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HANDBOOK FOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS No. 6
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SP :6(6) - 1972
HANDBOOK FOR STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS
6. APPLICATION OF PLASTIC THEORY IN DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002 Price Rs. 275.00 October 1973
New Delhi and New Delhi 110002 .1972 Sirth Reprint DECEMBER 1998 UDC 624. Printed in India by Printsgraph.2 : 624.04 SP : 6(6)-1972 Q Copyrtght 1973 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act (XIV of 1957) and reproduction in whole or in partby auy means except with written permission of the publisher shall deemed be to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS Edition 1 .014. Published by Bureau of Indian Standards.
s. . . .. . .. ... . GENERAL . .. .. . .. 25 26 32 33 8. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION 10... . . MECHANICALPROPERTIES STEEL OF 6. .. STATICAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS 18. REDISTRIBUTION OF MOMENT SECTION D PLASTIC ANALYSIS .. . . . .. . 16.. . .. ... BENDING OF RECTANGULAR BEAM 13... BENDING OF WIDE FLANGEBEAM 14.. THE CASE FOR PLASTICDESIGN SECTION C FLEXURE . . . FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 17. ....... .... 15 15 16 19 21 23 3.. .. ..... .... ...... 11. . STRUCTURAL STRENGTH 5. MAXIMUM 4. INADEQUACY OF STRESS AS THE DESIGN CRITERION 9. ... .... . MECHANISM METHOD OF ANALYSIS 19.. . .... . . ... .... .. . . .. .. . .. . 5 ... 35 35 40 43 45 15.. . .. ... OF BEAMS . .. ... FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS .... JUSTIFICATION FOR .. .. . . . ... ... . .. .. .. . 49 53 56 6 . . . .. .. .. . ..... ..... INTRODUCTION .. ASSUMPTIONSAND CONDITIONS 12. PLASTICHINGE . . SCOPE 2... 7 II SECTION A 1. . .... . HISTORICALDEVELOPMENT SECTION 6 7.... ... PLASTICDESIGN . .CONTENTS PACE FOREWORD SYMBOLS . . .. . .. ..... PLASTIC DESIGN . . .. WHY STRENGTH OF SOME ELEMENTS . .
.. . . . . . . . TO DESIGN ... F . 29... . . . INTRODUCTION .. . 2%. .. 187 187 188 191 195 198 203 216 218 30.... G. . DESIGN EXAMPLESON CONTINUOUSBEAMS DESIGN EXAMPLESON IKDUSTRIAL BUILDING FRAMES EXAMPLE ON MULTI-STOREY STRUCTURES 27.. ENGINEERING 6 . . .. INTRODUCTION ... . . . ... DESIGN EXAMPLES . . . . . . .... .. APPENDIX INDIANSTANDARDS RELATING TO STRUCTURAL E . .WB~AL DESIGN PROCEDURE CONSIDERATIONS P. . . .. . . . . .. .. MULTI-SPANFRAMES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C SELIXTED REFERENCES . . ... . . . .. . . .. SECORDARY DESIGN SECTlON 24.. ... . . . . ... .. . GENERAL . .. . SINGLE-SPAN FRAMES(SINGLE STOREY) 31.. SPACING LATERAL BRACING OF CHARTS AND FORMULAS FOR SIMPLE BEAMS APPENDIX COMPOSITION STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING D OF SEG .. 77 77 78 81 20.. . . .. .. . .8F: 6(6) . ... . n... PROCEDURES . CONTINUOUSBEAMS SIMPLIFIED . . . . . .. ... .. 125 125 136 178 25. . . . .. SMBDC 7 .... PRFUYINARY DESIGN 22.1972 SECTION E APPLICATION ... . DESIGN SECTION G . 26.. . TIONAL COMMITTEE. . . . ..
that Section stress B answers the question ‘ Why plastic design ‘. panels and study groups resulted in the formulation of a number of Indian Standards in the field of steel production. and the deliberations at numerous sittings of committees. the limits that are function (in part) of the mechanical properties of steel.ven in Appendix D. Over fifteen. but also considered the question of even greater importance. Knowledge of these properties is used in Section A to show how the maximum strength of some simple The historical development of the structures may be computed. plastic theory of structures is also dealt with in brief. had been r&iving attention from the Planning Commission even from the very early stages of the country’s First Five Year Plan period.1972 FOREWORD This Handbook. It is shown is an inadequate design criterion for a large number of 7 . taking of urgent measures for the conservation of available resources. a list of which is given in Appendix E. design and use. The subject is introduced by considering the various limits of usefulness of a steel structure. Its expert committees came to the conclusion that a good proportion of the steel consumed by the structural steel industry in India could be saved if higher efficiency procedures were adopted in the production and use of steel. The Planning Commission. the composition of which is g. Steel. The Planning Commission not only envisaged an increase in production capacity in the country. namely. had been approved for publication by the Struttural and Metals Division Council and the Civil Engin&ring Division Council of ISI. and to provide illustrative examples for the guidance of the designer in the analysis of practical design problems.SP: 6(6) . recommended to the Government of India that the Indian Standards Institution should take up a Steel Economy Project and prepare a series of Indian Standard specifications and codes of practice in the field of steel production and utilization. This Handbook which relates to the application of plastic theory in design of steel structures is intended to present the important principles and assumptions involved in the plastic method of structural analysis. years of continuous study in Tndia and abroad. SMBDC 7. therefore. which is a very important basic raw materials for industrialization. which has been processed by the Structural Eng!neering Sectional Committee.
it will mean a more rapid method of analysis. etc. To the owner. The limitations. for further What will plastic design mean ? To the ’ sidewalk superintendent ‘.SP: 6(6) . it would mean more efficient use of its products. it will mean nothing. because plastic design requires less steel than conventional design. modifications and design details have been described under the heading ‘ Secondary Design Consideration ‘. This Handbook is based on and requires publications issued by ISI: for structural IS: 226-1969 Specification (fourt/z revision) IS: IS: IS: reference steel to the (standard steel following quality) in general 800-1962 Code of practice for use of structural building construction (revised) 875-1964 Code of practice Loading standards (revised) for structural safety of buildings: 2062-1969 Specification for structural steel (fusion welding quality) (@St revision) for assembly of structural joints IS: 4000-1967 Code of practice using high tensile friction grip fasteners 8 . columns and connections should be designed to meet the requirements of plastic hinge formation. the beams. it will mean economy. to a nation. Section E contains general comments on design procedures. The section on design examples treats a number of building frames of different profiles. it will mean better use of her natural resources. charts and graphs. In detailed Appendix A is given a list of selected references information on plastic theory of structures. The basic theoretical work is deait with in Sections C and D. Finally. The structure will look just the same as a conventionally designed structure. Further. Although this section covers a few examples relating to multistorey frames. Section 7 describes simplified procedures of solving design problems with the use of formulas. The secondary design considerations are checked throughout. it would mean more efficient operations because designs may be checked faster. For the building authority. local and lateral buckling. To the engineer. Proper attention should be given to the effect of shear force. it is proposed to deal with the subject in detail in a supplement in due course. The concepts of plastic bending and redlstribution of moments are described and the methods of analysis has been indicated.1972 The experimental verificatiorr’ of tha practical engineering structures. plastic theory (which bases the design of structures on the maximum strength) has also been indicated. To steel industry. axial force.
Bee&e. 9 . New York. Inc. This assistance was made available to IS1 through Messrs Ramseyer & Miller. USA. Professor of Structural Engineering. They are requested to send such valuable suggestions to ISI which will be received with appreciation and gratitude. they will be able to suggest modifications and additions for improving its utility. Lehigh University. Bethlehem. Dr Bcedle prepared the preliminary draft of this handbook.1972 In the preparation of this handbook. Iron. No handbook of this kind may be made complete for all times to come at the very first attempt. and Steel Industry Consultants. the technical committee has derived vahlable assistance from Dr Lynn S. by the Technical Co-operation Mission to India of the Government of India under their Technical Assistance Programmc.SP: 6(6) . As designers and cnginecrs begin to USC it.
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= Strain-hardening E.. . actual column length Critical length for lateral buckling Moment 11 f = f = G = Gt H HB I I‘ = = = I* J z = = = K k = KL L L‘. = s M Fixity factor for :se in evaluating and restraint coefficient Modulus of elasticity in shear Modulus of elasticity in shear at onset of strain-hardening Hinge rotation required at a plastic hinge Portion of hinge rotation that occurs in critical (buckling) seg. = Area of split-tee Aw = Area of web between flanges = Flange width b Distance from neutral axis to the extreme fibre Depth of section E = Young’s modulus of elasticity 5 ii = Es. ment of beam Moment of inertia Moment of inertia of elastic part of cross-section Moment of inertia of plastic part of cross-section Number of remaining redundancies iu a structure that is redundant at ultimate load Euler length factor Distance from flange face to end of f2lct Effective (pin end) length of column Span length.SP : 6(6) .. modulus = 2 rt = Tangent modulus s = Eccentricity Load factor of safety Shape factor = M. iu = = = = .1972 SYMBOLS Symbols used in this handbook shall have the meaning assigned to them as indicated below: A E Area of cross-section AP = Arca of both flanges of WF shape A.
N hinge moment modified to include the effect of axial compression Plastic hinge moment modified to include effect of shear force Maximum moment of a simply-supported beam Moment at which yield point is reached in flcxure occurs when axial = Moment = = = = . = R . y. hinge moment Plastic moment Plastic moment capacity of a beam section is Mb MO Mp Mp = = = = Mpc = Plastic M. Pt P" P. 2c. P = Aa. and z directions = Total distributed Joad W 12 . M. Rotation capacity Radius of gyration Section modulus. I/C Section modulus of elastic part of cross-section Force Flange thickness Stiffner thickness v = Shear force v’c = Shear carrying capacity of a section _. Mps = = = i&c M. = = = = = = P.SP: m 6(6) = .. w = Displacements in x. T tf = = = ts t. v. = = = s.1972 Number of plastic hinges developed in a structure that redundant at ultimate load Moment at the haunch point End moment. = = Web t hickncss load. at which initial outer fibre yield thrust is present Moment at the working load Number of possible plastic hinges Number of possible independent mechanisms Concentrated load PC. P. A load used as the ‘maximum column load ’ Euler buckling load Reduced modulus load Stabilizing load Tangent modulus load Theoretical ultimate load Working load Axial load corresponding to yield stress level. = Useful column P‘ P. a useful maximum moment.
1972 WINT WU X x x Y Y 2 2.SF: 6(6) W W Wd EXT= = = = . curvature Curvature corresponding to first yield in flexure . a.rt QWY = = = = 0. 2 AL 6 d Gt CY = = = = = = = 8 p” d QY = = = = = 9 0. rotation. fJY = I = = Y = Plastic modulus of elastic portion Plastic modulus of plastic portion Lateral co-ordinate Equivalent length of connection DCflection Strain Strain at strain-hardening Strain corresponding to first attainment of yield stress level Measured angle change. = = = = = = = = External work due to virtual displacement Internal work due to virtual displacement Distributed load per unit of length Thickness of the wet doublers Total uniformity distributed load Number of redundancies Longitudinal coordinate Distance to position of plastic hinge undrr distributed Transverse coordinate Distance from neutral axis to centroid of half-area Plastic modulus = MtJ CY load 2. Rotation Poisson’sratio Radius of curvature Nomial stress Lower yield poiat Proportion limit Residual stress Ultimate tensile strength of material Upper yield point Working stress Yield stress level Shear stress Rotation per unit length. or average unit rotation.
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2 Specific application may be made to staticallyloaded frames of structural steel to continuous beams.2 Although there are a few instances where conscious use has been made of thisproperty. 2. to single-storeyed industrialframes and to such other structureswhose condition of loading and geometry are consistent with the assumptions involved in the theory. the theory concerning the plasticbehaviour of continuous steel frames has been systematized and reduced to simple design procedures.3 Engineers have known of thisductility for years. 2. Thisgoal has been achieved because two important conditions have been satisfied. SCOPE 1. every conceivable factor that might tend to Limit the load-carrying capacity to something less than that predicted 15 2. 2. First. Secondary design considerations are also included.1 Steel possesses ductility.SECTION A INTRODUCTION 1. Through ductilitystructural steel is able to absorb large deformations beyond the elasticlimitwithout the danger of fracture.a unique . Numerous applications will undoubtedly be made to other types of structures such as rings and arches. Plastic design is the realization that of goal.1 It is the purpose of this handbook to present the fundamental concepts involved in plastic design and to justify its application to structural steel frames. and since the 190’6 have been attempting to see if some conscious use could be 2 made of this property in design.but for the time being the scope of application is limited to the indicated structural types. The methods of plastic analysis will be described together with the design procedures that have so far been developed. Secondly. 1. GENERAL property that no other structural material exhibitsiu quite the same way. by and Large the engineer has not been able to fullyexploit thisfeature of ductilityin structural steeL As a resultof these limitations it turns out that considerable sacrifice economy of is involved in the so-called ‘ conventional ’ design procedures.
STRUCTURAL STRENGTH and rules have been 3.2 The ability to carry the load may be termed ‘structural strength’. refers to the serial number of the selected references given in 16 . deflections.SP: 6(6) . As already mentioned.5 It ha. 3. 3. and finally the attainment of maximum plastic strength. ‘Secondly it consists of a consideration by rules or formulas of certain factors that might otherwise tend to prevent the structure from attaining the computed maximum load.1972 by the simple plastic theory has been investigated formulated to safeguard against such factors. the last of the limits _ the attainment of maximum plastic strength. *This number Appendix A.1 The design of any engineering structure. Others are associated only with the plastic behaviour of the structure. the structural strength or design load of a steel frame may be determined or controlled by a number of factors. ‘ Plastic design ’ as an aspect of limit design and as applied to continuous beams and frames embraces. Broadly speaking. is satisfactory if it is possible to built it with the needed economy and if throughout its useful life it carries its intended loads and otherwise performs its intended function. 3. although the term usually has been applied to the determination of ultimate load as limited by buckling or maximum strengthl*. a design ba~sed on any one of the above-mentioned six factors could be roferred to as a ’ limit design ‘. it is necessary to make a general analysis of structural strength and secondly to examine certain details to assure that local failure does not occur. in the process of selecting suitable members for such a structure. Continuous or ‘ rigid ’ frames are able to carry increased loads above ’ first yield ’ because structural steol has the capacity to yield in a ductile manner with no loss in strength. brittle fracture. be it a bridge or building. But the unique feature of plastic design is that the ultimaL load rather than the yield trse s is regarded as the de&u Criterion. Some of these factors may be present in conventional (elastic) design.4 Thus. instability. 3.3 Strictly speaking. plastic design is first a design on the basis of the maximum load the structure will carry as determined from an analysis of strength in the plastic range (that isi a plastic analysis). then. fatigue. factors that have been called ‘limits of structural usefulness ‘. the structure has a much greater load-carrying capacity than indicated by the elastic stress concept. These are: first attainment of yield point stress (conventional design). long been known that whenever members are rigidly connected. 3.
calls upon its less-heavily stressed portions to carry the increase in load. the structure would simply deform at constant load.1972 indeed. 1 DESIGN PLASTIC DESIGN PLASTIC DESIGNCOMPARED WITH ELASTIC DESIGN 17 . Eventually.6 At the outset it is essential to make a clear distinction between elastic design and plastic design. 3. 1 such a beam has a reserve of strength of 1. a member is selected such that the maximum allowable bending stress is equal’ to 1 650 kgf/cm2 at the working load.65 if the yield point stress is 2 400 kgf/cm*. the cross-section with the greatest bending moment will eventually reach the yield moment. Due to the ductility of steel there is an OESIBN BASIS 0 CONVENTIONAL FIG. the moment at that section remains about constant. After reaching the maximum load value. with frequent increase in resistance. The structure. therefore. Although the phenomenon will be described in complete detail later. but due to the ductility of steel. a zone of yielding develops at the first critical section. Elsewhere the structure is elastic and the ‘peak ’ moment values are less than yield. In cmventional elastic design practice. zmes of yielding are formed at other sections until the moment capacity has been exhausted at all necessary critical sections. As !oad is added.SP: 6(6) . in general terms what happens is this: As load is applied to the structure. As shown in Fig.
Actually these are few in number.. A design based on any chosen limit of structural PlasticDesign . 1. Ultimate Load (P. it is much easier to analyze an indeterminate structure for its ultimate load than to compute the yield load.Plasticdesign naturally involves the use of some new terms. but for convenience are listed below : Limit Designusefulness. The term ‘ plastic’ is derived from the fact that the ultimate load is computed from a knowledge of the strength of steel in the plastic range.9 While there are other features here. 3.. on the other hand. Thus the total inherent overload factor of safety is equal to 1~65x1~12=1~85 as an average value. 18 . is determined by multiplying the expected working load (PW) by the load factor (see below).85) and a member is selected that will reach this factored load. the design commences with the lcltimateload. thing to note isthat the factor of safety isthe same in the plasticdesign of the indeterminate structureas it is in the conventional design of the simple beam.) or Maximum Strength.SP: 6(6)‘- 1072 additional reserve whichamounts to 12 to 14 percent for a wide flange shape. of full plastic yield of the crossmoment of resistance of a fullysection. is multiplied by the same load factor (1.85 and selects a member whichwill just support the ultimate load.) In the design P.The highest load a structurewillcarry.7 In plastic design.A design based upon the ultimate load-carrying capacity (maximum strength) of the structure. 3. yielded Plastijicath The development PlasticMoment (M&. P. the important point to get in mind at this stage is that in conventional procedures one computes the maximum moment under the working load and selects a member such that the maximum stress is not greater than 1650 kgf/cm2 on the other hand in plastic design one multiples the working load by F = 1.) Thus the working load. (As willbe evident later. 3. (It is not to be confused with the term as applied to the ultimate load carried by an ordinary tensile test specimens.10 Terminology . It has the same ultimate load as the conventional design of the The important simple beam and the member is elastic at working load. 3.8 The load v deflection curve for the restrained beam is shown in Fig.Maximum cross-section.
SP:6(6) - 1972
Plasticl odzclus (Z)- Combined static moments about the neutral axis of the cross-sectional areas above and below the neutral axis. PlasticHiqe e A yielded section of a beam which acts as if it were hinged, except with a constant restraining moment. Shape Factor (fl- The ratio of the maximum of a cross-section (M,) to the yield moment Mechanism - A ‘ hinge system ‘, a system move without an increase in load. resisting (M,). moment that can
Redistributiorc Moment 4 A process which results in the sucof cessive formation of plastic hinges until the ultimate load is reached. By it, the less-highly stressed portions of a structure also may reach the (M&-value. Load Factor (F)- A safety factor. The term is selected to emphasize the dependence upon load-carrying capacity. It is the number by which *the working load is multiplied to obtain P,. 4. MECHANICAL
4.1 An outstanding PROPERTIES OF STEEL
property of steel, which (as already mentioned) sets it apart from other structural materials, is the amazing ductility which it possesses. This is characterized by Fig. 2 which shows in somewhat idealized form the stress-strain properties of steel in the initial portion of the curve. In Fig. 3 are shown partial tensile stress-strain curves for a number of different steels. Note that when the elastic limit is reached, elongations from 8 to 15 times the elastic limit take place without any decrease in load. Afterwards some increase in strength is exhibited as the material strain hardens. 4.2 Although th; first application of plastic design is to structures fabricated of structural grade steel, it is not less applicable to steels of
STRESS-STRAIN CURVE OF S~-42STEEL IDEALIZED 19
--W&RAIN $0 STR4IN
HARDENINO 3dx10-2 C
STRESS-STRAIN OF ST&~ AND CURVE
higher strengthas long as theypossessthe necessary ductility.Figure 3 attests to the abilityof a wide range of steels to deform plastically withcharacteristics similar steel conforming to IS: to 226-1969*. 4.3 Itisimportant to bear in mind thatthe strains shown in Fig. 3 are reallyvery small. As shown in Fig. 4, for ordinary structural steel, finalfailure rupture by occursonly after a specimen has stretched some
FIG.4 COMPLETE STRESS-STRAIN CURVE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL -.__*Structural steel (standard quality) (fourthrcuision).
SP:6(6) - 1972 15 to 25 times the maximum strain that is encountered in plastic design. Even in plastic design, at ultimate load the critical strains will not have exceeded percentage elongation of about 1.5. Thus, the use of ultimate load as the design criterion still leaves available a major portion of the reserve ductility of steel which may be used as an added margin of safety. This maximum strain of 1.5 percent is a strain at ultimate load >n the structure not at working load. In most cases under working load the strains will still be below the elastic limit.
of steel (characterized by Fig. 2) it is now possible to calculate quickly the maximum carrying capacity of certain elementary structures. As a first example take a tension member such as an eye bar (Fig.. 5). The stress is Q = P/A. The lo&d v deflection relationship will be\ elastic until the yield point is reached. As shown in Fig. 5 deflection at the elastic limit is given by 6, = P,L/AE.
5.1 On the basis of the ductility
P,, s $A
$1 : 7:
MAXIMUM STRENGTH OF AN EYE BAR (DETERMINATE STRUCTURE) 21
Since the stress distribution is uniform across the section, unrestricted plastic flow willset in when the load reached the value given by
Thisis, therefore, the ultimate load. It is the maximum load the structure will carry without the onset of unrestricted plastic flow. As a second example consider the three-bar structure shown in Fig. 6. It is not possible to consider the state of stress by staticsalone and thus it is indeterminate. Consider the elastic state. From the equilibrium condition there is obtained:
where T1 is the force in bars 1 and
.. . .. . . ..(l) T, the force in the bar 2.
L 0 OEFLECTION -
PLASTICAND ELASTICANALYSISOF AN INDETERMINATESYSTEM
The next condition to consider is continuity. For a rigid cross bar, the total displacement of Bar 1 willbe equal to that of Bar 2. Therefore: l-14 T&a
AE - AE T,= 2
. . . (2)
(as L,= 2L.J
With this relationshipbetween T, and T, obtained condition, using Eq (1) it is found that:
by the continuity
6 is indicated at the bottom.(7) The basic reason for t. Thus. These same features are all that are required to complete the plastie analysis of an indeterminate beam or frame. namely. the ultimate load: .1972 The load at which the structure will tirst yield may then be determined by substituting in Eq (4) the maximum load which T. P. . 6. = 3ayA plastic it deforms as if it were a force equal to CT. and in fact.1 The concept of design based on ultimate load as the criterion is more than 40 years old ! The application of plastic analysis to structural design appears to have been initiated ‘by Dr Gabor Kazinszy. The load-deflection relationship for the structure shown in Fig. a Hungarian. from: . . . load would .. when the structure is partially two-bar structure except that a constant Bar 2 (the member is in the plastic until the load reaches the yield value how easily it is possible to compute P.. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 6. . and c) There was unrestricted plastic flow at the ultimate load.. . . . Not until the load reaches that value computed by a plastic analysis (Eq 7) did the deflections commence to increase rapidly... . .. This situation continues Notice in the two outer bars.. this simple example illustrates all of the essential features of a plastic analysis.(6) Now. .his simplicity is that the continuity condition need not be considered when the ultimate load in the plastic range is being computed. . analysis .. .A yield 2E .. oYA .(5) at the or..A is supplied by range). q2& 2 .SP:6(6) .= 2a. can reach.. of the structure (each bar) reached b) The equilibrium condition was satisfied at ultimate load. be determined .= The displacement 8= Y 2T. The deflection when the ultimate load is first reached can be computed from: I.....(8) are as follows: a plastic yield The three essential features of this simple plastic a) Each portion condition.. who published results of his Tests2 of Clamped Girders as early as 23 .
5. 24 . F. He also now current. the Welding Research Council. These studies have featured not only the verification of thismethod of analysis through appropriate tests on large structures. since in such cases a failure owing to the fatigue of metal is excluded and only failure due to the yielding of metals has to be considered. Baker6310 and his associates in Great Britain to utilizeactually the plastic reserve strength as a design criterionare well known. In so doing he corroborated the procedures previously developed by others for the calculation of maximum load capacity. *Code - of practice for use of structural steel in general building construction (rcuised). 6. It is already a part of the British Standard specifications and numerous structuresboth in Europe and North America have been constructed to designs based upon the plastic method. and carried out. IS:800-1962* permits the use of Plastic Theory in the design of steel structures (see 13. Progress in the theory of plastic structural analysis (particularly that at Brown University) has been summarized by Symonds and Neal’. 6.2 In hisStrength of Materialsa.3 For more than ten years the American Institute of Steel Constnmtion. Early tests in Germany were made by Maier-Leibnitz’ who showed that the ultimate capacity was not affected by settlement of supports of continuous beams.1 of IS:800-1962*).1972 1914. but have given particular attention to the conditions that should be met to satisfy important secondary design requirements. the Navy Department and the American Iron and Steel Institute have sponsored studies at Lehigh University6**se.SP: 6(6) . suggested analytical procedures similar to those designs of apartment-type buildings were actually 6. The effortsof Van den Broekl in USA and J. Timoshenko refersto early suggestions to utilize ultimate load capacity in the plasticrange and states as follows: Such a procedure appears ‘logical the case of steel structures in submitted to the action of stationary loads.4 Plasticdesign has now ‘come of age ‘.
The full strength mitted to another. This is because the ultimate load capacity of a simple beam is but 10 to 15 percent greater than the hypothetical yield point. spreading of supports. such procedures have tended to overemphasize the importance of stress rather than strength as a guide in engineering design and have introduced a complexity that now seems unnecessary for a large number of structures. are the magnitudes of the stresses really important ? 7. By welding it is possible joints and connectionsand to do of one member may thus be trans- 7. Baker and his associates as a forerunner to their ultimate strength studies clearly indicated this. in 7. course.5 It has often been demonstrated that elastic stress analysis cannot predict the real stress-distribution in a building frame with anything like the degree of accuracy that is assumed in the design.3 Actually the idea of design on the basis of ultimate load rather than allowable stress is a return to the realistic point of view that had to be adopted by our forefathers in a very crude way because they did not possess knowledge of mathematics and statics that would allow them to compute stresses.4 The introduction of welding. While it would seem logical to extend elastic stress analysis to indeterminate structures. and deflections start increasing verv rapidly at such a load. The work done in England by Prof. WHY PLASTIC DESIGN 7.2 It is true that in simple structures the concept of the hypothetical yield point as a limit of usefulness is rational. ’ why use elastic design ?’ If the structure will support the load and otherwise meet its intended function. 7.SECTION B JUSTIFICATION FOR PLASTIC DESIGN 7. sinking of supports.6 Examples of ‘ imperfections ’ that cause severe irregularity measured stresses are: differences in beam-column connection fit-up and flexibility. 7. has been a very real stimulus of frames. residual stresses.1 What is the justification for plastic design ? One could reverse the question by asking. 25 . of to studies of the ultimate strength to achieve complete continuity at it economically.
it is a similar design office technique. however. 8. and it constitutes a rational design basis. usually do flexibility assumed where actually and points of stress concentration. INA. 7. not influence the maximum plastic 7.7 Assuming to justify our criteria there economy and that stress is not the most rational design criteria.11 Thus the application of plastic analysis should be considered seriously because it provides a less-expensive structure. This was evident from a consideration of the three-bar truss in Section A (Fig. the practical answer is ‘ no ‘. present.DEQUACY OF STRESS AS THE DESIGN CRITERION 8.65 up to 3 or more for structures designed according to conventional elastic methods.9 The second feature was ‘ simplicity ‘.1972 there is rigidity (and Such factors. 8.2 To a greater a structure has extent always than we may realize. An analysis based upon ultimate load possesses an inherent simplicitv because the elastic condition of continuity need no longer be considered. There are two such advantages: simplicity. the maxnnum been the dominant design criteria. 7. Numerous demonstrations of this will be made later in this bandbook. Also the ’ imperfections ’ mentioned above usually may be disregarded.SP: 6(6) . then structural members of smaller size will adequately support the working loads when design is based on maximum strength.8 Since there is considerable reserve of strength beyond the elastic limit and since the corresponding ultimate load may be computed quite accurately. these concepts are verified by tests and (as we shall now see) they have been used consciously or unconsciously in conventional design practice.10 As already mentioned the concept is more rational. will it not be possible simply to change the allowable stress and retain the present stress concept ? While theoretically possible. in order further consideration of maximum strength as the design must be other advantages. It would mean a different working stress for every type of structure and would vary for different loading conditions. By plastic analysis the engineer can determine with an accuracy that far exceeds his presently available techniques the real maxirnum strength of a Thereby the factor of safety has more real meaning than at structure. 6) and the examples of Section D will demonstrate this further. Further. 26 strength of When the . It is not unusual for the factor of safety to vary from I. strength.1 The question immediately arises. 7. 7. vice-versa).
stresses. Long experience with Thus. leading to design 8) of connections on tbe assumption of a uniform distribution of stresses among the rivets.because of the compensating effect of ductility.3 A number of examples will now be given in which the ductility of steel has been counted upon (knowingly or not) in elastic design. Residual cambering beams. or welds. etc. 6) Bending stresses in angles connected in tension by one leg only. It should be borne in mind that plastic analysis has not generally been used as a basis for determining these particular design rules and as a result the so-called elastic stress formulas have been devised in a rather haphazard fashion. they simply provide an index for structura’ design.4 Such examples are the following and are listed in two categories: (a) factors that are neglected . at points of bearing: 7) Over-stress Non-uniform stress-distribution in splices. the stresses that are calculated for design purposes are not true maximum stresses at all. similar structures so designed shows that this is a safe procedure. arising from the ‘ cantilever ’ 9) Difference in stress-distribution as compared with the ‘ portal’ method of wind stress analysis . as the design criterion. A rational basis for the design of a complete steel frame (as well as its details) can only be attained when the maximum strength in the plastic range is adopted. 3) Erection settlements. then that stress has been changed. etc) .1972 permissible working stress of 1 400 k&ma has led to designs that were consistently too conservative. 8. bolts. notches. 8. Several examples of each are given: a) F&tom that are neglected: stresses stresses (in the resulting case of flexure from the due to cooling of after 1) Residual 2) rolling) . 27 . 4) Foundation Over-stress at points 5) of stress-concentration (holes.SP: 6(6) . and (b) instances in which the working stresses have been revised because the ‘ normal ’ value was too conservative. Thus the benefits of plasticity have” been used consciously or unconsciously in design. It is also evident to most engineers that present design procedures completely disregard local over-stressing at points of stressconcentration like bolt holes.
In the example of Fig.kgf/cm2 for rol!ed and plate girders respectively (m IS: 800-1962 ). All rolled members contain residual stresses that are formed due to cooling after rolling or due to cold-straightening. Consider Item (a) (1) for example. As a result. the ’ final stress’ could easily involve yielding at working load. 1 575 . 7 (mviscd). 3) Bending tures at 4) Bending sae$ons stress of 1 687 kgf/cm2 (or 24 ksi) in framed strucpoints of interior supports. 2) Bearing stress of 2 812 kgf/cms (or 40 ksi) on pins in double shear . stress of 1 65? kgf/cm2 and. When load carrying bending stresses are applied. 7. and 1 890 kgf/cm2 in flat bases. such yielding has RESIDUAL STRESS APPLIED STRESS FINAL STRESS (d) (a) (b) (cl (0) FIG. 7. the resulting strains are additive to the residual strains already present. 1 575 kgf/cm* for plate girders.SP:6(6)- 1972 10) IS: 800-1962 specifies the following values for bending stresses: 1 650 kgf/cm” for rolled sections. RESIDUAL STRESSES IN A ROLLED BEAM SECTION steel in general building construction *Code of practice use of structural for 28 . A typical wide flange shape with a typical residual stress pattern shown in Fig. 5) Bending stress of 1 890 kgf/cms in slab bases (iu IS: 800-1962*). b) Revisions in working stress due to reserve plastic strength: 1) Bending stress of 2 109 kgf/cm2 (or 30 ksi) in round pins (in AISC specification) .
the desien of a riveted or bolted joint [Item (a) (8) is made that each fastener carries the p-0 P=Py (21 P=P” FIG. Although the yield-point load is reduced as a result of these ’ erection moments ’ (in the second line of the figure. the ultimate load moment diagrams for cases 1 and 2 are identical.ructure prior to the application of external load (see first line for P = 0). Thus. The reason for this is that redistribution of moment followed the onset of yielding at the corners (case 2) until the plastic moment was reached at the beam centre. it is during these three operations that ductility of steel beyond the yield point is called upon to the greatest degree.SP: 6(6) . 8. there is no valid basis to prohibit it thereafter. 8 shows how erection forces will introduce bending moment into a st. influence is neglected cause yielding in the compression flange tips and at the centre of the it is seen that cooling residual stresses (whose and yet which are present in all rolled beams) flange tips even below the working load. The common ass&ption 8. provided such yield has no adverse effect upon the structure. next. Having permitted such yielding in the mill. in 8. shop and field.1972 occurred both at the tension flange.41. the yield-point load has been reached for case 2). therefore. fabricated in a shop or forced into position during erection. 8 DEMONSTRATION THAT ERECTION STRESSES DO NOT INFLUENCE ULTIMATE LOAD 29 .6 Consider. Fig. Actually.5 Structural members experience yield while being straightened in the mill.4. them is #o efect whatever on the maximum’ strength. As an illustration of item (a) (3) in the list in 8.
7 A ’ revised working stress ’ example [see Item (b) (1) in 8. However. with four rivets. the lower for a typical wide flange beam.1972 When same shear force. outer fastners should carry the greater portion of the load. whereas that of the pin is I. most of the usable strength has been exhausted. Therefore. IF 9 REDITRIBUTION S OF HEAR S N I THE FASTENERS A LAPJOINT OF 30 . The upper curve is for the pin. the non-dimensional plot being such that the two curves coincide in the elastic range.70 My. The permissible design stresses (for steel with yield stress 36 ksi) according to specifications of the American Institute of Steel Construction are 1 550 kgf/cmz (or 22 ksi) for the wide flange beam and 2 320 kgf/cm2 (or 30 ksi) for the round pin. A B c D G. the basis for design of a rivet joint is really its ultimate load and not the attainment of first yield. The actual forces would look something like these shown under the heading ‘ Elastic ‘. 8. 10 and is concerned with the design of a round pin. 10.SP: 6(6) . then. more are added (Fig. it would stretch three times as much and would necessarily force the outer rivet D to carry more load. beam with wide flanges. the For example. The relation between bending moment and curvature for wide flange and round beams is shown in Fig. when the maximum stress due to bending reaches the yield point. for some cross-sectional shapes. between rivets C and D one plate would carry perhaps three times the force in the other. The maximum bending strength of the wide flange beam is l-14 MY.41 is shown In a simple in Fig. 9). Therefore. redistributing forces to the inner rivets until all forces are about equal. much additional load may be carried without excessive deflections. if each rivet transmitted the same load. What eventually happens is that the outer rivets yield. This is true only in the case of two fasteners. then as long as the joint remains elastic.
61 QY =* 2 320 Pin: -=20= 0. moments. for the pin.= c M 6 = My Therefore. on the other hand.61 M. and load all bear a linear relationship to one another in the elastic range and thus: P p.= 0. is indicative of the influence of long years of experience on the part of engineers 31 . M. the moment at allowable working stress (M.91 =Y For a simplv-supported beam the stresses.SP: 6(6) . while somewhat of a coincidence.87 Pin : 1.91 My.87 The exact agreement between the true fktors of safety with respect to ultimate load in the two cases.91 My 0.‘: Wide flange: “0 = F5g = 0. What is the true load factor of safety for each case 1 Wide M Range:F=p~=M*=?_!% 0 ~&_2!%= 0.) in the wide flange beam is O-61 My. = 1.1972 5 A*Y lo FIG. 10 MAXIMUM STRENGTH OF A ROUND PIN COMPARED WITH THAT OF A WIDE FLANGE BEAM Expressing these stresses as ratios of yield point s+‘.
