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INTRODUCTION to RELAYS Relays are devices by means of which an electric circuit can be controlled (opened/closed) by the change in the

same circuit or the other circuit. The protective systems are necessary with almost every electric plant. The power systems comprise many diverse items of equipment which are very expensive, so the complete power system represents a very large capital investment. No matter how well designed, faults will occur on a power system and these faults may represent a risk of life and property. The provision of adequate protection to detect and disconnect the elements of power system in the event of fault is therefore an integral part of power system design. In order to fulfill the requirements of protection with optimum speed for the many different configurations, operating conditions and construction feature of the power system, it has been necessary to develop many types of relays that respond to various functions if the power system quantities.

Relays may be classified according to the technology used _ Electromechanical _ Static _ Numerical ELECTRO-MECHANICAL RELAYS Electromechanical relays are the conventional relays having movable sub-assemblies. The operation of such relays depending upon the electromagnetic attraction or electromagnetic induction effects of electric current. The protection system if the plant is implemented by using electro mechanical relays, except a fewer number of static relays. Electro mechanical relays can be classified to several different types: _ Attracting armature type _ Polarised attracted armature relay _ Moving coil _ Induction type _ Thermal _ Motor operated _ Mechanical

STATIC RELAYS A static relay referred to the relay, which has no armature or other moving elements. The measurement is carried out by stationary electronics circuits. The solid state components used are transistors, resistors, capacitors and so on. The response is developed by electronic, magnetic, optical or other components without mechanical motion. Static relays have quick response, long life, shock-proof, fewer problems of maintenance, high reliability and high degree of accuracy.

INTRODUCTION TO NUMERICAL RELAY Conventional electromechanical and static relays are hard wired relays. Their wiring is fixed, only their setting can be manually changed. Numeric relays are programmable relays. The characteristics and behavior of the relay are can be programmed. They have numerous advantages. They have small burden on CTs and PTs. They can process and display the signals efficiently, accurately and fast as possible manner. The electromechanical relay devices occupy large amount of space in the panel board. Although accuracy is maintained at a better level it can be improved by the use of numerical relays. Traditional electromechanical and static protection relays offers single-function and single characteristics. Range of operation of electromechanical relays is narrow as compared to numerical relay. Electromechanical Relay makes use of mechanical comparison devices, which cause the main reason for the bulky size of relays. It uses a flag system for the indication purpose whether the relay has been activated or not. Electromechanical relay do not have the ability to detect whether the normal condition has been attained once it is activated thus auto resetting is not possible and it has to be done by the operating personnel.

WHY SWITCH TO NUMERICAL RELAY? Numerical relays are highly compact devices, characterized with fast operation, high sensitivity, self-monitoring and low maintenance. First generation numerical relays were mainly designed to meet the static relay protection characteristic, whereas modern numeric protection devices are capable of providing complete protection with added functions like control and monitoring. Numerical protection devices offer several advantages in terms of protection, reliability, and trouble shooting and fault information. Numerical protection devices are available for generation, transmission and distribution systems. Modern power system protection devices are built with integrated functions. Multi-functions like protection, control, monitoring and measuring are available today in numeric power system protection devices. Also, the communication capability of these devices facilitates remote control, monitoring and data transfer. Modern numeric protection offers multi-function and multiple characteristics. Some protections also offer adaptable characteristics, which dynamically change the protection characteristic under different system conditions by monitoring the input parameters. The measuring principles and techniques of conventional relays (electromechanical and static) are fewer than those of the numerical technique, which can differ in many aspects like the type of protection algorithm used, sampling, signal processing, hardware selection, software discipline, etc. These are microprocessor-based relays in contrast to other relays that are electromechanically controlled. These relays provide great precision and convenience in application in the sophisticated electronic products. By combining several functions in one case, numerical relays also save capital cost and maintenance cost over electromechanical relays. The disadvantages of a conventional electromechanical relay are overcome by using microcontroller for realizing the operation of the relays. Microcontroller based relays perform very well and their cost is relatively low

HISTORY OF NUMERICAL RELAY. The first protection devices based on microprocessors were employed in 1985. The widespread acceptance of numerical technology by the customer and the experiences of the user helped in developing the second generation numerical relays in 1990. First generation numerical relays were mainly designed to meet the static relay protection characteristic, whereas modern numeric protection devices are capable of providing complete protection with added functions like control and monitoring. Numerical protection devices offer several advantages in terms of protection, reliability, and trouble shooting and fault information. Numerical protection devices are available for generation, transmission and distribution systems. Modern power system protection devices are built with integrated functions. Multi-functions like protection, control, monitoring and measuring are available today in numeric power system protection devices.

Also, the communication capability of these devices facilitates remote control, monitoring and data transfer. Traditionally, electromechanical and static protection relays offered singlefunction, single characteristics, whereas modern numeric protection offers multi-function and multiple characteristics. Some protections also offer adaptable characteristics, which dynamically change the protection characteristic under different system conditions by monitoring the input parameters. The measuring principles and techniques of conventional relays (electromechanical and static) are fewer than those of the numerical technique, which can differ in many aspects like the type of protection algorithm used, sampling, signal processing, hardware selection, software discipline, etc.

