 9% 2% South 7% 4% East 2% 8% West 8% 9% Total 26% 23% Next years budget 150.00 £17.000 12.500 6.000 3.00 £117.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B C D E F G H Show all formula Page 15 of 206 I Show all formula You can view all the formula on the worksheet by pressing Ctrl and `. (The screen may look a bit odd.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 10 30 50 70 20 40 60 80 30 70 60 30 .) Press the same combination to see the original view. Press Ctrl and ` to see the formula below. The ' is the left single quote usually found on the key to left of number 1.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G SUM_using_names Page 16 of 206 H I SUM using names You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations simply by typing the name into the formula. Accept Labels in Formula. Calculation. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Jan 45 30 35 20 130 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Total If it does not work ! The feature may have been switched off on your computer. Try this example: Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan) The result will show. This formula can be copied to D16 and E16. and the names change to Feb and Mar. You can switch it on by using Tools. Options.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Then press F11. Jan 45 30 35 20 Feb 50 25 10 50 Mar 50 35 50 5 North South East West Click anywhere inside the table above. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B C D E F G H Instant Charts Page 17 of 206 I Instant Charts You can create a chart quickly without having to use the chart button on the toolbar by pressing the function key F11 whilst inside a range of data.

60 50 40 30 J an Feb Mar 20 10 0 North South East West .

FIND("]".1.FIND("]". shown below.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Workbook name.FIND("[".CELL("filename"))+1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F G Filename formula Page 19 of 206 H Filename formula There may be times when you need to insert the name of the current workbook or worksheet in to a cell. #VALUE! =MID(CELL("filename"). #VALUE! =MID(CELL("filename").FIND("[".xls'#$ Filename formula =CELL("filename") The problem with this is that it gives the complete path including drive letter and folders. 'file:///var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch31379/104507027. This can be done by using the CELL() function.CELL("filename"))+1. To just pick out the workbook or worksheet name you need to use text functions. To pick the Path.CELL("filename"))-1) To pick the Worksheet name.CELL("filename"))-FIND("[". #VALUE! =MID(CELL("filename").255) .

(also known as 'braces').. in formula.. Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and . resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multipled by 2 resulting in 60 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G Brackets in formula Page 20 of 206 H I Brackets in formula Sometimes you will need to use brackets. The * and / operations will be calculated before + and . 10 20 2 60 =(C27+C28)*C29 By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calulation first. The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply. This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need. Example 1 : The wrong answer ! 10 20 2 50 =C12+C13*C14 You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30 And then 30 * 2 would equal 60 But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40 And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50 Example 2 : The correct answer.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

but it is in 2000.5 represents 6 months. which creates a text version. the .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D E F G H Age Calculation Page 21 of 206 I Age Calculation You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date.TODAY().TODAY().TODAY().TODAY(). Birth date : Age is : 5-Mar-85 27."md")&" Days" Another way to calculate age This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing the months."ym") =DATEDIF(C8. (Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!) Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 5-Mar-85 #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .39 =(TODAY()-C23)/365. #NAME? ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8.25 ."md") You can put this all together in one calculation.TODAY().5. 7 or 97.TODAY(). "&DATEDIF(C8."y") =DATEDIF(C8. The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5. The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function."y")&" Years. If the age is 20.

Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column. or Select a row.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G AutoSum Shortcut Key Page 22 of 206 H I AutoSum Shortcut Key Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar. then press Alt and =. you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result. Jan 10 20 30 40 100 Feb 50 60 70 80 260 Mar 90 100 200 300 690 Total 150 180 300 420 1050 North South East West Total . column or all cells and then press Alt and =.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H

ABS Page 23 of 206 I

ABS
Number 10 -10 1.25 -1.25 Absolute Value 10 10 1.25 1.25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7)

What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number, irrespective of whether it is positive or negative. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number, no special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber. The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured. In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short, the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value. Table 1 shows the original calculations. The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative, which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated. Whether the wood was too long or short, the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

Required Length 120 120 120

Actual Length 120 90 150

Difference 0 30 -30 =D36-E36

Error Percentage 0% 25% -25%

Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

Required Length 120 120 120

Actual Length 120 90 150

Difference 0 30 30 =ABS(D45-E45)

Error Percentage 0% 25% 25%

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H

ADDRESS Page 24 of 206 I

ADDRESS
Type a column number : Type a row number : Type a sheet name : $B$3 B$3 $B3 B3 R3C2 R3C[2] R[3]C2 R[3]C[2] Hello.$B$3 Hello.B$3 Hello.$B3 Hello.B3 2 3 Hello

=ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,TRUE,F5) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,TRUE,F5) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,TRUE,F5) =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,TRUE,F5)

What Does It Do ? This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text, based on a row and column numbers given by the user. This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet. Syntax =ADDRESS(RowNumber,ColNumber,Absolute,A1orR1C1,SheetName) The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384. The ColNumber is from 1 to 256, cols A to IV. The Absolute can be 1,2,3 or 4. When 1 the reference will be in the form $A$1, column and row absolute. When 2 the reference will be in the form A$1, only the row absolute. When 3 the reference will be in the form $A1, only the column absolute. When 4 the reference will be in the form A1, neither col or row absolute. The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE. When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1, the normal style for cell addresses. When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1, the alternative style of cell address. The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference. The SheetName does not actually have to exist.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D E F G H

AND Page 25 of 206 I

AND
Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100,D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100,D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100,D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1,D7<=52)

What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true. It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions. It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Syntax =AND(Test1,Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results. The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams. The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average. The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE

=AND(C38>=AVERAGE($C$29:$C$38),D38>=AVERAGE($D$29:$D$38),E38>=AVERAGE($E$29:$E$38))

Averages

47

54

60

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H

AREAS Page 26 of 206 I

AREAS
Pink Name Alan Bob Carol Name David Eric Fred Age 18 17 20 Age 20 16 19 Err:504 =AREAS(PeopleLists)

Green

What Does It Do? This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data, or whether it is a multiple selection. If it is a single block the result will be 1. If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected. The function is designed to be used in macros. Syntax =AREAS(RangeToTest) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Example The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green. These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists. The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate selections which form the PeopleLists range. Note To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used. In the above example the pink range was selected as normal, then the Ctrl key was held down before selecting the green range. When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G H I J K L M

AVERAGE Page 27 of 206 N

AVERAGE
Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =AVERAGE(D9:J9)

Temp Rain

Temp Rain

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =AVERAGE(D13:J13)

What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers. If the cell is blank or contains text, the cell will not be used in the average calculation. If the cell contains zero 0, the cell will be included in the average calculation. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA(). Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24.57 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Mon 30 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36)

Temp Rain

Temp Rain

Further Usage

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G

BIN2DEC Page 28 of 206 H I

BIN2DEC
Binary Number Decimal Equivalent 0 0 1 1 10 2 11 3 111111111 511 1111111111 -1 1111111110 -2 1111111101 -3 1000000000 -512 11111111111 Err:502 =BIN2DEC(C4) =BIN2DEC(C5) =BIN2DEC(C6) =BIN2DEC(C7) =BIN2DEC(C8) =BIN2DEC(C9) =BIN2DEC(C10) =BIN2DEC(C11) =BIN2DEC(C12) =BIN2DEC(C13)

What Does It Do ? This function converts a binary number to decimal. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. Syntax =BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber) The binary number has a limit of ten characters. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G

CEILING Page 29 of 206 H

CEILING
Number 2.1 1.5 1.9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4,1) =CEILING(C5,1) =CEILING(C6,1) =CEILING(C7,30) =CEILING(C8,30) =CEILING(C9,30)

What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user. Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound,MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14

Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10

=CEILING(D28,7) =CEILING(D29,7) =CEILING(D30,7)

Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck. This results of the division are not whole numbers, and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3.33 8.33 5.71

=D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47

Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number, and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed. Table 2 Item Units To Be Moved Truck Capacity Trucks Needed

The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence. Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs.1).62000 5.25 £28. Calculates the decimal part of the price. Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters Box Qnty 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83.75000 1.0.99) Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1) =CEILING(MOD(E83).81818 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 B C Bricks Wood Cement D 1000 5000 2000 E 300 600 350 F 4 9 6 CEILING Page 30 of 206 G H =CEILING(D54/E54. Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters In Box 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.99) Calculates the integer part of the price.25 £28.75000 =D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence.10 £28 Cost Per Item 1.81818 2.99 2.10 £28 Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1. Raises the decimal to 0.60714 2.99 5.1) Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.0. The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.62000 1.99 1.1) =CEILING(D56/E56.99 .60714 5.1) =CEILING(D55/E55. The shopkeeper buys products by the box.

##0) $#.D3) Shown as ' for left.00) 0% 0.##0.D3) (See the table shown below) Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values.D3) The type of entry in the cell.18 =CELL("contents". 0 =CELL("parentheses". 1 =CELL("protect". =CELL("prefix". 0 for unlocked.D3) The actual contents of the cell.##0_).##0.##0) $#. Nothing is shown for numeric entries.00 #. " for right. v =CELL("type". ^ for centre. Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired".50% The cell address.($#. 17. 3 =CELL("row".[Red]($#. 4 =CELL("col".##0 0.D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents. d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 .##0. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 $#.CELL("filename"))-1) . P2 =CELL("format". The name of the current file is : #VALUE! =MID(CELL("filename").2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8 Example The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.D3) 1 for a locked.($#.CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ".00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. 'file:///var/www/apps/conversion/current/tmp/scratch31379/104507027. The filename containing the cell.D3) The column number.##0_). The alignment of the cell. Formatted for coloured negatives.00% 0. The type of cell protection.CELL("filename"))+1.D3) Shown as b for blank.D3) The row number. The width of the cell.FIND("[".xls'#$CELL =CELL("filename". v for value. 0 =CELL("color".##0.D3) 1 for yes.D3) 1 for yes. Numeric Format General 0 #.FIND("]". 12 =CELL("width".D3) The number format fo the cell.00_).[Red]($#. position and formatting. $D$3 =CELL("address". l for text.##0.00_).0 F2 .CELL("filename"))-FIND("[". Codes used to show the formatting of the cell. 0 for no. 0 for no.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C D E F G H I CELL Page 31 of 206 J CELL This is the cell and contents to test.00) $#.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U CHAR Page 32 of 206 V W X CHAR ANSI Number Character 65 A 66 B 169 © =CHAR(G4) =CHAR(G5) =CHAR(G6) What Does It Do? This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI character set used by Windows. 60 < 61 = 62 > 63 ? 64 @ 65 A 66 B 67 C 68 D 69 E 70 F 71 G 72 H 73 I 74 J 75 K 76 L 77 M 78 N 79 O 80 P 81 Q 82 R 83 S 84 T 85 U 86 V 87 W 88 X 89 Y 90 Z 91 [ 92 \ 93 ] 94 ^ 95 _ 96 ` 97 a 98 b 99 c 100 d 101 e 102 f 103 g 104 h 105 i 106 j 107 k 108 l 109 m 110 n 111 o 112 p 113 q 114 r 115 s 116 t 117 u 118 v 119 w 120 x 121 y 122 z 123 { 124 | 125 } 126 ~ 127  128 — 129 — 130 — 131 — 132 — 133 — 134 — 135 — 136 — 137 — 138 — 139 — 140 — 141 — 142 — 143 — 144 — 145 — 146 — 147 — 148 — 149 — 150 — 151 — 152 — 153 — 154 — 155 — 156 — 157 — 158 — 159 — 160 161 ¡ 162 ¢ 163 £ 164 ¤ 165 ¥ 166 ¦ 167 § 168 ¨ 169 © 170 ª 171 « 172 ¬ 173 174 ® 175 ¯ 176 ° 177 ± 178 ² 179 ³ 180 ´ 181 µ 182 ¶ 183 · 184 ¸ 185 ¹ 186 º 187 » 188 ¼ 189 ½ 190 ¾ 191 ¿ 192 À 193 Á 194  195 à 196 Ä 197 Å 198 Æ 199 Ç 200 È 201 É 202 Ê 203 Ë 204 Ì 205 Í 206 Î 207 Ï 208 Ð 209 Ñ 210 Ò 211 Ó 212 Ô 213 Õ 214 Ö 215 × 216 Ø 217 Ù 218 Ú 219 Û 220 Ü 221 Ý 222 Þ 223 ß 224 à 225 á 226 â 227 ã 228 ä 229 å 230 æ 231 ç 232 è 233 é 234 ê 235 ë 236 ì 237 í 238 î 239 ï 240 ð 241 ñ 242 ò 243 ó 244 ô 245 õ 246 ö 247 ÷ 248 ø 249 ù 250 ú 251 û 252 ü 253 ý 254 þ 255 ÿ Note Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character. 47 / 48 0 49 1 50 2 51 3 52 4 53 5 54 6 55 7 56 8 57 9 58 : 59 . Syntax =CHAR(Number) The Number must be between 1 and 255. Example The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent. Formatting The result will be a character with no special formatting.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 1 14 1 15 1 16 1 17 1 18 1 19 2 20 2 21 2 22 2 23 2 24 2 25 2 26 2 27 2 28 2 29 3 30 3 31 32 33 ! 34 " 35 # 36 $ 37 % 38 & 39 ' 40 ( 41 ) 42 * 43 + 44 . . Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters. these will be displayed as a small box. 45 46 .

"Carol") =CHOOSE(C6.10%.10%."Gold"."Alan"."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3."Alan". due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it. as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear.18%) =CHOOSE(C9."Silver"."Bob".CHOOSE(D34."Bronze").15%."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7."Bob". Item2."Bronze")."Silver"."Alan".C30:C34) .10%.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H I CHOOSE Page 33 of 206 J CHOOSE Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% =CHOOSE(C4.15%."Silver"."Bronze").CHOOSE(D30.CHOOSE(D31. Item1.18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user. The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .CHOOSE(D33.CHOOSE(D32."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3."Bronze")."Bob". Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3. The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal."Gold"."Gold".15%."Gold"."Silver". Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3.18%) =CHOOSE(C8. Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5."Gold". Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required. The Time for each athlete is entered. The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete."Bronze")."Silver"."unplaced") =RANK(C34.

Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H CLEAN Page 34 of 206 I CLEAN Dirty Text Hello Hello Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text. . These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes. The result will show as normal text.

The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using a unique number. 69 . the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D E F G H I J CODE Page 35 of 206 K CODE Letter A B C a b c Alan Bob Carol ANSI Code 65 66 67 97 98 99 65 66 67 =CODE(C4) =CODE(C5) =CODE(C6) =CODE(C7) =CODE(C8) =CODE(C9) =CODE(C10) =CODE(C11) =CODE(C12) What Does It Do? This function shows the ANSI value of a single character. Example See the example for FREQUENCY. There are 255 characters in the ANSI set. or the first character in a piece of text.70 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 10 1 11 1 12 1 13 1 14 1 15 1 16 1 17 1 18 1 19 2 20 2 21 2 22 2 23 2 24 2 25 2 26 2 27 2 28 2 29 3 30 3 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~  € 151 152 153 154 ‚ 155 ƒ 156 „ 157 … 158 † 159 ‡ 160 ˆ 161 ‰ 162 Š 163 ‹ 164 Œ 165 166 Ž 167 168 169 ‘ 170 ’ 171 “ 172 ” 173 • 174 – 175 — ˜ ™ š › œ ž Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . Syntax =CODE(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

The decorator is given five colours to work with. so AB is the same as BA. The internal order of the combination does not matter. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD. Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 Combinations 6 =COMBIN(C25.D4) =COMBIN(C5.D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black Scheme 1 Red Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Blue Yellow Scheme 2 Red Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Blue Black Scheme 3 Red Green Black Scheme 8 Green Yellow Black Scheme 4 Red Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Yellow Black Scheme 5 Red Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but can only use three in any scheme.D5) =COMBIN(C6. Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F COMBIN Page 36 of 206 G COMBIN Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4.D25) The four letters : ABCD Pair 1 AB Pair 2 AC Pair 3 AD Pair 4 BC Pair 5 BD Pair 6 CD Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office. How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required.

"&C30 .C8) =CONCATENATE(D9.Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined.D4) =CONCATENATE(C5. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Carol =CONCATENATE(C4.".".C9) What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item.D7) =CONCATENATE(D8..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Bob Davies." ". ".Text2. Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1. Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator.D5) =CONCATENATE(C6.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H CONCATENATE Page 37 of 206 I CONCATENATE Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams..Text3. Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Jones Williams Davies Jones Williams Davies Concatenated Text AlanJones BobWilliams CarolDavies Alan Jones Williams. "&C29 =D30&".D6) =CONCATENATE(C7. Carol =C25&D25 =C26&D26 =C27&D27 =C28&" "&D28 =D29&". ". the result will be shown as normal text. Bob Davies.

Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Day Hour Minute Second Temperature Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system. Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D E F G CONVERT Page 38 of 206 H CONVERT Amount To Convert 1 1 1 1 1 1.D11.3 =CONVERT(C5.D9."ozm".E10) =CONVERT(C11.91 =CONVERT(C6.D10. Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert. such as Inches to Centimetres."m") Weight Height Length Width Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems.54 =CONVERT(C4.D6.UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed.51 2 1.D4."ft".E8) =CONVERT(C9.5 Converting From in ft yd yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec Converted Amount 2."m")+CONVERT(E34.81 3 2.E6) 365.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E5) 0.25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8.UnitToConvertFrom.E4) 0.D8.35 =CONVERT(D28.D5.E9) =CONVERT(C10."in"."kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3.) Pressure Pascal Atmosphere mm of Mercury Liquid g kg sg lbm u ozm m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica yr day hr mn sec Pa atm mmHg .57 =CONVERT(D34. to the same value expressed in a different type of unit.5 0.E11) What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit."lbm"."kg")+CONVERT(E28.

00E-01 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU C C F K D E Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l G CONVERT Page 39 of 206 H N dyn lbf J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU HP W Magnetism Tesla Gauss T ga These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure.00E+02 h 1.00E+06 M 1.00E-02 1.00E-15 1.00E+09 G 1.00E+18 E 1.00E+12 T 1.00E-12 1.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1.00E+03 k 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00E+15 P 1. Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated.00E-06 1.00E-18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a . Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1.00E-09 1.00E-03 1.

000 £20.000 £1.000 £20.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units. The correlation shows that there is an 0. In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales.000 £40.H5:H10) Correlation 0.000 £1.000 £30. .000 £40.000 £20.864 =CORREL(D5:D10. the greater the correlation.864 realtionship between the data. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data.000 £5. Syntax =CORREL(Range1.000 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G H I CORREL Page 40 of 206 J CORREL Table 1 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400 Table 2 Advertising Costs Sales £2. The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1.Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.000 Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10.E5:E10) What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets. The larger the result.000 £8. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result.

000 Wood £5. Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month..35 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Glass £2.000 £1.000 Metal £1.Range3. It will ignore blanks.Range2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I COUNT Page 41 of 206 J COUNT Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0. text and errors.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =COUNT(Range1.. Item Jan Feb Bricks £1.000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 .

Syntax =COUNTA(Range1. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39) . Each exam passed was graded as 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Alan Bob Carol David Elaine B C D E F G H I COUNTA Page 42 of 206 J COUNTA Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 -20 30 10 1-Jan-88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0.. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam. It will ignore blanks. Maths Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39) 1 Fail How many pupils sat each Exam..Range3. The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.9 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list. Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil.Range2. A failure was entered as Fail. 2 or 3.

"N") Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11) Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 N Y Y N Y Y N N N Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No : ."Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy. As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The response to the question could be Y or N. The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote. Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H COUNTBLANK Page 43 of 206 I COUNTBLANK Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range.

How many items cost £100 or above. To match a specific number type the number. Type the name of the item to count. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G COUNTIF Page 44 of 206 COUNTIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12."Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12. service What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user."Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes.100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes.">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed. How many Tyres have been bought.CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways. ."Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12.">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12.E18) How many Brake Shoes Have been bought. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5.

Number. Syntax =DATE(year. By using the Format.C5) January 2.month.D5.day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format. 2000 =DATE(E6.D6. .Date command the format can be changed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4.C4) 25-Dec-99 =DATE(E5.Cells.C6) What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G H I DATE Page 45 of 206 J DATE Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/99 =DATE(E4.

TODAY(). "m" Months between the two dates."yd") =DATEDIF(C8. "Interval" : This indicates what you want to calculate. #NAME? ="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TODAY(). "y" Years between the two dates.D4."y") =DATEDIF(C7."md")&" Days" .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H I J DATEDIF Page 46 of 206 K DATEDIF FirstDate 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 1-Jan-60 SecondDate 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 10-May-70 Interval days months years yeardays yearmonths monthdays Difference #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? #NAME? =DATEDIF(C4."ym")&" Months and "&DATEDIF(C8."d") =DATEDIF(C5.TODAY().D6."ym") =DATEDIF(C9.D5. as if the dates were in the same year.D8."Interval") FirstDate : This is the earliest of the two dates. These are the available intervals."ym") #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8. SecondDate : This is the most recent of the two dates."y")&" Years. as if the dates were in the same month and year.SecondDate. "&DATEDIF(C8.TODAY(). Syntax =DATEDIF(FirstDate."y") #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8.TODAY().TODAY(). which creates a text version."md") What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates. months or years. "d" Days between the two dates. "ym" Months between the dates.D7."m") =DATEDIF(C6. "md" Days between the two dates. Formatting No special formatting is needed.D9. as if the dates were in the same year. It can show the result in weeks. "yd" Days between the dates. Birth date : Years lived : and the months : and the days : 1-Jan-60 #NAME? =DATEDIF(C8."md") You can put this all together in one calculation.

Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date.Number. BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 .Cells. Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as exports from mainframe computers.Date. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25-dec-99 -4597 10-july/99 Err:502 13-sep-98 -5065 30/5/2000 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(E32)-TODAY() Property Ref.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G DATEVALUE Page 47 of 206 H DATEVALUE Date 25-dec-99 25/12/99 25-dec-99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 Err:502 36519 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text. probably after being imported from an external program. Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease.

such as Horizon as a brand name.15 25 0 £0.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.FieldName.10 20 5 £10. Examples The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.50 15 0 £0. The first set of information is the name.50 4 3 £54.00 To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb.00 £0.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. including the field names at the top of the columns. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.50 £0.F3. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. such as the category Brand or Wattage.E23:E24) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces and average.00 £5.25 10 4 £50. or 100 as the wattage. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.80 20 5 £180.25 10 5 £12.00 £2.00 £1. or names.20 40 3 £24. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £0. The FieldName is the name.00 £0.00 £0. or records.80 25 6 £120.00 £0. The second set of information is the actual record.E49:F50) .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I DAVERAGE Page 48 of 206 J DAVERAGE This is the Database range. which are to be selected.F3. Product Bulb The average of Horizon Bulb is : £1. of the values to be averaged. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.80 10 5 £40.16 Brand Horizon =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. or cell.00 £1.50 10 3 £15. Syntax =DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange.00 £2.00 £0.00 £0.20 25 2 £10. Type the brand name : sunbeam The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as "Unit Cost" or F3.00 15 2 £60.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Unit Cost".53 Wattage 100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.17 Wattage <100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. £1. Product Bulb Average of Bulb 100 is : £0."Unit Cost".E60:F61) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage.16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19."Unit Cost".2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 DAVERAGE Page 49 of 206 B C D E F G H I J This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address. Product Bulb Average of Bulb <100 is : £0.E49:F50) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.E67:F68) .

Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G DAY Page 50 of 206 H DAY Full Date 25-Dec-98 26-Jul-12 26-Jul-12 The Day 25 Thu 25 26 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date. Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number. but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format.Number. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 24 =DAY(F21) .Cells.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Custom and using the code ddd or dddd.

The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . To correct this add 1 to the result. Note The calculation does not include the last day. Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F DAYS360 Page 51 of 206 DAYS360 StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 EndDate 5-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 31-Mar-98 31-Dec-98 Days Between 4 30 89 359 * See the Note below.D7.TRUE)+1 .TRUE) What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months).TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems.TRUE) =DAYS360(C6.D6. =DAYS360(C4.EndDate.D5.D4. =DAYS360(Start.TRUE) =DAYS360(C5. Formatting The result will be shown as a number. FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems. Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate.TRUE) =DAYS360(C7.End.

E5.D9) =DB(E3.D11) =DB(E3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G DB Page 52 of 206 H I DB Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation : £5.50% 27. the first years depreciation will be based on the remaining part of the year. Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone.E4. The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage.375.89 % Deprc 27.50% 27.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .800.E5.D12) £4. Syntax =DB(PurchasePrice. An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was originally purchased.73 £523.43 =DB(E3.50% 27. This is an optional value.000 5 Deprecation £1.Life.E4.D10) =DB(E3. Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation.E5.00 £1. using the original value of the item less the depreciation of the previous years. which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user.FirstYearMonth) The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the first financial year.246.88 £654.000 5 £200 Deprecation £2. The second year uses the same percentage.SalvageValue. if it not used the function will assume 12 as the value.E5. The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user. The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used.50% 27.50% .88 £722.E5. What Does It Do ? This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage. the function calculates the necessary percentage.58 * See example 4 below. If the item was purchased part way through the financial year.98 £379. but uses the original value of the item less the first years depreciation.E4. Example 1 This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation.PeriodToCalculate.D8) =DB(E3. Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation. Formatting No special formatting is needed.E4.61 £343.375. Any subsequent years use the same percentage. Purchase Price : Salvage value : Life in Years : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5.000 £1.E4.00 £996.67 £180.

when applied to large values.000 £5 100 Deprecation £8.D84.E75.23 £6.50% Total Depreciation : Why Is The Answer Wrong ? In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value.((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)).72 £7.E49. Example 4 This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real' percentage calculated manually.185.E68.808. the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as approximate values for the the depreceation.78 =DB(E66.50% 27. The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 . .D75) Example 3 This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account.75% 27.80 £623.000 5 £1.79 £8.E77) £3. The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation.E48.50 £1.998.E76.94 £859. This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated by the =DB() fumction. The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function. with the exception of the deprecation being calculated on a monthly basis. Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate.E67*12.50% 27.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .24 £7. The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : First Year Ownership In Months : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5.48 G DB Page 53 of 206 H I Total Depreciation : Example 2 This example is similar to the previous.000 6 Deprecation £687.54 % Deprc 13.50% 27.36 £451.2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 B C D E F =DB(E47.D56) £3. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Month 56 57 58 59 60 £5.93 =DB(E74. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12.

8873 £3.48 Real Depreciation £1. calculated manually : 27.9243 £379.500% 27.1017 £997.000.00 £1.9824 £379.000 Life in Years : 5 Excel Deprecation £1.((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)).7297 £4.8739 £523.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .3705 £722.52 Excel % Deprc 27.500% 27.998.2000 Peter Noneley A 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 B C D E F G DB Page 54 of 206 H I This is the 'real' deprecation percentage.8750 £722.500% Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation : Error difference : .376.375. Salvage value : £1.000 = 1 .0000 £996.7344 £523.500% 27.522034% =1-((E117/E116)^(1/E118)) Purchase Price : £5.500% 27.

00 £1.50 15 1 £37.00 £0. The FieldName is the name. of the values to Count.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating. Syntax =DCOUNT(DatabaseRange.20 30 2 £12.00 £0. Formatting No special formatting is needed. or names. Examples The count of a particular product. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.50 £0.FieldName.00 3 2 £30.50 10 3 £15.10 20 5 £10.D3.20 40 3 £24.80 10 5 £40.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.00 £5. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. The first set of information is the name. or cell.00 £0. The second set of information is the actual record.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.50 4 3 £54. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £0. the text items and blank cells are ignored.00 £2. such as the category Brand or Wattage. or 100 as the wattage.25 10 5 £12. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0.00 £0. Horizon 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.00 £1. with a specific number of boxes in stock. Boxes In Stock 5 Product Bulb . which are to be selected.00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .80 20 5 £180. or records.20 25 2 £10.00 15 2 £60.75 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns.80 25 6 £120.00 £2.50 £0.15 25 1 £3.25 10 4 £50.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I DCOUNT Page 55 of 206 J DCOUNT This is the Database range. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. It can only count values. such as Horizon as a brand name.