12. In the tests conducted on pinned and fixed basis and with flat.1 In the previous clauses some of the important concepts of the plastic theory are described. saw tooth ant1 gabled roofs.SP: 6(6) . and redistribution of moment. In Lecture 4 of Ref 12 (see Appendix A). the ultimate load computed by the plastic theory was reached and in numerous cases it exceeded’a14s*44. In the last analysis.8 Permitting a 20 percent increase in the allowable working stress at points of interior support in continuous beams represents another case in which both experience ad a ‘ plastic analysis ’ justify a revision in working stresses. the choice of such stresses is fully justified on this basis. foregoing influenced the choice of different unit stresses that give identical factors of safety with various sections.1972 which has resulted in different permissible working stresses for various Probably no such analysis as the conditions resulting in practice. the computed ultimate load was attained. 9. 9. the development of plastic hinges in beams and %oiinections.4 Further tests conducted on frames fabricated from rolled sections have shown that the actual strength of even the weakest structure was within 5 percent of its predicted ultimate load an agreement much better than obtained at the so-called ‘ elastic limit ‘~J6*20*a0@*u. 11). the load-deflection curve being shown in Fig. In spite of this. the most important verification of plastic theory is that given by the results of full-scale tests and some of these will now be presented. nevertheless. In tests on beams with three supports. 9. 8. The structure carried the predicted ultimate load. the experimental confirmation of these assumptions is given. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION 9. with the result that application of the first increment of external load caused the structure to yield. How well does structural behaviour bear out the theory ? Do structures reaily contain the ductility assumed ? If we test a ’ full size ’ structure with rolled members will it actually carry the load predicted by plastic analysis 1 9. applying the vertical load.2 The important assumptions made with regard to the plastic behaviour of structures are recapitulated in Fig. 32 . demonstrating the ductility of steel. the central support was raised until the yield point was: first reached. When years of experience and common sense have led to certain empirical practices these practices are usually justified on a scientific basis.3 Typical structures were tested both in USA and other countries.
and in applying it to the appropriate design problems 7 The answer is ‘yes’. in studying it.SP: 6(6) . Is the engineer now justified in giving further attention to the method of plastic analysis. 33 .Indeed. 11 ASSUMPTIONS MADE IN REGARD TO PLASTIC BEHAVIOUROF STRUCTURES 10. in some instances as much load-carrying capacity is disregarded as is used in conventional design. THE CASE FOR PLASTIC DESIGN 10.1 As summarized in the preceding paragraphs the resultsof tests have verified the theory of plastic analysis.1972 -G MOMENT CAtXtTY= F’lASTC MOMENT -9 PlASTC HINGE &--i&ANISM UTIMATE WAD HING FIG. The case for plastic design tions : is illustrated by the following observa- conventional working loads is 4 The reserve in strength above considerable in indeterminate steel ‘structures.
a structure designed by the plastic method will deflect no more at working load than will a simply-supported beam designed by conventional methods to support the same load (Fig.SP: 6(6) . 1). At working load the structure is still in the so-called elastic range (Fig. Plastic design gives promise of economy in the use of steel. In most cases. It is important upon the maximum to ‘ details’. to bear in mind that dependence may be placed plastic strength only when proper attention is given are the secondary design considerations mentioned in Section E. of savings in the design office by virtue of its simplicity. These earlier and treated 34 . 12 LOAD-DEFLECTION CURVE OF A TEST FRAME b) Use d 4 4 of ultimate load as the design criterion provides at least the same margin of safety as is presently afforded in the elastic design of simple beams (Fig. 1). and of building frames more logically designed for greater over-all strength.1972 016 0 25 50 75 100 125 DEFLECTION cm IN 150 - 175 200 225 : FIG. 1).
to determine the moment-curvature (M-9) relationship.. Also.(lO) tsdA. (O<e<eJ . The properties in compression are assumed to be the same as those in tension. the behaviour of fibres in bending is the same as in tension. were limited to cases of simple tension and compression.(9) IAlCiZ I Af&Z adA . The equilibrium conditions are as given by Eq (10): Normal force: Moment : P= M= u = E u = 0. The next objective is to determine how a beam deforms beyond the elastic limit under the action of bending moments. b) the stress-strain relationship is idealized to consist of two straight lines: 4 **-. . that is. are sufficiently small so that + = tan 4 (+ = curvature). successive stages beyond the elastic limit (Stage 1) and up to 35 . ASSUMPTIONS OF BEAMS AND CONDITIONS 11.. The development of strain and stress distribution as a rectangular beam is bent in.’ (ey<c<co) > The complete stress-strain diagram is shown in Ffg. however. 4 and is shown in an idealized form in Fig. . that is.1 The moment-curvature relationship in the plastic range and the magnitude of the maximum plastic moment are developed by following the same processes as in elastic analysis. .1 Certain of the fundamental concepts of plastic analysis were prs sented in Section A (see 3 and 4).SECTION C FLEXURE 11. OF RECTANGULAR BEAM 12. The assumptions and conditions used in the following development are: a) strains are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis (plane sections under bending remain plane after deformation). consider the deformed structure and obtain the corresponding cur$-ature and moment.y 4 Deformations 12. 2. BENDING where o is the stress at distance j from the neutral axis. The examples there..
the extreme fibre strains are twice the elastic limit value. At Stage 1. 12. a progressive increase in bending moment. the strains have reached the yield strain. at Stage 4 the extreme fibre has strained to Ed:. as shown in the next line of Fig.2 Let us now trace the stages of yield stress penetration in a rect. 13 is replotted for reference purposes the stress-strain relationship.3 What are the stress distributions that correspond to these strain diagrams 1 These are shown in the next line of Fig. Finally. When more moment is applied (say to Stage 2).SP: 6(6) . 12. The strain distribution is first selected or assumed and this fixes the stress-distribution. 13. 13 PLASTIC BENDING OF RECTANGULAR BEAMS the plastic limit (Stage 4) is shown in Fig. 13. The situation is similar for Stage 3 (ran = 4~~). 13.1972 STRESS vs STRAIN t 6 STRAINS STRESSES OISTRBUTIONS FIG.angular beam subjected to. At the top of Fig. As long as the .
13 is shown in Fig. Eq Stage 2 of the example 11 the curvature thus shown in Fig.. relative rotation of two sections a unit distance apart. as could be noticed from the stressstrain curve that the stress remains constant at o The stress distributions. . 13 is the curvature. 15. The corresponding moment-value is obtained by integration of stress-areas. is the ordinate to the neutral axis to the farthest still elastic fibre... 4. From .a rectangular is very close to the stress distribution at Stage 4. The expressions for curvature and moment (and.(11) where P .. . thus. where y. the first assumption (as in elastic bending): pattern which This is the According to . To compute the bending moment for this same Stage 2.(12) “=$0 . . The moment of (jq_~ $+ YIELD ZONE MOMENT STRAIN $iG$ 'QY STRESS FIG. stress-distribution the diagram is used. Curvature at a given stage is obtained. is a basic the relationship concept in plastic analysis.. A new term introduced in Fig.radius of curvature and l. 14. follow directly from the assume 8’ strain distributions. .from a particular stress-distribution*. 14 STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN A PARTIALLY PLASTIC RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION *Even though curvature isa measure of straindistribution. of bending moment to this curvature.1972 strain is greater than the yield value G. the strain at a distance y from the.. the stressvaries linearly withstrain. therefore.SP: 6(6) . the resulting M-4 curve) follow directly from Fig. As a limit we obtain the ‘ stress block ‘. 37 . the stress distribution of Fig. neutral axis. The derivation of expressions for curvature and moment now follow. 14 is divided into parts in Fig. J us t as it is basic to the fundamentals of elastic analysis. since in the elasticrange. becomes: . 13..
. . and plastic modulus.. General methods for computing 2 will be discussed later. . S.2 Yo I YO 42 u. It is called the plastic modulus... be derived directly 13 may also . $ = by: 6 e S = b(2YJ2 =jb2y.(14) .uyz.1972 6 3 M t s t $ SY 6Yh + 4= 6Y 6YG FIG.. and plastic from Eq $0.y+2 0 d/2 IYO . a.bay .. or: as being made up of an elastic (u$.. u. . necessary values for section modulus.. 38 . = 6 uys.15 STRESS ELEMENTS OF A PARTIALLYPLASTIC DESIGN be considered (u&).bdy.+c&.+uJ--a&e = ‘ B ’ and ‘ p ’ refer to the elastic respectively. For the rectangular section. Referring M= = crdA. . Equation 14: A M = crJ. .y 2 = 5 YO 0 c$ibdy.y .(13a) j:r y. .) . S.SP:6(6) . and (for symmetric sections) represents twice the statical moment (taken about the neutral axis) of the plastic section area above or below that axis.. . Fig. + Y”y?bay I +=.bdy.y 2 I 0 2 o- YO u...(13) portions to resistance may thus and a plastic part where the subscripts of the cross-section.y+2 = uy = The quantity Z is a property of a cross-section that corresponds in importance to the section modulus. 2by..=32 bd2 z=4 z* = z-z.bdy. . Z for use in Eq 13 are: Z.S.
(16) From the equations just derived for curvature and moment.(15) is reduced to M.. moment ‘. 16 correspond to ’ stages ’ of 0 1 2 3 4 * @Y 5 6 7 4 6 9 10 FIG. the bending moment in terms of Z is given by. *** . . ... The numbers in circles in Fig..SP: 6(6) Thus.. both relationship M wY=2- 3 c 1 1 3 MY)” ... .(19) ($4 I The resulting non-dimensional M-4 curve for a rectangle is shown in Fig. ... part ... .. .s: ($y<$<co) is obtained . .. by dividing .. 16 NON-DIMENSIONAL MOMENT-CURVATURE RECTANGULAR BEAM RELATIONSHIP FOR 39 . In terms of y.(Z-&) The following non-dimensional sides of Eq 18 by My = 0... . Z Mp is called the ‘ plastic . 16...1972 . . The maximum zero or: moment is obtained when the elastic .(17) In terms of c$.. .. . then: I. we are now in a position to write the desired moment-curvature relationship. . using Eq 12: M=o.=a.. ..
Thus the ’ shape factor ’ is given by: . BENDING OF WIDE FLANGE BEAM 13.(20) For the rectangular indicated in Fig..1972 Fig. This represents one of the ’ sources of reserve strength beyond the elastic limit of a rigid frame. 13. 17. approached as a limit. the member acts just like a hinge except that deformation occurs under constant moment (the plastic-hinge moment). where Mp = uJ.2 A more realistic picture of the moment-curvature relationshipof a wide flange shape is shown in Fig. The ratio of the plastic moment (Mfi) to the yield moment (M. . represents complete plasticyield of the cross-section.at point 2 the. The resulting moment is.1 The action of a wide flange beam under bending moment is diathat all of the material grammatically shown in Fig. Ifit is assumed in a wide flange shape is concentrated in the flanges then (when the elastic limit is reached) the compression flange shortens at constant load and the tension flange lengthens at constant load. representing the increase of strength due to plastic action. . 17 IDEALIZEDMOMENT-CWRVATURE FLANGEBEAM 40 RELATIONSHIP FOR WIDE . Stage 4.member is partiallyplastic and at point 3 the cross-section approaches a condition of full plastic yield.).50 = as 13. constant. beam being considered. PLASTIC HINGE ( M=Mp) FIG.. will be a function of the cross-section form or shape. point 1 is the elastic limit. Note that there is a 50 percent increase in strength above the computed elastic limit (Stage 1) due to this ‘ plastification of the cross-section. 16.f = y + “-F 1. 18.SI’: 6(6) . therefore. 13.
As shown in Fig.SP: 6(6) . The moment due to each of these forces is equal to the product of the yield stress.2 = uyz Z-g_ FIG. ELASTIC PLASTIC WY 03s up= ‘= e. Mp. a. 18 TYPICAL THEORETICAL MOMENT-CURVATURE RELATIONSHIP OF WIDE FLANGE BEAM The magnitude of the moment.* 3 7. and the area above the neutral axis (A/Z) multiplied by the distance ji measured to the centre of gravity of that area. may be computed directlp from the stress distribution shown for Point 3.1972 FIG..19 ELASTICAND PLASTIC LIMITMOMENTS 41 .i. 19 it is equal to the couple created by the tensile and compressive forces.
The moment-curvature relationship may be developed for wide flange sh&pes by the same procedure as outlined for a rectangular crossDue to variation of width of section with depth.(23) FIG. the non-dlmensioual M-4 curve becomes: .. . M* = a.SP: 6(6) ...1972 Thus : Mp=2 CF. .(21) by 2.. the non-dimensional M-4 curve becomes: ~y=:(1_~~)+~[1__3(~... . stress... . modulus . . as before.(16) moments since the The quantity Ajj is called therefore.Z The plastic modulus.(22) For Case 2. .. when yielding is limited to the flanges and expressions arc necessary when yielding has pcnctratcd to the web. at every point on these areas is the same. 21)... . in which yielc!ing has penetrated through the flanges and into the web (Fig. jj = ay.. is thus equal to the combined statical of the cross-sectional areas above and below the neutral axis.)al (b l<&<($$> . 20)..4g the ‘ plastic . 2. 20 PLASTIC STRESS DISTRIBUTIONINWIDE FLANGE BEAM CASE 1: PARTIAL YIELDING 42 . ’ and . is denoted ... separate section.. the For Case 1. in which the yield zone has pcnetratcd part way through flanges (Fig.
43 . PLASTIC HINGE 14. rotation occurs at constant moment. The behaviour shown there is of basic importance to plastic analysis. 21 I PLASTIC STRESS DISTRIBUTION INWIDE FLANGE BEAM CASE 2: ARTIAL P ELDING IY The curve resulting from Eq 22 and 23 is shown in Fig.1 The reason a structure will support the computed ultimate load is that plastic hinges are formed at certain critical sections. Correspondingly there is a more rapid approach to kfP when compared with rectangle. is the plastic hinge. moment.) It will be noted that the shape factor is smaller than for the rectangle (compare Fig. An idealized M-4 curve is obtained by assuming (for a wide flange shape) that all of the material is concentrated in the flanges as shown in Fig. 14.1972 LU FIG. and b) the indefinite increase in 9 at constant M. the member remains elastic until the moment Thereafter. 18 for a (The stress-distributions correspond to the typical wide flange shape. that is. numbered points on the M-4 curve. 18) the moment has reached to within 2 percent of the full MP -value.SP: 6(6) . 17.Z. Mp According discrete points to the idealization of Fig. As a matter of fact when the curvature is twice the elastic limit value (Stage 2 of Fig. reaches Mp the member acts as if it were hinged except with a constant restraining This. 18). plastic hinges form at Actually the hinge extends over that part of zero length. the average value of ‘ f ’ for all wide flange beams being 1. What is the plastic hinge ? What factors influence its formation ? What is its importance ? The M-4 curve is characteristic of the plastic hinge (Fig. 17. According to it. Two features are particularly important : a) the rapid approach to M = MP = o. then. 16).14.
12 and the average is 1. 2 = Ay. already been defined for the symmetrical sections as twice moment about the neutral axis. varies for wide flange shapes from 1. however.. For wide flange beam shapes. the quantity determined directly from the properties of split tees and . earlier. Thus. 23 SHAPE FACTORS OF COMMON SYMMETRICAL SECTIONS 44 .. to the centre of gravity.14 for I shapes. 22 and 23. 22 NEUTRAL AXIS OF A TRIANGULAR SECTION SECTION FIG. and the length of hinge is assumed Closely related to the plastic hinge is the plastic modulus.. FIG. It has the statical As noted y may be thus: of the beam whose bending moment is greater than M is dependent on the loading and geometry. Examples of the ratio of Z/S = f for symmetrical shapes other than the wide flange are shown in Fig. of the half sectional area. and B = I+. 22 the elastic neutral axis is at a distance of 2/3d from the toe. The mode is 1.SP:6(6)- 1972 That length neglect this to be zero. Since P = 0. It is justifie 8' to ‘ distribution ‘. For sections ~with symmetry only about an axis in the plane of bending.09 to 1. The shape factors. the neutral axis at the plastic moment condition follows directly from Eq 10. while the ‘ plastic ’ neutral axis is at a distance of dl/Z. The general definition for Z is ‘ The cbmbined statical moments of the cross-sectional areas above and below the neutral axis ‘. where y1 is the distance from the flange . already defined as f = Z/S. . for equilibrium the area above the neutral axis should equal that below. for a triangular-section in Fig.22. 2.
except with a constant restraining moment Mp. (Fig. tb member actsas if it were hinged.2 This is exactly the process that took place in the case of the threebar truss of Fig. 15. several other factors influence the ability of members to form plastic hinges. M. d) The shape factor ( f = Z/S= beydnd the elastic limit. Other less highly-stressed sections maintain equilibrium with the increased load by a proportionate increase in moment. Application of the plastic hinge concept in 15. At those sections where plastic hinges are located. in most of the analytical work it is assumed that all plastic rotation occurs at a point. 17). Factors affecting the bending strength and stiffness of beams have been listed in Chapter 2 of Ref 9 (see Appendix A) with further reference being made to other sources of information on each factor. Some of these factors are important from the design point of view (such as shear.1972 In addition to the shape factor whose influence on strength has already been described. 6 except that tensile forces instead of moments were 45 .. at the end of each member meeting at a connection involving a change in geometry. it would be possible for plastic hinges to form at points of concentrated load.Thus in a framed structure with prismatic members. As load is added to a structure eventually the plastic moment is reached at a critical section -the section that is most highly stressed in the elastic range. b) Plastic hinges form at points of maximum moment . c) The plastic moment. 15. axial force. REDISTRIBUTION ‘ redistribution AY is one source of reserve strength -. equals aJ.I/c > to analysis is illustrated OF MOMENT 15.SP: 6(6) . Others are primarily of academic interest in so far as rout&e design applications are concerned. and at the point of zero shear in a span under distributed load. As further load is added. The following definitions or principles briefly summarize this clause and are ir. This process of redistribution of moment due to the successive formation of plastic hinges continues until the ultimate load is reached. instability) and are treated in Section E.lportant to a later understanding of plastic analysis: a) A @last& hiqe is a zo%e of yielding dzle to jlexure in a strzrctural memberAlthough its length depends on the geometry and loading.1 The second factor contributing to the reserve of strength is called of moment ’ and is due to the action of the plastic hinges. this plastic moment value is maintained while the section rotates.
As the load is further increased. STAGE 3 t M DEFLECTION - FIG. The formation of the plastic hinge at A will permit the beam to rotate there without absorbing any more moment. 15.1972 involved. a fixed ended beam with a concentrated load off-centre. STAGE 1 STAGE 2. Note that in this example WCwill consider the idealized M-4 relationship as shown in the lower left-hand portion. a plastic hinge eventually forms at Section B. The moments at sections B and C are less than the maximum moment.SP: 6(6) .3 The phenomenon of redistribution of moment will now be illustrated with the case shown in Fig. 24. When the force in Bar 2 reached the yield condition it remained constant there while the forces’continued to increase in Bars 1 and 3. Referring to the load-dcgection cut-w*: immediately below the moment diagrams the deflection is increasing at a greater rate. 24 RE-DISTRIBUTION OF MOMENTS 46 . As the load P is increased the beam reaches its elastic limit at the left end (Stage 1). The ultimate load was reached when all critical bars became plastic. (The dotted curve shows the more ‘ precise’ behaviour).
how to compute the ultimate load: Simply sketch a moment diagram such that plastic hinges are formed at a sufficient number of sections to allow ‘ mechanism motion ‘. range. It is evident from the load-deflection curve shown in the lower part of the figure that the formation of each plastic hinge acts to remove one of the indeterminates in the problem. Likewise the load-deflection curve of the beam in sketch c looks similar to the portion 2-3. Starting from Point 1 the Segment l-2 represents the load-deflection curve of the beam in sketch b loaded within the elastic range. Two further fundamental concepts in addition to the four listed in 14 are in summary of this clause and arc demonstrated by Fig.1972 Eventually. the bending moment diagram for the uniformly-loaded. 24: a) The formation of plastic hinges allows a subsequent redistribution of moment until Mp is reached at each critical (maximum) section. when the load is increased sufficiently to !orm a plastic hinge at Point C. all of the available moment capacity of the beam will have been exhausted and the ultimate load reached. 25. Thus in Fig. b) The maximum load will be reached when a sufficient number of plastic hinges have formed to create a mechanism.SP: 6(6) . and the subsequent load-deflection In the elastic relationship will be that of a new (and simpler) structure. the deflection under load can be determined for the completely elastic beam. This situation is called a ‘ mechanism ’ in the somewhat special condition that motion is possible without an increase in load. 25 MOMENT DIAGRAM VARIOUSSTAGESFORFIXED-ENDED AT BEAM WITH UNIFORMLY’ DISTRIBUTED LOAD 47 . at Stage 3. On the basis of the principles just discussed one may readily visualize. Beyond Stage 3 the beam willcontinue to deform without an increase inload just like a link mechanism if the plastic hinges were replaced by real hinges. fixed-ended beam would be drawn such FIG.
3 pY Considering the average shape factor of wide flange beams. With these fundamental concepts regarding the mechanical properties of steel and the flexure of beams we are now in a position to examine the methods of plastic analysis. mechamsm is formed. and b) the development of a mechanism. 48 . the ultimate load was 52 percent greater than the load at first yield. 12M 3MY the reserve strength due to redistribution of moment is: W y 163$/L _ 4 M. there are always these two important features : a) the formation of plastic hinges.14 = 1. By equilibrium : WL -!L=2M* 8 In this way a How does this compare with the load at first yield ? At the elastic limit (see dotted moment-diagram in Fig. = f X 1. -. 4 w. the total reserve strength due to redistribuiion and shape factor (plastification) is: w.SP :6(6) . Thus: MY lvyL =Mv$T=T 8 WY5TY Therefoie. But in every method.52 For this pa&c&r problem. then.1972 that Mp is reached at the two ends and the centre. in particular the ‘ Mechanism Method ’ (to be described later) which starts out with an assumed mechanism instead of an assumed moment diagram. 25) we know from a consideration of continuity that the centre moment‘ is one-half the end moment. W. There are other methods for analyzing a stticture for its ultimate load. representing a considerable margin that is disregarded in conventional design.12MyjL .
we may now proceed to a consideration of the methods of plastic analysis. they maintain that stress while other less-highly-stressed parts Since all critical secdeform until they. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 16. and c) Plastic moment condition (the moment may nowhere be greater than Mp).Equilibrium condition (the structure must be in equilibrium). and provides an effective ‘ limit ’ to the strength of a given cross-section making it independent of further deformation. we should only ascertain that they did. on the one hand. how the stresses are redistributed. As shown in 3. the analysis is considerably It is not of interest simpli5ed because only this fact need be considered. when certain parts of a structure reach the yield stress. The objective of this Section is to describe brie5y the fundamental principles upon which plastic analysis rests and then to describe how these principles are used in analyzing continuous beams and frames.1 With the evidence presented in Section B that full-size structures behave as predicted by plastic theory and having considered in Section C the plastic behaviour of beams. The resulting Aat stress-strain characteristic assures dependable plastic strength. 49 . it should satisfy the following three conditions that may be deduced from what has been said in 15: a) Mechanism condition (ultimate load is reached when a mechanism forms). to compare them as regards to the fundamental conditions satisfied by each. plastic strength) is the strength of steel in the plastic range. While elastic and plastic analysis were compared at the outset in 2 from the design point of view. The basis for computing the ’ ultimate load ’ (or maximum. Thus. tions eventually reach the yield condition. structural steel has the ability to deform plastically after the yield-point is reached. reach the yield condition. We are thus freed from the often laborious calculations that result from the necessity of considering the ’ continuity ’ conditions that are essential to elastic analysis. b) . it is of interest now. too. Whatever method of plastic analysis is used.SECTION D PLASTIC ANALYSIS 16.
1972 Actually these conditions are similar to those in elastic analysis which requires a consideration of the continzlity. that M < Mfi. This could be termed a me&nism condi. This value is only correct if the plastic moment condition is also satisfied. so the requirement is that sufficient plastic hinges form to allow the structure (or part of it) to deform as a mechanism. 1 ELASTIC ANALYSIS 1 PLASTIC ANALYSIS 1 FIG. The similarity is demonstrated in Fig. namely. The resulting ultimate load is only the Correct . the load should be supported.tion.value if sufficient plastic hinges were assumed to create a meahanism. an equilibrium moment diagram is drawn such. TheoretMly. in plastic analysis. the situation is just the reverse. plastic hinges interrupt continuity. Instead of initial yield. a mechanism is assumed and the resulting equilibrium equations are solved for the ultimate load.q&Mwium and t5e limiting the stress conditions. .26 CONDITIONS FOR ELASTIC AND PLASTIC ANALYSIS 50 .SP: 6(6) . As will be discussed further. On the other hand. the limit of usefulness is the attainment of plastic hinge moments. this will be termed a plastic moment condition. 26: With regard to continuity. The equdibritim condition is the same. two useful methods of analysis take their name from the particular conditions being satisfied: Mechanical a) Mechanical Method (Equilibrium)Method-satisfies satisfies Equilibrium b) Statical condition condition \ Plastic moment condition In the first method. in the statical or ’ equilibrium ’ method. not’only at one cross-section but at each of the critical sections.
. The important upper and lower bound theorems or principles were proved by Greenberg and Prager.SP: 6(6) . Although the plastic design procedures do not require a direct use of these principles (or assumptions) they will be stated for background purposes. one that is arrived at by drawing a statical moment diagram that does not violate the plastic moment condition will either be correct or too low. then the solution is in fact the correct one. When both theorems have been satisfied in any given problem. *Reference 21 contains m excellent discussionofthe principle virtual diaof 51 .* Application of this equation will be demonstrated in 18. The two principles will now be stated and illustrated. If we assume a me&anism on the basis of a guess that the plastic hinge in the beam forms at placements. 27(A).. Upper Bound Theorem -A load computed on the basis of an assumed mechanism will always be greater than or at best equal to the true ultimate load. Although the Equilibrium condition will always be satisfied. On the other hand. Thus.(25) WE=WI . . a solution arrived at on the basis of an assumed mechanism will give a load-carrying capacity that is either correct or too high.1972 Having considered these three necessary and sufficient conditions. . we may write : . work done by of of the the virtual displacements is as follows*: forces in equilibrium is subjected to a virtual work done by the external forces equals the internal forces... Consider the fixed-ended beam in Fig. b) Uppel’and Lower Bound Theorems It is not generally possible to solve all three of the necessary oonditions (mechanism. equilibrium and plastic moment) in one operation. depending on how the problem is solved. we will obtain an upper ‘ limit ’ or ‘ bound ’ below which the correct answer should certainly lie. or we will determine a lower ‘ limit ’ or ’ bound ’ which is certainly less than the true load capacity. a) Virtual Displacements The principle If a system displacement. If the internal work is called WI and the external work is called WE. it will next be of interest to examine certain additional principles and assumptions upon which the plastic methods rest. This is simply a means of expressing an equilibrium condition.
27 UPPER AND LOWER BOUND THEOREMS B. 27(B)]. [Fig. Only when the mechanism is selected such that the plastic moment value is nowhere exceeded (see the dotted lines) is the correct (lowest) value ohtained. This is the explanation as to why .tW may be less than . Lower Round Theorem -A load computed on the basis of an assumed equilibrium moment diagram in which the moments are not greater than M. if we approach it from the aspect of making arbitrary assumptions as to the moment diagram. But this could violate the plastic moment condition.SP: 6(6) . then the load might not be sufficiently great to create a mechanism.. Incidentally. . We W have not used the full load capacity of the beam because the centre line moment is less than M. The beam would have to be reinforced over the length BB' to carry the ’ trial ’ load. 27(A). an upper bound to the correct load will be obtained. 27(B) demonstrates that conventional (elastic) design is a ’ lower bound ’ solution.. then the equilibrium moment diagram would be as shown by the solia line in Fii. Fig. then the corresponding trial load.1972 27A Upper Bound Theorem 278 Lower Bound Theorem FIG. Thus.tW the load is too great. if the problem is approached from the point of view of assuming a mechanism. Illustrating with the fixed-ended beam of Fig. On the other hand.. . Only when the load is increased to the stage where a mechanism is formed (dotted) will the correct value be obtained. 27(B) j if we select the redundants such that the moment is never greater than Mp. is less than or at best equal to the true ultimate load.
of 11 the c) Further Assumptions . represents ‘an upper limit of our current design asumptions (equilibrium)’ method of analysis The mechanism method.1972 the ‘local yielding ’ involved in many has not resulted in unsafe structures. it is now 17. Sketch composite moment diagram in such a way that a mechanism is formed (sketch mechanism). on the to the true ultimate load. However. 53 . 17. and the additional assumptions noted possible to consider the various methods of analysis. independent increase can be allowed. all loads are such that they increase in fixed proportions to one another.SP: 6(6) . are neglected (see Section E for necessary moment. b) Instability of the structure will not occur prior to the attainment of the ultimate load (this is assured through attention to secondary design considerations). STATICAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS is based on the and then several above.In addition to the assumptions following further assumptions are necessary: a) The theory considers only first order deformations.1 As noted in 16. provided no local failure occurs (see Section E for repeated loading). 17. other hand. moment. It is seen. With the Principles of Virtual Displacements. that the ‘statical is based on the lower bound principle. the Upper and Lower Bound Theorems. c) The connections provide full continuity such that the plastic (see Section E). e) The loading is proportional.2 Method of Analysis by Statical procedure 16nd an equilibrium moment that a mechanism is formed: a) b) c) d) Method -By the following diagram in which M6 Mp such Select redundant(s). Draw moment diagram for determinate structure. The procedure is first described examples are solved. that is. Draw moment diagram for structure loaded by redundant(s). M*. then. can be transmitted d) The influence of normal and shearing forces on the plastic Mfi. modifications). The deformations are assumed to be sufficiently small such that equilibrium conditions can be formulated for the undeformed structure (just as in the case of elastic analysis). the ‘ statical’ method of analysis Lower Bound Principle.
Notice that if the ‘ fixing line ’ had been drawn in any other position than that which divides M.. 25 since.. we can immediately see that a hinge must also form at point 2.1972 e) Compute value of ultimate load by solving equilibrium equation. .(27) and the ultimate W” =y Example 2: Two-span continuous beam. ln half.. . The Moment diagrams due to loads and redundants Fig. loadings are shown in Fig. For redundants. Fig.L . 28(c) and 28(d). . Fig. 25. . will support. = 7 W. that a beam of moment capacity M. then no mechanism would have been formed. with: W. 25 (at location 2). The equilibrium W. The composite moment diagram is actually what has been sketched in Fig. is: = M.. from Fig. 28 (indeterminated to j. one could select the end moments.). load is given by: .rst degree) The resultant redundant is selected as the moment at C(M. The resulting moment diagram for the determinate structure would be the solid parabola in Fig. 28(a) and 28(b). f) gtck to see that M< Mp.SP: 6(6) . Fixed-ended.L 8 equation. The correct mechanism is sketched in the lower portion and M = Mp at the locations of maximum moment.+M. The moment diagram for the structure loaded by the redundants would be a uniform moment along the beam. . 54 are shown in . 25 (ifldetermimate to secorcd degree) The problem (already treated in 15) is to find the ultimate load. uniformly loaded beam.
28(f). DIAGRAM UE D DETERMINATE LOADING TO d) MOMENT REDUNANT D DIAGRAM UE D LOADING TO e) COMPOSITE MOMENT DIAGRAM \ f) MECHANISM _ DETERMINATE~ FIG. 55 .. C and D. at locations B. 28(e) in such a way that the necessary mechanism is formed. M.SP: 6(6) .1972 STRUCTURE a) DETERMINATE LOADING b) REDUNANT D LOADING c) MOMENT. Fig. with maximum moments. 28 PLASTIC ANALYSISOF TWO-SPAN CONTINUOUS BEAM (STATICAL METHOD) The composite moment diagram is sketched in Fig.
2. and d) check to see that M = M. The following. 18. . Design Examples 1. and Plastic Moment).As the number of redundants increases. 18. =y-. 4 and 6. b) select possible independent and composite mechanisms. 4. 6M. the use of this method are given in Section F. connections. is the general procedure. then. 29 Given a rectangular frame of uniform section whose plastic moment capacity is Mp. 29(a) locations of possible plastic hinges are at locations 2. Fig... For such cases the mechanism method of plastic analysis may be used The correct mechanism will be the one to find various ‘upper bounds’. which results in the lowest possible load (upper bound theorem) and for which the moment does not exceed the plastic moment. Thus it may become more difficult to construct the correct equilibrium moment diagram. 3. c) solve equilibrium equation (virtual displacement method) for the lowest load. at all sections. what is the ultimate load it will carry ? In the frame shown in Fig. Thus the objective is >to find a mechanism such that the plastic moment con’dition is not violated.1972 The equilibrium at location B: 4 equation is obtained by summing the moments Pd = i&+&/s P. Equilibrium. the number of possible failure mechanisms also increases.1 General Procedure .2 Method of Analysis by Mechanism Method-Find nism (independent or composite) such that M = Mp: a mecha- a) determhre location of possible plastic hinges (load points.SP: 6(6) . this is the correct answer. at any section of the structure (lower bound theorem). Exam@ 3: Rectaqplar PortaCFraete. in the previous examples there was . Since all three of the necessary conditions are satisfied (Mechanism. point of zero shear in a beam span under distributed load) . Further examples of. MECHANISM METHOD OF ANALYSIS 18. Now.
. 29(d). is a ‘ composite ’ mechanism formed by combination of Mechanisms 1 and 2 to eliminate a@astic hinge results one ? Itisthe one which at location 2. 29 MECHANISM METHOD OF ANALYSIS APPLIEDTO A RECTANGULAR PORTAL FRAME WITH PINNED BARS However. Fig. in this problem there only one possible failuremechanism. Which is the correct in the lowest critical load P.1972 a) MECH 1 b) MECH 2 Cl d) MECH 3= (I+2 1 FIG.. whereas Mechanism 3. ’ Mechanisms are several possibilities.SP: 6(6) .‘ Elementary ’ or. ‘ independent 1 and 2 correspond to the action of the different loads.
.(34) load.. .. the external work done by the loads as they move through small.. the frame is allowed critical load. 29(b).. .. .. . *.-?_=4M*P . to move through a small additional displacement such as shown by A m Fig. ...h=sTZ=3 58 .= P = _j... .2 M..(33) Mechanism ‘_ \LOmposite) 3: PAI+ PAP = Mp(2e) +M. . as drawn as shown in Fig.(28) P Le P Le -Tj-+.(31) PA -2... . Hg= L/2 = L H. P. which is. ad” p The lowest value _ 3=3 16Mfi p --= L u ..1972 The method of v&d displacements may be used to compute the After the ultimate load is reached. . For equilibrium. at all sections. displacements shall equal the internal work absorbed at each hinge as It rotates through a corresponding small angle. *(30) . L Ma=H.j-. 29.. is P. . 1 16M* z = 2MP .(29) Mechanism (Beam) PA = JfpB+~@)+~~d p Mechanism (panel) 2: 1 I !E”2 L Mp(61+fl) . The moment at location 2 is determined follows: MP 2M. .(32) .= 2 _ 3 -E. . . .SP: 6(6) . 2 M. or wE=wx The following equations 1: are obtained for the \!arious .- *. 1. . therefore the true ultimate To make sure that some other possible mechanism was not overlooked it is necessary to check the plastic moment condition to see that TO do this the complete moment diagram is M&M... mechanisms: . . .. LTLM..
