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Introduction Robotics

dr Dragan Kosti WTB Dynamics and Control September - October 2009

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Outline

Recapitulation Velocity kinematics Manipulator Jacobian Kinematic singularities Inverse velocity kinematics

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Recapitulation

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Given a homogenous transformation matrix HSE(3)

Here, H represents the desired position and orientation of the tip coordinate frame onxnynzn relative to coordinate frame o0x0y0z0 of the base; T0n is product of homogenous transformation matrices relating successive coordinate frames:

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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Since the bottom rows of both T0n and H are equal to [0 0 0 1], equation

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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General IK problem is difficult BUT for manipulators having 6 joints with the last 3 joint axes intersecting at one point, it is possible to decouple the general IK problem into two simpler problems: inverse position kinematics and inverse orientation kinematics. IK problem: for given R and o solve 9 rotational and 3 positional equations:

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Spherical wrist as paradigm.

Let oc be the intersection of the last 3 joint axes; as z3, z4, and z5 intersect at oc, the origins o4 and o5 will always be at oc; the motion of joints 4, 5 and 6 will not change the position of oc; only motions of joints 1, 2 and 3 can influence position of oc.

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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q1, q2, q3

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

q4, q5, q6

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Velocity Kinematics

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Scope

Mathematically, forward kinematics defines a function between the space of joint positions and the space of Cartesian positions and orientations of a robot tip; the velocity kinematics are then determined by the Jacobian of this function. Jacobian is encountered in many aspects of robotic manipulation: in the planning and execution of robot trajectories, in the derivation of the dynamic equations of motion, etc.

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When a rigid body moves in a pure rotation about a fixed axis, every point of the body moves in a circle; the centers of all these circles lie on the axis of rotation. Let be the angle swept out by the perpendicular from a point to the axis of rotation; if k is a unit vector in the direction of the axis of rotation, then the angular velocity is given by

Given the angular velocity , the linear velocity of any point is where r is a vector from the origin (laying on the axis of rotation) to the point.

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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An n n matrix S is skew symmetric if and only if

The set of all such matrices is denoted by so(n). From this definition, we see that the diagonal elements of S are zero, i.e. sii = 0; also, we see that S so(3) contains only 3 independent entries and has the form

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For a vector a=[ax, ay, az]T we define

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If R() SO(3), then R()RT () = I. Differentiating both sides w.r.t. yields

Multiplying both sides on the right by R and using the fact that ST = -S, we get d R( ) R T ( ) R( ) SR( ) = 0. d Since R()RT () = I , we obtain:

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Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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Derivative of Rl,

Let Rl, be a rotation matrix about the axis defined by unit vector l. Then

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Consider angular velocity about an arbitrary, possibly moving, axis. Suppose that R(t) SO(3) is a time-dependent rotation matrix. Then

where (t) is the angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed frame at time t.

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If p is a point rigidly attached to a moving frame, then

Differentiating, we obtain

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Let o0x0y0z0, o1x1y1z1, and o2x2y2z2 be three frames such that - o0x0y0z0 is fixed, - all three share a common origin, - R01(t) and R12(t) represent time-varying relative orientations of frames o1x1y1z1 and o2x2y2z2. Also let ki,j denotes the angular velocity vector corresponding to the derivative of Rij, expressed relative to the frame okxkykzk.

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For an arbitrary number of coordinate systems:

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Suppose that p is rigidly attached to the frame o1x1y1z1 and that o1x1y1z1 is rotating relative to the frame o0x0y0z0. Then, we have

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Suppose that the motion of o1x1y1z1 relative to o0x0y0z0 is given by a homogeneous transformation matrix

where r = Rp1 (vector from o1 to p expressed in the orientation of o0x0y0z0) and is the velocity at which the origin o1 is moving.

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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Manipulator Jacobian

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Consider an n-link manipulator with joint variables q1, q2, , qn. Let q = [q1, q2, , qn]T. Let the transformation from the end-effector to the base frame be:

Karl Gustav

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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The manipulator Jacobian:

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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Angular velocity

If the ith joint is revolute: the axis of rotation is given by zi1; let i1i1,i represent the angular velocity of the link i w.r.t. the frame oi1xi1yi1zi1. Then, we have

If the ith joint is prismatic: the motion of frame i relative to frame i-1 is a translation and

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By using already derived formula

we get

0 1 & 0 & & 0 n 1 0,n = 1q1 z0 + 2 q2 R10 z1 + K + n qn Rn 1 z n 1 =

where

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The complete Jacobian:

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The linear velocity of the end effector is just By the chain rule for differentiation

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The linear velocity of the end-effector is of form

where

Hence we get

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The Jacobian is given by

where

and

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We need to compute

The former is equal to the first three elements of the 3rd column of matrix T0i, whereas the latter is equal to the first three elements of the 4th column of the same matrix. Conclusion: it is straightforward to compute the Jacobian once the forward kinematics is worked out.

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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Kinematic singularities

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Kinematic singularities

The 6n manipulator Jacobian J(q) defines mapping

& = J (q )q

All possible end-effector velocities are linear combinations of the columns Ji of the Jacobian

The rank of a matrix is the number of linearly independent columns (or rows) in the matrix; for JR6n: R

rank J min(6, n)

The rank of Jacobian depends on the configuration q; at singular configurations, rankJ(q) is less than its maximum value.

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At singular configurations:

certain directions of end-effector motion may be unattainable, bounded end-effector velocities may correspond to unbounded joint velocities, bounded joint torques may correspond to unbounded end-effector forces and torques.

on the boundary of the manipulator workspace, within the manipulator workspace that may be unreachable under small perturbations of the link parameters (e.g. length, offset, etc.).

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The Jacobian kinematic relationship:

The inverse velocity problem is to find joint velocities that produce the desired end-effector velocity. When Jacobian is square (manipulator has 6 joints) and nonsingular, one gets: If the number of joints is not exactly 6, J cannot be inverted; then the inverse velocity problem has a solution (obtained using e.g. Gaussian elimination) if and only if

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Pseudoinverse of Jacobian

When number of joints n is above 6, the manipulator is kinematically redundant; then, the inverse velocity problem can be solved using the pseudoinverse of J. Suppose that rank J = m and m<n. Then, the right pseudoinverse of J is given by Note that It holds where b Rn is an arbitrary vector. R

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Computation of pseudoinverse

Take the singular value decomposition of J as

where URmm and VRnn are both orthogonal matrices and R R Rmn is given by R

m

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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The right pseudoinverse of J is

where T

m

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

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Indicate how close is manipulator to a singular configuration. In terms of singular values i of the manipulator Jacobian J, kinematic manipulability is defined by:

= 1 2 L m

In terms of eigenvalues i of J or determinant of J, is given by:

= det JJ = 1 2 L m

Condition number of J is another manipulability measure: max i cond J = ; i = 1,L, m.

Introduction Robotics, lecture 4 of 7

min i

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