PIC MICROCONTROLLER PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology. The name PIC initially referred to Programmable Interface Controller. PICs are popular with both industrial developers due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. The PIC architecture is distinctively minimalist. It is characterized by the following features: Separate code and data spaces (Harvard architecture) A small number of fixed length instructions Most instructions are single cycle execution (4 clock cycles). A single accumulator (W), the use of which (as source operand) is implied (i.e. is not encoded in the opcode) All RAM locations function as registers as both source and/or destination of math and other functions. A hardware stack for storing return addresses. Data space mapped CPU, port, and peripheral registers. The program counter is also mapped into the data space and writable (this is used to implement indirect jumps). Unlike most other CPUs, there is no distinction between memory space and register space because the RAM serves the job of both memory and registers, and the RAM is usually just referred to as the register file or simply as the registers.

Data space (RAM) PICs have a set of registers that function as general purpose RAM. Special purpose control registers for on-chip hardware resources are also mapped into the data space. The addressability of memory varies depending on device series, and all PIC devices have some banking mechanism to extend the addressing to additional memory. Code space All PICs feature Harvard architecture, so the code space and the data space are separate. PIC code space is generally implemented as EPROM, ROM, or flash ROM. In general, external code memory is not directly addressable due to the lack of an external memory interface. Word size All PICs handle data in 8-bits, so they should be called 8-bit microcontrollers. However, the unit of addressability of the code space is not generally the same as the data space.

Stacks PICs have a hardware call stack, which is used to save return addresses. The hardware stack is not software accessible on earlier devices, but this changed with the 18 series devices. Instruction set PICs instructions vary from about 35 instructions for the low-end PICs to over 80 instructions for the high-end PICs. The instruction set includes instructions to perform a variety of operations on registers directly, the accumulator and a literal constant or the accumulator and a register, as well as for conditional execution, and program branching. Some operations, such as bit setting and testing, can be performed on any numbered register, but bi-operand arithmetic operations always involve W; writing the result back to either W or the other operand register. To load a constant, it is necessary to load it into W before it can be moved into another register. Limitations The PIC architectures have several limitations: Only a single accumulator A small instruction set Memory must be directly referenced in arithmetic and logic operations, although indirect addressing is available via 2 additional registers

PIC 16F72 MICROCONTROLLER PIC16F62 is a 28-pin, 8-bit CMOS Flash drive with A/D converter. Features of PIC16F72 are: Only 35 single word instructions to learn All single cycle instructions except for program_branches, which are two-cycle Operating speed! DC 20 MHz clock input DC 200 ns instruction cycle 2K x 14 words of Program Memory,_128 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Interrupt capability Eight-level deep hardware stack Direct, Indirect and Relative Addressing modes

Peripheral Features 1. High sink/source current: 25mA 2. Timer0: 8-bit timer 3. Timer1: 16-bit timer 4. Timer2: 8-bit timer 5. 8-bit, 5 channel analog-to-digital converter 6. Synchronous serial port CMOS Technology 1. Low power, high speed CMOS FLASH technology 2. Wide operating range : 2.0V to 5.5V 3. Industrial Temperature Range. 4. Low power consumption. Special Microcontroller Features 1. 1000 erase/write cycle FLASH program memory. 2. Programmable code protection. 3. Power saving sleep mode. 4. Processor read access to program Memory

PIN DIAGRAM

SOFTWARE USED TO PROGRAM THE MICROPROCESSOR PIC16F72 has been programmed using Basic language for the relay operation. The programming has been done in Proton IDE software which is then converted to HEX format using the conversion software PICkit 2 and the HEX converted program is written into the flash memory of PIC16F72. Program has been written based on the following flowchart. Screenshot for Proton IDE

Screenshot for PICkit - 2

HARDWARE Hardware for the Numerical relay simulation circuit mainly consists of two sections: a. Input Simulator b. Numerical Relay with microcontroller Input Simulator For the simulation of relay the fault conditions are generated using an input simulator which generates the normal working conditions of the generating plant such as voltage,

current, frequency, speed of turbine and excitation condition. By varying the values of these quantities fault conditions can be generated for making the relay to act.

Numerical Relay Numerical relay is designed with the help of PIC16F72 microcontroller, which compares various inputs with the set values. When a fault condition is generated using input simulator, the input to microcontroller violates the relay set conditions which cause the controller to send trip signal to relay devices and thus the relay acts.

ADVANTAGES OF NUMERICAL RELAY 1. Multiple functions can be achieved using numerical relay. 2. The size of numerical relay panel is small as compared to electromechanical relay panel. 3. Time and date of fault occurrence can be automatically recorded. 4. Cost can be reduced significantly. 5. Auto resetting can be achieved 6. Better accuracy of operation. 7. Can be reprogrammed as per the working requirement 8. Installation time required is very less as connections required are small. DISADVATAGES OF NUMERICAL RELAY 1. Operating life of numerical relay is only about 20 years. 2. It requires continuous power supply for its operation. 3. Any error in the software may cause severe damage to devices associated with it.