1972 Since the moment is nowhere greater than Mp. In Example 3. Further. A number of guides and techniques will now be discussed’that are useful in solving more involved problems. we have obtained the correct answer and the problem is solved. 30: Fig. ultimate load for a composite mechanism is to add together the virtual wor equations for each mechanism in the combination. 30(d) c) Gable Mechanism (This is a characteristic mechanism of gabled frames. In the previous examples there were a sufficiently small number of possible mechanism so that the combinations were almost obvious. to 18. the geometry in’ the deformed position could be developed with no difficulty. there is obtained from the previous set of equations: Mechanism Virtual Work Equation Hinges Cancelled Mechanism 1: (Beam) Mechanism 2 : (Panel) Medhanism 3: (Composite) Ps= 16Mp/3L -M*e ‘+ e = 2M.e -M*e -2M*e This is the same answer as obtained in Eq 34.First of all. 30(a) there are the following types which are illustrated in Fig. 30(e) d) Joint Mechanism (This independent mechanism forms at the junction of three or more members and represents motion under the action of a moment) 59 . the virtual work equation was solved anew for the An alternate procedure for computing the ’ composite ’ mechanism. being careful to su tract the internal work done in an elementary mechanism at any % hinges being eliminated by the combination. 30(c) b) Panel Mechanism (This motion is due to side-sway) Fig. involving spreading of the column tops with respect to the bases) Fig.SP: 6(6) .3 Types of Mechanism . 30(b) a) Beam Mechanism (Four examples are given here of the displacement of single spans under load) Fig. Using this procedure for Example 3. for convenience in referring different mechanisms of structures given in Fig.
1972 a) q$-j STRUCTURE Cl -7-r : ‘PANEL 2MDEPENDENT MECHANISMS JOIN? ~HPOSlTE MECHANISM FIG.SP: 6(6) .30 TYPES OFMECHANISMS 60 .
then the number of possible independent mechanism. N.4 Compoeite Mechanisms . there will be ‘ ’ mechanism [see Fig. 30(f) (Various combinations of the independent mechanism may be made.3 Number of Independent Mechanisms ... . Said in another way.1972 e) Com~osife Mechanism Fig. P. then combinations could be made in a systematic manner and there would be less likelihood of overlooking a possible combination. For a determinate system. may be found from n=N-X . the 61 . 3 and 4). X.As we add redundants to the structure. equals the number of mechanisms n. since by this means the lowest possible Mad. the structure becomes a mechanism.Equation 35 is useful because it enables USto set out all the possible ’ elements ’ from which combinations may later be made. however. the frame is indeterminate to the fhst degree. is obtained. the number of basic mechanisms remains unchanged [see Fig.. Thus the number of possible plastic hinges. and. s. If the number of possible plastic hinges is N and if the number of redundancies is X. In Example 3 Mechanism 1 corresponds to equilibrium between applied vertical load and vertical shear. . . far each possible plastic hinge there corresponds a mechanism. Mechanism 2 corresponds to equilibrium between applied horizontal load (P/2) and horizontal shear in the two columns. These force systems are ‘ elementary’ Or ‘independent ’ and hence the term.. it is now restrained . These combinations are to be made in such a way as to make the external work a maximum or the internal work a minimum. 31(b) and 31 (c)]. 31(a)]. therefore. The one shown is a combination of a beam and a gable mechanism) 18. . n .(35) Thus. Where the member was free to deform beforehand (at a real hinge). Equation 35 may be seen in this way.. Therefore. plus the number of redundants. the following simple procedure is available for determining this. we add a plastic hinge for each redundant but do not change the number of mechanisms.SP: 6(6) . if there are ’ n ’ possible plastic hinges.If it were known in advance how many independent mechanisms existed. each mechanism corresponds to an independent equation of equilibrium. there are two elementary mechanisms (Mechanisms 1 and 2). Fortunately. Thus. 18. in Example 3 there are 3 possible plastic hinges (locations 2. or n =(N-X). if a plastic hinge develops. This correlation is no coincidence because eac4 independent mechanism corresponds to the action of a different loading system.
as was done in composite Mechanism 3 of Example 3. for use in Eq 35 it is merely necessary to cut sufficient supports and structural members such that all loads are carried by simple beam or cantilever action. The number of redundants is then equal to the number of forces and moments required to restore continuity.SP: 6(6) .1972 I 1 4 E (? q - FIG. (In 62 . X.5 Indetermfnacy . 31 EXAMPLES OF PROCEDURE NUMBER FOR DETERMINING THE OF MECHANISMS procedure generally is to make combinations that involve mechanism motion by as many loads as possible and the elimination or cancellation of plastic Gltges . 18.In order to determine the number of redundams.
XG. equcds 28 ‘:nd t&f.32 LOCATXOW OF INSTANTANEOUSCENTRE FOR THE RECTANGULAR FRAME~IECHANISMOF FIG. Therefore it moves normal to line l-3 and its centre of rotation as part of Segment 3-4 should be along line l-3 extended. The horizontal motion of Point 4 is thus (e)(L/2). in cases involving sloping roofs [Fig. Point 3. The total rotation at location 4. a term borrowed from mechanical engineering and the con$deration of Linkages. to Mechanism 3 of this problem [Fig. Although the use of instantaneous centres was not needed in the solution of Example 3. . 321. In such cases. the method of instantaneous centres mav be used.6 Geometry of Mechanisms (Instnataneous CentreskAs will later be evident.SP:6(6) . 29 63 .1972 Example 3. About what centre does Segment . computation of the geometrical relationshipof the displacement in the direction of the load as the structure moves through the mechanism may become somewhat tedious. Point 1. thus X = 1). :st 3 is also 2:9 since the Lengths 1-3 and 3-1 are equal. point 1 since it is a part of Segment l-2-3. that point being its‘ instantaneous centre ’ of rotation. 30(f)]. cutting the horizontal reaction at Section 5 roller . Whxt are the ’ kink angles ’ at the plastic hinges ? The rotation at both column bases is 8.creates simple beam action . on the other hand moves about. Point 4 is constrained to move perpendicular to line 4-5 and thus its centre of rotation (as part of Segment 3-4) must be somewhere along line 5-4 extended. therefore.3-4 move ? The answer is obtained by considering how the ends of the Segment move. supplying a 18. 29(d) and Fig. aint P 1 satisfies both conditions and therefore Segment 3-4 rotates about. Segment l-2-.3 pivots around the base at 1. Member 5-4 pivots about Point 5. Since fhe Length l-4 is also equal to L/2. When the structure moves. then the rotation of 3-4 &btr:IJ d is @ i:$ -==P. consider its application.
Assign the value 6 to the arbitrarily small rotation of FIG. This answer forverticaldisplacement and that in the previous paragraph for kink angles are identical. Eq 33. Consider.33 LOCATION INSTANTANEOUS OF MEC~~ANI~M CENTRE OF A GABLED FRAME 64 .1972 What isthe vertical motion of the load at Point 3 7 Sinceno hinge form’sin joint 2 itremains as a right angle and the rotationof 2-3 with respect to the horizontal also equal to 0. The suitable applicationof * instantantius centres’ is to the case of gabled frames. 33. forexample. the structure shown in Fig. is therefore.SP :6(6) . The verticalmotion is. BL/2. of course. to those obtained in Example 3.
The displacements of the loads in the direction of application are as follows: Horizontalload: A. may now be computed.. being constrained to move normal to line 7-6 will have its centre along that line.=(3/4)(@)(L) . Left verticalload: A. the ratio of 3-1 to l-3 is 3: 1. then it is evident that the verticaldisplacements are as shown above and in Fig. the rotation at I = e/4*.1972 member 6-7 about Point 7. 33(b). Since the horizontal displacement of Point 6 is eL. centre multiplied by the distance to that centre measured normal to the line of actiori. working out the geometry on the basis of similartriangles as shown in Fig. 6-I = 4L. the verticalcomponent of the mechanism motion of Point 3 (forexample) isequal to the rotation about the appropriate instantaneous.. the centre of 3 will be Thus Point 1 is located. Segment l-2-3 will rotate about Point 1 an amount yet to be determined. . By geometry the Length 1-7 is equal to (SL/4)(4)=5L. * *Note that the rotation at I is in general equal to the titation at the c&m0 base multiplied by the ratio of the distances 7-6 to 6-Z. 65 . find the common point about which both snds rotate. 33(a). The rotation at 6 = f3+0/4 = (S/4)0.. .(35a) Right vertical load: A. To complete the example the ultimate load for thisWC~M&WS is given by: P(!!)aP(??)+2P(!g=Mp(e+~) .=(8/4)(3L) .(35b) Construction of the moment diagram shows that the moment is nowhare greater than M. Alternatively. therefore.? 4i 4 0 Kink angles and displacements in the direction of load. Similarly. so thisis the correctanswer. Point 6.= (e/4)(L) The accuracy of the last two equations may be seen in two ways. If the loads are imagined as hung from the dotted positions shown. Thus the rotation at 1 is given by e 3 .SP: 6(6) .. along l-3 extended. By similar triangles. . The rotation at 3 = 0/4+3/4e = 8. To find the instantaneous centre of Segment 3-4-6.
then the correct value of the ultimate load is obtained by determining the distance to the point of maximum moment. therefore. however. 34 . The convenience of the use of *instantaneous centres ’ should be evident.SP:6(6) . work = ~L(&z)(1/2)=W~@. had we worked out the deformation at the various joints through a consideration of the frame geometry in the deformed position. Two methods in particular are the ’ method of inequalities ‘a8 and a psuedo ’ Moment Distribution Technique ‘**sss. To illustrate the computations. recourse to those methods will not be necessary and.in which the Mp values are as shown in the circles. 19. there are additional techniques for determining the ultimate load which a structure will support. 19. A-B-C-D.. Alternatively x may be found by plotting the uniform load parabola.a portion of a continuous beam .1 Further Methods of Analysis In addition to the statical and mechanism methods of analysis. The distance x can be computed by writing the virtual work equation in terms of x and either minimizing the loads by differentiation or by solving for x by.ke the case shown in Fig. 34(b) . In a great majority of cases. If the load is actually distributed along the member. making a few trials.1972 Precisely the same answer would have -been obtained. Ta. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS 19. 66 . (36) *The external work for a mechanism under distributedload may conveniently be written as the load/unit length times area swept during mechanism motion. no further discussion is presented here. from the base line A-D. In the event that a mechanism involves formation of a hinge within the beam that is (between supports) the precise location of the hinge in the beam is not known in advance.2 Distributed Load-A slight modification of procedure is necessary in case the load is distributed. of course. however. the virtual work Eq 25 gives: from the mechanism of Fig. In this example ‘area’=(L) (Ox) (l/2). The interested reader may see to the indicated references.
34 POSITION OF HINGES INBEAM WITH DISTRIBUTED LOAD .1972 a) 1 c) e-x445 L d) FIG.SP: 6(6) .
.SP: 6(6) . FIG.45L was obtaine B.. is concentrated in the various ways shown. 35. The result is always conservative because the a&al moment in the beam is always less than or at most equal to the assumed moment. 34 and a value x = 0. Thus in Fig. the value of x to give the minimum value is: x = 044L and 31*3M+ . the closer is the approximation to actuality. the more concentrated loads assumed. wL = P. 35 EFFECT OF REPLACINGA DISTRIBUTEDLOAD BY AN EQUIVALENT SET OF CONCENTRATED -LOADS . the uniform load parabola is always circumscribed (giving the same maximum shear). the analysis could be made on the basis that’ the distributed load is replaced by a set of equivalent concentrated loads.(37) W*=L . if the distributed load. . Of course. With errors that are usually slight. . The gra hical method was used in Fig.1972 Selecting values of x and solving for W.
because the moment used in the equations equilibrium presumed MG Mp.3 Moment Check . then the solution satisfies the lower bound principle. t Kere is no particular problem.SP: 6(6) . it is only necessary to show that moments elsewhere are not greater than M+. Otherwise it is possible to overlook a more favourable combination of mechanisms which would have resulted in a lower load. throughout the frame. with experience the designer will be able to tell as to how many of these mechanisms he should investigate. an elastic analysis would be required to determine precisely the moments in those segments that do not contain plastic hinges at their ends. and the computed load should be the correct value. The design objective is to make all of the structure perform as efficiently as possible. the uniform load may be converted. Of course. it -should be pointed out that a design which leads to such a condition (that is. approximations may be used to find a possible equilibrium moment diagram. In the case of the Statical method (see 17). As a routine procedure it will not be required to carry out what would otherwise be a more complicated checking operation. However.One of the conditions that a ‘ plastic ’ solution must satisfy is that the moment is nowhere greater than the lastic moment (see 16). What this means is that simple statics will usually be adequate for making the ‘ moment check ‘. because a structure that turns out to be partially redundant would be redesigned for lighter structure. As a result. 69 . to actual purlin reactions (on the basis of assumed pu~lin spacing). at the outset. The analysis is then made on the basis of the actual mncentrated loads. Prior to considering the partially indeterminate cases further.one at each purlin. If the plastic moment condition is met. the precise magnitude of moment at a section that remains elastic is not of interest. However. bringing moments up to their plastic values. The only difficulty with this procedure is that numerous additional possible plastic hinges are created . If a mechanism has already been created. in solutions by plastic analysis. when the structure is indeterminate at ultimate load. the equations of simple statics are all that are necessary to determine the moments in all parts of the frame. However. in the mechanism method the solution loads to an upper bound and it is consequently necessary to see if the solution also satisfies equilibrium with MQM. If the frame is still indeterminate at ultimate load. it should be obvious that it is possible to save material somewhere in the structure. And for every possible hinge position there is another possible mechanism. if the distributed load is actually brought to the main frame through purlins and girts. part of the structure indeterminate) is probably not the best design.1972 Of course. 19. When the structure is determinate at ultimate load.
SP : 6(6) . is given by .(M-l)r2-2~0-40 a) K) 4 b) x M =1 = 2 I = X-(M-l)=l-l=O----(OK) c) x = 2 M =2 -----(OKj I = X-(M-1)=2-1=1 ~~ 1 = X-(M-l)=4 ------(OK) I 36 EXAMPLE OF PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING THE NUMBER REMAINING REDUNDANCIES IN A STRUCTURE OF 70 . . If X = number of redundancies in the original structure.. The following rule may be stated to indicate whether or not the structure at failure is determinate. .. The structures are redundant at failure. and Design Examples 5 and 7 given at the end of this handbook are illustrative.1. The first step in the case of indeterminate structures is to check on the redundancy. Equation 38 correctly indicates the number of remaining fedundants in Fig. 36(c) and 36(d).. 36 are shown three continuous beams and a two span fixed base frame. the number of remaining redundancies. and M = number of plastic hinges developed Then I.1972 Further examples of the moment check do not appear necessary here for the determinate cases.(38) I = x-(M-l) . X =2 M=3 I = X. Example 3 given in 18. . . In Fig.
<Where there are only one or tyo remaining redundancies (try Eq 38).(39) 2 The remaining redundancies from Eq 38 are -(2-l)= 1 (namely the moment ati E). 3Md P Cl FK. two methods are convenient for determining a possible equilibrium configuration. For this case: p u. One is a ’ trial and error ’ method and the other a ‘moment-balancing’ method. 37(b). tSee Eq 29. PL D-. Example 5: Given a three-span c. now the frame is redundant. Mp.. the ’ trial and error ’ method is most suitable.2+2+q=-2-2+-JP Mp P M.’ L . 71 . . -3M‘.lntinuous beam of uniform section. values for the remaining ‘ I ’ moments are guespzd and the equilibrium equations solved for the remaining unknown. By the ‘trial and error ’ method. the second method will not be treatede.. Assume that the answer has been obtained on the basis of the assumed m&hanism shown in Fig.. Mp). The next step is to assume a value Solving the equilibrium equation M _Mc M. Since this covers most ordinary cases and since partial redundancy means inefficient design.. 37 MOMENT CHECK USING THE ‘TRIAL AND ERROR‘ METHOD *See Eq 28. then. . 37). for this moment (say MB= for spans CE and EG..3P: 6(6) . and with concentrated loads in each span (Fig. I =X-(M-l)= .1972 If.
(There are a total of 7 unknown moments for which only 3 independent equilibrium equations are available). this section has presented the basis for and the techniques of two methods of plastic analysis: the ‘ statical’ and the ‘mechanism ’ methods.= MP MP M. In summary. = y. the trial solution is correct and P. 38.- 1972 MD=--p M 4 1. and then to solve for the remaining values. 72 . the ultimate load is given by: The remaining redundancies from this equation are I = X-(M-l)= 6-(3-l)= 4 which shows that jt is not possible ‘to obtain four moments by statics..:+Mp +MP *See Eq 29.. If M = Mp then the correct mechanism (and P. Application to design will be discussed next m Section E. MgM. Assuming that mechanisms 8-9-10 is the one to form.=M -M. The ‘ trial and error ’ method of making the moment check will be further illustrated for the frame shown in Fig. followed by design examples in Section F. The following ‘ trial ’ values are taken. ‘te evidently. MF=-E * +2$-y$- The resulting moment diagram is shown by the dotted lines. The next step is to make a ‘guess ’ as to the magnitude of moment at 4 hinge locations.5PL = _!$+.SP:6(6). %” esign Since throughout.-value) has been determined. more efficient use of material would result if the were revised to supply only the required plastic moment for each span. using the sign conventions that the moment is positive if tension occurs on the ‘ dotted’ side of the member: M .M** M M.
--Ma=--M9+MP= For joint 6-7-8 0 = 0 (L) From the sway equilibrium equation.-M.-M.SP:6(6)-1973 FIG.=M.= Mp+2Mg=+Mp MS-M.+PL Ml= Mp+Mp-Mg+O+Mp- .= M.SM.!3S MOMENT CHECKUSING‘ TRIAL AND ERROR’ METHOD For span 4-6 M.+IM.-M.. M.= 0 M.
1972 is violated and diagram based Since M. Thus.= 0 For joint 18-19-20 M. determine the number of redundants for this special case by noting that the number of remaining redundancies is equal to the oumber of remaining unknown moments minus the number of i...I= 0 MS-Ml. the frame is redundant to the fourth degree. . Mb.. Assume Mr&= +Mp Mb= +A2 M. The number of unknown moments is 10 (Ml..+Ms-M. however. Ml.. Z-span structure Fig. M. M. The moment on the above calculation is shown in Fig. 4 have been used. it should be possible to solve for the remaining moments by assuming the value of four of the unknowns. The plastic analysis gives: P-r 2M. 39 will now be made. We can....=-Mp+Mp= MB= Mm 0. u- shown in will again It is not possible to determine the number of redundants for this frame by Eq 38 because that relationship does not apply when ‘ simultaneous ’ mechanisms occur.. Out of the 10 original equilibrium equations. Accordingly.).. Example 7: A moment check for the 2-storey.OK 0 .>M$. . M. OK M. the plastic moment condition an incorrect assumption was made..= 0 MIS= M18-Mzo=--Mp+Mp= For joint 13-14-15 0.--Mu-M. M.-M. M. Ml&. . Mlo.ndependent equilibrium equations (number of mechanisms) that were not used in the analysis. The ‘ trial and error ’ method be employed.+Mu-M~~= 0 M15= M13+M14=-MP+MP= For joint 8-11 M. . 38.SP: 6(6) .8-Mzo-M.
. .+~. 39 MOMENT CHECK USING ‘ TRIAL AND ERROR ’ METHOD TWO-STOREY TWO-SPAN STRUCTURE FOR For joint 4-6 M*--i&---M.+M.. OK sway equation forthe top storey 0 M.= From the M.p -Mp= r2$.1972 I I I I ’ *I 3 0'5 o-5 FIG.--M.--M.--M.=0 M.+M..SP: 6(6) . ..= ..= 75 .
+M. MlO=q.+M...+M~. ..-M. 39 and it is evident that M < Mp throughout. . .--M..SP: 6(6) . .. MS= -% 2 Thus from Eq .= M. in fact.OK From the sway equation for the bottom storey Ml-M. equal to 2Mp -.---M.+O-M. OK (a).. +r.+M. .. L 76 .+M..= $?’ -M. = 0 M.1972 &I= M~Mw-&~+G.OK The final moment diagram is shown in Fig.+M. C M.. Therefore the ultimate load is.-M.
1 On what basis is the first choice of relative plastic moment values made ? In the various examples used to illustrate methods of analysis. In arriving at the plastic methods of structural analysis certain assumptions were made with regard to the effect of axial force. 21. shear. A question that arisesfirst concerns the relative strength of the different members. the principle content of this section will concern the ’ secondary design considerations ‘. the problem is reversed. the rest of the material in the frame is not being used to full capacity. PRELIMINARY DESIGN 21. buckling. Unless attention is given to SIN& factors. the problem was to tind the ultimate load ‘for a given structure with known plastic moment values of its members. etc.1 Thus far the methods of plastic analysis have been presented. coupled with his experience. However. Since ‘ uniform section throughout ’ may not be the most economical solution. so it is not a matter that is unique to design on the basis of ultimate load. In design. Some general principles are as follows: a) In the event the critical mechanism is an ’ independent ’ one. will enable him to make a preliminary economic choice of relative moment strength without too many trials. a few simple techniques will occur to the designer which. the structure may not perform its intended function due to ‘ premature ’ failure. 77 . a discussion of the general design procedure will outline the steps involved in a plastic design. this problem exists in elastic design. Finally. The pu of this section is to consider certain features involved in the appYe ‘cation of these metho& to actual design. Given a certain set of loads the problem is to select suitable members. GENERAL TO DESIGN 20. some guide is needed for selecting the ratio or ratios of plastic moment strength of the various members. 213 Of course. This suggests that a more efficient choice of moment ratios may be made such that the critical mechanism is a ‘ cornposite mechanism ’ involving plastic hinges in several different members. Next.SECTION E APPLICATION 20.
instead. Often it will be found that the span involving the greatest determinate moment (M. c) Estimate the plastic moment ratios of frame members. Finally. the design might well be commenced on the basis that all joints are restrained as described. d) Analyse each loading condition for maximum Mp. Thus the best design in this instance will usually result when the solution commences with uniform section for both the rafter and the stanchion. 78 . therefore. if the important loads were side loads. restraining members supply a restraining plastic moment equal to that of the beam). Similarly. and resistance to side loadsp. and that the columns be proportioned to provide the needed joint moment balance. The formation of mechanisms simultaneously in different spans of continuous beams or the creation of composite mechanisms will not necessarily result in minimum weight.1972 Adjacent spans of continuous beams will often be most economically proportioned when the independent mechanisms for each This is illustrated in Design Example span form simultaneously. with the columns. b) Compute the ultimate load(s).) should be given the greatest possible restraint (generally by supply equivalent 2 of adjoining members). Examination of alternate possibilities is desirable. the following six steps will be a part of practically every design: a) Determine possible loading conditions. The absolute minimum beam section for vertical load is obtained if the joints provide complete plastic restraint (that is. if the important loads are the vertical loads. It is necessary to consider fabrication conditions which may dictate uniform section where. 22. Alternatively. theoretically. 2. the ratio of beam sections be determined on this basis. Numerous examples of the design of continuous beams are given in Ref 26.1 Although there will be variations as to specific procedure and detail.SP: 6(6) . suggests that. the minimum column sections are obtained under the action of sway forces when ends are subject to complete plastic restraint. Design Example 7 illustrates this. Design Example 7 is an illustration of this. sections of different weight might be used. the design could start. it should be kept in mind that maximum overall economy is not necessarily associated with the most efhcient choice of section for each span. GENERAL DESIGN PROCEDURE 22. This.
the load factor of safety should be selected in such a way that an indeterminate structure is as safe as a simple beam *Yield stress divided by working stress in flexure.03 The value 1. The step (b). There is no change here from conventional practice. and wind kading would be 314 X l-85 = l-40. or other forces i As was suggested above. average values may be preferable. The actual load factor selected thus depends upon the concept of safety.12.1972 e) Select the Section. represents a departure from conventional methods. and other forces. As already noted.(40) Dead load plus live load. if the present design of a beam with the smallest shape factor (l-09) is satisfactory.65 1. The following table summarizes the possibilities: Factor of Safety* Shape Factor Load Factor 1.SP: 6(6) .23.14 and the most common value is 1. live. The average for all shapes is 1.12 ‘1.40 ‘i plus wind. . and f) Check the result according to ’ secondary design rules ‘. This load factor is selected in such a way that the real factor of safety for any structure is at least as great as that afforded in the conventional design of a simple beam.65 1.23 2.65) (1*09)= 1. The design commences with a determination of the possible loading conditions. this shape factor varies for different WF beams from about 1. In summary. F is equal to the conventional ’ factor of safety ’ (l-65) multiplied by the shape factor. .14 1. except that at this stage it is decided whether to treat distributed loads as such or to consider them as concentrated (sse 19).88 because wide flange shapes with a factor of 1.12 occur more frequently and.09 1.85 .85 is selected instead of 1.65 1.80 would be adequate.09 to about -1.88 1. F = 1. Following this same philosophy the value of F for combined dead. the number 1. The loads determined in (a) are multiplied by the appropriate load factor to assure the needed margin of safety.. specifications normally allow a one-third increase in stresses.88 implies an accuracy in our knowledge of safety that is not justified. earthquake. F = 1. then a load factor of (1.85 1.80 1. Alternatively. further. that is. f. then. the load factors are: Dead load plus live load. earthquake.65 1. ’ compute the ultimate load ‘. In the case of wind. These steps will now be discussed briefly. In the latter case.
. the value of F may Fz-g from which F=tf where a. The load factor is thus a function of the ratio between yield stress and allowable stress and of the shape factor..78 A reasonable . no matter what the loading and geometry. then the corresponding load factor for plastic design may be taken as: FW= 1.15)= 1.40 It will be noted that the problems worked in the later portion of this chapter are developed on the basis of Eq 40.85 x3/4 = 1.2. According to IS: 800-1962* the ratio oY/o. structure any rnwe safe. *Code (rcvisea) . Thus: F =(1*55)(1.1. is fg = l-55.. P.figure for the load factor for gravity loads figured according to IS: 800-1962* is thus 1.85. There is no departure from present practice insofar as the necessary or minimum factor of safety. Since section 12. the relationship. The load factor of a safety of a simple beam according to elastic design is equal to the ratio of the ultimate load. The only effect of a change in load factors to the values for ‘use in designs according. P.to Indian Standards is that the required section sizes would be reduced somewhat. divided by the working load.15. the bending moment varies linearly with the load.1 of IS: 800-1962* permits a one-third increase in stresses when wind is acting.SP:6(6)- 1972 There is certainly no point in making a rigid designed elastically. be exvressed as: M. Since for a simple beam. = 03.. The average shape factor is 1. Plastic design simply makes it possible to design structures with a more nearly constant factor of safety. the expression for the load factor may be written as: From Eq 16 and usin. and oW is the allowable or working stress according to ‘ elastic ’ specifications and f the shape factor. is the yield stress level. of practice foruse of structural steel in general building con&truction 80 .
The step (f) (and a most important one) is to check the design to see that it satisfies the ‘ secondary design considerations ‘. SECONDARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 23.l SP: 6(6) . Now select plastic moment ratios using the following guides: a) Beams: Use ratio determined in step (a) b) Columns : At corner connections M. In outline the prontlure would be as follows : Determine the a. and yet the engineer knows they are present in most structures and he is accustomed to taking them into account. In the step (d) each loading condition is analyzed for the maximum required M+ Either the statical method (1’7) or the mechanism method (18) of analysis may be used. (Assume that all joints are fixed against rotation. solve the panel mechanism equation. 23.In all of the tests presented in 9 the results confirm in a satisfactory manner the predictions of the ‘ simple plastic theory ‘.II estimate of the’ plastic moment ratio of . The equation Mp=nyZ is solved for 2 and the section selected from an economy table arranged according to Z-values.) For beams. In some cases it will be desireable prior to final selection of sections to examine the frame for further economy as may be apparent from a consideration of relative beam and sway moments. whereas now we are looking for the Maximwm reqzcired plastic moment as a basis for selecting the’ section.bsolute plastic moment values for separate loading conditions. This theory neglects such things as axial force. This is the subject of the discussion which now follows in 23. AlternativelyA the simplified procedures of Section G may be used for ‘ standard ’ geometrical and loading conditions for which charts and graphs are developed.1972 The Step (c) is to make X”. $1 . making sure that premature failure does not occur. Those factors that are. The step (e) is to select the section. and buckling.‘r?e frame members. solve beam mechanism equation and for columns.(col) = Mp(beam) c) Joints: Establish equilibrium We are then ready to proceed to step (d).0 General . but frame free to sway. neglected or are not included in the ‘ simple ’ theory (and for which revision of that theory is sometimes needed) are the following: a) Reductions in the plastic moment (axial force and shear force). The actual section will be greater than or at least equal to these values. shear. The only difference in this step and in the analysis procedures of Section D is that the lore& failure load was sought in the latter. This has been d%cnssed in 21.
c) Brittle fracture.40 DISTRIBUTION STRESS AT VARIOUS STAGES OF YIELDING OF FOR A MEMBER SUBJECTED TO BENDING AND AXIAL FORCES 82 . The stresss distribution in a beam at various stages of deformation caused by thrust and moment is shown in Fig. In the following paragraphs the effect and characteristics of these factors will be indicated. yielding on the compression side proceeds that on the tension side. followed by a suggested ‘ rule ’ to serve as a guide for checking the suitability of the original design. shear. The design should always be checked for direct stress. and lateral buckling. Due to the axial force. b) Instability (local buckling. It should be kept in mind that this situation is no different in principle from that encountered in elastic design. Where apropriate.SP: 6(6) . d) Repeated loading . column buckling) . Liberal reference is made to other sources in order to condense this article as much as possible. In addition. the design procedure may be modified easily to account for its influence because the important ’ plastic hinge ’ characteristic is still retained. This influence has been discussede. the results of theoretical analysis and of tests will be indicated. It simply means that modifications or limitations in the form of ’ rules of design ’ are necessary as a guide to the suitability of a design based on the simple theory that neglects these factors. However.The presence of of axial force tends to reduce the magnitude of the plastic moment. 23. proper proportions of connections are needed in order that the plastic moment will be developed. but since part of the area must withstand the axial A c PARTIALLY PLASTIC CDMPLETE ilElii - aAstE LlMf FIG. 40.1 Influence @ial Force on the Plastic Moment . and so on. e) Deflections. Eventually plastification occurs.1972 .
- 46. Thus. and w = the web thickness.SP: 6(6) ... By substituting the value of yO obtained from Eq 41 into Eq 43. or Mpc = Mp-&F YW .. For the situation shown in Fig.OFSTRESS DUE ho AXIAL FORCE ANDDUE TO BENDING MOMENT FOR A COMPLETELY PLASTICCROSS-SECTIONSUBJECTED TO BENDING AND AXIAL FORCES 83 . -16. as shown in Fig.1972 force. . .. The bending moment Mpc is given by the following expression and represents the plastic hinge moment modified to include the effect of axial compression : . as a function of P could be determined when the neutral axis is in the flange instead of the web. TOTAL cc STRESS AxIs STRESS I MSTRIEuJllON = (a) P WE TO + STRESS DUE TO M w (9 FIG. . . P = 2a..m .(42) . . the axial force P.(43) By the same process. . . .y. I- I -... where Z = the plastic modulus.. 41 REPRESENTATION . .. the bending moment may be expressed as a function of. the stress block no longer divides the cross-section into equal areas (as was the case of pure moment). .. the axial force P is given by: . 41 in which the neutral axis is in the web. an expression for M+. .. A!¶@ trY (Z-WY:) = . ... .. 41 the total stress distribution may be divided into two parts -a stress due to axial load and a stress due to bending moment. .(41) where CT?=the yield stress. yO= the distance from the mid-height to the neutral axis. .
.sp: 6(6) . ...-y . If P is greater than 15 percent of Py the modified plastic moment is given by: Mp . .(45) t N A IN FLANGE FIG.. 42 INTERACTION CURVE FORA WIDE FLANGE BEAM 84 . then the moment capacity is zero. the following ‘ design rule ’ may be stated: Rules forBeams Rule 1 AxialForce -Neglect the effect of axial force on the plastic moment unless P>O-lSP. M = Mp. .. Summarizing. In design. [d(A--$)$..1972 The resulting equation for a wide flange shape is: MPG =. or since most wide flange shapes have a similar curve (when plotted on a non-dimensional basis)O the simple approximation of Fig. 43 could be used. 42. When the axial force reaches the value P = yA. Between these limits the relationship is computed as described and the desired influence of axial force on the plastic moment has thus been obtained. .. For a wide flange section the ’ interaction ’ curve that results from this analysis is shown in Fig. 42 could be used. . in order to account for the influence of direct stress either curves such as Fig. When the axial force is zero. .
in the 85 . P/Py being the ratio obtained first design. The final selection should be checked by the use of Eq 46. As illustrated by the upper portion of Fig.. . . ... 43 DESIGN APPROXIMATION FOR LOAD u MOMENT INTERACTION CuRvE The required design value of 2 for a member is determined by multiplying the value of 2 found in the initial design by the ratio Mp/Mpc or .(45a) *Actually this gives a value of 2 that is too great.SP: 6(6) - iv2 MAPPROXIMATKJN FIG..%(P/Py+o%) is an ipproximation to account for thiseffect. the P/P? ratio willbe less in the re-design and thus the reduction in Mp will be less than first computed... The equation . .(47) . . 43. zrq = 0. .. . . .. .... . ..py An illustration of the use of this ’ rule ’ is given in Design Example 7.. Equation 45 may also be expressed in the form: . . l_-p. ZR = .852* .(46) . .
2 The Influence Shear Force . 44).1972 Depending on the particularproblem and approach the designer wishes to use. b) Equation 47 is suitable if the problem is to obtain the required plastic modulus for P/P. 45a or 47 whichever is appropriate as explained below : a) Equation 45 is appropriate if one wants to know the magnitude of moment that a given shape will transmit in the presence of axial force P.SP: 6(6) . The precautions of Rules R5 to R8 should be borne in mind. 44 SHEAR AND FLEXURAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION INA CANTILEVER BEAM THAT HAS PARTIALLY YIELDED IN BENDING 86 .>O*lS in one step without trial and errorprocedures. Two possibilitiesof premature ’ failure’ due to the presence of shear exist: a) General shear yield of the web may occur in the presence of high shear-to-moment ratios.The effect of shear force is someof what similar to that of axial force -it reduces the magnitude of the plastic moment. either Eq 45. (set t’ ions at A and B of Fig. y:YIELD ZONE V I \ + IL A B C FIG. 33. c) Equation 45a gives the condition that should be satisfied at a given cross-section and intimates a * cut and try’ procedure.