3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.H3. Product Bulb The count is : 2 Wattage 100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.E50:F51) The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage.E50:F51) I DCOUNT Page 56 of 206 J This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address."Boxes In Stock".E61:F62) The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values.2000 Peter Noneley A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D The number of products is : E 3 F G H =DCOUNT(B3:I19.E68:G69) . Product Bulb The count is : 4 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."Boxes In Stock"."Boxes In Stock".

Examples The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I DCOUNTA Page 57 of 206 J DCOUNTA This is the Database range.00 £1.D3.25 10 5 £12. which are to be selected. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 10 4 £50.00 15 2 £60.20 25 2 £10.00 £0.75 £0.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.E3.50 £0.00 £2.00 £0.20 40 3 £24. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.50 15 1 £37. but blank cells are ignored.E50:F51) . The FieldName is the name. such as the category Brand or Wattage.80 10 5 £40.00 £2. It counts values and text items.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.80 20 5 £180. such as Horizon as a brand name. or cell. including the field names at the top of the columns.10 20 5 £10. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. or records.00 £0.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand.50 £0. Product Life Hours Bulb unknown The number of products is : 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.15 25 1 £3.00 £0.20 30 2 £12. or names.00 £0.50 4 3 £54. The first set of information is the name.50 10 3 £15. The second set of information is the actual record.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column.00 £1. Horizon 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.80 25 6 £120. or 100 as the wattage. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £5.FieldName. Syntax =DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange.00 £0. of the values to Count. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.

2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B C D E F G H I DCOUNTA Page 58 of 206 J This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address."Life Hours".E68:F70) ."Product". Product Spot Neon The count is : 3 Brand Horizon Sunbeam =DCOUNTA(B3:I19."Product".E61:F62) The count of particular products from specific brands.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E50:F51) The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand. 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19. Product Bulb The count is : 5 Brand Horizon =DCOUNTA(B3:I19.

Formatting No special formatting is needed. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.D21) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -512 to 511.D20) =DEC2BIN(C21.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G DEC2BIN Page 59 of 206 H DEC2BIN Decimal Number Binary Equivalent 0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4) 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5) 2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6) 3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7) 511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8) 512 Err:502 =DEC2BIN(C9) -1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10) -2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11) -3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12) -511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13) -512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14) Decimal Number 1 1 1 1 -1 Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 Binary Equivalent 1 01 001 000000001 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C17.D17) =DEC2BIN(C18. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D19) =DEC2BIN(C20.D18) =DEC2BIN(C19. Syntax =DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber. although this is ignored for negatives.

813.813. Formatting No special formatting is needed.D27) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent.D26) =DEC2HEX(C27.887. Syntax =DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional.D25) =DEC2HEX(C26.888 -549.755.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G DEC2HEX Page 60 of 206 H DEC2HEX Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 -1 -2 -3 -2 -1 549. It can only cope with decimals ranging from -549.755.813.887 -549. .888 549.813. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . although this is ignored for negatives.D24) =DEC2HEX(C25.755.755.813.889 Decimal Number 1 1 26 26 -26 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 19 1A 1B 1C FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFF 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 8000000000 7FFFFFFFFF Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 =DEC2HEX(C4) =DEC2HEX(C5) =DEC2HEX(C6) =DEC2HEX(C7) =DEC2HEX(C8) =DEC2HEX(C9) =DEC2HEX(C10) =DEC2HEX(C11) =DEC2HEX(C12) =DEC2HEX(C13) =DEC2HEX(C14) =DEC2HEX(C15) =DEC2HEX(C16) =DEC2HEX(C17) =DEC2HEX(C18) =DEC2HEX(C19) =DEC2HEX(C20) Hexadecimal 1 01 01A 00000001A FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C23.813.888 to 549.D23) =DEC2HEX(C24.755.755.

D34) =DELTA(C35.D9) =DELTA(C10. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.18 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 Err:502 1 =DELTA(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) =DELTA(C7.D7) =DELTA(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H I DELTA Page 61 of 206 J DELTA Number1 10 50 17.D5) =DELTA(C6. It only works with numbers.D4) =DELTA(C5. If the numbers are the same the result will be 1. text values produce a result of #VALUE. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.D31) =DELTA(C32.5 17. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber. The formatting of the number is not significant.D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same.5 17.D35) =DELTA(C36. Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list.D30) =DELTA(C31.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Number1 10 50 30 17.D32) =DELTA(C33.5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17.5 18 0.D8) =DELTA(C9. otherwise the result is 0.D33) =DELTA(C34.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .

such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £5. Example 1 This example extracts information from just one record.00 £1. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I DGET Page 62 of 206 J DGET This is the Database range.00 £0.50 10 3 £15. including the field names at the top of the columns.50 £0.25 10 4 £50.C23:F24) The number in stock is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces one result.00 £0. Syntax =DGET(DatabaseRange. The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected.00 £0.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.50 4 3 £54.00 How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19.20 40 3 £24.50 £0. The FieldName is the name.00 15 2 £60. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. or names.80 20 5 £180.00 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 £2.FieldName.00 £2. If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown. If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . or cell.H3.75 £0. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.20 25 2 £10.00 £0. such as the category Brand or Wattage.25 10 5 £12.00 3 2 £30.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. The first set of information is the name. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? .50 15 1 £37. of the values to Get. or 100 as the wattage.15 25 1 £3. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £1.80 25 6 £120.20 30 2 £12.

H3.H3.").C64:F65) Example 4 This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.CHOOSE(ERROR."Duplicates products found.H3.".H3.C51:F52) G H I DGET Page 63 of 206 J The number in stock is : Example 2 This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error.C63:F64) Example 3 This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand The number in stock is : Err:502 =DGET(B3:I19."One product found.C85:F86) Err:502 =IF(ISERR(F88)."No such product.TYPE(F88)/3.") .2000 Peter Noneley A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C Product Bulb D Wattage 100 E Life Hours F Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.

including the field names at the top of the columns. £30.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MAX value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.00 £1.80 20 5 £180. The first set of information is the name.I3.E49:F50) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.00 £0. The second set of information is the actual record.20 40 3 £24.20 30 2 £12. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. or names.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.00 £0. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. .50 £0.20 25 2 £10.00 £1.15 25 0 £0.00 £0. or records. Formatting No special formatting is needed.50 4 3 £54.00 £0.FieldName.10 20 5 £10. such as Horizon as a brand name.00 £2. such as the category Brand or Wattage.50 10 3 £15. of the values to pick the Max from. which are to be selected. Product Bulb The largest value is : £30."Value Of Stock".00 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.50 15 0 £0. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.25 10 4 £50. The FieldName is the name or cell.00 To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.00 £2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .00 £0.00 £0. Horizon £60. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 £5.I3.25 10 5 £12.00 3 2 £30.00 15 2 £60.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C D E F G H I J DMAX Page 64 of 206 K DMAX Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. Examples The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.00 £0. or 100 as the wattage. Syntax =DMAX(DatabaseRange.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 Brand sunbeam =DMAX(B3:I19.00 =DMAX(B3:I19. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.

"Value Of Stock"."Value Of Stock".E60:F61) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.00 Wattage <100 =DMAX(B3:I19.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £24.E67:F68) .2000 Peter Noneley A 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Product Bulb £40.00 F Wattage 100 G H I J DMAX Page 65 of 206 K The largest Value Of Stock is : =DMAX(B3:I19.

or names.75 =DMIN(B3:I19. or records.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .20 25 2 £10.00 £1. .50 4 3 £54.00 £1.00 £2.00 £5.00 £0.00 £0.FieldName.50 £0.15 25 1 £3.80 20 5 £180. The first set of information is the name. The FieldName is the name.I3. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.80 10 5 £40.E49:F50) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. which are to be selected. Product Bulb The lowest value is : £3.00 £0. or cell."Value Of Stock".75 Brand sunbeam =DMIN(B3:I19.00 £2.50 £0.00 To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. such as Horizon as a brand name.75 £0.00 £0.25 10 5 £12.00 =DMIN(B3:I19. The second set of information is the actual record.25 10 4 £50. including the field names at the top of the columns. of the values to pick the Min from.20 30 2 £12. Formatting No special formatting is needed.80 25 6 £120.00 3 2 £30. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. Horizon £10.50 10 3 £15. Examples The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address. or 100 as the wattage.00 £0. Syntax =DMIN(DatabaseRange.10 20 5 £10.20 40 3 £24.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C D E F G H I J DMIN Page 66 of 206 K DMIN Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. £3.00 £0.00 £0.00 15 2 £60.50 15 1 £37. such as the category Brand or Wattage.I3.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MIN value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E Product Bulb £12.50 F Wattage 100 G H I J

DMIN Page 67 of 206 K

The lowest Value Of Stock is :

=DMIN(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E60:F61)

The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.00 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100

=DMIN(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E67:G68)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E F G H I

DOLLAR Page 68 of 206 J

DOLLAR
Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.25 10.25 10.25 10.25 Converted To Text $10.00 $10 $10.0 $10.00 $10.25 $10 $10.3 $10.25

=DOLLAR(C4) =DOLLAR(C5,0) =DOLLAR(C6,1) =DOLLAR(C7,2) =DOLLAR(C8) =DOLLAR(C9,0) =DOLLAR(C10,1) =DOLLAR(C11,2)

What Does It Do? This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency. Syntax =DOLLAR(Number,DecimalPlaces) Number : This is the number which needs to be converted. DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The result will be shown as a text entry.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E F G H I

DSUM Page 69 of 206 J

DSUM
This is the Database range. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.50 4 3 £54.00 £2.00 15 2 £60.00 £0.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.00 £1.25 10 4 £50.00 £2.50 15 0 £0.00 £0.50 10 3 £15.00 £5.00 3 2 £30.00 £1.80 20 5 £180.00 £0.25 10 5 £12.50 £0.20 25 2 £10.00 £0.15 25 0 £0.00 £0.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.00

To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Horizon =DSUM(B3:I19,I3,E23:E24)

Type the brand name :

The stock value of Horizon is : £248.00

What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the total. Syntax =DSUM(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the field names at the top of the columns. The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to be totalled, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage. The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Examples The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand. Product Bulb Total stock value is : £54.50 Brand sunbeam =DSUM(B3:I19,I3,E49:F50)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

DSUM Page 70 of 206

B C D E F G H I J This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address. £54.50 =DSUM(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E49:F50)

The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £52.50 Wattage 100 =DSUM(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E60:F61)

The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £56.00 Wattage <100 =DSUM(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E67:F68)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Jan 1000 4000 7000 12000 Feb 2000 5000 8000 15000 Mar 3000 6000 9000 18000 F G H I EAST Page 71 of 206 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Alan Bob Carol Total Total 6000 15000 24000 45000 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E Eastern data. Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Cells. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract. The Start date is entered.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number. (Sat or Sun).D27) =EDATE(C28.D31) =EDATE(C32.D33) The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday.2)-5.WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48. then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.D48). Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 Fri 08-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Fri 17-Apr-98 Fri 24-Apr-98 Fri 10-Apr-98 =EDATE(C48.D28) =EDATE(C29. Syntax =EDATE(StartDate.D30) =EDATE(C31.D4) =EDATE(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D E F EDATE Page 72 of 206 G EDATE Start Date 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 Plus Months 3 3 -3 End Date 1-Apr-98 2-Apr-98 2-Oct-97 =EDATE(C4.D32) =EDATE(C33. Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff.D5) =EDATE(C6. The contract Duration is entered as months.0) . If the week day number is 6 or 7.Date command. The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date.D29) =EDATE(C30.Number.D6) What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future.2)>5.D48)-IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.D48). The company needed to know the end date of the employment. Start Tue 06-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Fri 09-Jan-98 Mon 19-Jan-98 Mon 26-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 Sat 09-May-98 Thu 09-Apr-98 Sun 19-Apr-98 Sun 26-Apr-98 Sun 12-Apr-98 =EDATE(C27.

Cells.D4) =EOMONTH(C5. . this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.D6) What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date.Number. Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F EOMONTH Page 73 of 206 G EOMONTH StartDate 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 5-Jan-98 Plus Months 2 2 -2 End Of Month 35885 31-Mar-98 30-Nov-97 =EOMONTH(C4.D5) =EOMONTH(C6.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.Date command.

TYPE Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! Err:508 #REF! 21:00 Error Type 532 508 524 #N/A =ERROR. Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.TYPE Page 74 of 206 H ERROR.TYPE(E6) =ERROR.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G ERROR. Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number.TYPE(E5) =ERROR.TYPE(E4) =ERROR.TYPE(E7) What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula. Syntax =ERROR. .TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2 2. Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H EVEN Page 75 of 206 I EVEN Original Value 1 1. The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures. Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars. Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs. Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot Wipers To Order 5 9 7 Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2 .3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7) What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number.

Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown. You need to guess the correct password. which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though.D4) =EXACT(C5. If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown. the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions. The password is the name of a colour. The case of the password is important. either red blue or green. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G H I EXACT Page 76 of 206 J EXACT Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4. The case of the characters is taken into account. Example Here is a simple password checking formula. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess. only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No (To stop you from cheating.D5) =EXACT(C6.D6) What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. Syntax =EXACT(Text1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

176.5 5 10 20 Factorial 6 6 120 3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .800 2. which results in 120.432.. .008. No special formatting is needed.640.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G FACT Page 77 of 206 H FACT Number 3 3.000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number.etc. The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4.628. Decimal fractions of the number are ignored. The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5.902. Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting.

thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter. the first occurrence is used. StartPosition : This is optional. If the text contains more than one reference to the letter. the result #VALUE is shown.C7) =FIND(D8. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number. An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text.C8.6) =FIND(D9. the result will be shown as a number. Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.TextToLookInside.StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character.C4) =FIND(D5. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F FIND Page 78 of 206 G FIND Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4. it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin. If the letter is not found in the text.C5) =FIND(D6.C9) What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text. Formatting No special formatting is needed.C6) =FIND(D7.

