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Q.1 What are the objective of maintenance function? Compare b/w preventive maintenance vs breakdown maintenance. Ans.

MAINTENANCE OBJECTIVES: The objectives of maintenance are to ensure the desired plant availability at an optimum cost within the safety prescription. In other words, it may be mentioned that the objective of maintenance is to minimize the total cost of unavailability and resources. Whenever the plant is not available either due to breakdowns or due to planned stoppages, the following costs are incurred. 1) Loss of earnings due to stoppage of equipment 2) Loss of in service materials. In addition the following costs are incurred on resources: 1) Labour of overhead expenses 2) Materials in spares and consumables 3) Cost of storage of spares and facilities. Hence, maintenance functions are so, organised as to minimise the total cost of unavailability and resources. MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS: The above mentioned objectives are attained by taking certain action illustrated below: Action Purpose 1. Adjustments Return or slow down the process a. of deterioration or wear 2. Application of a. Protective coatings 3. Examination of the Assess the extent of wear and a. state of the determine, on that basis, the b. components action required to check a c. break-down and the time when d. Analysis of history such action should be taken e. of behavior of the f. machine and its g. components

4. Replacement of worn a. Out component 5. maintenance engineering and management 2 6. Repair of cracks or Restore the original operaa. other repairable tonal capacity of the machine b. damages and prevent further damage 7. Modification of design Affect improvements to reduce a. of the components or the frequency of attention or b. location of the to reduce cost of maintaining c. equipment. the equipment 8. Capital replacement Replacement of the machine when a. the age of the existing machine b. requirements of quality and c. quantity of output and d. emergence of better machines e. make it economical to dislodge f. the present and install a new g. machine. MAINTENANCE TYPES: 1. BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE: Characteristics of Break-down Maintenance System: * No services except occasional lubrication unless failure occurs * No maintenance men on regular basis * Maintenance done by sub-contractors * No organised efforts to find out reasons * No stock of spares * No budget * No records * Initially it looks economical * Problems in case of B/D - Who is to do repair? - From where to get parts? - How do we pay for them? - Who is to go to buy parts?

Results of Breakdown Maintenance System: * Increased Down Time *Increased costs& Pressures 2. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE A procedure followed regularly i.e.,., A cyclic operation recurring periodically. maintenance engineering and management 4 Advantages 1. Simple to establish & follow 2. Little or no clerical work 3. High degree of prevention by intercepting developing faults. A more advanced stage of routine maintenance calls for 'service instructions on a pre-printed schedule and checklists'. Examples: * Check all compressors first on Mondays. * Lubricate completely two machines daily. Disadvantages * Routine maintenance may not provide the service specified by the manufacturer * We may ignore information regarding preceding breakdowns * Service required for a machine at different frequencies may be ignored * All similar machines may be serviced at same frequency irrespective of working hours. 3. PLANNED MAINTENANCE In this type of service, the emphasis is placed on the machines. What does the manufacturer prescribe? Is the unit utilised for two, or three shifts per day? Is it working under normal load? Are the conditions as good as those envisaged by the manufacturer? Do we allow for extra attention owing to corrosion-including conditions? Characteristics of Planned Maintenance

* Instructions are more detailed than in routine maintenance maintenance engineering and management 5 * Calls for differently timed service for the same unit * Schedule is drawn with dates * Need for establishing the work-load for the crew * Entails considerable planning effort, faithful implementation and recording * Initial list of planned maintenance will be in detail and Advantages of Planned Maintenance * Will take into consideration the changes in conditions of use and increased wear of parts * Inspections, replacement of parts and adjustments are included in the overall plan * Detailed instructions reduce the chance of missing any activity. Unforeseen work is greatly reduced * Provides as much attention as the equipment requires to the best judgement and ability of the planner 4. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE System which strives to reduce the likelihood of failures. To achieve prevention of break-downs Planned service is carried out with the explicit additional objective of detecting wear points and ensuring perfect functioning by replacing parts which could still be used were it not for the assurance that is required. Occasional use of statistical analysis/methods for determining life expectancies of parts. The system employs Measuring & Inspection Devices. This phase is Predictive maintenance. Preventive Maintenance System is more expensive due to more of planning and replacement of parts before failing. PM increases reliability PM reduces total work-load PM reduces total down time PM reduces unplanned work PM reduces total maintenance cost