Due to failure of a beam to retain its cross-sectional shape. w(d-2t). 2). thus the rotation capacity would be inadequate. and using e.The maximum allowable shear in a beam at ultimate load is to be computed from: V ma+ = 1 265wd where w = web thickness . .. with thin sections local buckling might occur soon after the plastic moment was first reached. At this point the material properties may be more accurately and specifically defined than in the region between cy and •~1. .1972 b) After the beam has become partially plastic at a critical section due to flexural yielding.. Therefore. For case (a) the maximum possible shear as given by: V = T. .. depth 23. Ty = x and A.. A solution to this complicated plate buckling problem has been achieved by requiring that the section will exhibit a rotation capacity that corresponds to a compression strain equal to the strain-harc’ening value. .As a wide flange beam is strained beyond the elastic limit eventually the flange or the web will buckle. fst (Fig. the moment capacity would drop off..SP: 6(6) .. From these curves and 87 . in cm and d is the section . Recent studies have shoti that for structural steel with marked strainhardening properties.= .... ‘The result of this analysis in Fig. 45 together with the for Ranges of wide flange shapes is shown results of tests.. 44)12*%7.(49) in cm. in order to meet the requirements of deformation capacity (adequate rotation at MP values) compression elements should have width-thickness ratios adequate to insure against premature plastic buckling. then . .a ..(48) V = :T w(d-2t) Since for wide flange then the following shapes d d-2t = l-05. design guide Rule 2 Shear Force . behaviour ’ b ’ need not be considered and it is only necessary to guard against the possibility of complete shear yielding of the web. Although stocky sections could be expected to retain their cross-sectional form through considerable plastic strain. the intensity of shear stress at the centreline may reach the yield condition (section at C of Fig.A.3 Local Bwkling of Flanges and Webs . = 2 520 kg/cm’ may be formulated: force (in kg) .
30 20 10 0 0 ae FIG. the following design the compressive strains may guide reach 88 . for webs. 45 RESULTS OF TESTS AND THEORY SHOWING A CIWERION FOR ASSUMING THAT THE HINGE MOMENT WILL BE MAINTAINEDUNTIL STRAIN HARDENING IS REACHED from similar relationships established may be established to assure that eIl without buckling.
the adequacy of Rule 3 may be shown approximately.The effect of lateral buckling is much Iike that of local buckling.Compression elements. Therefore bracing will be required at these points at which plastic hinges are expected. Currently. Fortunately.are satisfactory in this regard for P/P. Stiffeners and that portion of flange plates in box-sections and cover plates included between the free edge and the first longitudinal row of rivets or connecting welds.< 0.would be used where the requirements of Rule 3 were not met. girders and columns designed for combined axial force and plastic bending moment at ultimate loading..Rule 3 Compression Members .4 Lateral Buckling . nearly all Indian Standard beam section (see IS: 808-1964*) . 17 is treated the influence of axial force on web buckling. that would be subjected to plastic bending and hinge rotation under ultimate loading.15. Yielding markedly reduces the resistance of. shall be limited by the following formula but need not be less than 40: f Q 70-100~ Y .. In the event that consideration of the moment diagram *Specification for rolled steel beam. 17. in many tests the two frequently occur simultaneously. The widththickness ratio for the web of beams. for rolled shapes an upward variation of 3 percent may be tolerated. . Although this study is not yet finished the results of tests and analyses to date provide some present guidance for the designer. channel and angle sections (vetised). 23. shall have width-thickness ratios no greater than the following: Flanges of rolled shapes and flange plates of similar built-up shapes. 32. Litermediate between these critical sections. The width-thickness ratio of beam and girder webs subjected to plastic bending without axial loading shall not exceed 70. 85. The problem is to specify bracing requirements to prevent deformation out of the plane of the frame. studies are being made somewhat along the lines of those which proved to be successful in the case of local buckling.a member to lateral buckling. The problem of specifying the critical length of beam such that premature lateral buckling Will be prevented has not been completely solved. In fact. 89 . The thickness of sloping flanges may be taken as their average thickness.. That portion of flange plates in box-sections and cover plates included between longitudinal lines of rivets or connecting welds. In Ref. Based upon this work. Stiffening. conventional rules may be followed to protect against elastic lateral buckling.
compression and the tension flanges must be braced at changes of section. Rule 4 Lateral Bracing -The laterally unsupported distance &.. Members built into a masonry cular to this wall may be assumed to their weak axis of bending. . nor in members oriented with their weak axis normal to plane of bending. .SP: 6(6) . where of gyration of the member about its weak axis.(51) 35 Y. need not be less than that given by the formula: . Equation 51 not only assures that the cross-section will be able to plastify (develop the full plastic moment) but also be able to rotate through a sufficient inelastic angle change to assure that all necessary In deriving this equation. *Code (revised). Furthermore.1972 reveals that a considerable length of a beam is strained beyond the elastic limit (such as in a region of pure moment) then additional lateral support at such a hinge may be required.. Design examples in 26 illustrate a procedure for checking lateral bracing. Other plastic hinge locations shall be adequately braced to resist lateral and torsional displacement. segthe moments at the ends of the unbraced the radius M = thhnesseidof MIMp = the. from such braced hinge locations to the nearest adjacent point on the frame similarly braced. of practice for use of structural steel in general building construction 90 .end moment ratio. the following provisions need not apply in the region of the last hinge to form in the failure mechanism assumed as the basis for proportioning a given member. The following guide may be used: ’ The maximum laterally unsupported length of members designed on the basis of ultimate loading need not be less than that which would be permitted for the same members designed under the provisions of IS: 800-1962* except at plastic hinge locations associated with the failure mechanism.. positive when M and Mfi have the same sign and negative when they are of opposite sign. wall and having their web perpendito be laterally supported with respect The magnitude of the forces required to prevent lateral buckling is Both the small and slenderness ratio requirements will normally govern. the basis lateral plastic hinges will develop. nor less than my = .. signs changing at points of contraflexure.
where P. in fact. Therefore. the buckling problem becomes extremely complex when the column is a part of a framework. (See also the footnote in Appendix B. it may be shown that this procedure leads to a critical slenderness ratio of about 100. however.5 Columns (in the sense that a mechanism is formed) is not preceded by column instability. further. and considering idealized behaviour as shown in Fig. One of the important contributions of Ref 18 was that it developed methods of correlating the critical length for lateral buckling with the magnitude of required hinge rotation. it already reflects and. the slenderness ratio l/y shall not exceed 120. The following design immediately formulated: guide for columns in industrial frames may be Rules for Columns Rule 5 . that the resulting further inelastic hinge rotation thus available is relatively small. On the other hand. somewhat over-conservative simplifications must be made. 1 being taken as the distance centre-to-centre of adjacent members connecting to the column or the distance from such a member to the base of the column. -The plastic theory assumes that failure of the frame 23. It will be adequate to require only that plastic It is quite evident from Fig. makes use of the parameters . then a more serious situation exists and a modification would certainly be necessary to assure a safe design. it is unlikely that the resulting critical bracing would that is ordinarily required allow much inelastic rotation .SP: 6(6) . The maximum axial load P on such columns at ultimate loading shall not exceed six-tenths Py. if the moment is maximum at the ends of the member.) While this might be reasonable for a section that was only called upon to support MP.L/b and d/t. yield penetrate through the flangelO.1972 buckling equation’e has been used. 18. Although the load at which an isolated column will fail when it is loaded with axial force and bending moment can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.In the plane of bending of columns which would develop a plastic hinge at ultimate loading. then the stability problem may be neglected. if an examination of the moment diagram shows that the column is bent in single curvature. Rule 1. Since a complete solution to this problem is not in hand. would suggest (and the results of tests confirm) that if the axial load is relatively low and. the analysis being based on an idealized cross-section that consists of only two flanges separated by the webdistance.a rotation at the first plastic hinge. Using the elastic constants of the material. is the product’ of yield point stress times column area. 91 . 21.
In no case shall the ratio of axial exceed that given by the following expression: 8 700 P when k> 120 r pJ=o” load to plastic load where 1 and j are the unbraced length and radius of’ gyration of the column in the plane normal to that of the continuous frame under consideration. 0 For pin-base: columns required to develop a hinge at one end only.=Mp) when P/P. . shall not exceed unity nor fBrc value given by the following formulas. (b) by attachment to an adjacent stnsctuxe having ample lateral stability. those listed in Table 1. Rule 8 . or (c) by floor slabs or roof decks scared horizontally by walls or bracing system parallel to the plane of the continuous frames shall be so proportioned that: uk 7 --.c. Case III For columns of opposite bent in single sign: curvature any given Z/r. the full plastic strength of the member may be used (M. and double curvature columns required to develop a hinge at one end when the moment at the other end would be less than the hinge value: 1*18--1.SP: 4(6) .1972 in continuous frames where sidesway is not Rule 6 -Columns prevented (a) by diagonal bracing. and for Case I columns. MO/M*. for slenderness ratio in the plane of bending. For Case II columns where Z/Y in the plane of bending is less than 60.oIumr. where they are applicable: Cask I For columns bent in double curvature by moments producing ‘plastic hinges at both ends of the columns: .ar~d other axially loaded members. tllcratio of allowable end moment to the full plastic bending strength 31 ~.18 Case I4 - B-G 0 f Y the numerical values for B and G.15. being by end moments the numerical values for K and J being those given in Table 2. would not exceed 0. 92 . Except as otherwise provided in this section.
143 1.406 l-416 1.323 1.206 1.187 1.144 1.225 1._GP PY T i 1.243 2275 2.225 l-227 I.378 2.148 l-149 1*150 l-150 1.156 l-157 1.201 1.MO MP -_&.254 l-258 1.217 1.207 2.669 1.143 1.310 1.240 l-243 1.309 2-343 2.228 1 230 I.183 l-184 1.209 1.I 1: 101 102 103 104 10% :iE :ii 118 111 .166 l-167 l-168 l-169 l-170 1.173 l-174 1.726 1.220 l-222 1.248 1.221 l-222 l-224 1.179 2.426 1.879 I*903 I 28 *9 I.767 1.448 1460 l-472 l-485 1.633 1.179 l-180 l-181 1*182 1.182 l-184 1.215 1.191 1.228 1.158 l-159 l-159 l-160 1.112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 1.146 l-147 1.175 l-176 1.263 l-267 l-164 l-165 1.832 ‘I.172 1.174 1.487 2.239 ‘l-240 l-242 : .211 I.195 1.250 X.651 1.330 I.: 1.145 1.251 1.186 l-187 l-188 l-189 l-190 1.344 1.584 1.177 l-178 1.205 I.191 l-192 l-194 1.396 1.316 1.271 1.149 2.196 1.276 1.286 l-292 E: 1.204 1.146 1.211 2.145 1.337 I.141 l-142 l-142 1.788 3.140 1*140 1.200 I.033 2.148 1.189 1.171 l-172 1.198 l-200 1.707 1.231 1.194 l-196 1.141 1.525 1.247 1.497 l-511 1.209 I.177 l-179 1.213 1 214 1-21s 1.524 l-539 l-553 1.212 1.450 2.165 1.217 1.568 1.437 1.152 l-153 l-154 l-155 1.161 x32 .600 91 .352 I-360 l-369 l-377 l-386 1.414 2.616 1.202 1.151 l*i52 1.197 l-198 1.061 2m(r a-119 2.218 l-220 1.810 1.688 I.203 1.247 1.234 l-237 1.231 l-233 l-234 l-236 l-237 1.281 1.746 I.953 l-979 2m6 2.855 6.z 94 9% 96 .210 I.155 1.205 l-207 1.
1.576 0.097 1.227 0.486 -1.077 2.801 1.564 0.816 -2.741 .316 0.404 .892 0.1.1.592 .69 1.451 .318 .066 3 0.389 0.222 -1.516 1.968 2.0.478 94 .534 0.986 .287 0.590 0.042 -1W4 2.507 -0. 78 i.434 0449 0.624 0.1.272 0.605 1.300 3.0 0.736 0.0.671 0.1972 TABLE 2 CASE III COLUMNS BENT IN SINGLE CURVATURE.048 1.1.668 184.108.40.2063 0647 0.083 2 0.131 1.432 0.689 0.165 v 41 42 43 z 46 47 +8 49 50 51 : 55’ 56 :i iii 61 t: 64 65 t4 :t 70 8: z: 75 .015 1.774 0.020 -2.099 8 0.115 2.720 0.397 2.0.220 .148 1.799 0.655 0.463 0.192 2.293 1.604 0.0.403 0.0.114 1.0.753* 0.177 -0.968 0.1.286 .1440 2.652 1.237 1.301 0.647 -@677 .521 .1.0.411 1. -0.703 .984 l*OOO 0.313 2.oao 1 -0.2.263 .032 1.1.211 0.116 0.104 -2.058 8 zzW.548 0.765 2.534 .350 .1.877 0.384 .157 -0.231 2.191 .117 -0.331 0.0.351 1.495 1.185 2.166 1.661 0.1.071 .769 1.0.779 .418 0.538 1.429 .907 0.021 7 .219 1.0.847 0.SP: 6(6) .130 .628 1.748 1.0.475 0461 0447 0.2.0.241 -0.201 1.937 0.818 0.937 -2.850 .0.147 3.504 0.773 1.101 .021 2.1.549 0.707 81 82 ii 85 86 87 s8: 90 91 92 .916 2.18.149 0.746 0.161 .256 1.1.832 0.0.958 -0*900 1. .360 0.619 0.703 0.789 0803 0.257 0.286 . 5 = 1*0-K(f) MfJ -J(g)” IT w MO 0. VALUES OF K AND J W<M.583 1.490 0.356 -0.2.877 .478 0.057 2.0..081 1.123 2.687 0.824 -0.272 2.0.452 1.137 -0.529 2.562 0.857 .953 0.064 1.866 1.969 2.760 0.675 1.380 .534 0.984 2.562 -0*590 .147 .978 .196 0.865 2.0143 -0.556 .1.312 1.621 2.1.930 -0.309 .432 1.1.862 0.345 0.560 1.062 -2358 3.609 0.724 1. 1.031 8 0.254 .519 0.922 0.716 2.391 1.417 -1484 2.814 2.153 2.731 0.332 .242 0.374 0.579 0.618 .0.371 1.242 3.: 95 8.675 0.897 -.041 2.903 .332 1. .198 .183 1. 98 lzz 101 102 103 : 106 107 108 :Yi?l 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 1.049 2 0.628 .1.717 0.473 1.492 0.520 0.1.738 1.833 1.506 0.575 2.0.133 0.665 .1.354 2.003 6 -0.594 0.455 -@481 .640 0.274 1.703 0.014 .
SP: 6(6) .it is possible to join members with sufficient strength that the full plastic moment may be transmitted from one member to another. therefore. rivets. or bolts) are often located at points subjected to the greatest moments. However. These are as follows: a) Double curvature with plastic hinges at both ends. assure the performance that is assumed in design -namely. most of the column problems that tures considered in this handbook will not require refinements. this is but one of the methods of fabrication for which plastic design is suitable. because by welding. Therefore. as given in Rule 7 for Case III. Ref 33 treats these cases and develops formulas that signer. Design procedures must. b) Double curvature with plastic hinge at one end and opposite end intermediate between pinned and at plastic hinge value. it will be conservative to use the solution for (e) above. The ability of fabricaters to successfully connect members by welding has lent impetus in recent vears to the application of plastic design methods. However. in the plastic analysis. Thus.. c) Single curvature with one end pinned and moment applied at the opposite end. and e) Single curvature with equal end moments.6 Connections -Connections play a key role in assuring that the structure reaches the computed ultimate load. will assist the dearise in the structhe corresponding Whenever it is found that conditions for the preceding ’ rules ’ are not met. the connecting devices (welds. the column should be selected so that it will have an actual end moment capacity five. when the design is complete. to ten percent greater than required for the development of hinges in the beam. It will be recognized that the single curvature loading condition places the mid height of the column in the most critical loading condition. this may occur if the column strength has been increased adequately to assure that any necessary hinges will form in the adjoining beams. Plastic design is also applicable to structures with partially welded (top plate) or with riveted 95 . at corners the connections must change the direction of the forces. d) Single curvature with unequal end moments.1972 As already implied. 23. Also. the failure load of a column and its ability to transmit plastic moments are dependent upon the loading conditions. Points of maximum moment usually occur at connections: and further. if a hinge were assumed to form in one or both ends of the column. that connection will develop and subsequently maintain the required moment.
?atYo~rof hinges. beam-to-girder connections. but similar appixxches may be used when considering the other connection types.6. girts. column. Beam-girder 4.The X3.or bolted connections forna.. design requirements Connections. Splice 5. splices (beam. (b) stiffness. column anchorages. These are (a) strength. Column Base 6. Corner 2. Berm-column 3.1 Repirements for for connections are introduced by considering the general behaviour of This has been different corner connection types as observed under load. connections. haunched). 46 and are as follows: comer connections (straight. bracing). Miscellaneous FIG. TYPES I. beam-column connections. (c) rotation capacity. Primary attention is given to corner connections and to beam-column connections. whenever demonstrated that they will allow the The yanous types of connections that might be encountered in steel frame structures are shown in Fig. roof). done in Ref 19 and 9 and it is thus possible to formulate four principal design requirements _ requirements that in principle are common to all. miscehaneous connections (purlins. 46 TYPES OF CONNECTIONS IN BUILDINGFRAMES ACCORDINGTO THEIR FUNCTION 96 .
The connection should be desianed in such a way that the elastic moment. b) Stifness . They are now discussed in the haviour of corner and interior connections: light of the be- a) Strendh ..(53) . . (d) economy. 47 DESIGNATION CRITICAL OF SECTIONS STRAIGHT IN ANDHAUNCHED SECTIONS 97 . .. Thus in Fig. for haunched connections. as computed shall not be greater than the curvature (rotation per unit of length) times the equivalent length of the knee. in which deflections of the structure were extremely critical.(54) which states that the change in angle between sections R.SP: 6(6) . The equivalent length is the length of the connection or haunch measured along the frame line. This requirement reduces to the following: e. For straight connections the critical or ‘ hinge ’ section is assumed at point H in Fig... Fig.. . it is desirable that average unit rotation of the connecting materials does not exceed that of an equivalent length of the rolled beam being joined. and R. .Although it is not essential to the development of adequate strength of the completed structure.(Mp) of the members (or the weaker of the two members) will be developed. 47(a): ...1972 anS. It would be an unusual situation. . As will be seen below. AL = r.....+r. the critical sections are assumed at R. and R. 47(a).s+u . that this requirement would be applicable. 47(b). FIG.
we are now in a position to analyze the behaviour of various connection types.SP: 6(6) . c) Rotation Capacity.1972 Normally an examination of the design to see whether or not it meets the stiffness requirement will not be necessary. Therefore.6.Obviously. On the basis of the above requirements. This subject is discussed later in further detail. This rotation is necessary to assure that all necessary plastic hinges will form throughout structure.The strength of unstiffened corner connections will be considered first. ML (T).2 Straight Corner Connections. 23. 48. extra connecting materials should be kept to a minimum.Of much greater importance than sufhcient elastic stiffness is an adequate reserve of ductility after the plastic moment value has been reached. should not be less than the plastic moment. 48 IDEALIZED LOADING STRAIGHT ON CORNER CONNECTION 98 . Wasteful joint details will result in loss of overall economy. This leads inrmediatelv to the following strength requirement: The moment . Thus all connections must be ‘proportioned to develop adequate rotation at plastic hinges. the general overall effect will not be very greatlO. The design objective is to prevent yielding of the web due to shear force at low load. the length of the connection is small. Compared with the total length of the frame line.at which yielding commences due to shear force. M* FIG. d) Ecowny . if it is a bit more flexible’than the beams which it joins. the connection and loading is shown in Fig.
.(56) .*. . Alternatively if doublers are suitable they would be proportioned according to 99 .. .. ‘H '. The critical section is to be taken at the haunch. The required web thickness is given by: Rule (l_d > ..SP: 6(6) ... the following design guide may be given: 9 Straight Corner Connections-Connections are to be proportioned to develop the full strength of the members joined./Z).. 49 FORCES AND STRESSES ASSUMED TO ACT ON UNSTIFFENED STRAIGHTCORNERCONNECTION 55 is equated t w Equation thickness : to Mp= &! a ta obtain the required . (55) FIG.1972 Using the maximum shear ing that the shear stress is that the flange carries all of M*(r) which may then (sea stress-distribution and Mb(r) = wazay stress yield condition (ru= a. web .. Rule 10 should be followed.& .. When such stiffening is required.. we can obtain a value be equated to M .._dfS -_ a2 Summarizing. and assumuniformly distributed in the web of knee.. it may be shown that: . L t. and of the flexural stress. 49P. . Using these assumptions forces in Fig. Examination of rolled shapes (using Eq 56) shows that many of them require stiffening to realize the design objective for straight connections. ..
. .. that is..= Fweb +Fstirtener when both web and diagonal stiffener have reached the yield condition: F.SP: 6(6) .t. . now. A ’ limit ’ approach may be used to analyze such a connection as sketched in Fig. . .... ... . ismade up of two parts. .. I. T2 3 .(58) Equating this moment to the plastic moment (uYZ). 50 CORNERCONNECTION WITH DIAGONAL STIFFENER The available moment capacity of this connection type is thus given by: d w73+ . The result will be a more liberal rule.1972 A~-~ming. a diagonal stiffener may be used. .(59) Instead of using the maximum shear stress theory of yielding.. 50.(56a) 100 .. and ts are the width and thickness of stiffener.b. . ... and the above-mentioned equations become : t > I’ 4s -$- . The forceF. F. . the rollowing guide is obtained in which similar approximations have been made as before: Rule 10 Diagonal Stiffeners in Connections . DG. a force carried by the web in shear and a force transmitted at the end by the diagonal stiffener.The required thickness of diagonal stiffeners in corner connections that would otherwise be deficient in shear resistance is give by: . . that the knee web is deficient as regards to its ability to resist the shear force.*457) where b. Eq 56 and 59 could have been derived using the Mises-Hencky yield criterion.= .* .. . .
1972 and I. Since the use of a haunch will automatically cut down on the span length. although the designer may find more frequent demand for the types shown in the figure. . Generally the use of a diagonal stiffener with a thickness equal to that of the rolled section will be adequate and not unduly wasteful of material. (bl lC) Id) 51 TYPICAL HAWNCHED CORNER CONNECTIONS 101 .ched knees. . On the other hand. Further the use of haunches in long span frames might make possible the use of rolled sections. A frame with straight connections will have larger rolled members.Haunched connections are the product of the elastic design concept by which material is placed in conformrty with the moment diagram to achieve greatest possible economy. On the other hand.3 Hatinched Connections . . a frame with haunches is more flexible on the one hand because of the lighter members.6. Analysis and test have shown all of them to be suitable in design. 23. the designer might just as well realize the additional savings in the material. If a haunch is to be specified for architectural considerations. It is difficult to generalize with regard to comparative deflections as between a frame designed with haunches and one without them. tending to decrease frame flexibility.(59a) Design Examples will be found in Section F. whereas built-up members would otherwise be needed. .. Four types of haunched connections are shown in Fig. but is stiffer on the other hand because of the deeper haun. in plastic design (through redistribution of moment) material is used to full capacity without necessity for use of haunches..SP: 6(6) . In one comparisorP a plastically designed frame with straight connections was actually stiffener than the corresponding elastic design in which haunches were used. than a smaller rolled shape should be possible in a plasticallydesigned structure. . 51.
therefore. and no rotation capacity is required because all plastic deformation occurs in the rolled sections joined. the the same principles methods as those for computing deflections described in 23. Adequate bending strength in the strong direction is only one of the strength requirements. a method of suitable simplicity should be available for computing the maximum In a recently completed report available methods are comshear stress. 51(b). and. Similarly. a larger amount of energy can be released by buckling. generally be quite similar to those knees may exhibit poor rotation This is due to inelastic local and/or lateral buckling. Curved knees have been treated in Ref 32 and the results of this work have been applied to conventional design procedures in Ref 29. This is accompiished by requiring that the haunch proper remain elastic throughout. 102 . and in so far as normal stresses are concerned. The other is that it does not ‘ kick out ’ or buckle laterally prior to reaching the design condition. the analysis problem is to have a method for predicting the maximum flange stress due to the applied loading. Thus the flange thickness should be increased to meet the demands of the applied plastic moment. The requirement that the connection remain elastic is. The report also compares the results with tests. *Normally this check is required only for type shown in Fig. Haunched capacityr4. The solution is to force the formation of the plastic hinge to occur at the end of the haunch. it was found that the method of Olander was quite reasonable. would embody The design requirements will for straight corners. It is still necessary to force hinge formation at the extremeties of the haunch and thus a further increase of flange thickness appears necessary. it cannot be laterally supported along the full length. The tendency for this mode of failure is greater than in the straight connections because in the haunched knees the stress distribution is more nearly uniform along the compression flange.SP: 6(6) . 52). ther’efore. Therefore.1972 The analysis of a frame with haunched connections involves no new principles. Also the knee web should have adequate thickness to prevent general plastic shear*. secondly. pared. The effect of the haunches is to increase the number of sections at which plastic hinges may form. Stiffness is automatically provided in a great majority of cases. of considerable advantage.9. For tapered haunches the design problem will be to find the required thickness of inner flange of the haunch to assure hinge formation at the extremities (locations A and C of Fig. but otherwise the procedures are the same as before.
4 Analysis of Inttwior Beam-Colwnn Connections .Haunched connections are to be proportioned to ‘develop plastic moment at the end of rolled section joined. 46 and in further detail in Fig.The interior beam-to-column connections are those shown as ‘ 2 ’ in Fig.SP: 6(6) . The distance ‘d ’ is to be that as shown in Fig. 52. Current research has extended and systematized the procedures &ith regard to the actual proportioning of haunched connections. make flange thickness 50 percent greater than that of section joined. 52 EXAMPLEOF TAPERED HAVNCH Although studies to date have not been completed to the point where the required flange thicknesses may be picked from a chart. A theoretical study and experimental investigation are nearing completion on this aspect of the problem. the results suggest that an increase of 50 percent in flange thickness requirements should lead to a safe design. 53. Use Rule 9 to check web thickness (adequate to resist shear forces). then: Rule 11 Haunched Connections .6. 23. For curved knees the inner flange thickness is to be 50 percent greater than required by the rules of Ref 29. In summary. The function of the ‘ Top ’ and the ‘ Interior ’ connections is to transmit moment from the left to the right beam.1972 FIG. the 103 . In order to force formation of hinge at the end of a tapered haunch.
(c) INTERIOR TYPE (b) SIDE. In the limit.IOE (c) INTERIOR FIG.SP: 6(6) . Therefore. AND column carrying any unbalanced moment.1972 (a) iOP (b) . methods should be available for analyzing the joint to predict the resisting moment of unstiffened and stiffened columns. 54(a)] may be computed on a somewhat similar basis as that adopted usually in conventional (elastic) design practice. 54 METHODS OF STIFFENING AN INTERIOR BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTIONS 104 . The design problem is to provide sufficient stiffening material so that the connection will transmit the desired moment (usually the plastic moment MP). The ’ Side ’ connection transmits beam moment to upper and lower columns. 53 BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTIONS OF (a) TOP. the force fb) FLANGE SlKFEWLR FIG. The moment capacity of unstiffened beam-to-column connections [Fig.
. ... the force which should be transmitted is known AbCM.. 55 ASSUMED STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN BEAM COLUMN CONNECTION WITH No STIFFENER 105 . WC-Z?------ Ae &.a ..SP: 6(6) .) . .+ 6k.1972 which the column web can sustain is equal to the area available to carry the reaction times the yield-point stress. R I. .... wC. Therefore one may write: T =(Reaction or 9$=r-e +3 kc)](o.J .. . 2 The reaction width is equal to the column web thickness. 4 FIG.. As a conservative approximation it can be assumed-that the length of reaction zone is half of the beam depth plus three times the K-distance of the column.(61) area) ~(a. .(60) From Eq 61 a direct design check may be formulated.. . 55. . . . T = u. Referring to Fig.----.
. with Tw = force resisted = and I. wC to assure that the plastic moment will be developed in the beam. . the test by Eq 62 will often show inadequate strength of the column. 54. Recourse is then made to flange or web stiffeners of the type shown in Fig.) or T = T&T. 2 FIG. referring to Jig. 56 ASSUMED STRESS DISTRIBUTION INBEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTION WITH FLANGETYPE STIFFENER 106 .&eb .. A ‘ limit ’ analysis of connections with flange stiffeners may be used which results in a direct design procedure for determining the required thickness of stiffener.. Except for those cases where the columns are relatively heavy in comparison to the beams. the thrust T should be balanced by the strength of the web (T. 57 in which the plastic moment (&I$) is acting at the end of the beam. by the .1972 which gives the required column web thickness. 1.SP: 6(6) .(63) = force resisted by stiffener plate = by lib and T Ab = ay--. . Assume that a stiffener is required and that it will adequately brace the column web against buckling.) and of the flange plate (T. .. byWc .. Then.
. . . .(65) ... 54(c)]. If ‘flange ’ stiffeners thickness is given by: t are used for reinforcement. and tb = the stress of the beam flange. . . its web thickness should be governed by: . therefore. In summary the following design guide is suggested: Rule 12 Interior Beam-C@umn Connections . 53(b)] or interior connections with large unbalanced moments may require ’ shear stifIening ’ if the column does not carry much direct stress.1972 a direct solution for required stiffener thickness .$+3&) .. are used: .. is: .. An examination similar to that leading to Eq 56 would. .. 466) The thickness wwI should not be less than that of the columns. ($ (. . be desirable in this infrequently encountered case.(65) where rur= the thickness of the web-type stiffener.. This is given by: Reaction area = WC +%)+Zw.SP: 6(6) . Web stiffeners may be proportioned on a Similar basis to that described for unstiffened connections.To assure that an unstiffened column will transmit the plastic moment of the adjoining beam. The second general type of stiffener that might be needed is that necessary to assist in transmitting shear forces. 49.. .. . In such a case the column web at the joint is called upon to transmit forces such like those of Fig. For use in Eq 60 the reaction area is made up of the area supplied by the column web and the two inserted auxiliary webs [Fig. ....=&[A. Alternatively. wI = Ab-ddb-k6kc) 4(tb + W 107 . -Wc(dbi-6kc)i if ’ web ’ type stiffeners . Adequate information is thus available for obtaining its required value.. their required . ’ Side 1 connections [Fig.I The results of tests show that this approach is conservative.
09 cm Use 12 mm thick stiffeners.. 2 A where tw= column web thickness in cm. The connection shown in Fig. 53 and an example of their occurrence in design is shown in Sheet 1 of Design Example 9. . and . Next..or 4-way connection: 71M t. = $ [Av--ZPlc(db+6~c)] [126. Joints that are typical of interior beam-column connections arc shown in Fig.-tC Ab 126. M = unbalanced moment on the connection A = planar area of connection in Cm2. Using horizontal the required thickness is given by Eq 64: t.54 cm>O99 cm ’ flange ’ stiffeners.70 cm 0. 57(a) should transmit moment from the beam to the columns above and below.69 = (60+222) Therefore stiffeners are required.0 cm 3. The designs of three types of connections will now be considered. Example 8: Illustration of the application of the equations in Rule 12 will now be given.. db = Kc= W..69-O-99(60+22*2)] = & = 1.99 cm of column web is: = 1. In exterior columns or in other cases of large unbalanced examine adequacy of web to transmit shear force. The first question is.t. 108 in m.69 cm2 60. the web should be examined to see if it is adequate to resist Very recently it has the shear force introduced by the column moment. sketch (a). 3 = -j.1972 moment. . been shown that an extension of Eq 58 leads to the following relationship for a 3.SIP: 6(6) . ‘are stiffeners required ?’ From Eq 62 using Ab= properties of the ISLB 600 and ISLB 550: 126.= The required thickness t.
In this problem.77m. the moment computed in the frame analysis would be used.SP: 6(6) .a 60x55 109 . MP of the section. the moment will be taken as the maximum possible value. 57 BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTION WITH (4 STIFENERSColttd In an actual design. Thus 71 x70-52 = 1*57>0*99 ‘. namely.t ISLa 350 Y L - I I (cl FIG.1972 IS16 1 2b35m& 400 I u 19.
(1~57-0~99) % 48” da = (l-57 COs 48’)ds = 25_3 cmp 2 798*6x0*57 ' = l-57(0-67)60 Use 2 stiffeners of size 100 x 15 mm. a 110 . the area of stiffener may be computed from: u. cos 2.. From Eq 66a: 71M t. 57 BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTION WITH STIFFENERS u tsue 550 (e) Connectionusing High Tensile Friction Grip Fasteners Thus shear stiffening is required. 57(a) will be specified. cos 48” = F b A A ’ = a.) 55 x35 = 0*726>0*74 No additional stiffening is considered necessary.z6(6)- 1972 FIG. A. Assuming that all of the unbalanced moment is carried by the flanges. A diagonal stiffener as shown in Fig.12-2535.SP.a 7 to see if the = 71(45. The connection shown in Fig. Having in mind that. 57(c) should be examined for adequacy with regard to moment and shear stiffeners. The connection shown in Fig.. 57(b) is next examined web is adequate for shear.
08-33. 126.085) = i-58 cm The stiffener shown in Fig. Further.SP: 6(6) . More than an adequate amount of material is thus available to transmit the applied shear force. trimming the flanges to suit the purpose. *Code of practice for aeeembly grip fastenem of rtructural joints using high tennile frictfon 111 .71) w’ A ‘-. There is a fabrication advantage in using the latter since it would only involve the procurement of a short additional length of the column section already specified.55+3x3.1972 connection of this right angles to the if the calculations framing into the type will frequently have a beam framing into it at plane of the joint. t > 72 = 71(60. 57(d) may either be fabricated from plate stock or by splitting ISLB 350. 23.085) 4(1. In checking for shear.5 Conwctions Using High-Strength Bolts-High-strength bolts (see IS: 4000-1967*) may be used to join members [see Fig. a web type stiffener should be used suggest that one is required. 60x35 = 0. Using Eq 62: W> Ab “‘da+6k. the two beams column are of different depths.74[60+6 x3.43 cm>0*74 cm St@Gng is required A.89 cm.(~*+6w Using Eq 66: W I= 4(G+6&) = 126*69-0.69 = 60*0+6(3.085) = 1. 57(e)] in one of two ways.-W. In the latter case at ultimate load the design may be based upon tension values equal to the guaranteed minimum proof load and shear values equal to the normal area of the bolt times i 760 kgf/cms.6. Either they may be considered as splices in regions of negligible moment or they may be used at positions at which plastic hinges are expected to form.
the strength of the top flange when it is plastic results in the number 10.7 t acting upon the joint.0-2(2*08)(2*5)]2540 -5 900 7 900 = Top plate design: ?Z= Thickness = 2 540L20_(2 x2S5J’1= 2. Mp= a$ = 8846 m.SP: 6(6) .0 This is less than Mp plates joined by bolts loaded in tension by the applied NOTE -Vertical moment must be designed adequate to transmit the tension. Actually the bolts will be considerably stronger than this minimum value. bolts required to ‘ develop ‘. The 8 bolts furnished will be adequate.08x21. Try 6 bolts in tension.7 7 900x12 The following comments are in explanation of the above steps: a) The ‘ tension value ’ of a 24 mm bolt is taken as the guaranteed minimum proof load of 16 300 kg.1972 An illustration of the design of a moment connection in the vicinity of a plastic hinge will now be given.t M =[12 x7 900x (60-&0)+16 300(2)(37~5+30~5+23~0)] = (49.48 cm Use a top plate of 200 x 25 mm connected by 12 bolts to the top flange. The design calculations follow. 112 . b) With a vertical shear of 33. and the top plate is proportioned such that it will actually transmit the force due to 12 bolts loaded in shear. = lo. c) The calculation of the number of. Moment capacity of connection should be greater than plastic moment of ISMB 600.7 bolts are. sketch (h). shows the welded detail. furnished. A. 33*7x103 = 4. The problem is to join the girder to the column at section 8 with high strength bolts to transmit the necessary moment. but also a portion of the web force.6) = 79. x2 540 [2. therefore. a minimum of 5 bolts are needed. The example chosen is joint 8 of sheet 5 of Design Example 7. d) The 6 bolts in tension are also assumed to be working at their guaranteed minimum proof load when the plastic moment comes on the joint. Bolts of dia 14 mm will be specified with a proof load of 7 900 kg.40+29. Thus this plate will transmit not only the flange force.3 bolts 7 900 Minimum number of bolts = 5 Bolts requited to develop top flange load For vertical shear. The shear value is assumed as 7 900 kg.
experience with tests of rolled members under normal loading conditions (but with many ‘ adverse circumstances ’ present that might be expected to lead to failures) has not revealed premature brittle fractures of steel beams. at ultimate load the shear stress would be limited to 1760 kgf/cms. no single easy rule is available to the designer. How can we be sure that brittle fracture will not be a problem even if the suggestions mentioned above are followed ? While no positive guarantee is possible. punched holes in tension zones and the use of sheared edges are not permitted. Thus: a) The proper material should be specified to meet the appropriate service conditions.SP: 6(6) . In plastic design the engineer should be guided by the same principles that govern the proper design of an all-welded structure designed by conventional methods. And although hundreds of articles have been published on the problem of brittle fracture. it is exceedingly important to assure that such failure does not occur. beam joining the left flange of the column. Further.6 Riveted Connections-Riveted tioned in a manner that would make use of similar principles to those involved in 23. since the problem is of equal importance to both.6.6. But it is an equally important aspect of conventional elastic d&n when applied to fully-welded continuous structures. Such severe cold working exhausts the ductility of the material. c) Design details should be such that the material is as free to deform as possible. The geometry should be examined so that triaxial states of tensile stress will be avoided. In this regard.7 Brittle Fracture -Since brittle fracture would prevent the formation of a plastic hinge. As has already been pointed out in previous sections the assumption of ductility is important in conventional design and numerous. For rivets in shear. b) The fabrication and workmanship should meet high standards.1972 e) Bolts in the splice just over the column would be in sufficient number to transmit the necessary shear to the column. the use of fully continuous welded construction in actual practice today has not resulted in .design assumptions rely upon it. For this purpose the tension value of a rivet would be computed on the basis of a yield stress of 2 540 kg/cm2. 23. connections could be propor23.5. The exact number would depend upon the number of bolts that would be required for the ISLB 350. In the past years the failures of ships and pressure vessels have focussed attention on the importance of this problem.
