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Abulug, Cagayan The municipality of Abulug lies between the municipalities of Ballesteros and Pamplona on the Northwestern part

of Cagayan along the China Sea . Tulug, the original name of Abulug had been a flourishing fishing village long before Don Juan Salcedo sailed to the mouth of Abulug River in 1572. In 1629, the name "tulug" was changed into Abulug, including two barangays of Totol and Capitana. It is a typical Ybanag town. The immigrating Ilocanos had contributed to large extent to the progress of the town. Silk weaving at one time flourished in Abulug but with the abdication of Spanish rule and the absence of Spanish friars who introduced the industry, silk culture, has been totally forgotten. Its important agricultural products are rice, vegetable and industrial products are lumber and fish. Its native craft, cottage and trade are mat-weaving, pottery, nipa shingle and native winemaking. Favored with many attractions, the majestic bend of its namesake river, immensely fertile agricultural areas, unspoiled back-country scenes and friendly people. A trip down the river to the sea in the late afternoon, the magnificent sunset in all its splendor can be viewed and you can listen to the eternal sea-wishing you would be as close to nature to Abulugueos. Alcala, Cagayan Alcala is an old town situated in the middle of Cagayan some 38 kilometers north of Tuguegarao. Alcala was originally called "Fulay", an Ybanag word for red, because of the distinct reddish color of the soil. When the Diocese of Nueva Segovia (at Lallo) was established in August, 1595, Fulay fell under its jurisdiction and it was not until July 20, 1789 that it was officially proclaimed a township. It was renamed "Alcala" in honor of Don Francisco Paulo de Alcala sometime in 1843. It is noteworthy to mention that the brick church built by Fray Casimiro Gonzales proved to be the biggest church within the Diocese of Nueva Segovia (30 meters in width and 90 meters in length) and it was in this church shortly before the fall of the Spanish regime to the Americans in the late 1800s that Bishop Gregorio Aglipay, then a Catholic priest and then later founder of the Philippine Independent Church, was proclaimed Ecclesiastical Governor of Cagayan. With the establishment of American Military Government in the Philippines at the turn of the century, the people of Alcala geared themselves in adjusting to a new ideology under democracy. Alcala has 25 barangays and has a total land area of 18,720 hectares. It is located on a plateau overlooking the winding Cagayan River . Its original Ibanag inhabitants were from Cabagan, Isabela, Tuguegarao and Tuao. Allacapan, Cagayan Allacapan is situated in the northwestern periphery of Cagayan, boarding lower KalingaApayao. It has its beginning as a small village in the jungle vastness, inhabited by Negritoes. Daring Ilocanos, mainly from Ilocos Sur, discovered it in quest for greener

pasture, and eventually dominated the place. Allacapan was founded as a municipal district of Tawit, Mountain Province , in 1926. It was ceded to Cagayan in 1928, and finally became a regular municipality in 1945 by virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 590 authored by Congressman Miguel Pio. The history of Allacapan has a series of existing episodes and transitions. During the Japanese occupation, the Japanese forces established a garrison in the heart of the community from where echoed moars of torture inflicted upon prisoners of war, most often, innocent civilians. Later on, the Japanese burned the municipal hall, including the school building in the old site of Daan-Ili. The incident aggravated the fear of the civilians and they fled to the mountains. After liberation, some disgruntled ex-Army men who where not satisfied with their backpay checks took to the hills with their rifles and joined the underground movement. Allacapan then became a hotbed of the Huks (HUKBALAHAP or Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon). Their atrocities resulted in the kidnapping of then Mayor Agustin Gorospe in September 1951, the burning of the newly constructed town hall, and the looting of the local treasury. Destiny shaped its own course for Allacapan. The construction of the highway from Magapit, Lallo to Bangag, Aparri traversing Allacapan and the opening of the Magapit Bridge to traffic, facilitated mobility of trade and commerce. Allacapan suddenly became a local point. It is now very accessible from all points and is fast becoming an urban community. How Allacapan got its name? In his continuing saga, the curiosity of Francisco Umengan, an ex-municipal president from Aparri, was aroused to the point of annoyance by the skittering of dried leaves heaped within the vicinity. On his inquiry about the significance of the noise, his Negrito guide told him "alla-appan" meaning "trap." Umengan then named the place "Allacapan" and the name struck to the present. Amulung, Cagayan Amulung was officially founded on December 15, 1734 by Manuel Romero who was then alcalde mayor of the province. Romero gave an image of "Our Lady of Victory" to the inhabitants of the town, then a barrio of Iguig. It was enshrined in its first church built somewhere in 1746. Predominantly populated by the Ilocanos and Itawes, it is in this municipality where quaint dialects are spoken. Some Spanish precede the Itawes translation so that the same sentence or question is substantially stated or asked twice. An example of which would be: "Desde cuando, kanni labbet nu?". A sample answer: "Ayer, katucabi" ("Yesterday"). Amulung is a mere 25 minute ride to Tuguegarao for it is only 26 kilometers away. Right now it is a fourth class municipality. Aparri, Cagayan This municipality has the coveted title " Cleanest Town in Cagayan." Located at the northernmost part of Cagayan, near Babuyan Channel. One of its 42 barangays, Fuga, is one dot of an island on the Babuyanes. The 42 barangays are distributed on its 26,460 hectare area, most of which are across the temperamental Cagayan River . On May 11, 1680 , Aparri town was officially inaugurated and was granted ecclesiastical recognition having for patron saint, Peter Thelmo. It is the only town which celebrates its town fiesta for 10 to 15 days with daily activities and nightly dancing, a showcase of the fun