2) 10.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000.00 =FIXED(C7.0 =FIXED(C6.3 =FIXED(C10. Formatting No special formatting is needed.0) 1000.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TRUE) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text.25 10. Number command will not have any effect. Note that any further formatting with the Format.000 =FIXED(C13.2) 1000 1. and commas can be inserted at the 1.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5.23 1000 =FIXED(C14.0) 10 10.23 1.000's.25 10. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert.1) 10 10.000.1) 10.0) 10. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE. Cells.DecimalPlaces.25 10.25 10 =FIXED(C9. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas.25 =FIXED(C8) 10.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E F G H I FIXED Page 79 of 206 J FIXED Original Converted Number To Text 10 10.0. .Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.25 =FIXED(C11.

000 £230 £56.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23.000 £560 £18.1) =FLOOR(C5.890 £18. Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team. The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000.50) =FLOOR(C8. Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales. Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H FLOOR Page 80 of 206 I FLOOR Number 1.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29.1) =FLOOR(C6.50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user. Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound.500 £56.5 2.3 2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1) =FLOOR(C7.9 123 145 175 Rounded Down 1 2 2 100 100 150 =FLOOR(C4. which is then used as the basis for Commission.SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed.50) =FLOOR(C9.1000) .

000 =FORECAST(E11. RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data. The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered.500 £3. Example The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team. RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis of the forecast. such as Sales figures.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 B C D E F G H FORECAST Page 81 of 206 I FORECAST Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type the month number to predict : The Forecast sales figure is : 12 £7. If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6. such as Month number.997 Sales £1. The size of the New Sales team is entered.000 £2.RangeY. Size Of Sales Team 10 20 30 Known Performance £5.RangeX) ItemToForecast is the point in the future.E39:E41.000 £8.500 40 £10. The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend.F4:F9. (Jan to Jun).D39:D41) Year 1996 1997 1998 Size Of The New Sales Team : Estimated Forecast Of Performance : . The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales team based upon a linear trend. you can use the function to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month.000 £2. (or past). Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =FORECAST(ItemToForeCast.667 =FORECAST(E43.800 £4.000 £8. for which you need the forecast. The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values.500 £3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E4:E9) What Does It Do ? This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value.

Syntax =FREQUENCY(RangeOfData.000 £6.74 10.47 22.66 17.000 £10.000 Sales above £6.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7. £4.500 £3. The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose weights fell between specified intervals.000 Feb £6.000 £2.000 up to £6.999 What Does It Do ? This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals.000 Mar £4.ListOfIntervals) Formatting No special formatting is needed.36 16.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7. that is why it is enclosed in { } braces.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 B C D E F G H FREQUENCY Page 82 of 206 I FREQUENCY North South East West Jan £5.000 4 5 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.67 18.01 Number Of Children: Between 0 .000 £6.000 £5.000 and below. Weight Kg 20.C41:C43)} Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Child 5 Child 6 Child 7 Child 8 Child 9 Kg Weight Intervals 15 20 100 .500 £12. Example 1 The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children.000 £999.000 £7.15 Kg 2 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4 Above 20 Kg 3 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38. The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.000 £4.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.28 20. The function is entered in the cells as an array.80 8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.83 15.E9:E11)} Sales £4.000 Sales above £4.800 £3.

V. As this code is a numeric value.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} Customer Ratings V V A A V A D P V P p A p D A A P E P V D V D a E D d A E D . The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category. the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used! Excellent Very Good Average Poor Disgusting Rating E V A P D D P V E e Frequency 6 8 9 8 9 V a E d P {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . so how can the frequency of text be calculated? The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions. A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant. The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries. The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters. A. Unfortunately.2000 Peter Noneley A 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D E F G H FREQUENCY Page 83 of 206 I Example 2 This example uses characters instead of values. P or D.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). E.

so press Ctrl+Shift+Enter rather than. Table 1 Week 1 1st Number 2nd Number 3rd Number 4th Number 5th Number 6th Number Bonus Ball 3 6 15 32 37 5 17 Week 2 36 3 44 15 31 22 13 Week 3 5 19 35 32 13 30 15 Week 4 3 37 20 46 22 8 25 Week 5 2 23 47 6 49 49 18 Week 6 41 15 29 45 13 11 17 Week 7 45 4 44 23 43 46 1 Table 2 is the list of possible number from 1 to 49. Table 1 is a record of all the results from the past seven weeks. and how many appearances each number has made during the past seven weeks.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. just Enter alone.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. Unique values. 31 =SUM(1/COUNTIF(C10:I16.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It has to be entered.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D E F G H FREQUENCY 2 Page 84 of 206 I FREQUENCY 2 This example shows how the =FREQUENCY() function has been used to calculate how often certain numbers appear in the Lottery results.C10:I16)) . as an array. Table 2 Lottery Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 How Many Appearances 1 1 3 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 4 0 2 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16.B24:B72)} Special tip! To count how many unique numbers in a range use the following formula.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 FREQUENCY 2 Page 85 of 206 C 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 1 0 2 D E F G H I .

D10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E10) 0.D5) =GCD(C6.E9) 100 =GCD(C10. ..D9.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 18 300 2.E11) Numbers 72 500 4 96 200 6 What Does It Do ? This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the values specified.5 B C D E F G H I GCD Page 86 of 206 J GCD Numbers 6 15 28 49 5 99 Greatest Divisor 3 7 1 =GCD(C4.. The result is always a whole number.Number3. Syntax =GCD(Number1.Number2. Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used.D11. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =GCD(C5.5 =GCD(C11. Decimal fractions are ignored.D6) Greatest Divisor 6 =GCD(C9.

000 GESTEP 0 1 0 1 1 3 =GESTEP(D27.E29) =GESTEP(D30.D7) 101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8. and the results are totalled. the result of 1 will be shown.000 £4.E31) =SUM(F27:F31) Targets Achieved .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D E F G H I GESTEP Page 87 of 206 J GESTEP Number1 Number2 GESTEP 10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4.E27) =GESTEP(D28. Example The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets.000 £7.D9) 2 0 =GESTEP(C10.000 £2.NumberToTestAgainst) Formatting No special formatting is needed.E30) =GESTEP(D31.D4) 50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5.D10) What Does It Do ? This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.000 £2.D8) 2 1 =GESTEP(C9. If the number is greater than or equal.D6) 100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7.000 £5.D5) 99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6.000 £2.E28) =GESTEP(D29. Syntax =GESTEP(NumberToTest.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target. otherwise 0 is shown.000 £1. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Sales £3.000 £8.000 Target £4.

Hexadecimal F 1A 29 Value 1 Value 2 Result =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30)) .755. Example The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together.813.887 -549.755.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F HEX2DEC Page 88 of 206 G HEX2DEC Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 1A 1B 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 26 27 549. Syntax =HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.813.888 -1 -2 -3 =HEX2DEC(C4) =HEX2DEC(C5) =HEX2DEC(C6) =HEX2DEC(C7) =HEX2DEC(C8) =HEX2DEC(C9) =HEX2DEC(C10) =HEX2DEC(C11) =HEX2DEC(C12) =HEX2DEC(C13) =HEX2DEC(C14) What Does It Do ? This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top. Formatting No special formatting is needed. When the item is found. .D3:F10. Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 B C D E F G H I HLOOKUP Page 89 of 206 J HLOOKUP Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 =HLOOKUP(F10.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. they are part of the illustration.RowToPickFrom.RangeToLookIn. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from.F11. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. FALSE for no. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry.FALSE) row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed. TRUE for yes.

If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month.FALSE) . because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range. Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 feb alan Bob Eric Alan Carol David Type a month to look for : Type a name to look for : The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.Feb.Mar is correct. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require.2000 Peter Noneley A 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C D E F G H I Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted.C48:C52. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. even though to us the order of Jan.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Mar. Unfortunately.Jan.0)+1. HLOOKUP Page 90 of 206 J The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require. It then calculates the position of the name in the list.MATCH(F55.D47:F54.

FALSE) .200 =HLOOKUP(B79.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 HLOOKUP Page 91 of 206 J B C D E F G H I Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.F73:F77. When the make is found. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B.G72:I77. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1.0)+1. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C.MATCH(C79. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $.

2000 Peter Noneley A 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D E F G H I Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.E115:G118.E111:G112. =HLOOKUP(C127. =HLOOKUP(D127. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match.TRUE) Unit Cost Table Wood Glass £1 £3 Brick £2 Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick.D116:D118.MATCH(C127.2.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table. HLOOKUP Page 92 of 206 J The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. the function will produce an error.0)+1. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.2. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values across the top of the Discount Table are sorted.TRUE) .E115:G118.E111:G112. and the discount from the 100 column is used.D116:D118. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. the next lowest value is used.275 =HLOOKUP(C127. Wood and Glass. If a match is not found.0)+1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127. The name of the Item is typed in column C.MATCH(C127.

.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 B C D E F G H HOUR Page 93 of 206 I HOUR Number 21:15 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23.25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number.

"Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5. such as A1=A2. The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target. Formatting No special formatting is required."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition.000 £500 Product Wood Glass Cement Discount £200 ££- Total £1. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown.800 £2.C43*10%. Depending upon the result. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43. The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000.C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45.C45*10%."Achieved". If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown. the Commission is only 5% of Sales. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells.000 £2."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1.C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function.000 £500 . This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers. one of two actions will be carried out. The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31.ActionIfTrue."Achieved"."Achieved". If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE. Each has their own target which they must reach.C44*10%. If the Sales do not reach Target. Special Offer Yes No Yes Order Value £2."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33."Achieved"."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps. text or calculations. the Commission is 10% of Sales. when the Order Value is £1000 or above."Achieved". A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 B C D E F G H I IF Page 94 of 206 J IF Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32.C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44. Syntax =IF(Condition."Achieved". Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes".2000 Peter Noneley A 61 62 B Turf C Yes D £3.000 E F G H £300 £2.D61>=1000).0) I IF Page 95 of 206 J .D61*10%.

The Co-ordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range. It can be used with a single block of data.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H INDEX Page 96 of 206 I INDEX Holiday booking price list.G11. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn. People Weeks 1 2 3 1 £500 £600 £700 2 £300 £400 £500 3 £250 £300 £350 4 £200 £250 £300 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9.H36) . Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function. or non-continuos blocks.D36) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1. but the Co-ordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal. Both of the examples below use the same syntax. 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row. 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34. Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .G12) How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns.

500 £6.500 Type 1.500 1 3 2 Err:504 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.3 or 4 for the country : Type 1.F76.500 Qtr2 £2.2 or 3 for statistics : The result is : Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn.500 £7.F78) Qtr4 £4.000 £7.500 £9.ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns.000 £10.2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .500 £11. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.000 Qtr2 £2.F77. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.500 £8.000 Qtr1 £1.000 £6.000 £11.000 £12. Country England France Germany Spain Currency Population Capitol Sterling 50 M London Franc 40 M Paris DM 60 M Bonn Peseta 30 M Barcelona 2 3 Paris =INDEX(D45:F48.ColumnColumnCordinate.F50.000 Qtr4 £4.500 £10.000 £9.AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas.F51) Type 1.500 Qtr3 £3. NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.000 £5.000 Qtr3 £3.000 £8.RowCoordinate. In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.500 £5. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : .2000 Peter Noneley A 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 B C D E F G H INDEX Page 97 of 206 I Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.500 £12.RowCoordinate. 2.

IF(F102=C90. These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.500 £11. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.500 £12.000 £5.500 £6.2))) .000 £9.000 £6.000 £7.C91:C93.IF(F102=C95.500 £7.000 Qtr4 £4.000 Qtr3 £3.500 £10.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £10.500 Qtr3 £3.500 Type 1. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1. The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.500 £5.2000 Peter Noneley A 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 B C D E F G H INDEX Page 98 of 206 I Example This is an extended version of the previous example.MATCH(F101.MATCH(F100.1.500 wood qtr2 west Err:504 Qtr4 £4.000 £12.500 £8. 2. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.500 Qtr2 £2.000 £8.0).500 £9.D90:G90.000 Qtr1 £1.000 Qtr2 £2.0).000 £11. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : =INDEX(EastAndWest.

such as North : Type the cell to pick data from. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 120 =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH. such as South : Type the start cell of the range. South Type the name of the sheet. but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells. Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address. such as C5 : C5 Type the end cell of the range. Type the name of the sheet. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet. such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference. SOUTH and EAST. Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. such as C7 : C7 The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : 1200 =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I INDIRECT Page 99 of 206 J INDIRECT North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table.

Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about. Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.01 Automatic 310m19(Build:9420) LINUX =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D E INFO Page 100 of 206 F INFO Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system. (PC or Mac) System Information Err:502 Err:502 Err:502 Err:502 1 Err:502 Windows (32-bit) NT 5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age. A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started.87 7. Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8.25) Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days.75 -1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 =(D27-C27)/365. .5 2. Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 3 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 8 7 8 7 =INT((D49-C49)/365.25 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.3 10. This has the effect of increasing the child age.48 Integer 1 2 10 -2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number. The number of days is then divided by 365.25 is to take account of the leap years. The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated.67 7.25 The reason for using 365. Table 2 Birth Date 1-Jan-80 5-Feb-81 20-Oct-79 1-Mar-81 Term Start 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 1-Sep-88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38-C38)/365.57 8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C D E F G H I INT Page 101 of 206 J INT Number 1.

Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank. It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.0) Totals 550 1050 .E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36).E36. but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user.000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6-Jan-98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36). The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . chq5 J Smith Date Received 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 2-Jan-98 3-Jan-98 4-Jan-98 Date Cleared 2-Jan-98 7-Jan-98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1. When the cheque is cleared the date is entered. When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked. Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co. Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE.0. Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H ISBLANK Page 102 of 206 I ISBLANK Data 1 Hello 25-Dec-98 Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell.

which Excel does not do. The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0. or if the error is the #NA message."Try again!". by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne. Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation. Table 2 Cost Of Crate : £24 Bottles In Crate : 0 Cost of single bottle : Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41).E40/E41) . Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles. It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G H ISERR Page 103 of 206 I ISERR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! Err:508 #REF! #VALUE! Err:502 #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula. Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : 5-Jan-98 =IF(ISERROR(D40-D39). Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format. Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5-Jan-98 Difference : 5-Jan-98 =D31-D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G ISERROR Page 104 of 206 H ISERROR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! Err:508 #REF! #VALUE! Err:502 #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated. Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates."Error in data entry".D40-D39) . It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found.

Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error. An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H ISEVEN Page 105 of 206 I ISEVEN Number 1 2 2. . Note that decimal fractions are ignored.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 2.5 3.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Even 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even. Note that dates can be even or odd.6 3. Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.

the result FALSE is shown. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H ISLOGICAL Page 106 of 206 I J ISLOGICAL Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1-Jan-98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the cell does not contain a logical value. If the cell does contain a logical value. The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE. the result TRUE is shown. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data. Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty. The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function. but will be used for data entry in the future. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G H I ISNA Page 107 of 206 J ISNA Number 1 Hello 1-Jan-98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A.

Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop mark-up. rather than text which looks like a number.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 300. It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations. Table 2 Item Radio TV Video B C D E F G ISNONTEXT Page 108 of 206 H ISNONTEXT Item To Test 10 Hello 1-Jan-98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number. The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function. rather than text.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation."Retype the Price") . is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0. Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number. such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0.D40*E40. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Mark-up 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 0 =D32*E32 Buying Price Mark-up Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40). Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting.

D29:E33.FALSE).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G H I ISNUMBER Page 109 of 206 J ISNUMBER Cell Entry 1 1-Jan-98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value. Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation.000 £12.FALSE)) . ID No.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .3.2. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £12. The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35).VLOOKUP(E35.000 £12. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.000 £15. or is blank.C29:E33. If the cell or calculation is not numeric. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee. If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform. the result FALSE is shown.VLOOKUP(E35.000 £8.

Note that decimal fractions are ignored. Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.5 2. An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE.6 Hello 1-Feb-98 1-Feb-96 Is it Odd 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H I ISODD Page 110 of 206 J ISODD Number 1 2 2.5 3. Note that dates can be odd or even. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .6 3.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. Its a bit of an odd one. as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function. . it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell. Formatting No special formatting is needed. and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet. but when used on the worksheet.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G ISREF Page 111 of 206 H I ISREF TRUE =ISREF(A1) FALSE =ISREF(B99) Err:508 =ISREF(Hello) FALSE =ISREF(10) FALSE =ISREF(NOW()) FALSE =ISREF("A1") Err:508 =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address. or FALSE for any other type of value.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D27:E31.2.000 £8.000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33).000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £8. The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.000 £12. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee. If the entry is text is shows TRUE.3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H ISTEXT Page 112 of 206 I ISTEXT Cell To Test Hello 1 25-Dec-98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text.000 £15.VLOOKUP(E33.VLOOKUP(E33. ID No. Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.000 £12.C27:E31.FALSE).FALSE)) . 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value. If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE.

000 £10.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.500 £3.500 £12.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .000 £4.000 £7.2) =LARGE(C4:C8.1) =LARGE(D24:F27.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H I LARGE Page 113 of 206 J LARGE Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8. Sales North South East West Jan £5. Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine.1) =LARGE(C4:C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £5.000 £6. Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan.000 £2.4) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £12.000 Feb £6.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.000 Mar £4.000 =LARGE(D24:F27.3) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £7. Feb and Mar.000 £2. Highest Lowest £12.000 £10.800 £3.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.

D4) =LCM(C5. Syntax =LCM(Number1.D5) =LCM(C6.Number2. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculate the Least Common Multiple..2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Numbers 6 20 12 18 34 96 B C D E F G H I LCM Page 114 of 206 J LCM Least Common Multiple 60 36 1632 =LCM(C4.Number3.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . which is the smallest number that can be divided by each of the given numbers. ..

The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C29)-1) .FIND(" ".FIND(" ". Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan =LEFT(C27. Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name. The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.D4) =LEFT(C5.D7) =LEFT(C8.D6) =LEFT(C7.C27)-1) Bob Smith Bob =LEFT(C28.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 B C D E F G H LEFT Page 115 of 206 I LEFT Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 =LEFT(C4.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text.D5) =LEFT(C6.FIND(" ". The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name. Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText.C28)-1) Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C29.

Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed. in a piece of text.LEN(C24)-FIND(" ".C24)) This is just the second name.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .C24) This is the position of the space.C24) This is the length of the second name. Carol Williams 8 . Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names. Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space. including spaces and numbers. =LEN(C24)-FIND(" ". Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H LEN Page 116 of 206 I LEN Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters. =RIGHT(C24. Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ".

It always picks the data from the end of the row or column. When a match is found. If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns. so the column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list. If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for. Example 2 In this table there are more columns than rows.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. When a match is found.RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H I LOOKUP (Array) Page 117 of 206 J LOOKUP (Array) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 =LOOKUP(F12. (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP). so the row heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. Example 1 In this table there are more rows than columns. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table. as in the description above. If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for. the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column.D4:G10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. Alan Bob Carol David .

either as #N/A or incorrect results. Table 2 shows the same data. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct. otherwise errors will occur. Sometimes the results will be correct. Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically. Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88.G80:J86) .B80:E86) 77 =LOOKUP(H88.2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred C Jan 100 100 100 100 100 100 D E F Jan G 100 H 100 LOOKUP (Array) Page 118 of 206 I 100 J 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed. Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure. but not sorted.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D E F G H LOOKUP (Vector) Page 119 of 206 I J LOOKUP (Vector) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 =LOOKUP(F12. The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38. either as #N/A or incorrect results. otherwise errors will occur. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names.F4:F10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values. and then picks an item from a second range of cells. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. Formatting No special formatting is needed.C38:C43. .RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. If the name Carol is used.E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order.RangeToLookIn.D4:G10.

Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G LOWER Page 120 of 206 H LOWER Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123 =LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .

so the #NA is shown.E4:E7. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. 1 or -1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D E F G H MATCH Page 121 of 206 I MATCH Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value : Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000 The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. or the next highest number if no exact match exists. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match. Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown. Using 1 will look for an exact match.1) Using 0 will look for an exact match. Using -1 will look for an exact match.WhereToLook.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown.G40:G43.I4:I7. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45.TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0.0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A . The Ascending list gives the exact match. Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9.0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown. It can be used with text and numbers. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match. The Descending list gives the exact match. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match. or the next lowest number if no exact match exists.

The Ascending list gives the #NA error.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number.1) Example 3 Using the -1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match.G57:G60. The Descending list gives the exact match. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 2 =MATCH(G62. The Ascending list gives the exact match..-1) . Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79. The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number.2000 Peter Noneley A 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 B C D E F G H MATCH Page 122 of 206 I Example 2 Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match.G74:G77. The Descending list gives the #NA error.

the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required. the next biggest bus will be picked. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99. The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade. The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats.2000 Peter Noneley A 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 B C D E F G H MATCH Page 123 of 206 I Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours. The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list.MATCH(G114.MATCH(H94.D95:D99.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If an exact match is not found. The pupils scores were entered in another list. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered.-1). After the =MATCH() function has found the bus.1).C111:C114. They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers.0) . Exam Score Grade 0 Fail 50 Pass 90 Merit 95 Distinction Pupil Score Grade Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114. the next lowest breakpoint is used.0) Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils. The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list. If the number of passengers is not an exact match. The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.

. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £10.500 £12.Range2.000 Feb £6.000 £5.Range3.000 Overall Max £12.000 £12.000 £12..Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Sales North South East West Month Max Jan £5.800 £3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H MAX Page 124 of 206 I MAX Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data.000 £4.500 £3.000 £6.000 £10.000 £10.000 £7. Syntax =MAX(Range1. month and overall.000 £7.000 £2.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.000 =MAX(C23:E26) .000 Mar £4.000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7. 4-Jul-98 Maximum 27-Dec-98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region.

through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E F G H I MEDIAN Page 125 of 206 J MEDIAN Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values. . If there is no exact median number in the group.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1.Range3.. The median is not the average. the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median.Range2. it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it..

E5) 2 ED =MID(C6.C50)-1) Find the first /. It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions. and how many characters to pick.99) =MID(C13.5.5.D6.3) =MID(C12.FIND("/".PositionToStartPicking. occurring after the first / .2) WA =MID(C36.FIND("/". other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols.12.C50)+1)-FIND("/".D5.5.C50)+1.3) =MID(C10. Syntax =MID(OriginalText. The function needs to know at what point it should start.12. Find the second /. Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company.2) NP =MID(C37. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format.E6) =MID(C8.D4. only the available characters will be picked.C50. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available. Branch ID DRS-CF-476 DRS-WA-842 HLT-NP-190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G MID Page 126 of 206 H MID Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC-100-DEF ABC-200-DEF ABC-300-DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4.FIND("/".5.E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5.99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry. plus 1 for the Start of the code.5.5. Full Branch Code Postal Region DRS/STC/872 STC HDRS/FC/111 FC S/NORTH/874 NORTH HQ/K/875 K SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50.12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .99) =MID(C14.2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length.NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed.3) =MID(C9.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 55 56 B C D E F Calculate the length of the text to extract. by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second / G MID Page 127 of 206 H .

500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range3.000 £10. Syntax =MIN(Range1.Range2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D E F G H MIN Page 128 of 206 I MIN Values 120 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1-Jan-98 =MIN(C4:G4) Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.000 Mar £4.000 £3.500 £12.000 £3.000 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4.000 £7. month and overall.000 £2.000 =MIN(C23:E26) .000 £2. 4-Jul-98 =MIN(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region.000 £4.000 £4. Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5.000 £5.500 Feb £6.000 Overall MIN £2..000 £6..500 £3.800 £3.

Enter a time in hh:mm format : The same time converted to a decimal : To extract the hours as a decimal : To extract the minutes as a decimal : 2:45 2.1)/24 The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using the Format.02 0.75 2 0."00") Related Information To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.75 =F38*24 =INT(F38*24) =MOD(F38*24. Cells. Syntax =MINUTE(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW())."00") =REPT("|". To update the clock press the function key F9. The time functions of =HOUR(). =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.52 1. . Clock Hour ||||||||||| 11 Minute |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 32 Second |||||||||||||||||||| 20 =REPT("|".75 3:45 3:00 0:45 =F49/24 =INT(F49)/24 =MOD(F49."00") =REPT("|". Time command. Enter a time in decimal format : The same time converted to hh:mm format is : To extract the hours in hh:mm format : To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : 3.52 Minute 32 15 28 28 28 =MINUTE(D4) =MINUTE(D5) =MINUTE(D6) =MINUTE(D7) =MINUTE(D8) What Does It Do? The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E F G MINUTE Page 129 of 206 H I MINUTE Number 7/26/2012 11:32 9:15:00 PM 0. Number.1) To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()). Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()).

Eggs and Sugar Size Giant Standard Economy . The types of chocolate produced were Milk.500 {=MMULT(C32:E32. The ranges do not have to be of equal size. The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1. (but not yet entered).C26:E28) was typed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Getting The Dimensions Correct The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges. The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H MMULT Page 130 of 206 I J MMULT What Does It Do ? This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values. each of which has to order enough Butter. The formula then showed the correct result. Dark and White. Chocolates in the box Milk Dark White 50 50 50 30 20 10 20 5 5 Customers Orders Giant Standard Economy 300 400 500 Quantity To Produce Milk Dark White 37. Example The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates. Dark and White. The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce.500 21. The company has four factories. In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box. Example 2 The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate. The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders.000 25. The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2. Syntax =MMULT(Range1. The formula =MMULT(C32:E32. It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination.Range2) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges. The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array. The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce.C26:E28)} In all three cells How It Was Done Cells C36 to E36 were selected.

The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to meet the production target. Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain. and the width of the Result is the same as the width of Range 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B C D E to ensure they can meet production targets. .G69:I70)} In all cells Hint To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates. F G H MMULT Page 131 of 206 I J Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory. Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1. Range 1 Milk Dark 20 0 20 1 10 5 20 10 Result Eggs 60 62 40 80 Range 2 Eggs 3 2 Production Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Ingredients Milk Dark Butter 1 2 Sugar 10 5 Ingredients To Order Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Butter 20 22 20 40 Sugar 200 205 125 250 {=MMULT(C69:D72. then change a single value in each.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Range 2 contains the amount Butter. set all values in Range1 and Range2 to zero 0.

D6) =MOD(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =MOD(Number.D5) =MOD(C6.D8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number.D4) =MOD(C5.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .D7) =MOD(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H MOD Page 132 of 206 I MOD Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4.

The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this. If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. When there is more than one set of duplicates. Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop. For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Range2. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Dress Skirt Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H I MODE Page 133 of 206 J MODE Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 10 10 =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) #VALUE! =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers...7 This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! . the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used."12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : Note If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : 9."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.Range3.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm. but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) . Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F MONTH Page 134 of 206 G MONTH Original Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Month 1 December =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date.Cells. Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.Number.

D5) =MROUND(C6.D4) =MROUND(C5. Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H I MROUND Page 135 of 206 J MROUND Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 =MROUND(C4.D7) =MROUND(C8.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.D6) =MROUND(C7.MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

04 =N(C7) 25-Dec-98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E F G H N Page 136 of 206 I J N Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3. Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero.5 3.5 =N(C6) 3. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. . Excel does not really need this function.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally.50% 0.5 =N(C5) 3.

Table 2 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A 20% Pay 750 #N/A 800 =C49-C49*D49 =C50-C50*D50 =C51-C51*D51 . Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required.NA().NA(). Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . When the =NA() is used.C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available. It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet. Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39-C39*D39 =C40-C40*D40 =C41-C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered. It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation.C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7). The Salary and Tax percentage are entered. the Wage is still calculated.C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8). any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA.NA().2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H NA Page 137 of 206 I NA #N/A =NA() Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =IF(ISBLANK(C6). Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee. The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage. On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid.