In design. Loss of deflection stability by progressive deformation is characterized by the behaviour shown in Fig. after a few cycles the deflection will P stabilize at a constant maximum value and thereafter the behaviour will be elastic.. it may be shown theoretically that a different mode of ’ failure ’ may occur. to insure weldability and toughness at lowest service temperature. . For ordinary building design no further consideration of variation in loads is warranted. of tensile stress set up by geometrical 23. In the event that the unusual loading situation is encountered.8 Repeated Loading .SP: 6(6) . On the other hand if the variable load is equal to or less than . the following guides are suggested: Rule 13 Structural Ductility -Ordinary structural grade steel for bridges and buildings may be used with modifications. triaxial states restraints should be avoided. In the large majority of practical cases this is true. if the major part of the loading may be completely removed from the structure and re-applied at frequent intervals. The question is. It is characterized by loss of deflection stability in the sense that under repeated applications of a certain sequence of load.1972 failures. Punched and reamed holes for connecting devices would be permitted if the reaming removes the cold-worked material. However. Sheared edges and punched holes in tension flanges are not permitted. then. when needed. Fabrication processes should be such as to promote ductility. methods are available for solvipg for the stabilizing load. and factors that are otherwise neglected in design have most certainly caused plastic deformations in many parts of such structures. 58. even though it sustains each application of load. then the deflections P tend to increase for each cycle. and the P . If the load is variable and repeated and is greater than the stabilizing load. . Summarizing. does the progressive deflection stop after a few cycles (does it ’ shake down ‘) or does the deflection continue indefinitely ? If it continues.Up to this point the tacit assumption has been made that the ultimate load is independent of the sequence in which the various loads are applied to the structure. One would also suppose that a certain degree of fluctuation in the magnitude of the different loads would be tolerable so long as the number of cycles did not approach values normally associated with fatigue... an increment of plastic deformation in the same sense may occur during each cycle of loading. the structure is ‘ unstable ’ from a deflection point of view.
and thus the live plus dead load would probably never reach P. could not be assumed to exhaust the fullvalue of the factor of safety .Plasticdesign is intended for cases normally considered as ‘ static’ loading.1972 DEFLECTION--------c- FIG. however. Variation in live load.. the load factor of safety is made up of many factors other than possible increase in load (such as variation in material properties and dimensions. thiswill not be necessary in the large majority of cases.. etc). Unless the design criterion is required to be controlledby fatigue. This implies that a lower load factor would be appropriate as regards . the discussion which follows in this section applies equally well to ’ plastic fatigue ’ as well as to ‘ deflectionstability ’ 115 . than as regards P. Further. failure in thissense is accompanied by a very definite warning that loss of deflection stability is imminent.. For such cases the problem of repeated loading may be disregarded. alone. and this situation is unusual. *Another repeated loading effect is called ‘ alternating \plasticity or ‘plastic ’ fatigue ‘. As mentioned earlier. errorsin fabrication and erection. Secondly. In the first place the ratio of live load to dead load should be very large in order that PIbe significantlyless than P. P Rule 14 Repeated Loading . 58 CURVES EXPLAININGLoss OF DEFLECTIONSTABILITY BY PROGRESSIVE DEFORMATION design may be modified accordinglyllJa*.as pointed out by Neal 11.. It is characterized by an actual reversal of stress of a magnitude sufficient to cause plastic deformation during each cycle.SP: 6(6) .
because in most cases a structure designed for ultimate loading by the plastic method will actually deflect no more at working loads (which are nearly always in the elastic range) than a structure designed according to ‘ elastic ’ specifications. Fig. For example. DEFLECTION DESIGN BEAMS FIG. 23. Curve III is the plastic design.1972 Where the full magnitude of the principle load(s) is expected to vary.59 LOAD DEFLECTION RELATIONSHIP FOR THREE FOR SUPPORTING THE S. Curve I is the simple beam design. and these will be outlined herein.4nm LOAD 116 . The deflections at working load for the plastic design are significantly less than those of the simply-supported beam. However. the ultimate load may be modified according to analysis of deflection stability.SP: 6(6) .9 Deflections-Methods for computing the deflection at ultimate load and at working load have been summarized in Ref 9. albeit slightly greater than the elastic design of the restrained beam’ (Curve II). 59 shows three different designs of a beam of 10 m span to carry a working load of 10 t. the problem of deflections is not a serious one to plastic design.
(In Ref 9. and thus the last hinge. our needs involving deflection computation may be satisfied with approximations and they fall into two categories: a) Determination of approximde magnitude of aS$ection at ultimate load-The load factor of safety does not preclude the rare overload. a few examples will demonstrate that a simpler method is available: calculate the deflection on the assumption that each hinge. the slope-deflection equations may be used to solve for relative deflection of segments of the structure. The moments having been determined from the plastic analysis. Further.1 Dejection at Ultimate Load-The so-called ‘ hinge method ’ (discussed in the references mentioned above) gives a reasonably precise approximation to the load-deflection curve and affords a means for estimating the deflection at ultimate load. 17) which means that each span retains its elastic flexural rigidity (El) for the whole segment between sections at which plastic hinges are located. even though such calculations will rarely be required. the design requirements may limit deflection at this load. The analysis neglects catenary forces (which tend to decrease deflection and increase strength) and second-order effects (which tend to increase deflection and decrease strength). The correct deflection at ultimate load is the maximum value obtained from the various trials. the nomenclature being as shown in Fig.In certain cases. although ’ kinks ’ form at the other hinge sections. Therefore. just as the structure attains the computed ultimate load. 60 with clockwise moment and angle change being positive: The only remaining question is: which hinge is the last to form ? An elasti-plastic analysis could be carried out to determine the sequence of formation of hinges. 15. As a consequence. and 30 may be found discussion of these and other factors. Fortunately. methods are available for making these computations that approach in simplicity the methods for analysing for ultimate load. in turn. b) Estimate of dejlection at working load . The deflection requirement is a secondary one -the structure should not deform too much out of shape.) 23. 117 .1972 The primary design requirement is that the structure should carry the assumed load. However. Also ignored are any factors that influence the moment-curvature relationship. The following form of these equations will be used. is the last to form.9. This method is based on the idealized M-C+ relationship (Fig. there is still continuity at that section at which the lust plastic hinge forms. and an estimate of’ the corresponding deflections would be of value.SP: 6(6) .
compute the ‘ kinks ’ formed due to the incorrect assumption. 60 SIGNCONVENTION ANDNOMENCLATURE FOR USE INTHE SLOPE-DEFLECTION EQUATIONS In outiine.SP: 6(6) . the corresponding moment diagram and the mechanism (from the plastic analysis). uniform vertical load) a) Ultimate load (Eq 27) 118 . The procedure is now illustrated in examples 6 and 7 which follow: Exam@ 6: (Fixed-ended beam. that each hinge is the last to form: i) Draw free-body diagram of segment. d) A check: From a deflection calculation based on an arbitrary assumption. Remove the ’ kinks ’ by mechanism motion and (Th is is also an alternate procedure. in t.urn. the following summarizes deflections at ultimate load: Rule 15 Deflection at Ultimate Load the procedure for computing a) Obtain the ultimate load. and ii) Solve slope-deflection equation for assumed condition of continuity. c) Correct deflection is the largest value (corresponds to last plastic hinge).1972 FIG. b) Compute the deflection of the various frame segments assuming.) obtain correct deflection.
b) Moment Diagram and Mechanism c) Com$&ztion of Vertical Deflection
ANALYSISOF FIXED-ENDED, UNIFORMLY LOADED BEAM
SP: 6(6) - 1972 TRIAL AT LOCATION (Location 2 assumed as last hinge to form) 2 Free-body diagram - Fig. 61 (b) Slope-deflection equation for member 2-1 using the condition that:
M& 12EI assumed at Section 2 witn continuity
0; = Simple beam end rotation =&Ja= Vertical deflection
TRIAL AT LOCATION1 Even though it is obvious that last hinge forms at ’ 2 ‘, what is the effect of incorrect assumption ? Free body - Fig. 61(c) Slope-deflection equation for sequent l-2 using the condition that:
Thus the correct answer is 61/ = 12EI Example 7:
portal frame, fixed bases) Load (by plastic analysis) P”+@
Diagram and Mechanism Fig. 62(b) and (c) Free-body Diagrams - Fig. 62(d) Complltation of Vertical Dejection 120
DEFLECTION ANALYSISOF RECTANGULAR BASES
at Location 2, &,= ezl:
RATIO OF 8~ AND 6~: From the condition of continuity
MA2 sv, = -12EI
AT LOCATION 3: Osa= fl,,
MpL2 8v1= __ 24EI
TRIAL AT LOCATION 5: Similar procedure using 0,=
is: Sv = a,,,
= 6v, = M&p (Last hinge at location lm 122
. the load factor of safety.oz”& often they may be esti- end restraint conditions are not known.9. and the above technique employed.SP :6(6) . fixed-ended beam.. 61). . it is found that: Sw=~= When mated W6L3 o. solutions are already available in handbooks. As an indication as to whether or not an actual calculation of deflection at working load should be made. \EXAMPLES CALCULkED IN PREVIOUS FIG. The deflection at ultimate load (6.. For such cases one would divide the computed ultimate load by F. if at all possible.Usually the structure will be elastic at working load. For certain standard cases of loading and restraint. Rut it is desirable to avoid such an elastic analysis. Taking the fixed-ended beam of Example 6. The error may often be greater than 100 percent. 63 IDEALIZED LOAL) DEFLECTIONRELATIONSHIP FOR FIXED-ENDED BEAM WTTH UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD 123 . . implying a need for an elastic analysis of the structure.2 Dejectiolz at Working Load .1972 23. and solve for working load deflection from tables. for instance (Fig. recourse may be had to the methods of the previous section.‘) may be computed by the hinge method. . and a value that will be greater than the true deflection at working load may be obtained from: 8. 63 for the uniformly-loaded. This is illustrated by the dashed line in Fig.
SP: 6(6) - 1972
btit it gives an upper lations are necessary. deflection at working to handbook tables. An upper limit from 6,, = 8,/F. limit to 6, and indicates when more refined calcu-
Rule 16 Deflectionat Working
load is required,
Load - If computation
this may be done by
of beam reference
of the deflection
of a frame at working
load is obtained of the esti-
In Section F will be found several additional mation of deflections for design purposes.
23.9.3 Rotation Capacity- In order that a structure attains the computed ultimate load, it is necessary for redistribution of moment to .occur. As pointed out in 15 this is only possible if the plastic moment is maintaiued at the first hinge to form while hinges are developing elsewhere in the structure. The term ‘ rotation capacity ’ characterizes this ability of a structural member to absorb rotations at near-maximum (plastic) It is evident that certain factors such as instability and moment. fracture may limit the rotation capacity of a section; and one might anticipate having to calculate the amount of required rotation in any given problem to meet the particular limitation. This would seriously complicate plastic design. However, computations of the required rotation angle (called ‘ hinge rotation ‘) are normally not required in design, since the foregoing rules of practice will assure that structural joints possess it in adequate meaIn setting up the procedure for safeguarding against local buckling sure. (Rule 3) it was specified that the section should not buckle until the supplied in extreme fibre strain had reached cd. The hinge rotation this case is about 12 (EJQ= 12); this value is sufficient to meet most practical structural requirements. The procedure for computing the hinge rotation at a plastic hinge in a given structure is based directly on the methods for computing deflections at ultimate load. It has been illustrated in Ref 9 and the problem has been treated in Rcf 31.
DESIGN EXAMPLES 24. INTRODUCTION 24.1 This section will treat actual design problems for the purpose of illustrating the principles of plastic design. In addition to obtaining the required section following the general procedures laid down in 21 and 22, each design will be examined in the light of the ‘secondary each clz+.igsigur~onsiderations ’ (Section B). In the process of analyzing short cut ’ methods will not be used. Instead, each problem will be ’ worked by a direct and complete plastic analysis. The experienced designer will, of course, want to use all possible techniques to shorten the design time, but at this stage the objective is to illustrate the principles. The available ‘short-cuts’ for speeding up the design process will be treated in Section G. Just as in conventional elastic design where the engineer has available various formulas, tables and charts with which to analyze standard cases, so also it has been possible to arrange convenient design aids for the rapid selection of member sizes. In arriving at a final section size it will be noticed that a table of Z-values has been used: when the required Mp-value has been determined, Z is computed and Table 4 is used to select the section. An alternate procedure that would save a step in the calculations is to arrange the sections according to iV*-values instead of Z-values. This limits the use of the table, however, to a single value of the yield stress level my. Still another method would be to use the presently available tables of section modulus, S. This would involve a guess as to the proper value of the shape factor, f, a value that would be corrected, if necessary, in the final step. The load factor of safety has been discussed in 22. A value of 1.85 is used for dead load plus live load and a value of 1.40 for these loads plus wind or earthquake forces. As a convenience for later reference, the examples are all worked figures or ‘ plates ‘, the discussion of the steps being included in the text. 25. DESIGN EXAMPLES ON CONTINUOUS BEAMS in the section in
25.1 Design Example 1 -A following two sheets to illustrate
design example is worked out the design of a beam of uniform 125
throughout. It develops that the end span is critical and, therefore, it is not possible to determine by statics alone the moments and reactions for the three central spans. The semi-graphical construction demonstrates that the plastic moment is not exceeded so the selection of the ISLB 600, will provide adequate bending strength. A precise determination of the reactions at ultimate load would require an elastic analysis. They are computed in this problem, however, on the assumption that the load on the interior span 3-5 is divided evenly between the two supports 3 and 5, 30.06 t being distributed to each. Actually the shear in span 3 to 5 does not vary too much and should fall somewhere between values that would correspond to the two limiting conditions indicated by Cases I and II in the portion of the moment diagram re-plotted. Thus, V,, may vary between the assumed value of 30.06 t (Case I in the sketch) and which would be obtained from Condition II (30*06+% = 32.86 t).
The maximum shear (35.22 t to the left of support 3) is well within the permitted value of 79.7 t for this shape. But when the cross-sectional proportions are checked it is found that d/w = 57.14~55 (permissible). Hence it is recommended that an ISMB 550 be used. It is checked that the cross-sectional proportions for this profile is adequate. With regard to bracing, the structure is assumed to be enclosed. Thus the top flange is continuously braced. Vertical plates are supplied at section 2 to provide some torsional restraint to the beam, Splices for shear only will be adequate at the indicated sections. At a distance of 2.5 m from the support (at the indicated points), a small variation from the actual point of inflection is not of serious consequence to load-carrying capacity. Whether or not the deflection calculation would be made depends on the design conditions. The greatest deflection will be in the end spans and will probably not be far from the value 2.9 cm for the case of the indicated approximation.
Structure and Loading L =13m W =2+5 t/m Uniform Section Throughout
Mp = 0.686 MS = O-085 8 W,,L’ = O-085 8 x 13 x 13 x4.625 =67*06 m.t 2 e $ = 67.06
4.625 x 13’ 8 = 97-7 m.t
*For later calculatbo
22(Rule 2) I 1 265 rud = 796. OK . OK Bracing Requirements Note -Beam (Rule 4) supports concrete ~lMm~73m slab.14> 5s .OK dlw =49*1<SS..197iJ DESIGN EXAMPLE load) 1 BEAM WITH UNIFORM SECTION - Contd Reactions (at Ultimate R1(0. bottom 1 hi flange FlMm exposed.12 cm d =55-O cm V(allowable)=1 265 wd177.0 cm w= 1. check as follows t = 1. .+v 2...92 b/t = 9*8<17..SP: 6(6) ..95 t kg or 79.91 t = v*.Ww v I Mp R1 = 24. 1 7_13m 13m t t t 1 (Continued) 128 .v -35. = 65.414L) . . .. . ..OK t>35*22.93 cm b = 19. adopt ISMB 550. Try ISLB 600 = 105 cm d = 60 cm I = 72 8676 cm’ W Shear 7: allocable) ..OK Cross-Section Proportions (Rule 3) 210 = 13*55<17. .*. .275 Max = (-24~91+~l~~o+~~~ t:Ro = WwL ..7 t<35. . b/t = m dlW=F5= 57..22 t .
locatioqs for moment indicated in diagram.5 x 10’ x 134 = 2.&ion at welded Working vertical plates at section 2.1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 1 BEAM WITH.9 cm 185 x EI .UNIFORM SECTION - Contd Provide shear splicesat points indicated above. Provide De--. Load P (Rule 16) WL4 Alternatively splice at convenient 8nm1= 2.SP: 6(6) .
the ISLB 450 member will extend into the side spans to the points of inflection.t and 16-O m.1972 25. All sections are satisfactory with regard to shear force. The centre span is the critical one and requires an ISLB 450 shape. It is doubtful if the additional fabrication cost warrants the savings in weight of main material unless the latter is of paramount importance. then the length of the heavier ISLB 450 beam could be decreased 1.t) are either calculated as shown or picked off graphically as are the distances to hinge points 2 and 6.0 m on the right. The magnitude of these moments (17.SP: 6(6) . No additional bracing at Section 4 was specified because in this configuration. .5 m on the left and 1. this hinge will not form prior to that at Sections 3 and 5. the ISMB 300 need not be checked. Alternatively.2 Design Example 2 . Since it is only planned to splice for shear.This is the design example of a ?-span cimtinuous beam. Splices are located at points of inflection and need be designed for shear only. The position of the splices are indicated by the dotted ordinates in the moment diagram. with dissimilar sections are to meet the needs of the different The simple span moment diagram is first laid out to scale to %t%ate the semi-graphical solution. The required moment capacity of these two spans will thus be determined by the moments at Sections 2 and 6. if full moment splices were desirable.3 m. Since the smallest beam carries the largest shear.
t 8 Ma8 _ 1.1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE Stvucture and 3-span Loading 2 CONTINUOUS BEAM ContinIlous Beam Dissimilar sections will be specified to suit the moment diagram. L=8 m * . WUL: MS1 =yj--- MIz= 1.L: = M: 2 = 35.t (Continued) 131 .@! 8 = 32.4)(1*35)=2.0 m.375 m.08 m.5~2.5 x 2. WIW = Wu w?u = 1.t -I. = 1. = I.5 WU for single loading condition.93 m.59~8’ = 31. = 1.5 L L.t 8 MM=--_ 1.5 16 W.* L.25 L L.0 L WU =(1.SP: 6(6) .59 t/m Design Moment the beam Diagram = ?.lL”’ :.59 x 12’ = 69.
+LB 300 FOY RightEnd Span VMU = V (in thiscase) at point of splice =1*5x2*59x(8-2.806 32.17 t Span Vc of ISMB 450= 1265 wd =48*95 t V&ax = V.5 WuL.)+ Total R= 103.=23.4 =44*8 Splices Provide shear splices at points indicated / ISLB 350 ISLB 450.+L.5/0*7 30.74 t Use Z = ISLB 687. .68 = 1 387. .t by scale) = 16. Bvacing Repuiremcvtls (Rule 4) Top flange continuously supported by concrete slab as in Design Example Provide welded vertical plates at sections 2 and 6 as in Design Example 1. .3 =46.5) R.0/102.8 325 rms R.0) b/t d/w ISLB 450 ISLB 325 ISMB 300 17/l-34 =12*69 16*5/0..965 x 39.23 t Use ISLB 325 = (1.25)-B.67 = 52. f <55.0)-((1.17 t In Middle ~11.6=Total Section applied .010.(3. .-R.4= 11. OK Cross-Section Proportions (Rule 3) (b/t< 17.41 Reactions (Ultimate load) 432 Use ISLB 450 Wu(3. From Rule 3 Vc of ISMB 300=1 265 wd =254>11.1972 DESIGN Mp2 EXAMPLE 2 CONTINUOUS BEAM - Gntd Mpe (determined (determined by scaIe)=17.0 m. = 11.31 t<48*95 t not be checked as the smaller section used in right end The rightend span need span is found adequate.98 = 16. = $ See moment = 34. 1.3 m. = 9.t diagram below cm* Mechanism 2.84 14..47 t RI= 39.5 W.8)’ = Mp2 R1(3*8) 2 - R. Nole - = y = Mpe (1. 132 .3 450/0.) 2 load R.SP: 6(6) . = VII+V.16 t RI= 43.
4 kg 30m = 1 959 kg 17 m = 7.= Mp. 12.4 kg 1572 kg 188.1 kg 43.9 t.0 x 2. The left hand span controls the selection of the uniform section.Thisdesign example is the same as Design Example 2 except that a uniform section is used throughout. -2Mp). Had it exceeded the web would have been required in the region in which V > Vx. therefore.SP: 6(6) .4 kg 1760.5 cm plate 65.be 8 m long. local fabrication conditions are used (Design Example ). This should. 2 would dictate whether or not the extra splicein this design would be a more economical choice than the fillet welding of the cover plates of Design Example 3. design Examples 2 and 3). They should extend somewhat beyond the point at distance is selected as about O-2 m and the plates which M ... cover plates are required with a moment capacity of 25.3 kg 65. The position of the splice(s)is controlled in this problem by transport requirements. a section which turns out to be adequate for the right-hand span as well without being wasteful of material.0 x 2.5 cm will be adequate.1972 25. Two plates 12.1 kg 312-S kg 47-g kg 2 1 673.4 kg Uniform section with cover plates The lightestdesign is. To carrythe moment at location 4.t (M. Comparing the weights of three designs (uniform section.3 DesignExample 3 .1 kg 52.75 m = 18 m = 1 113. 133 . the one in which dissimilar sections However. therefore. the same Example 2.. The cover plates are to be fillet-welded to the beam flanges. Two local (beam) mechanisms puted in thisexample. reinforced where necessary with cover plates on top and bottom flanges.25 m = 5. A single splice (for shear) is shown at the point of inflectionin span 3-4.51 m.3 kg 43. result. The reactions were not comprocedures being used as in Design The shear force begins to approach (but does not reach) a critical 35. the following is obtained: Design Shapes Unit Weight Length Weigh4 Uniform section Dissimilar section ISLB450 ISLB450 ISLB325 ISLB325 ISMB 350. then local stiffening of value in thisproblem.
21 m.t z ==88146 cmS I +-- Lz:12 m 1 Sdection Use Z of Section ISMB 350 =889.57 cm* m.t .1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 3 CONTINUOUS COVER PLATES (Same as De&n BEAM WITH Example 2 except for cover plates being used on a umform section) sftwchwe and Loading !&me Moment as in Design Example 2 Diagram Left span controls the design.t Use 120 x 25 mm AMpe =26*46 m.42 MP Reinforcing Plates A Mp=69*93-2(2+21)=25*51 Apt = ‘2 = 289 cm8 plate m.SP: 6(6) .t .2 . -0.686 MJ =22. Mp.
. OK Ctuss-Section (Rule 3) a/t = ‘Co= 9.S ==V.1972 Reactions - Compute by statics. . . . See previous exampks. . OK =43=1+0 cm. =23*31 t+ VM~ =(1*265)(081)(350)=35*9 t>23*31 t . . as in . ShearForce (Rule 2) VM. d/w = g w2 Lt--t’2Q n lnr IF 25mm ISM8 350 Providesplice indicated the sketch above. . . . .. .8. ..SP: 6(6) DESIGN EXAMPLE 3 CONTINUOUS BEAM COVER PLATES .Co& Mechanism 2 beam me&anisms WfITII . ..
the dashed line the moment due to loading by the redundant HI.. The redundant is selected as Hb. the required Mp is reduced from 39.0 The designs of rigid steel building frames of the ‘ industrial ’ type structures are illustrated in this clause. the next step is to check the In checking the axial force (Rule 1) secondary design considerations. The distributed horizontal load is replaced by a single load acting at the eaves line. ISLB 500 supplies a 2 of 1 774 cma. since in the previous examples we have already seen how to analyze a problem in which the loading was actually assumed as distributed. In view of the fact that the analysis was carried out on the basis of concentrated loads (sketch b) the lighter section would certainly be adequate. The required plastic moment for Case IF-% 39. it is assumed that a uniform section will be used. - 26. In that sketch. The dotted parabolic moment diagram reveals. In the absence of wind. Single-span and multiple-span frames are treated. In selecting the section. 136 .40 is applied against all loads (live+dead+wind).SP:6(6) .97 m. F = l-85. &se II is now analyzed and it is found that the mechanism is the same as that for Case I. Flat Roof. This case. The composite moment diagram is that shown by the shaded portion of sketch e.1972 26. After the reactions are computed. DESIGN EXAMPLES FRAMES ON INDUSTRIAL BUILDING 26. being shown in sketch f. controls the design. and the use of haunches is illustrated. In arriving at the preliminary choice of member sizes. the full value of Mp is thus available. The uniform vertical load is replaced by concentrated loads at the quarter points (sketch d).69 m. This is a case where.1 Design Example 4 (Single Span. in fact.t. pin-based frame to withstand vertical and horizontal load is worked out in this example. Hinged Base)A single span.t to about 38-O m. The fixing line l-a-b-6 is drawn such that a mechanism forms as shown in sketch d.t. = O-14. The problems include flat and gabled roofs. the frame is overdeterminate at failure with hinges forming at locations 2. The important load is the vertical load and thus maximum restraining moments at the ends are desirable (21). The analysis is carried out by the statical method (II). For the second loading condition a load factor of 1.69 m. flat roof. it is found that P/P. pinned and fixed bases. This includes &gle-storey only.t as determined by scale. the solid line is the determinate moment. The required plastic moment is 29. All applicable ‘rules ’ will be checked. a plastic modulus of 1 764 cma would be required. therefore. 5 and along 3-4. necessarily. the horizontal reaction at 6.
5 m. it is quicker to check the restraintcoefficientaccording to Appendix C.5 m. Now. C. the restraint coefficient. a 137 . This is undoubtedly satisfactory since the crude limitation. Although the deflection of such a structure would probably not be 16 shows that the defleccomputed. now. L/360.lS the full plastic moments willbe transmitted.and how much the adjoining beam lengths restrain the ‘ criticalsegment. Thishas been done in the problem. being The connection detail is sketched h. the selected assumed as 1. ’ While one could calculate the required plastic rotation at point 5*. Bracing details are suggested in the example. increasing the critical bracing slenderness ratio to 39-O. This is close enough to 39.3.5 m spacing is adequate. P/P. since stiffener None of the columns are loaded in single curvature and.SP: 6(6) . the thicknessof diagonal determined from Rule 10... *The rotationangle has been calculated and foundto give a value of+&* z Cl-0 indicating small rotationangle requirement.5 for the selected 1. Between bracing points the ratio L/ry 44-S.5 cm as the limit. spacing may or may not be adequate depending on how much plastic rotation is required to develop the last hinge in the rafter. but this = value also assumes that some plastic rotation is required. In the rafter all that is required isthat the section reach Mp since the last hinge forms there.1972 In checking for lateral bracing. an ‘ estimate ’ by Rules 15 and tion is less than 2. the girt spacing is also Since the first hinge forms at location 5. to the columns. it will be assumed that the purlin spacing is 1.5 m spacing to be adequate.27 cm. turns out to be 1. Turning attention. gives 2. is thisvalue is greater than the value Llry 30 given in Eq 51. So the 1.<O.
t See sketchd Readio?w H h 6 VI = v.3 t (Continued) 138 .5 5 =H.3 WUL = 0.1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 4 SINGLE SPAN FRAME.1 W”L 3 PlasticMoment Ratios .L’ ‘Yp MO = 59.Uniform section throughout Case I .Analysis Moment Diagram (Redundant = He) M. WITH PIN BASES FLAT ROOF structure ad Loading Loading = 1.4x4.SP: 6(6) .95 x 140=1.fp=p Mechanism =29*97 m.33 t/m==0+3 Wu 9 6 Replace uniform verticalload by concentrated loads at quarter point P = y Replace horizontal load with concentrated load withequal overturning moment w = 0. = P3 7.t jJ.(DL$LL) F WW Case II - t/m (DL+LL+Wind) ==~MI WV =+0x 140-56 t/m= Ws Wh ~0.=%*=?!?!?=5t = 33.85 = 4~1~25-740 comiitio?zs Case I . = F _ W.94 m.
h load) =6 6 .) T m.= W&.SP:6(6)DESIGN EXAMPLE 4 WITH SINGLE SPAN FBAME.6 x9*/15=30-24 M I 56.t & 5.6-$@$=I (Con&wed) .Contd FLAT ROOF 1972 n. PIN BASES -.7 cm* 20 250 Mechanism - Sketch f Reactions (ultimate H = Ep = 3969 .68 M*=-T---= Selection of Section = p_L wuL’ = _ ~ _ 4 Case II (with wind) is critical 39. - above are to be compared with values for Case II Moment M.7 + 22.MS +P Mi=2 MP 56.=H.6 t 56 t H.t Try ISLB 500 Z =Mpay 39~69x100000 = e- =1 764 Z = 1773.69 m.7 m. "6 (d) NOTE and Case II The values given maximum figures used.t 8 Equilibrium at 3 . Analysis Diagram (Redundant (Det)=WL=_&/1?(=/3)== = H.
WITH PIN BASES . .5 PY = q Shear Force (Rule 2) v&fax v*.t Mc = V.Conld FLAT ROOF v = 2. . .69-30. .265 wd =58*2>33. .66 m.25)-Zf.=39.300 p v.8-28.+-M. OK Axial Force (Rule 1) (Right-hand column critical) 33.1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 4 SINGLE SPAN FRAME.56 x 6+3969 t Moment Check M.=firstname.lastname@example.org m f :* iF (i3) l---W Proportions (Rule 3) d/w = . . More refined check is necessary (Confinued) 140 .q =54.SP: 6(6) .(2.=v.t .9 Last hinge forms in rafter M Column hinge up = WMfi lMp =).=33. -= 1*5x100 44. . Cross-S&ion ..5 m as per Appendix C. =M.OK b/t = 121 ~1.V.3. Lateral Bracing (Rule 4) spacing LB rY 3. . . .5 m LL = 1. .75 60-40 $$ =30<39*5 ( > LR = 1. .34 Rafter hinge OK.25 L/4 =21+? t VI =2P.24=9*45 m. OK hlln L I.(6)=24. .3 = t vim (ISLB 500)=1.6 1 = Hd+M+ 1. = 0*14<0*15 = 2520x95.
if Z/b .1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 4 WITH LRn = SINGLE SPAN FRAME.e) = 4 (g + g) = 0.50 0- cm Set Sketch h Nok -0.$s+.14<0. Columns (Rule 5) (Rule 7) (Right-hand column critical) E =0.g =0~88>0~12.* Full Mp is available .= in girder adjacent to (60-40 3G) 3.5 (Adequate) Bracing Details 1) Provide welded verticalplates at the threecentral purlins. =(60-40 M/Mg)r. to thii ratio I = 20x18-860 l ! (ISLB 600) = E = 1 576 d/f. = Lu=3*6* m length of partiallyplastic segment LL. PIN BASES . Splic es : Provided as part of comer connection detail Note rf stress Fb Snap the comers (no weld).34 ~190 cm Evolution of restraint coe&ient: f = t(. (Max) the prmissiSle bending (Continued) kgjcm’ 141 .. *: LR~.20 cm or &8 m. weakaxis: l- WV =l330 .SP: 6(6) . = critical section 5 LL.7 cm thick plate required to meet use 9. . 2) At sections 2 and 5 brace to inner (compression) cover from purliu.5 Conncctiorz D&ail (Rule 10) .Cod FLAT hetween ROOF the first and critical length of elastic segment in column second girtdown from the roof.36..5 corresponding (see Table l).Ox@7 cm plates as W stiffeners.15 PY .6 (1*3)(30*0) =39*0< 39.
PIN BASES -.2 t Sketch Sketch Sketch c f i Free body diagram Slope deflection Eq: (&.t M.) 8 8 0:.t M. .45 m.2 cm 8tU< F .t . Cmtd 16) FLAT ROOF *DESIGN Ds~ection at Wovking Ultimate load Load (Rules 15. = 0s02Bp.1972 EXAMPLE 4 WITH SINGLE SPAN FRAME.85 fi-*--227cm- 6 M. --39*69+ ‘q) 8~~3 8u = 4.’. = 9.=&.1.SP: . = 3969 m. Ps = 25. = 3969 m.6(6) .
Analyzing Case II it is found that mechanism 1 still controls with In this part of the problem two approaches a required M. a uniform distributed vertical load of 1. and is contrary to expectation.. or (b). Quite evidently there are areas where the additional construction expense would be warranted in view of the improved load-carrying capacity of the structure. Considerable expense is involved in providing. namely.76 t for Case II.1972 frame to that of Design Example 4 will be designed except that the bases will be fixed. Note that if the actual distributed This is the same value had been used. mechanism 1 will control and load it is found that Mp = 50. Tall buildings. The reason Although the frame is that the end purlin reacts directly on the column.7 t/m and a side (wind) load of 0.t. then Me = W. For Case I with no side load.2 . is redundant at failure [I = X-(M-l)= 3-(3-l)= I] the moment check is easily made by remembering that the elastic carry-over factor is one-half for cases such as members 3-l and 4-5. and this factor should be considered carefully to see that the additional expense is warranted. Since plastic design makes maximum possible use of the material. one which has been discussed (see 19) but not yet illustrated is to assume the purlin spacing at the outset and to analyze the frame on the basis of the purlin loads. it extend: the applicability of fixed column bases.t. There is less advantage to fixed column bases if the side loads are small. and industrial frames carrying relatively large cranes which might otherwise be sensitive to lateral deflections would constitute two other cases where fixed bases would be considered. 143 . Mechanisms The former 1 and 3.32 m. was done in this case. sufficient rigidity to resist the overturning moments at column bases. In one instance the capacity of a structure to resist externally-applied side load was increased nine-fold simply by fixing the colupm bases and without changing member sizes whatsoever. a column height of 5. the moment check following for mechanism 1 when it was discovered that Mechanism 1 controlled. design results from Design Example 5 Single Span Frame Base-In this design example a similar with Flat Roof and Fixed Of the various methods for handling distributed loads. The mechanism method of analysis is used in this problem in view of the greater redundancy of the structure when compared with Design Example 4.33 m.SP: 6(6) 26.La/16 = 50.08 m.29 t for Case I and 5. try Mechanism 1 and make a moment check.32 m. the purlin load is found to be 6. using As in the previous example. as for concentrated load. are possible: (a) try the two most ‘likely’ mechanisms.7 t/m. of 46. At the opposite extreme is a structure designed to withstand blast load. The frame will have a span of 16 m. the most economical a uniform member throughout. This method will be used here.t.