Routine maintenance & Planned maintenance also include Preventive maintenance action. Preventive maintenance could be grouped as under: - Fixed-time Maintenance - Condition-based Maintenance -Opportunity Maintenance

maintenance engineering and management 6 Corrective Maintenance: Services carried out to restore an item to an acceptable working condition. Services arising out of - Break-downs - Malfunctioning & - Deteriorating conditions Productive Maintenance An effort to set up the function on a planned and measured production pattern. The output relates to the number of servicing tasks completed, e.g., lubrication, inspection, overhaul, etc. Originally used in USA. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Efforts with the total participation of employees. Used in Japan. Management of maintenance has, therefore, to concern itself with the balancing of costs against gains so as to evolve the most suitable policies and determine the maintenance effort required, which as said earlier, is a function of cost and it can vary from Industry to Industry. In establishing a systematic maintenance system, the following stages are normally gone through. 0 stage - Only break-down maintenance 1st stage - Breakdown maintenance + certain amount of cleaning and lubrication 2nd stage - Breakdown maintenance + planned lubrication and inspection 3rd stage - In addition to degree 2, preventive replacement of spares (renewal) is carried out 4th stage - In addition to degree 3, there are periodic maintenance schedules including overhauls 5th stage - In addition to degree 4, predictive maintenance techniques are adopted.

From above it is assumed that as the degree of maintenance effort increases the number of breakdown decreases, while on the other hand maintenance cost increases. Hence, there must be some compromise in order to achieve the optimum maintenance effort. With the increase in maintenance effort the variation of breakdown cost, Preventive maintenance cost, cost of sub standard performance, cost of spares and the total cost can be graphically represented as shown .

Q.2 Briefly discuss the goal of total productive maintenance and the methodology to implement TPM in manufacturing Organization. Ans. It can be considered as the medical science of machines. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction. TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a nonprofit activity. Down time for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum. TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below. Avoid wastage in a quickly changing economic environment. Producing goods without reducing product quality. Reduce cost. Produce a low batch quantity at the earliest possible time. Goods send to the customers must be non defective. Types of maintenance : 1. Breakdown maintenance : It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost.

2. Preventive maintenance ( 1951 ): It is a daily maintenance ( cleaning, inspection, oiling and retightening ), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance. 2a. Periodic maintenance ( Time based maintenance - TBM) : Time based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting, servicing and cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems. 2b. Predictive maintenance : This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system. 3. Corrective maintenance ( 1957 ) : It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability. 4. Maintenance prevention ( 1960 ): It indicates the design of a new equipment. Weakness of current machines are sufficiently studied ( on site information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing ) and are incorporated before commissioning a new equipment.

Steps in introduction of TPM in a organization : Step A - PREPARATORY STAGE : STEP 1 - Announcement by Management to all about TPM introduction in the organization : Proper understanding, commitment and active involvement of the top management in needed for this step. Senior management should have awareness programmes, after which announcement is made to all. Publish it in the house magazine and put it in the notice board. Send a letter to all concerned individuals if required. STEP 2 - Initial education and propaganda for TPM : Training is to be done based on the need. Some need intensive training and some just an awareness. Take people who matters to places where TPM already successfully implemented. STEP 3 - Setting up TPM and departmental committees : TPM includes improvement, autonomous maintenance, quality maintenance etc., as part of it. When committees are set up it should take care of all those needs. STEP 4 - Establishing the TPM working system and target : Now each area is benchmarked and fix up a target for achievement. STEP 5 - A master plan for institutionalizing: Next step is implementation leading to institutionalizing wherein TPM becomes an organizational culture. Achieving PM award is the proof of reaching a satisfactory level. STEP B - INTRODUCTION STAGE This is a ceremony and we should invite all. Suppliers as they should know that we want quality supply from them. Related companies and affiliated companies who can be our customers, sisters concerns etc. Some may learn from us and some can help us and customers will get the communication from us that we care for quality output.