Start Date Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 02-Mar-98 Mon 27-Apr-98 End Date Fri 06-Mar-98 Fri 13-Mar-98 Fri 01-May-98 Holidays 1-May-98 25-Dec-98 1-Jan-97 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28.D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates. It will exclude weekends and any holidays. The result of using 1-Jan-98 and 5-Jan-98 will give a result of 4. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.End.D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29.C29.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E NETWORKDAYS Page 138 of 206 F NETWORKDAYS Start Date 1-Mar-98 25-Apr-98 24-Dec-98 End Date 7-Mar-98 30-Jul-98 5-Jan-99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4.EndDate.C30. such as Xmas and Bank holidays. Note The calculation does not include the last day.Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation.Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.C28. Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate. =NETWORKDAYS(Start. To correct this add 1 to the result.

2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E Northern data.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function. Alan Jan Feb Mar Alan 10 20 30 Bob 40 50 60 Carol 70 80 90 Total 120 150 180 F G H I NORTH Page 139 of 206 J 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total 60 150 240 450 .

"Overdue".2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H NOT Page 140 of 206 I J NOT Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails. Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed. If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown. If the test is met."OK") . If the test fails. Taken 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5-Jan-98 OK =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33). The date the book was returned is entered. The date the book was Taken out is entered."OK") 15-Jan-98 OK =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34). The period of the Loan is entered. (A type of reverse logic). Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation. the result is TRUE. by adding the Loan value to the Taken date. then the result is FALSE."Overdue".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 ."OK") 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). otherwise OK is shown."Overdue". The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G H NOW Page 141 of 206 I NOW The current Date and Time 7/26/2012 11:32 07/26/12 11:32 AM =NOW() =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet. If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time. . Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.

Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . .4 2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G H ODD Page 142 of 206 I ODD Number 2 2.9 3 3.4 3.9 Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number.

AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge ££5 ££5 =IF(OR(E4="Visa".E6="Delta").5.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £=IF(OR(E27="Visa".E5="Delta").Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H I OR Page 143 of 206 J OR Order No.E4="Delta").0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa". A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.5.5. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.5.E7="Delta"). Syntax =OR(Test1. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 . Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.5. It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa".0) £5 ££5 Order No. The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.E27="Delta").0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa".

Objective Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs. Each time an order is made for new stock. The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders. Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 B C D E F G H Ordering Stock Page 144 of 206 I Ordering Stock This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock. Scenario A garage fits exhaust systems. there is a fixed administrative cost. The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.

160 £2.500 £61 £6.980 £2.080 £1.170 £4.350 £1.440 £1.125 £4.890 £1.150 £925 £775 £675 £575 £525 £475 £425 £400 £375 £350 £325 £300 £275 £275 £250 £250 £225 £225 £200 £200 £200 £200 £175 £175 £175 £175 G £75 12% 10 £25 0.075 £2. 65 66 Annual Ware house Costs £45 £90 £180 £270 £360 £450 £540 £630 £720 £810 £900 £990 £1.250 £1.800 £1. 64 Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.525 £1.375 £1.510 £1.000 £420 7 £43.295 £1.480 £1.150 £2.750 £1.530 £1.000 £300 10 £31.500 £255 11 £27.070 £2.500 £225 13 £24.300 £1.340 £2.000 £150 19 £16.000 £330 9 £34.000 £390 8 £40.335 £1.500 £27 £12.500 £375 8 £39. 62 Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30.800 £1. (Expressed in Days) : 22 23 Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : 24 Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : 25 26 27 Output 28 Ordering Interval In Days 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 Quantity Per Order 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 Order Order Orders Value Discount Per Year £750 £365 £1.500 £165 17 £18.5 2 200 750 1% 5% H Ordering Stock Page 145 of 206 I 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Things To Try Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.300 £1.620 £1.675 £1.000 £2.170 £1.500 £315 9 £33.305 £1.500 £183 £3.350 £1.000 £92 £4.430 £2.610 £2.875 £1.000 £360 8 £37.500 £345 8 £36.575 £2.500 £195 15 £21.000 £180 16 £19.275 £2.925 £2.500 £1.350 £2.000 £450 7 Annual Admin Cost £9.795 £1.2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F 16 Input Data Cost of a single Exhaust system : 17 Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock.225 Best £1.000 £46 £7.260 £1.400 £1.000 £240 12 £25.250 £2.700 The Best Annual Ordering Total Interval £9. (As a % of the stock value) : 18 Quantity of Exhausts used per day : 19 Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : 20 Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : 21 Ordering Intervals to evaluate.500 £37 £9.550 £1.000 £23 £13.500 £405 7 £42.625 £1.200 £2.710 £1. 63 Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.425 - .450 £1.315 £1.500 £21 £15.500 £285 10 £30.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £210 14 £22.520 £2.000 £31 £10.500 £435 7 £45.000 £270 11 £28.665 £2.

=C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.$H$25. The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to the next highest whole number.$H$25. The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table.B29<$G$25).B29<$G$25).$H$24.IF(B29>=$G$25. but below the second Price Break.IF(B29>=$G$25. Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval This calculation may give results which are decimal. Column B Quantity Per Order This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. then the first Price Break discount is used.$H$25.0)) Column E Orders Per Year This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval. such as 2.3 This decimal will cause problems. there will have to be 365 orders.0)) If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break. The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the Price Break values set by the supplier. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust Column D Order Discount The discount which can be subtracted from the order value. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.0)) If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount.1) . which would require stock to be ordered every day. This is the smallest ordering period. due to the fact that the number of orders must always be a whole number. zero discount is used.2000 Peter Noneley Ordering Stock Page 146 of 206 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 A B C D E F G H I Explanation Column A Ordering Interval In Days The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it.B29<$G$25).$H$24. Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .IF(B29>=$G$25. the second Price Break discount is used. Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay Column C Order Value This is the value of the Order before any discount. With an interval of 1. If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break. =CEILING(365/A29.$H$24. The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create a list of values of the same interval.

"-") ."Best". Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts . based upon how frequently the orders are made. However. Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost =E29*$G$20 H Ordering Stock Page 147 of 206 I 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 Column G Annual Warehouse Costs This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse. It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the quantity ordered.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E F G Column F Annual Admin Costs This is the administration costs involved in making the orders. It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts. otherwise a dash is shown. =IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59). It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H. giving the lowest annual overheads. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost =(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18 Column H Annual Total This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts. If the two values match the word Best is shown.OrderDiscount =F29+G29-D29 Column I The Best Ordering Interval This shows the Best ordering interval. the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some of the overheads. as the manager only wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and storing the exhaust systems.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B Box size Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Box size C Sample 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 Sample D E F G H I PACKERS Page 148 of 206 J Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 21 30 28 35 30 11 9 10 10 21 20 0 20 31 28 30 30 8 10 12 10 22 20 20 19 32 28 30 30 Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 .

000 In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A.D6) =PERMUT(C7.ItemsInAGroup) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The internal order is significant.990.765.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G PERMUT Page 149 of 206 H PERMUT Pool Of Items 4 4 10 26 Items In A Group 2 3 4 6 Permutations 12 24 5040 165. Example The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet.D7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items. C and D. It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the following twelve permutations would be possible.D5) =PERMUT(C6.D4) =PERMUT(C5. B. Letter In Alphabet Password Size Permutations 26 8 62. so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations.928. ABCD Password 1 Password 2 Password 3 Password 4 Password 5 Password 6 AB AC AD BC BD CD Password 7 Password 8 Password 9 Password 10 Password 11 Password 12 BA CA DA CB DB DC . Syntax =PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom.600 =PERMUT(C4.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D E F G PI Page 150 of 206 H I PI π 3. It does not need any input. Example To calculate the area of a circle. it is a self contained function.14159265358979 =PI() What Does It Do ? This function is equal to the value of Pi.50 =PI()*(C21^2) . Syntax =PI() Formatting No special formatting is needed.54 1963.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . It is correct to 15 decimal places. Radius 5 25 Area 78.

Power) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Radius 5 25 Area 78.2) .54 1963.D6) =POWER(C7. such as 3^4.D5) =POWER(C6.D4) =POWER(C5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D E F G POWER Page 151 of 206 H I POWER Number 3 3 5 5 Power 2 4 2 4 Result 9 81 25 625 =POWER(C4.D7) What Does It Do ? This function raises a number to a user specified power. Syntax =POWER(NumberToBeRaised. It is the same as using the ^ operator. Example To calculate the area of a circle. which result is 81.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .50 =PI()*POWER(C22. Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3.

It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7...D4) =PRODUCT(C5:D5) =PRODUCT(C6:D6.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . through to Number30) or =PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers) or =PRODUCT(Number1. Syntax =PRODUCT(Number1..Number2.Number2.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G PRODUCT Page 152 of 206 H I PRODUCT Numbers 2 5 3 3 10 7 Product 6 50 210 6300 =PRODUCT(C4.Number3..) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Range. which results in 6300. .10) =PRODUCT(C4:D6) What Does It Do ? This function multiples a group of numbers together.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G PROPER Page 153 of 206 H I PROPER Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase. .

H12) 1 285.E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value.E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. 3rd and 4th quarters of the data.1. . Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.E8) Values 817 748 372 487 140 104 756 993 384 607 640 369 294 185 894 767 703 261 491 182 Quarter No. which can be obtained using the =MIN() function. Formatting No special formatting is needed.H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E F G H I J QUARTILE Page 154 of 206 K QUARTILE Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No.2. 2nd.QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0.H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. which can be obtained using the =MAX() function.E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.H16) What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st. Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.3 or 4.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 25 3. This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed.D4) =QUOTIENT(C5. only showing the whole number.5 =D28/E28 Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D E F G QUOTIENT Page 155 of 206 H QUOTIENT Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4. Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock. The merchant can only sell full crates. It ignores any remainder. Table 1 Bottles Item To Pack Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10. Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number.D5) =QUOTIENT(C6. Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided.E39) . Table 2 Bottles Item To Pack Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12 =QUOTIENT(D39.75 12.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

0.55 0.58 0.97 0.9 Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 9. Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed.29 0.08 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 3 45 47 49 35 Random 0. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information. or when F9 is pressed.85 0. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates.15 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D E F G H RAND Page 156 of 206 I RAND Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.34 0.15 0.95 0.17 0.93 Random between 5 and 10.97 0.28 0.35 0.8 0.65 0.59 0. and =RAND() in column D. Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled.99 0.29 0.79 0. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data.92 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .91 0.96 0.37 0.69 .18 0. A list of cards has been entered in column C.77 0.48 0. The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.14 0 0.32 0.99 0.81 0.32 0.99 0.11 0.95 0.58 0.64 0.1 0. Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Diamond 6 Clubs 5 Spades 1 Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Random 0.47 0.69 0. 7.01 0.61 0.92 1 0.57 =RAND()*(10-5)+5 =RAND()*10 =RAND() What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1.

34 0.35 0.91 0.02 0.73 0.08 0.34 0.64 0.21 0.39 0.49 0.4 0.55 0.33 0.22 0.04 0.73 0.38 0.63 0.15 0.26 0.08 0.01 0.2000 Peter Noneley A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.18 0.14 0.41 0.58 H RAND Page 157 of 206 I .51 0.97 0.31 0.04 0.5 0.9 0.09 0.08 0.45 0.01 0.12 0.36 0.79 0.8 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .12 0.04 0.33 0.85 0.81 0.5 0.55 0.44 0.16 0.39 0.95 E F 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.1 0.13 0.62 0.

"All OK")} This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different.E24:E30))<>7. The Winning Ticket! 16 7 4 34 8 5 5 Lottery Numbers 1 49 Press function Key F9 to recalculate.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) =RANDBETWEEN(C5."Duplicates! Spin again".$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H RANDBETWEEN Page 158 of 206 I RANDBETWEEN Low 5 1 High 10 49 Random 6 40 =RANDBETWEEN(C4. It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.D5) What Does It Do ? This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Syntax =RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit.HighLimit) Formatting No special formatting is needed.$D$24) Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Bonus ball Duplicates! Spin again {=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique. Example The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six numbers to use for the National Lottery.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed. . the same number could be generated twice or more.

C4:C8) =RANK(C6. 20 and 10 were ranked. both 20's are ranked as 2.C18:C22) =RANK(C21.C11:C15. Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . If the numbers 30.B34:B37) =RANK(B36.B34:B37) Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank.1) =RANK(C14.C11:C15. Example The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race. Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially. they will be assigned the same rank. but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates.C18:C22) =RANK(C20.C53:C58. (This is optional.1) =RANK(C15.C18:C22) =RANK(C22.1) =RANK(C12. Athlete John Time 1:30 Race Position 4 =RANK(C53.C11:C15. Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top. 30 is ranked as 1.RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.C11:C15. and the 10 would be ranked as 4.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G H RANK Page 159 of 206 I RANK Values 7 4 25 8 16 Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2 Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4 Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1 =RANK(C4.C18:C22) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list. 20.C11:C15.1) =RANK(C13.1) .B34:B37) =RANK(B37. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis.1) Values 10 30 20 30 40 =RANK(C18. leaving it out has the same effect).C4:C8) =RANK(C7. The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.C4:C8) =RANK(C8. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4 =RANK(B34.C18:C22) =RANK(C19.C4:C8) =RANK(C5. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner.B34:B37) =RANK(B35.C4:C8) Values 7 4 25 8 16 =RANK(C11. If there are duplicate values in the list.ListOfNumbers.

C53:C58.2000 Peter Noneley A 54 55 56 57 58 B Alan David Brian Sue Alex C 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 D 6 1 5 3 2 E F G =RANK(C54.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C57.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C56.C53:C58.1) =RANK(C55.1) H RANK Page 160 of 206 I .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1) =RANK(C58.C53:C58.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G H REPLACE Page 161 of 206 I REPLACE Start Characters New Modified Original Text Position To Replace Character Text ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4.E4.E6.D7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . You need to specify where the replacement should start. Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText.F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text.E7.D5.StartPosition.NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D6.D4.E5. how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be.F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7.NumberOfCharactersToReplace.F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6. .F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5.