A deflection analysis was not made in this example.1.t consequently an ISLB 550 shape is specified (2 = 2 228. the deflection would be calculated on the basis that es. The work axis check for the column is not needed. hinge forms at the centre of beam).9. = 0 (last . Since Case I is the controlling condition.SP: 6(6) . the axial load ratio being a very low value.2 ems): The check (according to Eq 51) to determine the adequacy of the selected girt spacing again indicates that more refined calculation is needed.1972 Case I is found to be critical with a required MP of SO-32 m. the procedure is as outlined in 23. This is made according to Appendix C and it is found to be adequate. 144 . If desired.
5) Possibk mechanisms =2 (U-N-X=5-3=2) Elementary: No. 2.RnoCysis (Mechanism method) Possible plastic hinges = 5 (sections 1.412 Plastic Moment Ws(2.1972 ROOF.29 t 700 kg/m 00 CasepII-JD$+iL5=zpd) YF = 140 z = (1.SP: 6(6) DESIGN EXAMPLE 5 SINGLE SPAN. 3.=2*62 Ratict-Uniform t section throughout case I .. = 2 Ww = 6.67) = 1. 1 and 2 Composite: No. Structure and LoadingSketch a Loading Conditions (Purlins 2 m spacing) at Cast I. 3 W MEW 1 MEW 2 MECH 3 (4 (Cosfinucd) 145 .1 W.. 4.7) (l-40) =2*38 t/m = Wu =(0*7)(1*401 =0*98 t/m =0*412 WU -0. FLAT TIXED BASE .(DLSLL) F--1*85 Wu = (1 700)(1~85)=3145 kg/m P.
Sketch c Mp=y=S*76x8=46.32 m.t Moment + .)2=2X6 PL M*=-T 6.1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 5 SINGLE SPAN.08t (e) Solution fov Mechanism 3 -Sketch e 5.2*62(533) m. FIXED BASE . (S-76)16 <SO.Analysis Hiages and Mechanism (See Case I) Solutions fat Mechanism 1 .t.ontinwd) Mp -29.48 = 14. OK 25. (i. = Ml = 2516<M+ Readions at Ultimate Load Vs = 4P -25.29x =2= 16 SO.SP: 6(6) .27 NOTE - at the centre of beam 146 .32 MP = 2 Ml=.t Mom& Sketch d SO.16 t (d) HlaH.16 .2 = 2516 sway equilibrium Chech - m.32 m.=%+_m Case II.16 VI- t 75.2 Mp .t M. Solutio+a for Mechanism 1 Mp(~9+26+6’)=?(1+2+3+.Contd FLAT ROOF. .
32 = 38.08-13..S m 1. . . = Mp and use trial and error method. ..= 1+2+38*8x 46.97 cm2 b ~9. . -_ - 80% I = 20x10 - (Continued) .1972 Check for Mechanism 1 M.97 = 0. OIi 1.SP: 6(6) DESIGN EXAMPLE 5 FIXED SINGLE BASE SPAN.90 mm p -=_-= PY Vl ~YA 25.-Wh =Mp-(2. .16 2 520 x 109.= 1’.16 Allowable V =1*265 wd =68. .=25.62)(5*33)=46.6 cm’ Axial Force (Rule 1) Moment .+Wh =O ” M. .091 t0.56~43. . : ..2cma rr=3*48. OK A = 109.32+2516 SO. OK as last hinge in the rafter VY 3.15.1 from top) VY M Mp- & !Mp+Ma) MP = 60-40.OK Cross-Section (Rule 3) b/t =1267< 17 d/w =SS*S6 Slightly>SS .. OK Lateral Bracing (Rule 4) -Spacing Check Rafter (purlin spacing = 2 m) 2x100 LB -= = 57. OK Shear Force (Rule 2) VMU = I’.48 Column 1-B - (girt spacing =l.0 mm b =190 mm. .5 x 100 = 348 = 43.53 . .t=i& Sekction of Section -Case I (without wind) is critical Assume Use XSLB 550 d =550 mm. I = 53 161.* Mp = 50. Co&d FLAT ROOF. .96 =32*12<46*08 m.9>25. .=M.1 . . Bracing Details 1) Provide vertical welded 2) At Section 2 and l d I Q 660 x plates at centre as in Design Example 4 brace to inner (compression) corners.-M.47>35. A more refined check is necessary Evaluation of restraint coefficient = q$..8c43..16. .1 = >I 0. S =l 933. 3. .’.8 m. * M. w ~15.
Full Mp is available Cow~~lion Detail (Rule 10) Use 8 x 0. Frcmts Layout 148 .1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 5 SINGLE SPAN.Contd FLAT RC3F.= 0*092<0*15 PY .SP: 6(6) .*. iscontinuous across column top). CoZutnns (Rule 5) (Rule 7) P . FIXED BASE .6 cm plates as splces i Provide as part of comer connection (Ream Se6 detail h in Design Example 4.
In this design example a single-span portal frame with gabled roof will be designed to resist vertical and side load.94’16 = 59-O m. (2. the column height is 6 m and the rafter rise is 45 m.SP: 6(6):. Rather than work Case II as a new problem.46 p/2.5 +3-O) WE = 34. The required i&. acting at the eaves.9) (1. the equilibrium method of analysis is used. In other words. the redundant is selected as H. The vertual work equation may next be written. The angle at section 4 is equal to 8. Analyzing for Case II.17 m borizontally from column base number 1. The mechanism angle at hinge 3 is.83+3. the coordinate being 9.e The internal work is: wI = ~~e(1. the composite moment . therefore.39M. which produces the same moment about point 1.7/6-9+1)8-1. The required plastic moment for this case is 59.33+4*83+6+33+7*83+7*83+7*83/2) -P(2. It may thus be determined that the hinge forms under the second rafter from the crown. of course. The problem is to find the required plastic moment of the girder and then to proportion the column for the required moment at location 2. The position of the instantaneous centre is first located (set sketch u below). Since the frame is only redundant to the first degree. it will only be determined whether or not the member selected for Case I is adequate for the Case II loading.t (1) which is. The vertical distributed load is replaced by concentrated loads applied at the purlins (l-5 m spacing).39 8.1972 26. The horizontal distributed load is replaced by a single concentrated load.46 PB 2._. Instead of using the statical method of analysis. The frame has a span of 30 m.9 m. the mechanism of sketch c could have been used as the basis for satisfying the equilibrium condition.70/6.3 Design Example 6 (Single-span Portal Frame with Gabled Roof).39+1)= thus MP = 34. The moment diagram for the determinate structure is shown by the solid line in sketch c. The external work for one-half of the frame is: Ws = P8(@33+1.-value is determined by equating the moments at these locations. Greatest economy of steel will be realized if haunches are used at the comers. Therefore. (sketch a). identical with the answer obtained before by the statical method.39 = 34’.6 m vertically and 4. it is a concentrated load which produces an over-turning moment equal to that of the uniformly distributed load.t.
In checking for axial force.5.8 whichis greater than the value of 39. and 6). it is assumed that the. 3. Hi.0 cm plate at the peak (sketch J). the reactions for this are also the greatest. In the centre hinge positions (locations 4 and 6) thisslenderness ratio is satisfactory even though the moment diagram is ‘ flat’ because the corresponding plastic hinges will be the last to form.22 as compared with 59.1 m. web willcarryno thrust. case Case I is thus found to be the critical case. the moment at Section 7 is very close to the maximum available Mp(59. As a matter of fact. it is found that the P/Py ratios are greater than in the previous problems.5 m). Therefore it is desirable to brace at all four locations. Concerning the bracing at plastic hinges that form near the peak.95. In calling for a 1.1972 diagram is drawn such that the girder moment is 59.. 7. No further check is therefore necessary. With a purlin spacing of 1. The mechanism is shown in sketch f with hinges forming at Sections 4 and 8.P) . the Case I appears to control. the axial force ratio is higherin the girder than in the column because the member is lighterand due to the sloping roof. The moment check should still made.t. support is required on the inner corn ression) side at all points on the haunch where the flange force changes Itis considered desirable to provide similar bracing at the !n di:ection peak. both the horizontal and vertical reactions at the column base ‘produce a thrust component in the rafter. With regard to the bracing details..turns out to be 39. Concerning the column.t. a consideration of the moment ratio (M/M+ = O-406) shows that the resulting allowable slenderness ratio is 47. 150 . and a plastic analysis is carried out to proportion the vertical plate stiffener. A single brace between the end of the haunch and the column base would.SP: 6(6) . hence by equilibrium at Section 8 it is-found that the required M.5 m the LB/Y. the member was proportioned simply to provide strength and not to participate in mechanism action.9). From equilibrium .t found for Case I.-88. the value obtained for Case I. The problem is to find the moment at 8 and observe whether or not it is greater than the 101.t.7 m.1 m.5 supplied.is determined (6. be adequate. and 8 (and by symmetry Sections 2. at the second purlin (3 m) from the crown and in the other at the third purlin(4. be and while satisfactory. The design of details should therefore be carried out on the basis that a plastic hinge could form at Sections 4. With regard to the hinges that form in the rafter and adjacent to the haunch. it was pointed out above that the two loading conditions required very In the one case the plastichinge forms nearly the same plasticmodulus. therefore. Since thisis less than the value of 101.9 m.at Section 4.
Of course.0 cm width of the ISWB 600 flange. to a degree at least. As far as the remaining details of the haunch are concerned. In the latter case.0 m down the column as shown in sketch 5.5 cm which is 50 percent greater than that of the ISLB 600. we would check to see that the plastic modulus supplied at the critical section exceeds the required value by the same margin as that which exists at Section 7. the flange thickness is made 2.(69) Such a calculation for this particular problem also shows the design to be adequate. the end plates need only be of reasonable thickness.6 cm plate is therefore selected.. As required by Rule 11. If. Not only is there considerable savings in each case of the plastic over the elastic design. and is therefore selected.. of 118 cm providing a reasonable appearance. for some other problem the geometry were much different from that shown in sketch k. This completes the design of the frame which is shown in sketch 1.1972 The ’ design ’ of the haunch details is controlled in part by the initial choice of dimensions. the columns and haunches could be shop-assembled with a field splice at Section 7. the haunch fabrication expense should be borne in mind when making comparison of overall costs. a splice for full moment using high-strength bolts could be made at Section 7 or bolted splices for less than full moment strength could be supplied at a section near the point of inflection (haunch in sketch 2). The web is selected at 1. 151 . . It is of iuterest to compare the results of this design with the elastic solution and with the plastic solution for the case where no haunch has been used. The diagonal stiffener thickness should be equal to that of the rolled section flange. The width of this flange is made uniform at 21. it has been shown that the angle _shown in sketch i should be greater than 11”*8.0 cm along the girder portion of the haunch and then is gradually tapered to meet the 25. At the outset it was decided that the haunch would extend 3 m into the girder span and 2. but it may be shown that possible weight savings may be achieved in plastic design as well as elastic design whenever a haunch is specified.2 cm which is about the same as that of the rolled members joined. This calculation may be carried out using as a value for 2 the expression given in Eq 69: 2 = bt(d-l)+.. and on the basis of the calculations made for the peak. a further check on adequate strength of the haunch could be made either by the elastic method of Ref 28 or by an approximate plastic analysis. are selected as 1.SP: 6(6) . The remaining geometry is open to choice. (d-24S . With regard to splices. . . A 1. .0 cm.. An angle of about 13” gives a depth d. Alternatively. For a’geometry similar to that selected in this example.
t Mp (Cal)= (H3(4*05) =6P(4.40)=1.5)’ 2(6) = 11.5 W.85 Case I.t m.1972 DESLGN EXAMPLE 6 SINGLE SPAN GABLED FRAME Structure and Loading Sketch b Loading Conditions Purlinspacing assumed = 1.) WI&’ MS= = 2.6)=14. = (lOP)(3.6 m F -1.26 t/ m=0.40 PU =1.58 =3*67 P Diagram See below: Plastic Moments Ratios Adjust Mp to suit the Moment Case I -Analysis (StaticalMethod) Moment Diagram (Redundant = H.0)-P(l5+ = M.. (Determinate) M.05) 24.26 (10. =4*16 t (b) Case II (DL+LL+Wind) F =1.6 WU Q c h+f ' ( 2 > h = 1.5 Wu=l*Sx2*1=3*15 t Wr WV =(1~5)(1~40)=2~10 t/m = WU wk =(0=9)(1.9 Mp =72P-6P (9.(9*6) = Mp ‘2)= 27 P -72P 1~5+3+4~5+6+7*5+9+~0~5+~) H 1_-=1T5=6P _ MI-I-MS 99P 9*6+6.(8) --M.(DL+LL) Wu =(15)(1*85)=2.775 t/m P.SP: Y(6) .775(30)* i = 312 m. (Determinate)- H.t 8 Equilibrium . M.3P=lOl.H.4 Column : P=59+ m.l (Continwd) 152 . 51.
+ Equilibrium at Section 4 H.(6. = lOP=41.01 59.67 HI = 10.95 P =21.Analysis : Moment Diagram-(Redundant Ms=75 Pu M corner @et) = Q(6) =22*02 Sketch f Moment at 4 =(@65) (22. = H.= MI should be Mp = 3~5 -19. = 6z P) +68.1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE Mechanism . = 6.05) Me = 88.Sketch c Moment Check-AAll McMp 6 SINGLE SPAN GABLED FRAME- Contd Reactions HI =H.01 P-19.32 t P (Continued) .15)=Determinate at 4 Moment Determinate Me Ma =(i0~)(10~s)-p(1~5+3+4~5+6*0+7*~+9~0+~) =68*25 (e) P adjusted as M.t plotted - = H.tclOl.25 P P 9.(Determinate)=6.95 Equilibrium at Section 8 Me = HJ4.--Q =21.15) = &X)(22.95 = 18. M. CheckDiagralh (Case I) sketch e P(6.22 m.9)-M.9 ReactiMzs H.6 t (c) Case II .) P Mechanism M.02 H .8 P -59.1 Moment M.9 t H.9) m. = 6P=24*96 t VI = V.9 P HJ9.(9.9 t -3.04) + Me =H.SP: 6(6) . tc59.15 = 6.7 m.
.6 mm cm* cm’ cm* Axial Force Column: p PY =-= v.% = VI - $ =41.7 . * 2520A = 4i%% 3<0. . .9) (F) Use -2 380 cma (‘9 ISLB 600 A ‘= 126. OK Shear Force VMZ = Shear at end V ma.288 = m ~0. .6 mm ry = 5. . OK (Continued) 154 .52 t. OK Girder: P - = PY H.960 8 = tan-1 !? = 16”40 0.l) (‘SF = 4 020 cm* > Use ISWB 600 A = 184.9 cm’ I = 72 867. cos 8+( Ve-2.SP: 6(6) . P -= PY (24*96)(0..35 cm UJ= z= s= 2 = 11.8 4 341.6 cm4 Column: Z =(lOl.6 3 854. . .5x4.JC. Selection of Section Girder: Z = $? = (59.2 1 15 626.5 2 520(126.77 P 3n V.52 t>39.15..5 mm fu =i 10..79 cm S = 2 428. = 20 PNOTE Case -V.69) P) sin 8 15 sin 8 = O-288 cos 0 = 0.15 .16) 2.=27*62t V.6 cm’ 3. .5 mm 2: 2 798. .520 x 126.1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE $ 6 (30)-Q(6) SINGLE SPAN GABLED FRAME - Co*td 18 P(lS)+ v.O. 1.69 cm* d = 600 mm b = 210 mm t = 15.69 of girder =39.96)+(41*6-2. 0~~4 41*6x Ooo 416oo =. Case I (without wind) is critical.6-4p t Permissible shear =79. = = 8.=l8*9=3538 I t reactions control the dekign.86 cm* d = 600 mm b = 250 mm I = 23. .
5 m) LB !2?2!! = 39.59 <17. flange at each end braced and at centre.OK in order to provide . . .de bracing to inner flange. bracingto inner (compression) Przt.5>35 -= 3.098<0*15 PY L/r = 37.5+3+ 4. .‘. . OK (Rule 7j . OK . 5og5 <55 6 SINGLE SPAN GABLED FRAME - .t .. . .4 . . .Spacing Check Girder .. . OK because large hinge rotation not required at Location 2.34 m.(7~35)+V. . P = 0.OK H. Provide brace midway between end of haunch (Section 8) and column base.4~60. Check moment ratio correction on hinges at haunches.) Column 10.55 d/w = 57. . .79 7.35 VY Bracing Details Haunches-Provide Peak Columns = 37. OK MA “MP =-24.t MA =--H.9 = +0*406 I =60-3OE MfJ = 60-30x0*406 =47+32 >39*5 .SP: 6(6) DESIGN Cross-Section EXAMPLE Pvoportions Givder b/t = 13. Mg=Mp=59. ..1972 Contd . MA = 59.v ’ centre’ position OK as hinges form there last.(purlin spacing = 1.14 Lateral Bvacing .(45)--P(l.These purlins should be adequately support to rafters. em--(‘) L_B 2*00x100 = ~ 5.9 m. .
Sketch k Select @ gl3” (>ll’) Flange tf =1*50 t tf =(1.50)(1*55)=2*33 Use 26 mm plate ISLB II 4 COO cm rt 1 cm PLATE ! ISWB 600 JT (4 I . btr k Use 29 Af sin d =i 2bt sin 8 = 2t ‘sin 0 1 10 mm ~~l$~~W88) plate I Haunch (Rule 11) Gcwdy .41 = stiffenerto transmit flange thrust.1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 6 SINGLE SPAN GABLED FRAME- Contd Connection Details Peak -Proportion a.SP: 6(6) .
1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 6 SINGLE SPAN GABLED FRAME - Contd End Plates Only plates of ’ nominal * thickness Diagonal web are required. as at peak.SP: 6(6) . plate plate plate td =t =l-55 Stiffener cm Use Use Use 10 mm 16 mm 12 mm splices Provide as part of the haunch and peak detail. Frame Layout as shown below: 157 .
The value k.t and klMp is 83. For Case I with dead load and live load. For Case II (dead load @USlive load plus wind) the load factor of safety is l-40 and the vertical load is 2.1972 26.0.t.52 t/m.SP:6(6) . the value klMp to the right rafter and kaMp for the interior column. For the time being the value Mp is assigned to the left rafter. the minimum possible plastic moment values would be determined.4 Design Example 7 (Two-Span Industrial Flat Roof. although the loads will actually come to the structure through purlins. c and d. the left span is 10 m. The value k. The solution for Mechanism 1 is made on the basis that Mechanisms 1 and 2 form simultaneously. there are four possible independent mechanisms and these are shown in sketches b. A value of k. the joints being fixed against rotation but the frame theoretically free to sway. the load factor of safety is 1. . For greatest economy the end columns should provide full restraint to the beams. The moment check as shown in sketch e reveals that the moment is nowhere greater than Mp and thus the solution is correct for this loading condition. Therefore. is thus determined as 4.33 t/m.8 m. The frame is redundant to the third degree (X = 3). The distributed load becomes 3. There are 7 possible plastic hinges. Frame) In this design example an industrial flame will be designed to carry a vertical load of 1 800 kg/m and a horizontal side load of 900 kg/m. The resulting ratio is therefore the basis for later analysis of the frame. The computation of reactions at ultimate load dompletes the first analysis. for the interior column may be determined by considering equilibrium of joint 6-7-8 (sketch c). and therefore the plastic moment values are made equal to the appropriate beam values. The dotted lines shown in sketch a are simply an aid towards keeping the signs straight -positive moment produces tension on the side of the beam next to the dotted lint There are two possible loading conditions. As shown in sketch a the column height is 5 m.2 m. Opportunity will be afforded in this two-span frame to illustrate the ’ preliminary design ’ procedures for estimating plastic moment ratios. The structure is now analyzed for Case I loading. Distributed load will be treated as such. the horizontal load being half this value. The mechanism method will be used to analyze the various loading conditions. equal to 3 is obtained. Consequently ikl* is determined as 20. In order to determine the plastic moment ratio for the rafters. and the right span is 30 m. the beams are considered as fixed ended as shown in sketch b. Actually tne analysis was completed in the previous step but we will go through the various operations. For this special condition.85.
k. conclude that Mechanism 5 is the correct one.t for Case I. and the resulting two equations solved . If it had been desirable to analyze Mechanism 5 and determine the precise location of plastic hinges this could either be done graphically. The solution for Mechanism 5. 2.8 m..t which is less than Mp.t. would be set equal to 0.5 m. M = 66.74 m. This is only the correct position when the end moments are equal.-value would be less than the value determined for Case I. which is a combination of Mechanisms 1.0 m.. and it is plotted to scale in sketch f.5 m. Thus. To the left of Section 9.4 m.1972 The analysis for Case II is then performed to see whether or not the plastic moment values determined will be adequate.5 m. The following equation in terms of xl and xa would be differentiated partially in respect to x. To the left of Section 5. the solution for this mechanism assumed that hinges formed in mid span. by trial and error. Mp being slightly/larger than 16.5 m. Although it is less than the value of 20. Therefore. will be used. In further explanation of this moment check..M.SP:6(6) . ‘x1 in sketch d was made equal to LX/2 and xs = L.t. no precise consideration of distributed load is necessary. and with respect to x. we shall expect in the fvst place that the plastic moment condition will be violated in each of the rafters because of our initial assumption that plastic hinges formed at mid-span (locations 5 and 9)... Incidentally.t. the moment is greater than the plastic moment value near the centre of the two rafters.and similarly for span B-10. The solution for Mechanism 4 (sketch C) shows that M+ is so much less than the value determined for Mechanism 1 that no further consideration of this mechanism is necessary. Using the equation for beam 4-6 it is found that M. We may.. The solution for Mechanism 1 may be determined from Case I and is found to be 15. equals 13.t. shown in sketch f. shows a required Mp value of 16. . Even so. Case I (Mp = 20. and k. The moment check is completed by using the equilibrium equations. The moment check gives a possible equilibrium configuration as shown in sketch f (page 165). As expected. if the analysis were completed on the basis of a precise determination of the values x1 and x. M = 16. it is found that the moment in the column top is also less than K.-value expressed in terms of the distances x$ and x. 3 and 4. the required M.8 m.t as compared wrth 4Mp = 66.t as compared with i$. The plastic moment condition will be violated near Sections 5 and 9. The same plastic moment ratios. it is close enough so that the moment check should be made. = 16. Using the joint equilibrium equation for 6-7-8.63 m. and these are. Sufficient information is thus available for dr_awing the moment diagram. therefore.t) therefore controls the design. or by maximizing the required M..t.
Even if the moment capacity of the beam section is somewhat less than the required value. In selecting the section for the right-han beam a plastic modulus of 3 311. In evaluating the cross-section proportions it is found that the sections have b/t ratio of less than 17 and thereforesatisfactory. The designer could eitherplace an additional brace part way down the column or could check the hinge rotation at Section 4 to see ifit was as severe as assumed in the theory. and the beams are adequate because the horizontal thrusts less than the vertical ones. In proportioning the diagonal stiffenerfor Connection 4 (ISLB 350). are All members are satisfactory as far as shear force is concerned. the smallest r. the member is so lightthat the initial choice willbe based on a diagonal with thickness equal to that of the rolled section flange. the purlin spacing is selected as 2 m and the girt spacing as 1. . The ISLB 600 isfound to have inadequate d/w ratio. the selection of required section willbe made on the basis of the M values thus deterB and column mined. particularly since the centre column provides a restraining moment that is considerably greater than the required value of 2 183.(lO) Since Case I (with& w&d) is the critical con&on. Concerning the problem of lateral bracing. a 12-mm plate is specified..15. In checking Rule 1 for axial force in the members. A slenderness ratio of 63.2 cma is required. In checking for local buckling of thiselement (Rule 3) even slightly lesser thickness is required. The ISMB 600. The section isthereforerevised to ISMB 550 whichis checked and found satisfactory.. value of O-156 whichis greater than 0. Therefore. . value: simultaneously . Using the recommended formula (Eq 47) it is found that the original choice was satisfactory since the Z-value actually furnished is greater than the modification factor requires. and x. it is considered adequate.6 cm*.67 m.4 with the value of 52.1972 for the X. A preliminary check of the left-hand column ISLB 350 shows that a more refined examination is required. it is found that the centre column has a P/P. The left rafterwillbe the most critical since it has.SP: 6(6) . No check of the right-hand column is necessary since the centre column is satisfactory.. A consideration of the restraint coefficient improved the situation somewhat (compare the required slenderness ratio of 42. supplies a plasticmodulus -of 3 510.1 willbe adequate since the plastichinge in the centre of the rafter willbe the last to form.4 cm*.-value.7 that exists in the structure).
4-mm plate is thickness 2. By considering equilibrium of forces on the top flange it may be shown that a web thickness of 1-O cm. provision requires specified. the required thickness to be compared with that furnished by the ISMB 600 shape. Because of the position of the ISLB 350 with respect to the ISMB 600 (see Sketch k). that this rule-of-thumb guide is probably the where light members are involved. using for S and d the values for member 2-7 (ISMB SSO). This amounts to making sure that the joint will transmit the moment in the column top. 161 .23 cm and therefore a 1. would be adequate for the upper part. 10. The web is inadequate on this basis.08 cm would have been adequate. since the full moment capacity of the ISMB 600 member need not be transmitted into the vertical column.1972 the local of startresulting a thickthe flange suggests in design With regard to interior connection 6-7-8. The buckling ness of 1.SP: 6(6) A similar situation arises for connection buckling provision becomes more critical. This completes the design. Use of and the problem best one to use . the existing web thickness may be adequate.0 cm. In ing out with the flange thickness. the upper portion of the knee web may be adequate and the lower part inadequate. instead for ts was used. Good use of a diagonal stiffener (ts= 15 mm) in the lower part may be made as shown and this is all that is necessary. the equation in a required value of 1. except that this case. Equation 56 may be employed as a check.
p. -k&p (Continued) *stgnconot!wlh - +M produces tension oo’ride with 162 .Mp.._ ___‘-l I I I 8 ‘b Mp : WP I ‘0 2 1 Loading Conditions Treat problem . Mp(3-lO)=kMp=4 Mp M. F =140 Ratios* as fixed-ended (sketch UI. 2 with distributed load: F =1.85)=333 w.‘__________: 6 6 6 _. .85 I.(DL +LL) .. Me= line..8)(140)=2*52 WY E(0~9)(140)=1~26 t/m t/m =WU t/m = Wwp Plastic Moment Consider beams b).SP: 6(6) . WUL: Mp = 16 WclL’ Mp (4-6) = 16 = Mp Mp(8-10) ti wq End columns provide fullrestraint to beams kQ(l-+)=Mp.= dotted .8)(1.____ 9 IO “-k.1972 DESIGN Stitmre and Loading EXAMPLE 7 TWO-SPAN FRAME /-IS00 kg/m 4 . -(DL+LL+Wind).=(1. =(1.
M~)-~M~(~. 7.=31 (c) lo) caseI- Ana&sis (Mechanism Method) Possible kastic Hinges.3*3.=O .=-MM~-(--~.2 m.-M.8 R.-M.$ m:t (Member 8-10) (Conlinued) 4-6) &fp .0” = 20.SP: 6(6) . 9 and PossibleIndefiendent Mechanisms . 8.--~)=~M~ @.d!fg~ (4)(20+8)=83.t = (Member 163 . 6.1972 DESIGN Interior column M.N =7 (Sections 4. 5. EXAMPLE 7 TWO-SPAN FRAME - Contd to provide joint equilibrium sketch c w M~=MI-M.12 = N-X=4 Ream Mechanisms 1 and 2 Mechanism 3 Joint Mechanism 4 Panel Mechanism 5 Composite (4 SO~U~+U for Mechanism Mp(B+20+@ 1 = I+.“*$ ..
5 uu = 2 m.= Mp = 20.k. L* 1.4 All McMe.97 0.8) 3T3 =15. .+KQ+Ll6.Load H 1 = !% = E8 h 5 H I----.kzM9=62. L/2 = y = 16.t<Mp ( Case > I k.74 (Sketch d) Hinges and Solutionfor Mechanism m.33 x 10 = 49.7 t = 33.16 t 62. OK (Mp).4 = 12.65 t v* = Ye 2 + F!!!!! 2 = 1.5 t 5 V1 = w..t Solution for Mechanism A4pe+(kpMp)e+(k.t Reactions at Ultimate .8 m.5 x 3.t (Member 2-7) 7 TWO-SPAN FRAME Confd Moment Check- Sketch Joint equilibrium at 6-7-8 .“g=_ = h = 4. .Mp)e=whe Mp(l+3+4) Mp~1. .26 (100) 7 8 (Continued) 164 .1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE e m.52 Mp = (20.30 t Case II- Analysis meckanisms 14See Case 1 2.5 WUL = 1. .95 t H..SP: 6(6) .
5 Case I (without wind) ie critcal m.)+w” = g (2~52)(1O)*. x.5 mm 1. OK q P.5 - w”L= 4 .1972 (1+2+3+4): hinges fprm at mid &=8.8 x 39.t<3Mg m.t.-i&- 2*524(100) We 2*524(4M)) m..OK M.8=827.=&=&.5+54=37. Mp=20-8 m.1 cm W= 0.=28) 7 (85) Solution) Jfp8P+2+(2~4+(2~4)1 20Mp=w~L*(1/4+1+1/16) Moment Beam Check (4-6) -hz’P$+$+f$ M .OK .--Me=-16.74 s= 751. .(....9 I = 13 158 13.Ol cm* b = t = 6.19 165 .t. e)e.t cm8 2 ~831.t (Upper Bound :. x 2MI-Me- = wu(.5)Joint (6-7-8) - m. Check Moment + = ZMg+Mg = -13.8 Left column > 2. . .=L/2. 3(16.Controlling moment diagram Left beam = % = 20.5) Beam (8-10) -Ms = 2M.17 3 = (Cod&wed) Use ISLB 350. 49 - Sketch e. Selection oj Sections .=M..Mp=l6~5 (eL)(2L)(l/2)+ m.SP: 6(6) DESIGN Solution for Mecbwism NOTEAssume EXAMPLE 57 TWO-SPAN Sketch d span (x...=L..t<16*5 = (2) (4629)+4Mg= -54~66 =112.5 M e = 12(16. . FRAMECo&d . f r3. .
.5 mm = WE 10. = .1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 7 TWO-SPAN FRAME- Contd Rightbeam Rightcolumn > Zcle=4 2.6 cm* A d b 1 Ccntrs column Z.&l Fovce (Rule 1) Left column P PY I gA.. . . OK wd -91 *1>33. . OK = 2 483~4(0.. . .-.65 ~126~. . . . .156+0.1 50+0. OK d/w for ISLB 600 is not adequate :.2 cm* Use ISMB 600 2 =3 510.5 mm s = 2428.8 cm’ I = 64 893.21 = 600 mm = 210 mm = 20.= = 156. .30. .4 cm* I = 91 813.85) Sheav Force (Rule 2) Left beam V~OZ = V. .00.SP: 6(6) .6 cm‘ (Continued) .=16*65 (ISLB 350) Vau. OK Interior column P PY iE = 0*156>@15 (Modificakon Required) ZRcq = ZW(& +0*85) 2 498 cm*<2 798 cm8 .5 47.2 mm s = 2 359. . . =1265 wd Rightbeam V.~ ~520~ O. . = 2 520(63.6 cm’ 321_1= 2 483-4 cm’ A= A. . .MSV* =33-7 t (ISMB 6oo? a llon -1265 cress-Se&m =32*8>16*65 t . . 126*7cm* d = 600 cm b= 10mm t = 210.01) 16. . . OK ISLB 600 13.7 .r.55 57.3 mm w= 11. .4 = 3 311. .lOS<lS ..11 cm’ d = 550 mm b = 190 mm t = 19..0 cm‘ vy = 4. use ISMB 550 A= 132.12 cm 600 Z =2 798. . Not good ISMB 600 10. . OK P~qportions (Rule 3) b/t(<17) d/w(<SS) Shape ISLB 350 14.8 mm Use ISLB w= 12 mm s = 3 060.79 cm V. .9 cm’ I = 72 867:6 cm‘ ry = 3. .
.g = ‘e Mfi = 0.= 0*105<OlS FuII Mp available Y P p Y P - oy.. itto be OK. Girtspacing -1.95 x 1 ooo 2 520x132... A ” 33. =O*lS.OK h/t = 9.aleraZBvucing) (Rule 4) Purlin spacing =2. FuII 167 .. m = iF7=631 = 3y7 =5 2.G = 0.Small hinge rotation requirement would exist forthis case.7 . .7 LL(LR) = 30. OK .z z-=-z PY WA+. Bracing Details 1) Provide verticalwelded plates at centre purlins both rafters.SP: 6(6) DESIGN EXAMPLE Y * . f = l/2(.685 * > cm :. . .11 ConM _o. Columns (Rule S)(Rule 7) Left column Rightcolumn (ISLB 350) (ISMB 600) !?.7. at 2) At sections 4. Cf = 1..2’ = Cf$ assume No-m = (1.67 ZiPacing Left Rafter (ISLB 350) $ Left column (ISLB 350) $ =35<52.73 cm P VI 9.1972 7 TWO-SPAN FRhME 49. Alternatively.17-230.0 m. l/b =20.150 = 3. E MP > cm 1=20~16~5=335 :.3 = 2 52o(i324j <04=o*1s (Cortinusd) Mp available .8 d/w =49-l (I. 7 and 10 brace to inner (compression) comers.7 Restraintcoefficient 60-40 3. .67 > :..21)(35)=42+4<52*7 Therefore. More refined check necessary. provide additional brace. + .