STAGE C - IMPLEMENTATION In this stage eight activities are carried which are called eight pillars in the development of TPM activity. Of these four activities are for establishing the system for production efficiency, one for initial control system of new products and equipment, one for improving the efficiency of administration and are for control of safety, sanitation as working environment. STAGE D - INSTITUTIONALISING STAGE By all there activities one would has reached maturity stage. Now is the time for applying for PM award. Also think of challenging level to which you can take this movement.

Q.3 Six sigma and its application. Ans. Six Sigma is a lean manufacturing technique designed to systematically reduce waste and errors while improving quality over time. Applying Six Sigma methodology to educational programs involves identifying inefficiencies in human resources, administrative processing and classroom settings. Adapting the purely quantitative techniques of Six Sigma to operations with highly qualitative results, such as educational settings, can be a challenge, but it can yield significant rewards. Six Sigma is a business management strategy originally developed by Motorola, USA in 1986.[1][2] As of 2010, it is widely used in many sectors of industry, although its use is not without controversy. Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.[3] It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods, and creates a special infrastructure of people within the organization ("Black Belts", "Green Belts", etc.) who are experts in these methods.[3] Each Six Sigma project carried out within an organization follows a defined sequence of steps and has quantified financial targets (cost reduction or profit increase).[3] The term Six Sigma originated from terminology associated with manufacturing, specifically terms associated with statistical modeling of manufacturing processes. The maturity of a manufacturing process can be described by a sigma rating indicating its yield, or the percentage of defect-free products it creates. A six sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of the products manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects (3.4 defects per million). Motorola set a goal of "six sigma" for all of its manufacturing operations, and this goal became a byword for the management and engineering practices used to achieve it.

Six Sigma originated as a set of practices designed to improve manufacturing processes and eliminate defects, but its application was subsequently extended to other types of business processes as well. In Six Sigma, a defect is defined as any process output that does not meet customer specifications, or that could lead to creating an output that does not meet customer specifications. The idea of Six Sigma was actually born at Motorola in the 1970s, when senior executive Art Sundry was criticizing Motorolas bad quality. Through this criticism, the company discovered the connection between increasing quality and decreasing costs in the production process. Previously, everybody thought that quality would cost extra money. In fact, it was reducing costs, as costs for repair or control sank. Then, Bill Smith first formulated the particulars of the methodology at Motorola in 1986.Six Sigma was heavily inspired by six preceding decades of quality improvement methodologies such as quality control, TQM, and Zero Defects, based on the work of pioneers such as Shewhart, Deming, Juran, Ishikawa, Taguchi and others.

Like its predecessors, Six Sigma doctrine asserts that: Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.e., reduce process variation) are of vital importance to business success. Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled. Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management. Features that set Six Sigma apart from previous quality improvement initiatives include: A clear focus on achieving measurable and quantifiable financial returns from any Six Sigma project.

An increased emphasis on strong and passionate management leadership and support. A special infrastructure of "Champions," "Master Black Belts," "Black Belts," "Green Belts", etc. to lead and implement the Six Sigma approach. A clear commitment to making decisions on the basis of verifiable data, rather than assumptions and guesswork. The term "Six Sigma" comes from a field of statistics known as process capability studies. Originally, it referred to the ability of manufacturing processes to produce a very high proportion of output within specification. Processes that operate with "six sigma quality" over the short term are assumed to produce long-term defect levels below 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO). Six Sigma's implicit goal is to improve all processes to that level of quality or better. Six Sigma is a registered service mark and trademark of Motorola Inc. As of 2006 Motorola reported over US$17 billion in savings from Six Sigma. Other early adopters of Six Sigma who achieved well-publicized success include Honeywell (previously known as AlliedSignal) and General Electric, where Jack Welch introduced the method. By the late 1990s, about two-thirds of the Fortune 500 organizations had begun Six Sigma initiatives with the aim of reducing costs and improving quality. In recent years, some practitioners have combined Six Sigma ideas with lean manufacturing to yield a methodology named Lean Six Sigma. Origin and meaning of the term "six sigma process" Graph of the normal distribution, which underlies the statistical assumptions of the Six Sigma model. The Greek letter (sigma) marks

the distance on the horizontal axis between the mean, , and the curve's inflection point. The greater this distance, the greater is the spread of values encountered. For the curve shown above, = 0 and = 1. The upper and lower specification limits (USL, LSL) are at a distance of 6 from the mean. Because of the properties of the normal distribution, values lying that far away from the mean are extremely unlikely. Even if the mean were to move right or left by 1.5 at some point in the future (1.5 sigma shift), there is still a good safety cushion. This is why Six Sigma aims to have processes where the mean is at least 6 away from the nearest specification limit. The term "six sigma process" comes from the notion that if one has six standard deviations between the process mean and the nearest specification limit, as shown in the graph, practically no items will fail to meet specifications.[10] This is based on the calculation method employed in process capability studies.