"00") .000 |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| =REPT("||". Syntax =REPT(TextToRepeat.D4) =REPT(C5.D29/100) Example 2 The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D E F G H REPT Page 162 of 206 I REPT Text To Repeat A AB | Number Of Repeats 3 3 10 10 Repeated Text AAA ABABAB ---------|||||||||| =REPT(C4.000 £2.D6) =REPT(C7. but this is divided by 100 to scale down the number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200.Repetitions) The maximum number of repetitions is 200.D7) What Does It Do ? This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times. To update the clock press the function key F9. The time functions of =HOUR()."00") =REPT("|".HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()). You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it. Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()). Example 1 The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()).D5) =REPT(C6. =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.000 £3. Clock Hour ||||||||||| 11 Minute |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 32 Second ||||||||||||||||||||| 21 =REPT("|". Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Sales £1.000 £5. The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales."00") =REPT("|".

D7) =RIGHT(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H RIGHT Page 163 of 206 I RIGHT Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123 =RIGHT(C4.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.LEN(C30)-FIND(" ".Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D6) =RIGHT(C7. Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28.C30)) .LEN(C28)-FIND(" ".D4) =RIGHT(C5.LEN(C29)-FIND(" ". The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name. The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name. The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29.D5) =RIGHT(C6.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text. Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText.

4) =ROMAN(C15. Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber. 4 is Simplified.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats.RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following. TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed.2) =ROMAN(C13. 0 is Classic.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .TRUE) =ROMAN(C16. 2 is even more Concise. This is used if no format is specified. 1 is more Concise. Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G H ROMAN Page 164 of 206 I ROMAN Number Roman 1 I 2 II 3 III 5 V 10 X 1998 MCMXCVIII 1998 MCMXCVIII 1998 MLMVLIII 1998 MXMVIII 1998 MVMIII 1998 MVMIII 1998 MLMVLIII 1998 MCMXCVIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10. 3 is even more Concise still.0) =ROMAN(C11.1) =ROMAN(C12. .3) =ROMAN(C14.

48 1. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.48 13643.5 =ROUND(C5.48 1. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G H ROUND Page 165 of 206 I ROUND Number 1.D6) -1 13640 =ROUND(C7. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.48 Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .D4) 1 1.D8) -3 14000 =ROUND(C9.48 =ROUND(C6.D5) 2 1. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places.48 13643.D7) -2 13600 =ROUND(C8.48 13643.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G H I ROUNDDOWN Page 166 of 206 J ROUNDDOWN Number 1.D9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.48 13643.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.48 13643. Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound.48 1.48 1.D7) -2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8.D4) 1 1. If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number. .48 13643.D8) -3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D5) 2 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6.D6) -1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7.48 Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4.

5 =ROUNDUP(C5.D4) 1 1.D6) -1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7.48 1. If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number.D9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.48 Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.D5) 2 1.D7) -2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8.DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D8) -3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9. .48 13643.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .48 13643. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G H I ROUNDUP Page 167 of 206 J ROUNDUP Number 1.48 =ROUNDUP(C6.48 13643.48 1.

01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0. The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes. The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated. The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.5) .10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E F G SECOND Page 168 of 206 H SECOND Number 26/Jul/12 11:32:29 12:00:00 PM 0. Cost Per Second : £0.25 1 50 £1.50 0.51 Second 29 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number. The Cost of the call is then calculated. Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call. Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.51 1. Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59. The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds. The Duration of the call is entered.70 2 5 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D E F G H

SIGN Page 169 of 206 I J

SIGN
Value 10 20 0 -10 -20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 -1 -1

=SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8)

What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. If the value is positive the result is 1. If the value is negative the result is -1. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0. Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G H

SLN Page 170 of 206 I

SLN
Cost Salvage Life Straight Line Depreciation £12,000 £2,000 4 £2,500 =SLN(F3,F4,F5)

Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Annual Straight Line Depreciation

£20,000 £8,000 6 £2,000 =SLN(F9,F10,F11)

What Does It Do ? This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item. (Also known as Fixed Instalment method). The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific period of time. The result is a uniform depreciation value. An example would be if you bought a new car for £20,000, then kept it for 6 years. At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8,000. The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20,000 - £8,000 which is £12,000. Because you owned the car for 6 years, the SLN is calculated as £12,000 / 6 which is £2,000. Syntax =SLN(OriginalCost,SellingPrice,LengthOfOwnership) The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period, days, months or years. However, the SLN which is calculated will, be for that time, specifying 2 years ownership as 24 months will give an SLN per month. Formatting No special formatting is needed.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G H I

SMALL Page 171 of 206 J

SMALL
Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8,1) =SMALL(C4:C8,2) =SMALL(C4:C8,3) =SMALL(C4:C8,4) =SMALL(C4:C8,5)

What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list. Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine,PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan, Feb and Mar. Sales North South East West Jan £5,000 £5,800 £3,500 £12,000 Feb £6,000 £7,000 £2,000 £4,000 £2,000 £3,000 £3,500 Mar £4,500 £3,000 £10,000 £6,000 =SMALL(D24:F27,1) =SMALL(D24:F27,2) =SMALL(D24:F27,3)

Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value

Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions. Highest Lowest £12,000 £2,000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27)

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 - 2000 Peter Noneley A B C D E Southern data. Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function. Jan 100 400 700 1200 Feb 200 500 800 1500 Mar 300 600 900 1800 F G H I

SOUTH Page 172 of 206 J

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Alan Bob Carol Total

Total 600 1500 2400 4500

MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.6 1.H34:H36.0500 1.5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).Range2.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).29 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values. Syntax =STDEV(Range1.5 1.0)) find the machine name. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.5 1.5 0.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.5 0.1291 The smallest deviation is : 0.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .5 1.H34:H36. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H STDEV Page 173 of 206 I J STDEV Values 10 10 9 10 0. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.4 1.0816 1.7 1.5 1.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.6 1. The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.4 1. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.H34:H36.8 0.0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.

Range2.5 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H I STDEVP Page 174 of 206 J K STDEVP Values 10 10 9 10 0.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.12 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.0)) find the machine name.H32:H34.5 0. .1118 The smallest variance is : 0.H32:H34. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).8 0.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.43 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34). ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.5 1.5 1. Syntax =STDEVP(Range1.H32:H34.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.5 1. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent. A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).0433 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .6 1. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.7 1. The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.4 1.43 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.0707 1.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.5 0.4 1.6 1.

C11.C7.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . if it is omitted all instances will be substituted. Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText. =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F SUBSTITUTE Page 175 of 206 G H SUBSTITUTE Old Text New Text Original Text Updated Text To Remove To Insert ABCDEF CD hello ABhelloEF =SUBSTITUTE(B4.D10.E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text. The function is case sensitive. Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution.D7) Old Text New Text Original Text To Remove To Insert ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10. Table 1 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region Old Text New Text Updated Text To Remove To Insert Region Area Northern Area Region Area Northern region region Area Northern Region Region area Northern area region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39.InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional.C5.D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.TextToInsert.C6.E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11.D6) Sand and Cement and & S& & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B7.C39.D5) Northern Region Region Area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(B6.D11. or a specific instance.PROPER(D50)) . Formatting No special formatting is needed.C4.C10.PROPER(C50).TextToRemove.D4) ABCDABCD CD hello ABhelloABhello =SUBSTITUTE(B5. Table 2 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region Old Text New Text Updated Text To Remove To Insert Region Area Northern Area Region Area Northern Area region Area Northern Area Region area Northern Area region area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50). Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER(). It can either replace all occurrences of the text.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . 100 200 300 600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) =C48+C49+C50 Wrong! Correct Correct .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G H SUM Page 176 of 206 I J SUM Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4) =SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 300 600 =SUM(C13. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly. The formula is actually doing more work than needed. The numbers can be in single cells..D14.MAX(E23:E25)) What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers. This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols. Syntax =SUM(Range1.Range3.E17:E19) 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25)..Range2. through to Range30). ranges are from other functions. It can be used either horizontally or vertically. It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50).E13) 400 500 600 4800 Functions =SUM(C17:C19.

0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D E F G H SUM_as_Running_Total Page 177 of 206 I J SUM (Running Total) Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM($D$7:D7) =SUM($D$7:D8) =SUM($D$7:D9) =SUM($D$7:D10) =SUM($D$7:D11) =SUM($D$7:D12) =SUM($D$7:D13) =SUM($D$7:D14) =SUM($D$7:D15) =SUM($D$7:D16) =SUM($D$7:D17) =SUM($D$7:D18) Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.$D$7:D7.0)) =SUM(IF(D10. It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static as the formula is copied down. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0)) =SUM(IF(D12.$D$7:D12.0)) =SUM(IF(D9.0)) =SUM(IF(D11.$D$7:D10.$D$7:D11. Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(IF(D7.$D$7:D8.0)) =SUM(IF(D8.$D$7:D9. The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function.

3. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell. such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date. 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function.1):OFFSET(E45.1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed.0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24. The result is the range F51:G51 which is then totalled. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered. 1.2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed. 2.0.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate.0. the second by 2 columns.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H I SUM_with_OFFSET Page 178 of 206 J SUM and the =OFFSET function Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45.0. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34. the first offset is offset by 1 column. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24.1):OFFSET(E51. An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year.0. but this would be time consuming and open to human error. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29.0. .0. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled.0. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled.

MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79.1):OFFSET(E57. Type in the Start month. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function. Type in the End month.0.2) : OFFSET(D79.2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B SUM_with_OFFSET Page 179 of 206 J C D E F G H I 1500 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E57.0.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar.0. The formula displayed below are only dummies.0. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used. Total 900 1020 Jan-98 10 15 Feb-98 Mar-98 Feb-98 400 20 Mar-98 500 1000 Apr-98 600 2000 May-98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79.0.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number. the second by 3 columns. the first offset is offset by 1 column.0.0. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled.3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function. These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79.0.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does. Example The following table shows five months of data. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.0. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79.0. .

">=100") This examines the values in E4:E12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Total cost of all Tyres bought.E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12.E4:E12) Total cost of all Brakes bought. It then identifies the entries for Brakes. . If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12. It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 =SUMIF(E4:E12.E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12.CriteriaToBeMatched. Total of item typed in following cell. Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined."Tyres"."Brakes".">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12. Formatting No special formatting is needed.RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12."Brakes". What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user.E18. Total of items costing £100 or above.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H I SUMIF Page 180 of 206 J SUMIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12.

Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock. Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock. The total of all the values is the result of the calculation.790 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39. takinging into account the markup percentage.350 =E44-E43 .00 £16.H35:H39) £2. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.E35:E39.00 £2. to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold.40 £3.00 20% £2.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 £60.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D E F G H SUMPRODUCT Page 181 of 206 I SUMPRODUCT Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6. Range.00 25% £13. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1. Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100 Case Price £120 £130 £200 £24 £30 Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12 Bottle Markup Cost £12.E4:E6) Total Sales Value : What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values.50 25% =D39/E39 Bottle Selling Price £15.00 25% £33. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price. The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock.440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.13 =F39+F39*G39 Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit : £7.D35:D39) £9.33 80% £2. and the potential value of the stock when it is sold.

Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits. The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages.6) £12. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits.F4.F4.2.1. year 1 is 17% 6. Multiply 3. £3000. Example 2 The same example using 4 years. . year 2 is 33% of 6.143 £571 =SYD(F3. these values are the depreciation values for each of the three years in the life of the item. 17% being £1500.F4.F5.1 by £1500 to get £4500.5 0.286 £1. £9. Invert the year digits. Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years. 1. Year 3 is 50% of 6. year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500.500 ===> £3.F5.E40.000 6 £3.17 1.3) =SYD(F3. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation.F5. Example 1 Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : £10.000 £8. The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life. 1+2+3=6.33 0.F5. What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ? The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life. 5.F5.1) =SYD(F3.500 £3. year 1 is $4500.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .857 £2. 4.000 =SUM(F7:F12) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life. 3.E41.F4.000 ===> £1.F4.2) =SYD(F3.2.500 ===> =SYD(E39.000 £1.F5.5) =SYD(F3.3 becomes 3.000 £4. 2.3) As % Of Total Depreciation 0.2.F4. using the sum of the years digits. £9000/6=£1500. 33% being £3000. A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6.4) =SYD(F3.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H SYD Page 182 of 206 I SYD Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Deprecation in year 1 Deprecation in year 2 Deprecation in year 3 Deprecation in year 4 Deprecation in year 5 Deprecation in year 6 Total Depreciation : £20. £1500.000 3 £4.429 £2.714 £1.500 1 2 3 17% 33% 50% As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are inverted.000 £1. £10000-£1000=£9000. A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500.

4 0.1 100% Example 3 This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10.2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D E £10.SalvageValue.929 £1.000 £1.250 £1.000 F G H SYD Page 183 of 206 I Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : Depreciation in Year 4 : Total Depreciation : As % Of Total Depriciation 0.700 £1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 4 £3.000 £1. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 £10. 100% .2 0.000 7 £2.Life.607 £1.000 Syntax =SYD(OriginalCost.3 0.800 £900 £9.286 £964 £643 £321 As % Of Total Depriciation 25% 21% 18% 14% 11% 7% 4% £9.600 £2.PeriodToCalculate) Formatting No special formatting is needed.

the result is a blank.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G H T Page 184 of 206 I J T Cell To Test Hello 10 1-Jan-98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not. The function is not specifically needed by Excel. . If the value is text.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text.

00 £10."0. The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.00 10 £10 10.0") =TEXT(C9."0. Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert."£0. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 B C D E F G H TEXT Page 185 of 206 I J TEXT Original Number 10 10 10 10 10."£0") =TEXT(C8.3 £10.FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .25 10.0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text.00") =TEXT(C5."£0.25 Converted To Text 10.00") =TEXT(C6.3 =TEXT(C4."0") =TEXT(C7.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E F G H TIME Page 186 of 206 I TIME Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0.E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.Minute.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.E5) =TIME(C6.D6. .E4) =TIME(C5. If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day.D4.D5.60485 =TIME(C4. Syntax =TIME(Hour.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . such as from mainframe computers. Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day. .6 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F TIMEVALUE Page 187 of 206 G H TIMEVALUE Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0. which convert all values to text. Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system. It is useful when data is imported from other applications.