23 cm Use 100x 14 mm plate Znteviw connection6-7-8 (Sketch h) WI = = = wI-.Provide as part of corner connection 168 .2 cm thick) as per sketch. k = 0. in sketch h of Design (Sketch g) 10 (ISMB 600.2~1.= AM 0.16 -= 22.6 dcctb o~6X62~4x100 60x60 1. Example 4.0 t.DESIGN EXAMPLE Interiorcolumn (ISMB 550) & 7 TWO-SPAN FRAME - Contd =0. detail (interior column Splices .57 cm b 21.6 cm Use partial diagonal stiffener (1.6 :. cm h. is OK 500 LIP% __ = 22.15=0.a fi=17 =1.04 cm 1. original design Connection Details (Use straight connections without haunches) Connection 4 (ISLB 350) Use diagonal stiffener equal to flange thickness =1*14 for local buckling: See Connection detail tab/17 = ‘$ = @97 cm.15 Simple check for axialforce (Rule 1) is adequate.
might be thought of as an approximation to a uniformly distributed load of 1.Lis given in Co1 5. The required plastic moment 1s less than for Mechanism Mechanism 13(a) is the same as Mechanism 13 except that the solution is obtained by a summa:ion of work equations for the independent mechanisms as described in 18. the work done at each hinge is listed in the same sequence as the numbering given in sketch a. Mechanism 13 is formed by combining Mechanisms 9 and 10. The mechanism solutions are worked in tabular form.. In actual design practice. and. Only in this way can the ratio Mp/P.5 t/m. problems of this type would undoubtedly be solved by the simplified procedures described in 31. in this example attention will be focussed solely’ upon the over-all analysis The examination of details is left as an and design of the structure. there are 12 independent mechanisms as shown in sketch b.‘). Mechanism 13 is sketched accordingly. and to facilitate checking. = 2f&. this example is given to illustrate basic principles. The sketch of the various mechanisms in the table does not repeat the deformed shape. 10 alone. The methods presented here would also be helpful of problems involving three or more bays. Since most of the design rules have been illustrated in the previous problems. in the solution 26. Column 4 contains the computation of external work.* SP: 6(6) . 6 ledundants. the side load produces the same overturning moment about the base as that of a uniformly distributed horizontal load of 0. could then be solved.. and th&se are made in such a way as to eliminate plastic hinges that appear in the independent mechanism so combined. concentrated at the quarter points of the rafters. The same answer is thus obtained as by the first method. However. Possible combinations follow. since the essence of these mechanism are shown in sketch 6. The roof load. for which charts are not available. Similarly.5 Design Example Fixed Column Bases)- 8 (Two-Span Frame with Gabled Roof and The two-span frame. The combination eliminates mechanism angles of 20 at Sections 1 and 4 of Mechanism 10 and of 28 at the same sections of Mechanism 9 (’ Cancel 8111. Hinges will be eliminated at Sections 1 and 4 only if 8. and Mp in terms of P. symmetrical throughout is shown in sketch a of Sheet 1. 169 . Independent Mechanisms 1 to 10 are shown first. therefore. exercise. The internal work is computed in column 3 of the table of mechanism analysis.L be increased. There are 18 possible plastic hinges.1972 The use of gabled roofs and the fixing of column bases adds sufficient additional complexity to a structure to justify further consideration of the mechanism method of analysis.6 t/m acting on the vertical projection of the structure.. More complicated problems.
For Case IIloading. 11. the moment at Section 1 is +0. Therefore M is less than or equal to Mp throughout and the value Mp= 0. ’ it is assumed that MI.14 and 18) and solving first the moment for at location 7 (M. Mechanisms 9 and 16 are investigated. and the resulting Mechanism 15 does. so the moment diagram may be completed for rafter 4-7-10.= 0. Since the frame is deter6-(7-l)= 01. < the Case I loading controls the design and An ISWB 500 supplies the needed plastic modulus. 10. 11.t. It is obtained by plotting the known MP-values (sections 2. Hence MIe= Mp and the moment diagram for the right hand span would be identical to the left hand span.SP: 6(6) . Thissuggests a combination of Mechanisms 10. the moment at location 8 equals +Mp. To complete an actual problem the appropriate design ‘ rules ’ would have to be checked. 3. 170 .4.method. give the correctanswer as shown in sketch d. Using the ’ trial and error . to see if Mechanism 10 was the correctfailure mode.1972 A moment check was made. a possible equiliminate at failure [I = X-(M-l)= brium moment diagram may be obtained directly. next. Making use of the sway equilibrium equation. 5 and 7. Since M. in fact.t.. It was found to be incorrectbecause M = l*5Mp at Section 8. Mp= 57 m.56 Mp.13Mp). The moment check for thiscase is shown in sketch e. Since (M&II (MJr.139PL is correct for the Case II loading. 2 and 4. lo.6. =-Mp. The required value of Mp for the Case I loading is 57 m.=+0. The latter is a combination of Mechanisms 9.
40) =lo~o&=o+i P PU (9) (1.2) (1.Try constant section throughout Indefiendent Mechanisms’ Possible Plastic Hinges.1972 DESIGN Structuraland P=9t T = 7.2 t bases t Loading EXAMPLE 8 TWO-SPAN GABLED FRAME fixed 24 m -I Loading Conditions Case I Load (DL+LL) F=l*gS t Case II (DL+LL+ Wind) F=140 (9) (1. 2y =I 8 (Numbered section in sketch a) Redundant.85) =16*65 TU Plustic Moment Ratio .SP: 6(6) .2 Column Tw = 7.40) =12*6 t (7. 11: 12: Mechanism. X =6 (Remove support at Sections 2 and 3) Number of Indeflendent 14: 5-8 : 9: 10. Beam Beam Panel Gable n = N-X=12 Mechanisms Mechanisms Mechanism Mechanisms Mechanism mechanisms mechanisms mechanism mechanisms Joint mechanism 171 .
SP: 6(6) .Contd (Continued) 172 .1973 DESIGN EXAMPLE 8 TWO-SPAN GABLED FRAME -.
1972 EXAMPLE 8 TWO-SPAN GABLED FRAME - Cowid Analysis kb3CKhNIsm INTERNAL WZ/M$B) -WORK f31 l+$. Two times Mechanism 10 Mechanism 9 Cancelled Total 12 -e8 w-i1” 1 15 . .+jf(.=f EXTERNAL WORK (bf'E/PLf?) MptPuL (1) (2) ~ ~~_~_ (41 (5) $ l-4 * ‘.) 5-8 Similar(see sketch b) -__ - __ 1+4+3 = 8 1 16 0 13a Solution by summation mechanism solution .SP: 6(6) DESIGN Case I -Solution Mechanism NO.
9 9 MP l-5M@ ft lO [tnaAlES] Mechanism Analysis (Additional) 15 (2+7 +10+111 (Due to symmetry only one-half of frame issolved) .5 (Violates) % 7.-. ~1.2+g PL Mp-y+Mp Mp = +. 12) Total 11) 2 i!z 19 Moment Ckeck for (Mechanisms 10 and Mpz-~ Beam 7-10 M. M. E .1972 EXAMPLE 8 TWO-SPAN GABLED FRAME .SP: 6(6) .Confd ---EXTERNAL 1MplPyL WORK (WEIPLB) (4) (5) DESIGN No. (1) 14a MECHANISM (21 Solution by summation INTERNAL WORK (WIlMPe) (31 Mechanism 11 Mechanism 13 Mechanism 12 Cancelled (Sections 11.
= 8 . M.+?(l) .-i z Mlo+ 7 MP 4 =. I (wII'#M (3) WORK EXTERNAL WORK (WE/. ==+MP All M < Mp PUL Mp=3--=-=S7 m.SP: 6(6) . &bXihNISBl NTERNAL.t 16.L 4 M.=+- MP 2 Beam 4-7 Me = f Ma+: M.sohtbn Mechanism solutions NO.3 Me+.PLd) (4) AA M P (1) w 9 (2) (5) 175 .65 x 24 7 case II. Mp. Mp+.1972 DESIGN EXJUH’LE Moment deck Beam 7-10 M M. MP-_% M..-.TWO-SPAN 15 - GABLED FRAIvlE -God for Meckanism ( Mp = 5 P. Mp+.
.93 (1.SP: 6(6) .)(2) (f)(2)+(. = +0*13 Mp<Mp .139 Pd M. 8 GABLED FIUME EXTERNAL WORK (WE/PI-O) (4) (. +3+3*2+4*86 =21+6 0’139 Moment check for Mechanism Beam 4-7 16 - (Mp)zr = 0. (1) 16 t9+10 (3) (5) 2+3*66+.2) Contd Mplpw bbKXiANISM (2) .+.+.)+(. .+(.1972 TWO-SPAN INTERNAL WORK I WIIlu49) DESIGN EXAMPLE No.)(. .) +. OK w 176 .)(1.)(.2)=2.) +(. .
$ 36 000 = 2 52oxl21.56Mp . .2 = 012<@15.x6 = 2Mp 57 3 Mp H .. = 2v.= 4 P = 36 t Sdection of Sections W 2 =----=57x---=Y = 2 260 100 000 2 520 cm’ Use ISWB 500 Z = 2 351.-MI-M.-M. . = 2 P = 18 t v.+M.8) Mp(20) (0. OK .t<57 m.+M.. . . .139) (80) = 0. TaL+M1-Mp-Mp+Mp+O-Mp = 0 = 0 = 0.139 Reaction for Case Z H.. . .x--s=3 = PwL .v.36 cm’ Aerial Force Central column = ft = -.SP:6(6)-1972 Sway T~+M. . OK Ml== -Tal+ZMp (Mp)zz = 0.t Cuss Z contds = 19 t v.(0.139 +2Mp ii2*b)(24) = 42 m.
for uniformly distributed load the savings theoretically could be 50 percent if it were not for other factors such as the cost of connections. DESIGN EXAMPLE ON MULTI-STOREY STRUCTURES 27. of course. a considerable tonnage of steel goes into such strrictures and.SP:6(6) . He has suggested that the application of plastic design to such structures depends on the relative importance of horizontal forces. As will be noted below. In fact. As already mentioned.or three-storey structure. however. the moment capacity of columns with relatively high axial load drops rapidly. be a savings in a plastic design. Weiskopf has discussed the application of plastic design to multi-storey structures. to take the next step. our attention has been restricted to one-storey structures consisting of rectangular and gabled portal frames and to the multi-span frames that are typical of the industrial-type buildings to which plastic A fair quantity of steel. the columns become more and more highly loaded. and perhaps the most important. Secondly. If horizontal forces are not a consideration (they may be so small that an ordinary masonry wall panel would carry any such small forces that might exist). as the number of stories increases. has remarked : ‘it seems natural. it is most advantageous to document the necessary provisions which will enable the engineer to apply plastic design to the industrial building. emphasizing the tier building type. In a stimulating and thought-provoking article36. the outlook is heartening for at least a limited application of plastic analysis. the construction of multi-storey structures. b) Horizontal forces carried 4 Those cases in which the bracing around elevator be largely influenced by what is done forces. The related problems are not completely solved and more research is needed before a ’ complete ’ plastic design can be applied to all classes of tier buildings.0 So far. therefore. therefore. both of the tier building type and the’ more frequent two. be resisted (any minor loads taken by by moment connections. then the regular connections are free of moment due to side sway and a very large savings in steel is possible when comparing a plastic design of the beams to a conventional simple beam design. When compared with rigidly connected elastic design there will. consulting engineer. and as Walter Weiskopf. that is to apply plastic design to this large class of buildings’. Three situations may arise. 178 cross- . The approach to design will about bracing against horizontal as follows: 4 No horizontal load should wall panels). etc. however. goes into design can now be applied.savings due to economy in main material. and horizontal forces are carried by shafts or elsewhere in walls. that tend to cancel out the potential . What is the reason that our attention has been restricted to the single-storey building ? First of all.1972 27.
The columns. Numerous design recommendations have been made in Section E that are directly applicable to multi-storey buildings. and as already mentioned. As far as the tall building is concerned. The critical sections in that case are at the ends. further studies would be needed. maximum continuity with minimum added connection material can often be achieved by the use of welding. In those cases the vertical load in the columns would be relatively low and would be governed by considerations already described for the previous examples. The top one or two stories might be designed by a ‘ complete ’ plastic analysis. would be proportioned according to conventional (elastic) methods. It is for the third case in which the horizontal forces are carried by cross-bracing that a plastic design approach seems possible. the area of possible application of plastic design is dependent to the greatest extent on further research because plastic hinges might form in the columns. When provision is made for wind bracing in wall panels. On the other hand. In riveted work it is very difficult to design a connection of strecgth equal to that of the beams unless large brackets are used. Such columns are better able to develop plastic hinges than columns loaded in single curvature. none of the plastic hingis participate in the resistance to side load. the beam and girders would be proportioned for full (plastic) continuity.1972 The application of plastic design to Cases (a) and (c) above will simply consist of a plastic analysis of continuous beams. The use of high-strength bolts offers another method of achieving continuity.SP: 6(6) . Such load is all carried by the diagonal bracing. more needs to be known about the performance of columns under high axial load and as part of a framework. The problem of the connection for tier buildings also relates to the ability of these components to form plastic hinges. As has already been emphasized. the maximum moment then occurs at the midheight of the member. in tall buildings the columns will usually be bent in double curvature with a point of inflection (zero moment) near the middle of the mernber. on the other hand. Therefore. the column problem actually may not be as severe as first intimated. The most critical loading condition on a column is one which subjects it to equal end moments producing single curvature. if riveting were to be used to achieve continuity at connections in a plastical!y designed structure and without the use of these large brackets. For the second conditions (horizontal forces resisted by moment connections). By this procedure. 179 . hinges forming both in the columns and in the beams. The only mechanisms are the beam mechanisms.
C.Therefore only thiscondition will be illustrated. and to revise the design (upward) to suit the precise plastic moment requirement. 1. on the one hand. and D will occur.. but. An example willnow be given of the plastic design of a two-storey building in which cross-bracing isnot used. 2. a two-storey. The side loads. two-span building frame is designed to support the loads shown in sketch a.. the design of some of the connections also will be examined. A study of all possible loading conditions shows that case I (dead load +lus live gravity load) is critical. it would have been possible to assume that plastic hinges formed in the centre of each beam span.SP: 6(6) .hould be 1*7i Mp. The solutions for the various mechanisms are worked in tabular form. produce equivalent overturning moment about the bottom of the columns of the particularstorey. to treat the load as uniformly distributed. it is found that for Span A the plastic moment value s. the plastic moment ratio of the different members are selected such that simultaneous failure of beams A. Mechanism 15 is also investigated. the diagram for the beams may be drawn without difficultyand thisis shown in sketch c. Quite evidently the plastic moment condition is not violated in any beam. may be designed by the plastic method and. B. Assuming that vertical load alone willcontrol the design. All beam mechanisms give the same answer-a check on the accuracy of the selection of Mp-ratios. It is found to require a smaller plastic modulus and therefore the critical case selected for the moment check is the simultaneous formation of the beam mechanisms. Alternatively. In making the moment check. on the other hand may not. the procedures for investigation of the other cases being identical. The sequence of terms in the work equations follows the numbering sequence of sketch a. 27. but any possible side sway is resisted by moment connections.37 Mp. and for Span D.Using the mechanism method of analysis. T. for Span C. no sharpdividing line exists between the form of structure that. one could be reasonably sure that the correct answer had been obtained already.1972 Naturally. 180 .33 M. The loads are uniformly distributed. Although for a frame oi thistype.1 Des&n Example 9 (Two-Storey Building). for the sake of analysis are replaced by concentrated loads acting at the quarter points. The fourteen independent mechanisms are shown in sketch b except that only two of the eight possible beam mechanisms are shown . the rest would be similar. After the selection of member sizes. If Span B has a plastic moment value of M .
.t in the direction indicated. it is not ‘ exact ’ . the sway equation is used to check the bottom storey. M. The left and right columns are selected as having a moment strength equal to that of the beams whichthey restrain.1972 A possible equilibrium moment diagram for the columns is shown in sketch d. is assumed equal to -M.t.. In order to obtain an idea of the magnitude of moment at Section 16. Cases II and IIIloading are not shown here. Ma is then obtained by the panel (sway) equilibrium equation and is found to be 28. The lomt equilibrium equation gives the magnitude of M.35 m. Since the frame is still indeterminate at failure. but it shows that the plasticmoment condition is not violated. the upper storey is satisfactory . and M. the moment check is complete.. therefore. this a completely arbitrary is assumption.SP: 6(6) . and. a calculation that is made on the basis that the moments are zero at the column bases. care being taken to modify the sections used for the columns to account for the influence of axial force. are first obtained by the joint equilibrium equations. A result of the moment check given above and shown in sketches c and Q is that the fixed bases are not required for this problem. is at the full plastic value 25. any small value would be reasonable at this stage. Pinned bases would have been just as satisfactory and would not have resulted in an increase in member sizes. Mp for the Case I loading is thus equa! to 2535 m. but since there is no side load.t. but are found to require a smaller plastic modulus. The moments at Sections 4 and 11 may now be determined by joint equilibrium.F moments are less than kMp. since the horizontal reaction at 3 would act to the left..13 m. it is assumed that Mr. sections would be selected on the basis of the Case I solution. Therefore. 181 . and the same moment capacity is assumed for the full column height at this stage. Maz. Subsequently. ’ Mrs. The method used is the ‘ trialand error one. Equilibrium is satisfied.. $rii~~..
85 from left F -1. =7. =7.LJL+LL II.SP: 6(6) .25 t P.5 = 1.1972 EXAMPLE 9 TWO-STOREY.25 4.301 r43Um 308 .40 Pu -9.78 Centre column: Use k = KB ==I40 KB =I. I q=6P h .00 KC = ~2.37 Right column : Use k = (continued) 182 . -1. KB = 1.40 from right r.6x4. TWO-SPAN BUILDING DESIGN Strucluve Loading Roof load -4.5llt I (4 Loading Case Case Case Conditions I .00 A and B under Case I loading use plastic For equal spans.8 t _ l. the ratio is to vary as the load Left column : Use k = KA =1.35 t loads at quarter points.5x2.0 t Plastic Moment Ratios For simultaneous failure of spans moment in ratio of square of spans.0 t/m Wind load =O-6 t/m Replace distributed load by concentrated Replace horizontal load by concentrated T T 1 =0=6x6x3 6 = 0.5 t/m Floor load =6. --I- WINDLOA =06 tlm I 4.DL+LL+Wind III-.0 t P. loads at roof and floor lives.DL+LL+Wind F =1.
lb) (Continued) . TWO-SPAN BUILDING Contd Mechartisms Possible Plastic Hinges .N =26 (At all neutral sections in Sketch a except 1 and 3 Redundant. X =9 (Cut beams A and B.n = N-X =I4 Beam mechanism 1-8 Mechanisms 2. remove fixity at 1 and supply rollerat 3) Independent Mechanisms . 5-8 similar Panel Mechanisms 9 and 10 e A- .1972 DESIGN Case I EXAMPLE Solution 9 TWO-STOREY. remove reaction at 2.SP : 6(6) . 3.
EXAMPLE 9 TWO-STOREY, TWO-SPAN BUILDING Confd
INTERNAL WORK WI/W& (3)
EXTSRNAL (wE/PLB) (41
2 is identical with 1.
and vertical work equations
are similar. Kc+KD+KA+KB 8(1+;)+6(1+;)
12:1 +6+8 +9+10 +11+12 +13+14)
DESIGN EXAMPLE 9 TWO-STOREY, -1,1(1.78)-1_~ +;(2.37+1*33, =21*07 TWO-SPAN (1.00) BUILDING -
Check for Beam
(See Sketch m.t
=1.69 PuL==1.69(5)(3)=25.35 Mfi ~45.1 m.t &fe =253S m.t Mp =60.08 m.t Mp =33*71 m.t
MPA =1.78 MPB =l.O Jfpc =2.37 MPD =1+33 Joinl 21-23
M,, = -M,,-_,lft, Mt. = -45~12+25~35=19~77 Assume Ml, = -Mp
SP: 6(6) - 1972
Joint Asmmc Su*ay
15-17: M,* M 1e
TWO-STOREY, = --m+M,, =33.71-25.35=8.36 m.t
Ml,, =-ML%= of top storey
MS +Mlo+M,,+Mls+M*t+M~.=o MS =19.77+8.36-4512+19.77+25.3.5=28.13 Joint 4-6: Sway of bottom Md=M5+-M,=+28.13-60*08=-31.95 stovey M,-n61-M3-M~+M,,+M,,=0 0+0+0+31.95-6.6-25.35=0 USC the following sections as different members Left column, Use Ream Use k = Kd=l:78, Mp ISLB 550 C = K = Kc-2.37, ISLE3 600 be decided. to see be checked of the frame s25.35 x 1.78=4512 2535=60.08 m.t
Allowable M Q kMb :, (&$)I = 25.35 m.t
Similarly other sections may These sections should considerations.
if they satisfy other secondary
SECTION G SIMPLIFIED 28. INTRODUCTION 28.1 One of the advantages of plastic design is that the engineer is able to complete the analysis in less time than required by conventional (elastic) procedures. It is possible, however, to shorten the design time even further, by taking advantage of the same technique that is used in conventional design and one that is frequently used whenever a procedure becomes time-consuming. The solution of frequentlyencountered standard cases may be given as a. formula or in chart form. Such an opportunity is open to the engineer interested in plastic design. In this section some techniques will be described and certain The presentation is by no means a complete one. of them illustrated. Indeed, the ingenuity of engineers will undoubtedly lead them to develop many other such design aids. PROCEDURES
a) Since superposition does not hold in plastic analysis, generally it is not possible to combine two separate solutions as is done so commonly in elastic design. Any ’ formula ’ or ‘ chart ’ can only assist in the solution of the particular loading and geometry for which it was developed. b) Even though the formulas and charts are carrect in themselves, it is a good rule to check the plastic moment condition by drawing the moment diagram. In this way one is assured of the correct answer. The simplified procedures which apply to continuous beams are discussed in 29. This will include a tabulation of solutions for various loading conditions. Formulas for the rapid determination of the required plastic moment for single-span frames with pinned bases are given in 30. The use of charts for the same purpose is also described there. Finally, in 31 the solution of problems involving multi-span frames are discussed. 29. CONTINUOUS BEAMS
29.1 Although the analysis of continuous beams for maximum strength represents the simplest possible application of the plastic method, the 187
Restricting ourselves to single storey-structures of uniform plastic moment throughout. chartsfor the rapid In Fig. Fig. such that it produces the same overturning moment about the base at Location 1.) and deflection at working load could be added to such a table. The table is patterned after similar tables contained in Ref 13. 30. At Lehigh University. The virtual work equations can be expressed as a formula which would reflect both the frame geometry and the loading conditions. In addition to the reaction and Mp-values for these standard cases. L. 66 (see Appendix C) are given ’ beam diagrams and formulas ’ for certain loading conditions on beams. Alternatively curves may be prepared which present the solution in chart form. Ref 47 makes use of both the ’ formula’ and the ’ chart approach and in thisaspect is based substantially on Ketter’s ’ work. . 471) In order to simplify the form of the solution a parameter C is introduced whichis a function of the magnitude of the overturning moment. Dr Rober.1 Two approaches are possible in simplifying the procedure for the solution of single-span frames. For simplicity the horizontal distributed load is replaced by a concentrated load. acting at the eaves. A few illustrations will be given. 67 (see Appendix C) shows a gabled frame with uniformly distributed vertical and horizontal loading. Eventually values for deflection at ultimate load (8. the position of plastic hinges and points of inflection are indicated. The method of derivation and some examples are contained in Ref 46. It is determined from: 188 .1972 engineer may wish to avail himself of tables and solution of continuous beam problems. Ketter has made au outstanding contribution* that enables the engineer to determine with the aid of charts the required plasticmoment of a single-span frame in a fraction of the time required in a ‘routine ’ plastic analysis.SP:6(6) . SINGLE-SPAN FRAMES (SINGLE STOREY) 30. Since M _ Wh (a+b)V 2 then T = w&+W 2ir . It is cited here for reference (when available) for additional examples.
Their use will be indicated by the example which follows: Examele 8Sin&z-Span Rigid Frame Without Haunched Corners This example is the same as that of Design Example 6 except that no haunch is to be used. The two loading conditions are as shown at the top of Fig. the mechanism shown in Fig. Ketter’s has presented all possible solutions to the single-span. 189 . all the needed informationis available forentering the chart ofFig. the rotations at each of the plastic hinges may be computed and then. single-storey frame in the form of two charts-one which gives the value of MJwL? as influenced by C and Q. 70 (SM AppendixC). These two charts are indicated in Fig.. . WYL Consider. The values of C are thus determined as zero forCase I and O-074 4 forCase II.1972 T./(I +Q)(I -QC) -I] (QN (Q=O) already discussed. 69 (see AppendixC) and forthe major range of variables. the required plastic moment may be determined in terms of the variables WV. . now. 68 (see AppendixC).aneous centres... 2 . . Similar solutions may be developed for other loading conditions and forfixed bases.SP: 6(6) and thus . Figure 69 (see AppendixC) summarizes the applicable formulas for the pinned base single-span. The distributed load acting horizontally on the frame produces an overturning moment from which C may be computed (Eq 72). L. single-storey frame. Knowing that Q = a/b = O-75.. Q.. they are simply representations of Eq 73 and 74. .(72) = z (a+b)’ . The following equation results: c = - where x is given by: x = i [..(74) and is computed by the methods The only remaining problem is to determine the range of variables forwhich the mechanism shown in Fig. (Of course there are other possible mechanisms but in most practical cases.. 68 (see Appendix C) is in fact the correct solution. C and x... x. to the plastic hinge in the rafter (also a functionofC and Q). 69(a).) Using instant.. this will be the one to form. and one which gives the distance. by use of the mechanism method. .
055 Mp/L2= (0. The secondary design conditions would next be checked. .055. The moment check shows that the plasticity condition isnot violated and tiresthe answer . To determine the criticalr controlling ca!. MJw12 is equal to 04)46 and for Case 11 it is 0.SP:6(6) -1972 For Case 1. litis sufficientto compare o M@/L2 ratios since L is the same in ?It)th cases.055)(1. : —-— 4m E --l &Om 1~” ~L=30m Case I F(DL+LL)= 1.=_.22 t/m c =0 Q = b/a= 0. =(1.68 t/m = 0.Case Iis found to be critical.iscorrect..8 m.40)(1. .A ISWB 600 member is specitied. _— _ —.85 w..-.t Case I (without wind) is critical Selection of Section Use ISWB 600 Z =3 986”’7 cmg 190 . / —=.50)= 2.e.0735 MJwL2= 0. WU=1”85 X1. Wh=t40X 07 Urn Wu=l”40xl”2 t(m —-.68) == 0“092 t/m Mp= 91.046 MJL2=(0.2 tls-n. =(1”85)(1. _.75 Analysis from chart in Fig.2)= c = :h~ u = 104O 1.046) (2”22) = OO1O2t/m ( j -L Case II F(DL+LL+Wind) w. 69(a) ilfp/wLz = 0.--—. On this b~si~.
3 m. . . . in fact.t<Mp 31.1 When multi-span single storey frames are considered. C-5). . Now actually we can consider the behaviour of two separate structures as shown in sketch c without changing the total internal and external work. 70(a) (SEC Appendix C) below. graphical representation of the equilibrium equations may be used to facilitate the solution of these problems. (76) Xd(Lq”) Whereas D was zero in the single-span problem (see 30). valent to the original structure are shown in sketch d. the usual mode of failure will be that shown in sketch b. Notice that the lower cut-off line on the chart is a beam mechanism in which Mp/zaL2 = l/16 (Appendix C. MULTI-SPAN FRAMES 31. . 71 (see Appendix C) just as described before. As the frame fails. Again. . Therefore it is necessary to prepare one set of charts for each value of Q for which a solution is desired. ’ .[dl +Q) -D(l -Q) -I]] (Q>o) (Q=O) . Figure 71 represents the solution for the flat roof frame in chart form. It is the same structure.) all overturning forces and moments by imaginary moments acting about the column bases. that of a two-span flat roof frame.*. The left hand portion represents Eq 75 with Q=O. takes the following form45: . . . that was studied in Design Example 7. . Charts may then be prepared for the general case shown in sketch d of Fig.SP: 6(6) . Panel A is It given a virtual displacement and the work equation is then written. The right is the second form of Eq 76. The resulting separate structures which are equi-.(75) -Q(C(l with x=.= w. OK = 89. Ref 45 makes possible an even more dramatic savings of design time. _ !!$ (1@5)=_ !y??: _ !$!! x 10. . Example 9 Consider the problem shown in Fig.5 . . (The work done by the moments and forces as the two separate structures move through the virtual displacement becomes zero when ‘ continuity ’ is restored at The problem may be simplified still further by replacing the cut section..1972 Moment Check M. for the multispan frame D becomes an additional parameter.
= 4C.= 0.therefore two The points willbe sufficient. it is shown in sketch d. z---j so we will use the chart of Fig. The value of D. (Linear interpolation will be satisfactory if the range of C-Dvalues is small when compared with that of the chart. by use of the chartof Fig. [f%e: Design Example 7.43 m. M+/wL2=O*O06 52. is 0 since there is no external overturning moment applied to member 3-10. 71(a) twice one for structure G 2 A and once for structureB and willeventually obtain an answer in terms of M. 71(b).] In the first portion of the calculation. and the problem is solved. Case II (Mp = 16. Note that the value of Mp for member 4-6 [Mp = (16. In all of these procedures. D.= O-10 were selected.1972 NOW. Where the two curves intersect.. to solve a problem we note from the loading [Fig. The correct answer will be determined WLf when the overturning moments at 2 are equated. A table.= O-102. Dz7 = W-G. 71(a) in Appendix C one can determine possible solutiolrs each panel and find for the correct answer graphically. values of Mp/wLz are determined for two values of C. the final step in the. The value of C.0 and D./wL2 forwhich the overturning moments at Section 2 will just cancel.012 5. The sketch c shows how thisis done.) same thing is done for panel B except that now DB is known and C2 is So..a2 and that D..5 m.. 192 . analysis will be to draw the moment diagram with the aid of chartssuch as Fig.SP: 6(6) . and C. The only unknown values at this stage are D. Now on a separate graph may be plotted the information contained in the table in the calculation sheet.t)] agrees with the value determined for thissame problem by direct use of the mechanism method. forwhich Case I (without wind) was critical.= O-125 and for various values of D. 70(d)] that c r= wh/w.t). to [The problem isthe same as Design Example 7. Although it would not be possible to pick at the outset the value of Mp/wLs that satisfies this condition. is thus prepared with the aid of the chart.and D. both of which may be found at the same time the value Mp/wLz is determined from the condition that Da= 4C2. Finally the secondary design considerations must be examined.] These charts and others were developed in Ref 45 covering both Ilat-roof and gabled frames. the known quantities are indicated.50). (0 and 0. Thus. is found to be 0. Panel A is first analyzed for C. The following example will help to explain this. Example 10 Two-Span FlaZ Roof Fraglzk The case ‘for vertical load alone willresult in beam mechanisms and need not be considered here further illustratethe use of the charts. unknown.
26 t/m =0 DWhJ s 2 I I 0.SP: q6j .1932 DESIGN Case IIVertical load plus EXAMPLE wtnd (loads 10 same TWO-&PAN FRAME 7) as in Design E&le wh I---L.=lOm bL~f201n s-y J-----II D (a) ’ 2 !!!&! C ws ’ 2 lb) F w.05 ic) c2 (Continued) 193 .8) =2*52 t/m = (1*40)(0.9) =1. wh Q (DL+LL+Wind) =140 = (1*40)(1.
20 O-08 -LPANEL 0*06 B IO I 0 040 02 AND 4c2 0.20 tdj I .- 194 . --0 0.065 2 WXL: d6M4.065 5 =0.SP: 6(6) . 0 0.05 03625 OWJS2 Analysis of Panel B for DS= 0 4C¶ I MdwL: G MPIwL: I 0 0. 71 Analysis of Panel A for C1= 0125 D..1972 DESIGN EXAMPLE 10 TWO-SPAN FRAME Conki Andysis from chartin Fig.078 7 0.10 ikfp (4-6) hrp 0. 2 (2*52)(10)‘.
4. 31 (12). 5. 1956. in steel. of structural analysis. 9) BEEDLE. 3) TIMOSHENKO.). 1914. York.E. 16) 17) HAAIJER(GEARHARD). girders) betonazemele. Journal qf Franklin InstiMe. P 68. Recent progress in the plastic methods of structural analysis.) and THURLI~CANN . A IX. local buckling Fritz (MAXWELL). Local buckling of wide Lehigh University. P 607-s. 11) NEAL New (B. No. P 83. 1949. University. An evaluation of plastic analysis as applied to 8) JOHNSTON. P 224-s. 12) Plastic design AISC. October 1956. ASCE proceedings paper JOHNSTON. On melastic HAAXJER (G. 1914. P 538-s. flange beams. P 101. 6. New York. in steel.). 1956. New 4) MAIER-LEIBNITZ. Dissertation. Lehigh University Publication. structural design. July 1951. Die Bautechnik. Dissertation. S. April 1. Plastic behaviour and design. P 185-240.) 3. May 1. Van Nostrand. Vol 1. New York. C. 5) LUXXON and Journal. 195 . 6. flange shapes in the plastic range. November 1951. Laboratory report No.).APPENDIX A (See Foreword) SELECTED 1) BROEK (Van den). YANG and BEEDLE. Kiserletek refalazott tartokkal (experiments with clamped 2) KAZXNAZY (Gabor). August 1955. 1956. AISC. BEEDLE (L. The plastic methods Proceedings. Plastic bchaxriour of wide (ll). June 1. November 1948. 14) 764 (Vol 81).). May 1953. The lateral torsional buckling of yielded 18) WHITE Lehigh University. October 1956. BEEDLE and beams. 1914. REFERENCES 1948. Connections for welded continuous portal frames. Welding Journal. Part I. G. 13) Steel construction manual. No. WeZdiding Journcrl. A. Jul. Contribution to the problem of ultimate carrying capacity of simple and continuous beams of structural steel and timber. P 469-492. members. and Vol 2. S. HORNE Cambridge and HEYMAN. JOHNSTON (B. structural steel 19) TOPRACTAOGLOU(A. 10) BAKER. Strength of materials. A review of recent investigations into the behaviour of steel frames in the plastic range. No. G. No.(B. December 1951. THURLIMANN and KETTER. 1956.). (Br. 30(7). 32 (S). Plastic design in structural steel. Welding BAKER (J. Residual stress and the yield strength oi steel 15) YANG. 252 (5). Part II.8. 2058. 7) SYMONDS and NEAL. York. Summer course lecture notes. Vol 2. Inst.). Vol 2. Theory of limit design. Plastic strength of steel frames. F. December 1952. Steel skleton. John Wiley & Sons. 1927.) and BEEDLE (L. 27 6) JOHNSTON. September 1955. Vol 2. Welding Journd. P 383-407 and 252 (6). National Engineering Conference.