Capability studies measure the number of standard deviations between the process mean and the nearest specification limit in sigma units. As process standard deviation goes up, or the mean of the process moves away from the center of the tolerance, fewer standard deviations will fit between the mean and the nearest specification limit, decreasing the sigma number and increasing the likelihood of items outside specification. Application Main article: List of Six Sigma companies

Six Sigma mostly finds application in large organizations. An important factor in the spread of Six Sigma was GE's 1998 announcement of $350 million in savings thanks to Six Sigma, a figure that later grew to more than $1 billion. According to industry consultants like Thomas Pyzdek and John Kullmann, companies with fewer than 500 employees are less suited to Six Sigma implementation, or need to adapt the standard approach to make it work for them. This is due both to the infrastructure of Black Belts that Six Sigma requires, and to the fact that large organizations present more opportunities for the kinds of improvements Six Sigma is suited to bringing about.

Q.4 What is quality circle and how are quality circle formed. Discuss the formation and working of quality circle in an engineering industry. Ans. Quality Circle is a small group of 8 to 12 employees doing similar work who voluntarily meet together on a regular basis to identify improvements in their respective work areas using proven techniques for analysing and solving work related problems coming in the way of achieving and sustaining excellence leading to mutual upliftment of employees as well as the organisation. It is "a way of capturing the creative and innovative power that lies within the work force".

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE A Quality Circle has an appropriate organizational structure for its effective and efficient performance. It varies from industry to industry, organization to organization. But it is useful to have a basic framework as a model. The structure of a Quality Circle consists of the following elements. A steering committee: This is at the top of the structure. It is headed by a senior executive and includes representatives from the top management personnel and human resources development people. It establishes policy, plans and directs the program and meets usually once in a month. Co-ordinator: He may be a Personnel or Administrative officer who co-ordinates and supervises the work of the facilitators and administers the programme. Facilitator: He may be a senior supervisory officer. He co-ordiates the works of several quality circles through the Circle leaders.

Circle leader: Leaders may be from lowest level workers or Supervisors. A Circle leader organises and conducts Circle activities. Circle members : They may be staff workers. Without circle members the porgramme cannot exist. They are the lifeblood of quality circles. They should attend all meetings as far as possible, offer suggestions and ideas, participate actively in group process, take training seriously with a receptive attitude. The roles of Steering Committee, Co0rdinator, Facilitator, Circle leader and Circle members are well defined. Formed the Quality circle: Appointment of a steering committee, facilitator and QC team leaders. Formation of QCs by nomination/voluntary enrolment of QC members. Training of all QC members (by an expert consultant). Training of non-participating employees (by an expert consultant). Problem data bank and identification of problems for QC work. QC problem resolution by QCs through standardized techniques. Presentation of QC solutions to management. Evaluation of award/recognition.

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The major prerequisite for initiating Quality Circles in any organisation is the total understanding of, as well as complete conviction and faith in the participative philosophy, on the part of the top and senior management. In the absence of a commitment from the Chief Executive to support the Quality Circle movement totally, it would be inadvisable to seriously attempt the starting of Quality Circles. The launching of Quality Circles involves the following steps:

1. Expose middle level executives to the concept. 2. Explain the concept to the employees and invite them to volunteer as members of Quality Circles. 3. Nominate senior officers as facilitators. 4. Form a steering committee. 5. Arrange training of co-ordinators, facilitators in basics of Quality Circle approach, implementation, techniques and operation. Later facilitator may provide training to Circle leaders and Circle members.

6. A meeting should be fixed preferably one hour a week for the Quality Circle to meet. 7. Formally inaugurate the Quality Circle. 8. Arrange the necessary facilities for the Quality Circle meeting and its operation.