To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 07/25/15 12/16/14 =TODAY()-C20 =TODAY()-C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date. Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DD-MMM-YY format.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D E F G TODAY Page 188 of 206 H TODAY Today Is 26-Jul-12 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date. Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day. Year 2000 01-Jan-2000 Days Until 06/06/87 =C36-TODAY() . Date 1-Jan-97 10-Aug-97 Days Since 5686 5465 =TODAY()-C28+1 =TODAY()-C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000.

. Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required. the entire array has to be highlighted. such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5). If changes need to be made to the formula.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . and places in it in a new range. Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Next type the formula.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D E F G H I TRANSPOSE Page 189 of 206 J TRANSPOSE Alan Bob Carol Total Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160 Jan Feb {=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)} As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range. The transpose range must be the same size as the original range. The function needs to be entered as an array formula. the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it. and the data originally in rows is in columns.

500 12 -£2.000 11 -£2.968 15 -£1. .000 3 £2. the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility. The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.B5:B10.B5:B10.B41:B52. such as F41 to F52.E41:E52). Syntax =TREND(KnownYs. such as Sales Figures.800 9 -£3.386 12 £7. The historical data for the past year was entered.E41:E52)} The same function used in all cells as an array formula How To Enter An Array Formula Select all the cells where the array is required. To prove to the bank that.709 16 -£1. Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52.000 8 -£3. Historical Data Month Profit 1 -£5.774 11 £7.997 Historical Data Month Sales 1 £1.B8:B13. such as Months. Example The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to make a profit.000 2 -£4.600 4 -£4.500 7 -£4.193 18 -£935 19 -£676 20 -£418 21 -£160 22 £98 23 £356 24 £615 {=TREND(C41:C52.451 17 -£1. The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.226 14 -£1. such as Months.940 8 £5.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D E F G H I TREND Page 190 of 206 J TREND WHAT IS CONST b ? Predicted Values Month Sales 7 £4.E8:E13)} {=TREND(C5:C10.800 3 -£4.B5:B10.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10. The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.RequiredXs.Constant) The KnownYs is the range of values. based upon the past years performance.B41:B52.800 6 -£4. The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction.163 10 £6.000 {=TREND(C8:C13.551 9 £6.B5:B10.800 6 £4. 13 to 24.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10. Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the end of the next year. the company would start to make a profit at the end of the next year. but do not press Enter. The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values. the =TREND() function was used.E5:E10)} What Does It Do ? This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values.000 2 £2.300 10 -£2.750 5 -£4.500 5 £3. The months to predict were entered. months 1 to 12.B5:B10. Formatting No special formatting is needed.800 Predicted Values Month Profit 13 -£2.KnownXs.500 4 £3.

F G H I TREND Page 191 of 206 J .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 57 58 B C D E Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down. Press Enter to enter the formula as an array.

. The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D E F G TRIM Page 192 of 206 H I TRIM Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7) What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text. Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

48 -1.D8) -1 13640 =TRUNC(C9. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .48 13643.47 =TRUNC(C6.D4) 1 1. it does not actually round the number.D6) 1 -1. Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate.48 13643.48 13643.4 =TRUNC(C7.48 1.48 B C D E F G H I TRUNC Page 193 of 206 J TRUNC Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4.Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.47 =TRUNC(C8.D5) 2 1.D9) -2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.48 1.4 =TRUNC(C5.D11) What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number.D7) 2 -1.48 -1.D10) -3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.

. Example See the example for FREQUENCY.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F G UPPER Page 194 of 206 H UPPER Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case.

the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage.SUBSTITUTE(C52. as alphabetic characters will be included. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time. =LEFT() or =RIGHT()." ". =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11. =MID(). #VALUE! Only a 2% increase in sales. The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract. Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function.C14). other than it is preceded by a space.4)) . #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! ")). it can be either one.5)) =VALUE(MID(C17." The winning time was 1:30 seconds. If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored." #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! "). =SUBSTITUTE.SUBSTITUTE(C11. The winning time was 10:30 seconds. based upon the original text." ")). Explanation of formula shown above.5)) =VALUE(MID(C15. There is no way to identify the beginning of the value. If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH()." ". The winning time was 0:30 seconds." ").C17).2000 Peter Noneley A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 C D E F G VALUE Page 195 of 206 H VALUE Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value Err:502 =VALUE(MID(C4. The result will be shown as a value. two or three digits long. If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign.5)) =VALUE(MID(C16. errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long.SEARCH("£". =FIND().C15). To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text. If the % sign is included in the text. To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length. Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.SEARCH("???%".SEARCH("??:??". The same will be true for other recognised formats. =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52.C4).5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value." ". #VALUE! * See explanation below.SEARCH("??:??"." ". #VALUE! Approx 50% increase in sales. #VALUE! There was a 100% increase in sales.C16). The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign. #VALUE! There was a 50% increase in sales.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14. There was a 100% increase in sales. The winning time was 1:30 seconds. #VALUE! A 100% increase was achieved.SEARCH("???%".99)) There was a 2% increase in sales.SEARCH("??:??". There was a 2% increase in sales.SEARCH("??:??". There was a 50% increase in sales.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.6 1.H34:H36. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).7 1.0025 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VAR(D34:G34) =VAR(D35:G35) =VAR(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value.Range2. .0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.8 0.5 1.H34:H36. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.5 1.5 1.0167 The smallest variance is : 0.5 1.25 =VAR(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.4 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.25 =VAR(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.5 0.4 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent. Syntax =VAR(Range1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 0. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.6 1.0025 1. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E F G H VAR Page 196 of 206 I J VAR Values 10 10 9 10 0.0)) find the machine name.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).H34:H36. The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.0067 1.67 =VAR(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values.

A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D E F G H VARP Page 197 of 206 I J VARP Values 10 10 9 10 0.8 0. The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.4 1.Range2.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34. The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.5 1.5 1.4 1. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).5 0. Syntax =VARP(Range1.25 =VARP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the variance of a list of values.H32:H34.H32:H34.0050 1.19 =VARP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.5 0.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.5 1. . =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value.6 1.7 1.0)) find the machine name.H32:H34.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.0019 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VARP(D32:G32) =VARP(D33:G33) =VARP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).6 1. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.0019 1.0125 The smallest variance is : 0. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.5 1.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .19 =VARP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.

TRUE for yes. it then scans across to pick a cell entry. .G12.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. FALSE for no.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G H I VLOOKUP Page 198 of 206 J VLOOKUP The column numbers are not needed.RangeToLookIn. they are part of the illustration.ColumnToPickFrom. When the item is found. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6 Jan Feb Mar 10 80 97 20 90 69 30 100 45 40 110 51 50 120 77 Type a month to look for : Which column needs to be picked out : The result is : Feb 4 100 =VLOOKUP(G11. The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from. Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind.C6:H8. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item.

It then calculates the position of the month in the list. The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and picks out the correct cell entry. Unfortunately. The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the row headings are not sorted.D49:F49.C50:F54. I VLOOKUP Page 199 of 206 J The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require. Bob Eric Alan Carol David Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 eric mar Type a name to look for : Type a month to look for : The result is : 69 =VLOOKUP(F56. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .2000 Peter Noneley A 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 B C D E F G H Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month.0)+1. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. so and extra 1 is added to compensate.MATCH(F57.FALSE) . The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name. because the list of months is not as wide as the lookup range. The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column.

MATCH(B81.FALSE) .G74:I74.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1.0)+1.200 =VLOOKUP(C81. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. When the make is found. The functions use the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol .F75:I79. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost Lookup Table £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. the ranges for =VLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change. The =VLOOKUP() scans down row headings in column F for the spare part entered in column C.2000 Peter Noneley A 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 VLOOKUP Page 200 of 206 B C D E F G H I J Example 2 This example shows how the =VLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars. the =VLOOKUP() then scans across to find the price. using the result of the =MATCH() function to find the position of the make of car.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .

2000 Peter Noneley A 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 Formula for : Unit Cost =VLOOKUP(C126. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick.F114:I116. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names down the side of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.275 . the next lowest value is used. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.G113:I113. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the side of the Discount Table. Wood and Glass.0)+1.G113:I113.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .0)+1. and the discount from the 100 row is used.2. =VLOOKUP(D126.MATCH(C126. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.MATCH(C126.TRUE) Total =(D126*E126)-(D126*E126*F126) VLOOKUP Page 201 of 206 J B C D E F G H I Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. the function will produce an error.TRUE) Discount Table Wood Glass 0% 0% 0% 6% 3% 12% 8% 5% 15% Unit Cost Table Brick £2 Wood £1 Glass £3 Brick 1 100 300 Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1. The name of the Item is typed in column C of the Orders Table.C114:D116. If a match is not found.C114:D116. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values down the side of the Discount Table are sorted. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.FALSE) Discount =VLOOKUP(D126.F114:I116. =VLOOKUP(C126.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the side of the Discount Table the =VLOOKUP will look across to find the correct discount.2. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match.

Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number. The Actual Day is calculated. If no number is specified.C39:D45) Booking Rates Day Of Week Cost 1 £50 2 £25 3 £25 4 £30 5 £40 6 £50 7 £100 .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .1) =WEEKDAY(C7. The Booking Cost is picked from a list of rates using the =LOOKUP() function. use Format. The hotel charged different rates depending upon which day of the week the booking was for. Custom and set the Type to ddd or dddd. Example The following table was used by a hotel which rented a function room. 3 : will set Monday as 0 through to Sunday as 6.2) =WEEKDAY(C8.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D E F G WEEKDAY Page 202 of 206 H WEEKDAY Date Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Thu 01-Jan-98 Weekday 5 5 5 4 3 =WEEKDAY(C4) =WEEKDAY(C5) =WEEKDAY(C6. Booking Date Actual Day 7-Jan-98 Wednesday Booking Cost £30. To show the result as the name of the day. Cells. Excel will use 1. The Booking Date is entered. 1 : will set Sunday as 1 through to Saturday as 7 2 : will set Monday as 1 through to Sunday as 7.Type) Type : This is used to indicate the week day numbering system. Syntax =WEEKDAY(Date.3) What Does It Do? This function shows the day of the week from a date.00 =LOOKUP(WEEKDAY(C34).

Date.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Example The following example shows how the function can be used to calculate delivery dates based upon an initial Order Date and estimated Delivery Days.Days.Cells. Order Date Mon 02-Feb-98 Tue 15-Dec-98 Holidays Fri 01-May-98 Fri 25-Dec-98 Wed 01-Jan-97 Thu 01-Jan-98 Fri 01-Jan-99 Delivery Days 2 28 Delivery Date Wed 04-Feb-98 Tue 26-Jan-99 =WORKDAY(D25.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G WORKDAY Page 203 of 206 H WORKDAY StartDate 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 Days 28 28 Result 35836 10-Feb-98 =WORKDAY(D4. The function excludes weekends and holidays and can therefore be used to calculate delivery dates or invoice dates.D28:D32) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .Number.E5) What Does It Do? Use this function to calculate a past or future date based on a starting date and a specified number of days.E4) =WORKDAY(D5. Syntax =WORKDAY(StartDate.E25.Holidays) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which can be formatted to a normal date by using Format.

Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Syntax =YEAR(Date) Formatting The result is shown as a number. .2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B C D E F G H I YEAR Page 204 of 206 J YEAR Date 25-Dec-98 Year 1998 =YEAR(C4) What Does It Do? This function extracts the year number from a date.

but not including. The Start and End dates of the contract are entered.000 =YEARFRAC(B32.D5) =YEARFRAC(C6.C32+1.D6) What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates and expresses the result as a decimal fraction.000 =YEARFRAC(B34. 2 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 360.C33+1. Start 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Pro Rata Salary Actual Salary 31-Dec-98 £12.25 1 25% =YEARFRAC(C4.EndData.000 £6. 1 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 365.4)*D32 31-Mar-98 £12. The =YEARFRAC() function is used to calculate Actual Salary for the portion of the year. but can be formatted as a percent. Example The following table was used by a company which hired people on short term contracts for a part of the year. 0 : or omitted USA style 30 days per month divided by 360.2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D E F G YEARFRAC Page 205 of 206 H YEARFRAC Start Date 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 1-Jan-98 End Date 1-Apr-98 31-Dec-98 1-Apr-98 Fraction 0. .Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . the End date. 4 : European 29 or 30 or 31 days divided by 360.4)*D33 30-Jun-98 £12.000 £3.C34+1.000 =YEARFRAC(B33.000 £12. Syntax =YEARFRAC(StartDate.4)*D34 Note The extra 1 has been added to the End date to compensate for the fact that the =YEARFRAC() function calculates from the Start date up to. 3 : 29 or 30 0r 31 days per month divided by 365.Basis) Basis : Defines the calendar system to be used in the function. Formatting The result will be shown as a decimal fraction. The Pro Rata Salary which represents the annual salary is entered.D4) =YEARFRAC(C5.

2000 Peter Noneley A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F G Project Dates Page 206 of 206 H I Project Dates Target Delivery Tue 27-Jan-98 House Building Target Budget Days Required 5 4 3 6 4 £12.Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 .000 £800 £400 £300 Total Cost Budget % Total £1.000 92% .200 £11.000 Job Stage Survey Foundation Walls Roof Electrics Actual Delivery Against Target Total Days Start Date Mon 05-Jan-98 Mon 12-Jan-98 Fri 16-Jan-98 Wed 21-Jan-98 Thu 29-Jan-98 Tue 03-Feb-98 5 days behind 22 End Date Fri 09-Jan-98 Thu 15-Jan-98 Tue 20-Jan-98 Wed 28-Jan-98 Tue 03-Feb-98 Daily Cost £200 £1.000 £2.400 £2.400 £1.000 £4.

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