R. of Civil Engrs.). On limit design 1952.) and BEEDLE (L. J.). Steel beams. Design of rigid frame 33) KETTER (R. M. BEEDLE (L. & Sons. Frilr York. Trussed August 1956. Residual stress and Journal. Welded Welding Journal. The calculation of collapse loads Vol 35. New 30) KNUDSEN (K. 21) HoYyriN.). Welding Journal.). HORNE (M. YANG (C. for framed structures. 35. September 1954. Welding framing the tier building. of design. columns and frames. Plastic design and Engineering Conference. G. 1944. November single 1956. M. 20X. R. Vol 119. August 1951. 5. JOHNSTON (B. 1956. 22) GREENBERG and PRAGER. P 447. BYCE (R. Welding Journal. 30(8). Plastic design of multi-storey frame. Civil Engrs.. 29) G~.. 1954. Fritz Laboratory report No.). 1956. in the plastic range. SCHIITZ (F. Paper 814. Private communication: the compressive 38) JONSTON (B.). and 32) LLEICH(FREDERICK). Royal Sot. Further studies of columns thurst. Behaviour Laboratory Report No. PYOC. 1951. April 1954.). Design of frames 25) ENGLISH (J. Fritz Laboratory knees. S. 205. combined 34) Hu (L. April 1956. HUBER (A. P 1143. AISC.. P 543-a. New York. S. The plastic ‘theory bending of effect of shear forces. strength stiffens tall slender building. F&z Laboratory report No.20.SP: 6(6) . A moment of structures by the plastic theory. 33(9). Insf.. Tuansaclions. 36) 37) BRYAN (R. Rotation capacity. by relaxation BSCA of yield hinges. John and Wiley frames. Steelwork Publication 1952. December 1954. G. ASCE. E.). 20) !&HILLING span frames P 234-S. November 1956. C. report No.). R.) and BEEDLE (L. Vol with particular reference to the 207. C. 1956.). KNUDSEN (K.). Part III. C. G.). ASCE PYOC. S.) and BEEDLE (L. E. AISC National Civilengineering. AISC.). bending 269. P 66.. H. under 1956.$THs (JOHN D. 41) RUZEK (J.) and JOHNSTON (B. L.19. connections. P 240-s. P 51. S. Proc. July 1956.)..) and BEEDLE (L.). New ASCE. Il. No.1972 P 359-a: Part II.). Behaviour of welded under combined loading. Single span rigid frames in steel. comer connections.). 32(S). of beams SYMONDS.XL (G. (C.). of structural members steel beams 39) DRISCOLL (G. JOHNSTON (E. S. Vol 117. Proc. portal frames tested to collapse.). Trans.) and of steel. Shear deflection of wide-flange 40) HILL (W. distribution method for the analysis and design 24) HORNE (M. May The analysis of structures.1. 1956. P 397-s. of welded haunched 28) SMITH (JEROME). J.31(11). October 1935. P 21. 26) 27) The collapse method Association. W. 35(S).) and NEWMARK (N.). P 54. 1952. University of Michigen. Plastic behaviour and frames. May 1953. S. Plastic strength and deflection of continuous beams. i . 31) DRIU. 23) NEAL and J. M.). G. 35) WEISKOPF (WALTER). 205A.). Inst.
of CivilEngineers. January 1957. Dissertation Lehigh Uuivcvsify. 48) BLEICH(F. Inst. Welding Joumd.1972 42) BAKER (J. Report No. Analysis of haunched connection. AZSC. Weld.). ves.. Assn. Buckling strength of metal structures. 47) Rules forplastic design and fabrication. 49) y-. Plasticdesign of warehouse saves steel. W. McGraw-Hill Book Go. Br. The behaviour of saw-tooth portal frames. F.) and EICKAOFF (K. January 1954.).SP: 6(6) . June 1956.&IL (J. 45) KBTTER(ROBBRT L. New York. FE l/35. P 107. (K. September 50) WRI.).).). C. January 1952. 1952. New York. F.). A test on a pitched roof portal.E. (BY.F$E4R.. 44) BAKER (J. 4(l).). 46) KETTER (ROBERTL.). Solution of multi-span frames.) and RODERICK(J. G.). 43) BAXBR (J. 1955.) and EICKHOFF G. 1958. F. 1957. Bv. Lehigh University. Conference on the correlationbetween calculated and observed stresses and displacements in structures. P 32. 197 . Tests on full-scale portal frames. Civ. Plasticdesign of multi-span rigid frames. Inst. Esg.
what is the necessary hinge rotation. makes cuse of the parameters L/b and d/t. 17. it may be shown that thisprocedure leads to a critical slenderness ratio of about 100. 18.a rotation that is ordinarily required at the first plastic hinge. Using the elastic constants of the material. the required rotation of a given plastic hinge to assure that the total structurereaches the computed ultimate load ? B-3. It is the procedure that was used in the examples of Section VI. Therefore it already reflects and. and considering idealized behaviour as shown in Fig. B-2. In deriving thisequation. the analysis being based on an idealized cross-section that consists of only two flanges separated by the web-distance.4) B SPACING OF LATERAL BRACING B-l. One of the important contributions of Ref 18 was that it developed methods of correlating the critical length for lateral buckling with the magnitude of required hinge rotation. that the resulting further inelastic hinge rotation thus available is relatively small. This appendis is to outline the procedure for checking the adequacy cf the spacing of bracing to prevent lateral buckling. it is unlikely that the resulting critical would allow much inelastic rotation . the resulting critical 198 . the work of Ref 18. in . however.SP: 6(6) .1972 APPENDIX (Clause 23. Reference 10 suggests that it willbe adequate to require only that plastic yield penetrate through the flange. While thismight be reasonable for a section that was only called bracing upon to support Mp. assumptions were made with regard to various factors that influence lateral buckling strength. In preparing the figure. namely. what is the lateral buckling strength of an elastic-plastic segment of a member that has been called upon to absorb varying amounts of rotation at the plastic hinge ? Secondly. Equation 51 not only assures that the cross-section will be able to plastify (develop the full plastic moment) but also be able to rotate through a sufficient inelastic angle change to assure that all necessary plastic hinges ~111 develop. There will be considered first the matter of lateral buckling of an Figure 64 represents an approximation to elastic-plasticbeam segment. Commencing with a beam that is deformed until the point of strainlength hardening has been reached throughout. It is quite evident from Fig.fact. the basic lateral buckling equation Is has been used. The problem is a two-fold one: Firstof all.
1972 be revised upward to account St. This moment ratio is the ratio of the smaller moment to the plastic moment (Ms/MP). IS. Compute L/r. 1-o 0.8 -1.SP: 6(6) (L/r&. 4 should appear in the course of the foilowing description.= 0. presented in terms of the moment ratio.= 18+30 (l--M/M+) . 199 . The equation L/r. b) Examine the structure to see which segment (or segments) will be the most critical.. 64 is an approximation to these results.2 -0-c -0.6. in fact. The significance of various parts of Fig. 64 COMPARISON OF SLENDERNESS AND MOMENT RATION yielding). For equal purlin spacing it will be the one near each hinge with the largest moment ratio. the extent for the influence of of yielding (partial 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 FIG.6 -0. and the effect of end restraint. The procedure for using Fig.0 0 . Referring to the insert sketch.2 0 -0. the equation of the heavy dashed line shown in the figure with a ‘ cut-off ’ at M/M.. Venant’s torsion. Reference 18 considered the influence of each of these factors and Fig. LB. c) Compute the precise moment ratio for the span being considered (length = LB).8 O-6 04 0. 64 is as follows: a) Assume a purlin bracing (usually dictated by available roofing materials) . = 18 may moment gradient.. call this the braced span.
would tend to obviate one of the advantages of plastic design.SP: 6(6) . then the would be taken as 48. it is assumed that C. itself. refined to account for Cl. However. which agrees with the British recommendation intended to cover all cases). 64 the values LL and LR arethe lengths to left and rightof the braced span. The selected purlin spacing is adequate if its slenderness ratio is less than permitted according to the figure. These latter values may be determined roughly. then gives a value whichcan be compared to the ratio existing in the structure. the calculations are tedious and. In other words.had a moment ratio of zero. (one that is . 200 forthis case. and the subscripts CY’ indicate the correspond‘ ing critical lengths of those members.) *As discussed in Ref 9 a slender4ess ratio of 100 could be permitted a value incidentally. 4 1) As 2) The resulting value of f enables one to compute C. be if the adjacent span. as given in the AIX Handbook of steel construction. Multiplying the allowable slenderness ratio by C. LL. (The latter question assumes some importance because a ‘ last hinge ’ would require a very small rotation*. 64 (or the equation noted above). Ifthe selected spacing is still great and a closer spacing is too The undesirable. In the equation for the abscissa of the inset sketch on Fig.1972 Compare the slenderness ratio existing in the structure with that whichwould be permitted for the particular moment ratio according to the dashed line in Fig. computed from Eq 51 or from Fig. for example) then the critical value to use would be that obtained from the charta value LB that could. in order to obtain the critical length o P a partially plastic adjacent span for use in determining f. which relates to hinge rotation. ifrequired. compute the value f which gives the ‘ fixing ’ influence of the adjoining spans. the rotation requirement may next be checked. Alternatively. charts may be prepared which would enable the rapid determination of the magnitude of hinge rotations and the sequence of formation of plastichinges. further refinements are required as follows. Otherwise. Thus.0). neglecting for the time being the parameter Hn/L&. a Grst step in evaluating the end fixity correction. principles and general methods forcomputing hinge rotations have already been described.=I1-O and the critical length is obtained as if it were a ’ buckling ’ segment. This value could either be value LL~. as follows: If the member is partly plastic (LL. from the insertchart. Ifthe number iselastic (like span 1~) then the elastic critical lateral buckling length wculd be used and as a conservative approximation one could take L. 64 (for IZB/L& = 3.
(kl) where Thus the the values final in Fig. .. and revise the allowable slenderness ratio according to Fig.. 65 summarizes a portion of the pertinent information). C. would 64.SP: 6(6) . 64. As regards to the hinge rotation. It shows that the last hinge occurs in the rafter in most cases until the columns become relatively high with respect to the frame span. the value H/L4fi in Fig. is the curvature at MP(+ M. Driscoll in which such charts are being prepared. d = H I_____ %---M. 64 it should be corrected to LB (the length of the braced segment) and Hn (the hinge rotation within the braced-segment). be used to compute HB: HB= - H 1+gr. L is the frame or beam span. therefore. Before it can be used in Fig.a . compute HB/L&. be: step procedure f) Determine the value H/L& either from a deformation analysis or from charts (Fig.. Itwas suggested in Ref 18 that value the HB may be determined from the gradient of the moment diagram.1972 Figure 65 presents some of the limiting values obtained as a result of a study by G. and +. 64 and 65 is a nondimensional function in which H is the calculated hinge rotation. ‘+-Mx& are as indicated in the LL . The following equation may./EI).
53 050 Maximcrm for Give.425 (amin ~0.\TION 1END ANGLES or.186 Firsthinge at the corner: a 0.o il.6 0. PLASTIC HINGES 202 .5 0 cAtl.7 <p<1*0 0.30 (2) 1.S 1.8 1.05 T.106 <A<l*O Otherwise at column In the rafter for the following cases: --kc--“.4 0.Ic.O l*O 0.067 4<A<l.5 0.:.024lrA<l.25) First hinge at midspan 0.O 0.0 0.455 0.SP: 6(6) .05<A<0.450 0440 0.05 (amin =0..0 0.475 0.* ’ Angles’ Gtomctry ----&--PL-4 NOTE’ a:O.MN HILb First hinge at support 0.0 0*85 0.I < 1 .2 8:.O 0.8 1.0 Oh 0.E.8 0. 45 T_CK. 0 <.3 <p<2*9 @6 <a<l.25<a<O.6 0.O In the rafter for the following casts: a 0.5 <A<03 0.8 @02<A<O.25) First hinge inside span 0.A<l.2 0.425 Firsthinge at the corner: .4<0*. Location of Last Hirtge to Form At midspan in all cases except the following: (1) 0. 0.1972 Sl No.64 057 0.+ : .5 Otherwise at column In the rafter for: O<A<O*S 1. 0+2 0 <A ~0.7 C-I ‘.
3 203 .414 = &0. SIMPLE BEAMS Mp Wu &> =MM~+ = W = bar C 29..586 WL WL = O-085 8 WL* c-3. BEAM OTHER FIXED AT ONE END. R=V=E P I = .QPPENDIX (Claws CHARTS C-l. SUPPORTED DISTRIBUTED LOAD . = V.UNIFORMLY AT THE Rl R “I R: MP zzV zO. SUPPORTED LOAD AT THE AT CENTRE THE RI 1 R. BEAM FIXED AT OTHER-CONCENTRATED ONE END. 30 and 31) FOR BEAMS AND FORMULAS C-2.
= a+L Vl R1= M if.pab ‘-at_L C-5. BEAM FIXED AT AT ANY CENTRE BOTH ENDS -CONCENTRATED LOAD R dL$ 1 t V Mpsp$ 204 . BEAM OTHER FIXED AT ONE .CONCENTRATED END.SP:6(6) .1972 C-4. BEAM BUTED FIXED AT LOAD BOTH ENDS-UNIFORMLY DISTRI_ R V R=V% M*=F 2 C-6.== 04-L . SUPPORTED AT LOAD AT ANY POINT THE Rl Rl Pb RI= V.
SP:6(6) . BEAM FIXED AT ONE END.UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED GUIDED AT THE LOAD . FREE BUT OTHER .1972 C-7. BEAM FIXED AT AT AN-Y POINT BOTH ENDS -CONCENTRATED LOAD C-8.
=~ . H.v.67 SINGLE-STOREY 206 .(PanelMech) : x=0 ForQ=O:Mp=-yg-A=For Q>O: Mp4 l. = y VERTICAL AND HORIZO~?ALLOAD V *=~(1_c).1912 TABLE 3 FORMULAS FOR THE BASE FBAMES SOLUTION OF PINNED VERTICAL LOAD ALONE V 1 = v.!a?: 6(6j . = HplaL H.=H.VuLS L 2 For C < &o (Combined Me&): 34 1 -y-y? 2 L 5 6 Ii aL 7 t “7 -W STRUCTURE WITH UNIFORM PLASTICMOMENT FIG.=~(1+c) H1 = Wh(a+b)lH. Fw C> & Mp= qs..
/ / / / / / / FIG. 68 PLASTICHINGE MECHANISY 207 .
0 FIG. 69 SUMMARY (b) (4 OY MECHANISM FORMULAE FOP PINNEDBAKE SINGLESPAN.3 I 0.2 0.2 -0Q 0.1 0 0 0.4 @6 0.5 WLJcm 04s 'OS 0.0~lS O*lS 044 o-2 1 0-S .8 1.!!k I I 04 I L 0. SINGLESTOREY FRAME .
:()PS 6 6 1972 (4 (b) wh C.=---a wu 2 . 70 ANALYSIS OF TWO-SPAN FLAT ROOF RAME F 209 . DZ- WL: 2 (4 FIG.
As in the Original Standard. this Page is Intentionally Left Blank .
474 4 277.633 9 tQ 13 3 066.5 44.2 3 540.9 (8) 465.356 4 1 566.08 5.121 2 l*los 5 1.78 20.7 l133*7 +145.61 16.823 0 45.493 2 197.4 35.96 3.147 1 1.914 9 (10) 25.03 5.662 9 3 510.971 1 30.4 +65.11 S-16 5.984 2 39.943 8 50+00 0 43.354 7 1 290.21 18.139 0 1.0 53.898 0 263.258 8 332.7 1 223.631 8 3 986.847 5 53.5 64.696 5 44.70 ISHB 350 !_SHB 350 MB 400 ISLB 400 ISWB 350 ISHB 300 72.298 9 2 798.918 4 54.0 863.7 45.671 7 1 760.34 4.5 87.3 (5) 1.7 ISHB 450 ISHB 450 ISLB 500 ISWB 450 ISHB 400 ISHB 400 MB ISLB ISWB 450 4.230 0 (9) 50.472 2 “51% .623 2 232.122 3 l-114 5 (6) 109.149 8 1.3 1131.534 8 1 176.5 49-o 43.0 40.247 0 1850 18.750 0 31.917 2 305.0 .064 8 297.7 77.225 2 232.555 6 49.99 20.872 3 52.6 *112-s ‘99.73 4.2 l 75*0 79.145 1 1.2 77.369 2 216.16 20.4 l 61*6 ?56*9 56.34 2.127 1 1.124 2 1.357 6 393649 2 361.77 21.6 85-O 91.355 8 2 228-l 67 1 2 074.913 0 37.3 887.01 3.956 0 47.126 5 l-126 2 1.2 1 404.523 6 182700 0 202.79 3.673 4 2 030946 1 1 955.561 8 2 711.15 4.459 7 995.9 62.5 35. 33.2 1 350.93 16.60 14.9 2 359.168 7 44.2 1 808.01 24.3 55.18 3.181 0 (2) ISWB ISWB MB ISWB ISLB MB ISWB ISLB MB 600 600 600 550 600 5.409 1 100463 9 88.520 4 209.347 8 48.639 6 27.9 965.124 4 279.7 36.7 1 793.179 8 49.6 68.52 5.149 3 1.2 1 558.381 0 57.115 5 l-150 0 1.072 8 240’660 0 254.4 2 723.7 *86.9 8” 64.20 4.019 6 39.6 1094.8 58.342 0 59.511 6 34.216 8 319.65 14.29 ‘122.653 5 42.2 l-149 2 1.26 3.107 1 50~505 0 55.24 22.20 16.4 x 2 520) 1OOOfKJ cm Y' cm VC INT.4 82.270 7 70.82 3. (1 265 wd”) (1) 4 341.8 1171.33 14.8 2 091.TABLE 4 PLASTIC (Ckause 24) MOMENT PLASTIC hiODULUS IN Cm* z XI DESIGNATION WEIGHT PER METRE kg/m %XTION MODULIJS IN cm* HAPE S FACTOR ZlS SIX WWJ IN m.581 1 29.743 2 248.1 73-l 79.4 67.266 8 44.50 500 550 500 (3) (4) 3 854.185 5 1 268.12 5.490 3 962.35 5.25 4.694 8 1 213.3 66.6 1 933.10 (11) 5.3 86.125 7 1-l 52.1 1 444.5 103.2 52.3 1 742 7 1 543.142 9 49.082 8 280.r356 4 1 533.4 53.586 4 1 626.735 8 43.63 12.719 2 182.706 4 25086 4 24.11 3.571 4 50~000 0 52.130 0 1.325 6 46.254 5562% 2 (7) 89.176 0 1 099.9 63.363 6 1 401.4 ‘72.8 1 022.512 8 214.268 7 31.86 23.1 l 95*2 92.523 8 68.15 18.847 2 429.87 18.126 1 1.97 24.50 400 51.48 3.152 6 1.6 46.04 5.366 8 40.147 1 l-132 5 l-121 8 1.468 0 77.031 1 1 773.98 22.63 16.t 2520x2 100000 HRAR S CARRYING AATY C P IC YP IN t d/w Ix (.22 5.9 2 428.0 3 060.15 16.9840 2 351.
29 14.368 8 119+NO 8 108.29 6.993 7 12.62 47.38 2.112 9 l*lOl0 l-118 9 l-168 4 1.5 16.4 18.8 37.741 3 622.39 11.209 7 6 9 12.615 40.790 6 18.432 4 687.5.776 5 8.23 10.5 35.9 l-102 1 l-181 6 l-142 1 l-132 0 1.709 5 N z 466.8 *25-9 *24-O *23*5 25.17 2.1 *22*1 ‘f::: 10.195 1 651.41 10.663 13.297 3 5o.348 0 163.786 35.: 27.45 15*50 12.6 532-l 488-g 487.4 15.229 6 86.65 3:: 4.023 3 731.84 3.1 16.889 6 71.9 28.790 0 154.4 372.81 10.786 9 1.70 13.935 6 75.097 414.5 *45-7 48.69 9.8 2.8 28.1 54.4 188.31 8.1 *33-o 40-O 37.96 2.17 846 9.932 356.571 3 851*114 3 825.61 2.4 22.223 2 141.642 1 5 0 5 2 8 :E l .218 9 527.148.573 9 515.42 4.793 1 35.318 7 542.156 2 35.8 638.735 9 11.323 6 44.35 344 232.3 30.988 277.84 2.669 2 138.48 14.711 9 17G3571 27.09 6.7 618.130 5 1.921.4 11.34 9.9 573.1 w-2 *38*8 836.230 389.8 25.4 49.622 0 158.5 226.98 11.4 469.06 4.89 f 2.1 ‘35.722 8 8 1 1 5 2 ISHB 300 ISMC 400 MB 350 ISLB 350 ISLC 400 ISWB 300 ISHB 250 ISLB 325 ISHB 250 ISMC 350 MB 300 ISLC 350 ISLB 300 ISHB 225 ISWB 250 ISHB 225 ISMC 300 MB 250 ISLC 300 ISLB 275 ISHB 200 ISHB -200 ISWB 225 ISMC 250 MB 225 ISLB 250 ISLC 250 ISHB 250 ISHC 225 ISLC 225 ISLB 22.41 2.473 36.226 4 22153 9 22-417 2 21448 1 20.398 4 81.5 18.989 4 8.7 607.313 4 34.117 2 105.71 -52 9 9.2 ‘27-Q 28-O 28.8 25.138 5 1.255 7 .83 2.4 34.725 443.15 3.615 39.69 2 135.9 10.4 18.5 14.954 5 554.72 5.520 5 7.211 1 708.664 4 121.473 46511 43.793 4 6 6 9 2 1 348.33 2.8 43.341 4 5.471 6 lll*OSl6 98.5 654.109 2 158.209 EtE 44.153 8 l-111 60 l-132 1.34 2.91 13.409 46.719 253.761 5 11.698 13.9 43.03 9.4 223-S 218-l K 181.428 36.3 754.156 38.786 9 35.83 2.838 0 92.690 5 338.551 6 175.983 40.03 (Cm 12.109 2 1.509 2 83-l 85 2 76.161 6 1SO-343 2 131. 5 ei 38.434 2 5.104.7778 32.087 7 12.027 3 889.732 4 672.8 40.3 15.231 4 7 9 9 1 6 9 l 37*7 46.1167 1.968 8 25.426 5 17.94 2.9 571.3 424-2 41 o-5 403.81 4-02 5.823 9 496-771 1 465.66 12.95 15.7852 146.418 9 6.31 10.5 l-145 3 l-135 8 1.1 778-Q 751.5 32.5 222.852 5 17.8 35.859 5 5.37 3-05 5.0 475.273 8 338.32 6.55 8.131 7 l-096 7 l-1754 l-136 2 l-1707 l-133 8 l-113 4 l-109 7 law 7 l-171 1 1.80 4-84 4.012 8 119.3 33-Q l 30-4 31.003 9 6.37 13.211 3 34.115 1 293.2 18.161 4 23.2 16.932 260.231 43.oaO 0 40-540 5 28.776 1 26.2 392.179 4 1.2 360-8 348.134 5 l-157 6 1.861 251.423 15.8 ‘49.397 3 6.7752 124.3 ‘33.7 l 43*1 51-o ‘42.5 28-8 21.2 15.162 8 37.82 2.583 6 168.968 13.089 2 39.6 30-6 27.939 16.1787 10.9 32.15 8.4 24-5 21.66 10.4 52.438 7 10-010 2 9-826 3 8.964 8 97448 4 ‘!EZ 89.5 305.2 22.641 0 32.131 254.776 1 42.759 6 678.535 0 8.50 8.294 3 9 4 8 9 9 28.890 4 128.8 21.826 0 106.234 397.94 9.5 19-3 19.5 MB 200 ISHB 150 ISHR 150 ISHB 150 IS-MC 200 58.555 3 6.9 69.517 8 215642 8 211.983 32.80 11.22 2.49 2.681 0 891.9 E:t 262-S 239.408 5 7.331 5 17.518 6 11.3 19-7 15.166 0 138448 8 115.51 3.146 2 l-138 8 l-120 0 l-160 5 1.
8 13.18 6.250 0 48.142 2 1.633 5 2.789 1 3.798 8 38.4 15.0 Yzi 03) 66.153 3 1.250 0 31.172 4 37.21 1.3 116.680 4 62.9 66.8 131.3 11.151 6 1.893 8 4.145 2 1.250 0 31.1 *19*8 (4) 172.86 5.16 7.16 6.354 3 3.19 6. I (1 265 wd) (1) 198.138 4 1.133 7 1.780 4 54.144 9 1.2 10.3 10.33 8.38 1.1 (5) 1.815 6 1649 3 (7) 13.447 2 (2) ISLC 200 ISWB 175 ISLB 200 MB 175 ISMC 175 ISLC 175 ISLB 175 ISJB 225 ISJC 200 ISWB 150 ISMC 150 MB 150 ISLC 150 ISLB 150 ISJC 175 ISJB 200 MB 125 ISMC 125 ISLB 125 ISJC 150 ISLC 125 (3) ‘20.22 6.69 1.944 3 1.0 14.1 70.09 2.1 8.125 8 1.897 7 8la48 3 77.608 4 52.140 1 1.6 22.93 1.07 5.6 7.7 144.185 1 4.05 l 19*5 ‘19-l l 17*6 l 16*7 *12*8 13.818 2 30.19 7.37 2.102 4 31.3807 3.171 7 104.3 139.196 8 3.884 8 31.137 0 1.077 0 161646 3 15@359 9 143.675 5 2.290 6 2.617 6 47.4 14.7 11.878 0 34.17 8.042 4 61.11 7.701 8 34.6 172.345 1 166.3 116.79 .11 7.4 10.062 6 1.0 16.1 62.930 5 72.505 7 94.480 3 106.611 1 58.58 2.037 0 31.777 8 31.313 7 34.6 65.857 6 119.313 7 60.11 (11) 2.154 0 73.86 2.08 6.9 ‘8::5 93.2 +11-2 ‘9.777 8 27.146 2 (6) 5*009 1 4.1 !a1 9.666 7 28409 1 (10) 8.3 125.97 8.2 12-6 11.5 169.823 5 28409 1 25@00 0 28.0 91.267 2 45.59 2.448 4 (9) 36.073 5 3.025 6 44.106 3 126.11 6.645 5 4.17 1.153 5 1.852 8 41.37 1.880 0 46.9 17.9 1x.135 6 1.223 5 90.62 1.23 2.13 1.2 9.9 12.676 0 41.19 7.047 0 65.824 6 110.9 7.139 9 1.163 9 1.772 0 194*200 1 184.18 2.437 6 56448 0 53.561 6 35.0196 2.9 7.780 5 27.156 3 1.92 1.1 111.409 1 41.143 7 1.837 2 63.0 8.158 5 1.832 0 40.17 7.08 7.73 2.5 10.3744 2.863 0 1.784 1 2.20 5.6112 3.3014 13+153 2 133.66 2.2 12.147 2 1.75 1.146 5 1.363 6 30.8 82.3 78.7 12.TABLE 4 PLASTIC MOMENT - Codd (Clause 24) PLASTIC &iODULUS N cm* I zu DESIGNATION WRIGHT SECTION ER P RTRE M kg/m ODULUS M N cm* I sxx HAPE S ATOR F C =is MP W N I m.810 8 48.141 6 1.88 1.8 57.9 13.t 2520x2 100 SHEAR Py IN t ARRYC ING 4W *x cm ‘Y (A x 2 520) 100 trn AATY C P IC VC NT.10 5.074 4 70.
1710 1’6184 :%~ * 1.02 097 1.165 7 22.222 58. proceed as follows: of ZXZ or Mp Cap.136 2 1.9 7-9 l-179 9 l-138 9 l-155 6 1.429 2 18. 3-5 3-s 25.07 3.563 3 0*5194 :‘: 5.-the section opposite to-the s&e&d value also satisfy the requirement withregard to Zr+ or 1Mp Cap.8 19-4 17.96 3.270 3 6-83 4-20 5.01 1.6 32.7 5.270 3 20.250 4 18. Otherwise. 4.6 7.826 1 38.of the same depth. Also. if the design v) Check further the finallyselected section satisfies Handbook. in the column ’ Plastic to the required value N zl ii) Ifthe section opposite this selected value in the column ’ Weight per Metre ’ bears an aster$k (*).152 2 1.1 ::.26 49.64.2 80 43.8 20. proceed up to the column until the If section withthe required depth isreached.4 42. or.375 4 24.98 5.09 2.276 6 2!+000 0 2353:z! 17@45 5 20.9 24.687 5 25+80 0 50-000 0 41.3 33.12 1. choose it.084 9 28. iiij conditions require that the section must not exceed a certain depth.236 9 l-1044 0.295 2 54.18 4.06 4.666 7 21.9 5.190 4 1.8 SO.7 - For using this table.509 3 NOTE ISJC 125 ISMC 100 ISLB 100 ISLC 100 ISJC 100 ISMC 7.proceed higher and choose the UP first section bearing the asteriskas all sections above.979 9 0.57 l-42 l-21 l-14 1. requiremtnts specified in section V of the .959 7 @715 0 0609 1 0. appears higher up. the value next higher 4 Find.1 5. Modulus ’ or ‘MpCap ’ the value equal to. iv) Check up the selected section for shear carryingcapacity.5 ISLB 75 ISLC 75 9.353 0 20.885 6 38.673 2 21848 4 19.as it is the lightest section in the seriesto serve the requirement.2 37. failingthat.082 3 43.67 1.00 4-06 4.60 149 1.175 0 l-157 3 l-157 6 l-144 2 1.573 6 MB 9” ISJB:: ISJB 175 54.8 6-l l 5. Checkup to see that no lighter beam withan asterisk.7 .652 49.9 l 5*8 6. make proper provisions in cases of eccentric loading or any other special conditions of loading.
D. A. Dsstur & Co Private Ltd. P. CHOUDHURI Bridge & Roof Co (India)Ltd. P.. KAYAL (Alternate) 216 . S. MAHAJAN PROFP.Calcutta SHR~M. D. M. SINGH (Alternate) Engineer-in-Chief’sBranch. PAWAR (Alternate) Burn & Co Ltd. JAIN(AIlevnafe) Ministry of Transport & Communication. V. MALLICK SHRI A.Bombay SIIKI J. Ministry of Defence PROF K. SAGAR (Altevlzate) SARI M. N. Kanpur M. DAYARATNAM IndianInstitute ofTechnology. Directorate General of Supplies SHRI D. N. New Delhi STORES DIVISION No. FERNANDES Richardson & Cruddss Ltd. Calcutta SHRI D. S. A.SP:6(6) . C. DHAR Braithwaite & Co (India)Ltd. K. Ranchi SHRI P. N. R. DepartSWRI P. BHASIN ment ofTransport (Road Wing) Central Engineering % Design Bureau. V. Hindustan SHRI S. AHUJA‘ National Building Organization.Ministry of Railways Members SHRI L. DESAI SHRI M. Bombay SHRI P.1972 APPENDIX COMPOSITION OF STRUCTURAL SECTIONAL COMMITTEE. Technical Development & Materials Planning) DR P. SEN GUPTA (Alternate) DR P. AGR~WAL Industrial Fasteners AssociationofIndia. D ENGINEERING SMBDC 7 which is responsible for . The ISI Structural Engineering Sectional Committee processing this Handbook. TAIN Ministry of Railways JOINT DIRECTOR STANDARDS (9~” S) _ _ DEPUTY DIRECTOR STANDARDS (B & S)-II (Alternate) Electrical ManufacturingCO Ltd. MURARKA (Alternate) SHRI B. Howtah SHRI A. PINTO (AZternate) EXECUTIVE EYGINEER (CENTRAL Central Public Works Department. DIRECTOR (DAM$ 1) New Delhi SHRI B. NAIK (Alternate) SHRI SAILAPATI CI’PTA Public Works Department. P. CHATTERJEE Government of West Bengal DR P. CHATTERJEE & Disposals (Ministry of Supply. DHARWARKAR (Alternate) Inspection Wing. C. IYER InstitutionofEngineers (India). D’SOUZA Bombay Municipal Corporation. Calcutta Centre Water & Power Commission (Water Wing). K. D. CWAKRAVARTY Steel Ltd. consists of the following: Chairman DIRECTOR STANDARDS (CIVIL) Representing . Calcutta SHRI OM K~OSLA SHRI S. S. Bombay SHRI G. Howmh HRI S P. Government of West Bengal The Hindustan Construction Co Ltd. T. New Delhi SHRI P.Calcutta DR 0. N. II) SHRI W.
BALWANT RAO (Attemate) StruFGLefngineering Research Centre (CSIR).1972 Re#reserting Hindustan Steel Ltd. BHASKAR Rao ANTULU P (Altemwte) HRI. PANDHAKY HRI S B. New Delhi B. EN S . GHOSH (Alternate) SERI K. E. Calcutta Government of Madras (AlterhUe) MAJ Bombay Port Trust.i& Power Commmsron (Power Wing). K. M. Bombay Bbarat Heavy Electricals Lt$. ADHYB P . SHET~Y Central Me&a&al Engineering ResearchInstitute DR RI YS HRI S S.SP: 6(6) Members SHRI A. V. SEN GUP-IA P Stewarts & Lloyds of India Pvt Ltd. M~TRA SHRI K. N. . N. K. K.yi_ Engmeenng 6 Centre. S. VAZIFDAR SHRI K. S M G. SRIVASTAVA. NAREARI RAO forStructural Engineers Bharat Heavy E?e+cals Stn. VEPRAIUGHVACEARY SYIRI M. . NARHARI RAO (Alternate) IndianInstitute Technology. OM P S SUPERINTENDING ENGINEERING (PLANNINGt DESIGNCIRCLE) EXECUTIVE ENGINEER (BIJLDIXGCENIEEDWION) I IS R. Deputy Director (Strut t Met) (Alternate) Director General. ENGAR V YI SHRI R. Kharagpur of B. VBWUMGEVACEARY S.Tiruchirapally Centr$wWg.t. Ltd. Tiruchirapally Research . RAMASWAMY DR S. Calcutta &RI M. & Maharashtra Government or SHRI RESEARCH OFFICER (AItemute) Indian Roads Congress. P. S. IS1 (Ex-o$cio Mnnbsr) Secrutmy SHRI M.Durgapur Jadavpur Upiveraity. VENKATXWAN (CSIR). V. Durgapur Irrigation Power Department. GHOSA (Altemak) OF . IS1 Panel for Handbook Sasu DR K. NAGARAJ Assistant Director (Strut & Met). K. K. SWRI P. R. PROP G.
erection and testing (structuralportion) of cranes and hoists IS: 808-1964 Specification for rolled steel beams. 1863-1961 Dimensions for rolled steel bulb plates IS: 1864-1963 Dimensions for angle sections with legs of unequal width and thickness IS: 2314-1963 Specification for steel sheet pilling sections IS: 2713-1969 Specification for tubular steel poles for overhead power lines (jirst revike) 218 .1972 APPENDIX (See Foreword) E INDIAN STANDARDS RRLATRVG STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING TO General IS: 800-1962 Code of practice for use of structural steel in general building construction (revised) IS: 801-1958 Code of practice for use of cold formed lightgauge steel structuralmembers in general building construction IS: 802 (Part I)-1967 Code of practice for use of structural steel in overhead transmission-line towers: Part I Loads and permissible stresses IS: 803-1962 Code of practice for design. channel and angle sections (red) IS: 811-1965 Specification for cold formed light gauge structural steel sections (ieoiscd) IS: 1173-1967 Specification for hot rolled and slit steel. tee bars (first revision) IS: 1252-1958 Specification for rolled steel sections.SP: 6(6) . fabrication and erection of vertical mild steel cylindrical welded oil storage tanks IS: 804-1967 Specification for rectangular pressed steel tanks rstrevisiorr) IS: V 06-1968 Code of practice for use of steel tubes in general bnilding construction ($rsf YeVisiOn) IS: 807-1%3 Code of practice for design. bulb angles IS: 1730-1961 Dimensions for steel plate. mamfacture. sheet and stripfor structural and general engineering purposes IS: 1731-1961 Dimensions for steel flats for structuraland general engineering purposes IS: 1732-1961 Dimensions for round and square steels bars for structural and general engineering purposes IS: 1852-1967 Specification for rolling and cutting tolerances for hot-rolled steel products ($rst YCV~S~O~P) IS:.
1972 1s: 3177-1965 Code of p.rne railsections equal leg angles IS: 3908-1966 Speci iicxtion for aluminium IS: 3909-1966 Specification for aluminium unequal 11:g angles IS: 3921-1966 Specification for aluminium channels IS: 3954-1966 Specification for hot rolled steel channel sections for general engineering purposes IS: 3964-1967 Specification for light rails IS: 4000-1967 Code of practice for assembly of structuraljoints high tensile friction grip fasteners IS: %?(Part I)-1967 Code of practice for steel tubular scaffolding: Part I Definitions and materials IS: 4014 (Part II)-1967 Code of practice for steel tubular scaffolding: Part II Safety regulations for scaffolding IS: 4137-1967 Code of practice for heavy duty electric overhead travelling cranes including special service machines for use in steel works Handbooks SP: 6 IS1 Handbook for structural engineers: SP: 6(l)-1966 Structur-al steel sections SP: 6(2) Steel beams and plate girders SP: 6(3) Steel columns and struts 219 .SF’: h(6) .iiticcfor design of overhead travelling cranes and gantry cranes other than steel work CKCICS IS: 3443-196 Specibcation for cr.
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