loving and frivolous traits of the Ibanags. It is believed that Aparri got its name when the civil and religious authorities in Nueva Segovia (now Lallo) decided in 1604, to erect a church there for the evangelization of the natives. The many priest who celebrated the first mass there remained to supervise the construction of the church and continue their evangelization work subsequently, the natives referred to their place as "Aparrian," an Ybanag word meaning "where priests resided." Noting the fast growth of "Aparrian" in population and its strategic location for a sea port, the Spanish Authorities in Nueva Segovia again decided on May 11, 1682 to separate the delta from Camalaniugan and Buguey and granted it ecclesiastical recognition and at the same time to elevate the community to the status of a "pueblo" or a township, hence, the word "aparte de Camalaniugan y Buguey." It was not long afterward, the word "aparte" was corrupted into "aparri" by the natives. Before the coming of the settlers from the Ilocos Region, Aparri has already a port and galleons were coming from Acapulco , Mexico . Mexican goods were unloaded in Aparri in exchange for native commodities like lumber, tobacco, dried/fresh fish, rice, corn and many others. By the 17th century, the ecclesiastical head in Nueva Segovia (the former capital of the province now called Lallo) lavished Aparri with Papal gifts, an ornate church, considered to be the best in Cagayan, was built. An earthquake, however, destroyed it. During the last World War, the town proper of Aparri was a devastated by bombing done by the liberating Americans who wanted to rid the town of any Japanese squatter. After the war, Aparri was on her feet again. Her people including those who died during the war contributed something for democracy. The Cagayan River and the China Sea fringing her shares, symbol of man's eternal hope and God's fulfilled promise, over spur the Aparrianos to carry on. Baggao, Cagayan A third class municipality with an area of 92,060 hectares. It was once a barangay of Amulung but due to a Royal Degree on November 27, 1896 , it was separated from Amulung. Don Rafael Catolico became its head in 1899 making Baggao automatically a "pueblo." Bounded by the Sierra Madre Mountain and the Pacific Ocean, Baggao also boasts of several scenic spots like the seven Steps at Gimuno, Duba Summer Resort and the hot spring at Intal, to name a few. The inhabitants were from the early Indonesian immigrant to the present-day Ybanag, Kalingas and the migrant Ilocanos who introduced the tobacco crop. As more settlers poured in, a Spanish Missionary was assigned in the person of Fray Pedro Vicandi, O.P. He directed the construction of a chapel atop the hill overlooking the village. The most important products are rice, corn, tobacco, mongo and lumber. The chief occupation of the people is farming. Baggao is the birthplace of Msgr. Teodolfo S. Domingo, D.D. He is the first native bishop of the Tuguegarao Diocese, and was consecrated on July 2, 1957 by Msgr. Egidio Vaquozzi, Papal Nuncio.

Ballesteros, Cagayan A fifth class municipality, it has a 12,000 hectare land. Ballesteros came about when some barangays of Aparri and Abulug were merged to make a new town. Ballesteros was formerly a barrio of Santa Cruz of Abulug. Executive Order No. 79 issued on December 18, 1911 by Governor General William Camoron Forbes sliced the barrios of Santa Cruz, Palloc and Ammubuan from the municipality of Aparri; the barrio of Santa Cruz, Cabuluan and Cabaritan from the municipality of Abulug to form an independent municipality now known as Ballesteros, named after a kind priest, Fr. Gregorio Ballesteros, who spent the better years of his life with the residents. The inhabitants are Ibanags but the Ilocano migrants who intermarried with the natives made Ballestros an Iluko-speaking town. On January 1, 1912 , the new political subdivision was formally inaugurated into a new municipality, taking the barrios of Payagan, Fugu and Mabuttal of the municipality of Aparri . And again on October 15, 1945 , the town acquired additional territory by virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 692 which annexed to Ballesteros the Sitios of Nararagan, Cabayu, Tulang, Silangan, Cabaggawan, Lappiad and Batolin from the newly created municipality of Allacapan . On January 1, 1912 , Ballesteros was inaugurated as a municipality. In 1913, Governor-General Francis Burton Harris issued an executive order further annexing some barangays of Aparri to Ballesteros. To further expand it, sometime in October 1945, from the newly created town of Allacapan were chopped some barangays and annexed to Ballesteros, resulting to 19 barangays being attributed to Ballesteros. Now, the residents are predominantly Ilocano though there are sparingly Itawes still. The Negritoes often go down to conduct business on a barter basis. Buguey, Cagayan Buguey was formerly a part of Camalaniugan. Most of the early inhabitants were the Ybanags. Buguey grew out of these inhabitants and through immigration from neighboring places including the Ilocos towns. Buguey carried the name "Cagayan" for a time and was later changed to "Navugay-IRA" then to " Mission " and lastly "Buguey." According to the accounts of Fray Julian Malumbres, O.P., before Juan Salcedo, there was a battle ensued between the pirates (moros) and the inhabitants with some Spanish soldiers. The pirates relieved the inhabitants of their earthly belongings including the brass bell of the church which is said to be the largest bell in northern Cagayan. The bell was called Sta. Barbara. To enable them to bring it home, they placed five small vintas side by side and fastened them. With all the stolen loot loaded, the pirates shoved off. Barely recovered from their shock, the inhabitants ran to the shore invoking curses on the pirates. Above the din of their angry shouts, the winds howled, the sea thundered and the vintas of the pirates capsized. And with them went down the bell. "Navugay-IRA! Navugay-IRA! (meaning "they capsized!") chorused the inhabitants and the Spanish soldiers who survived the raid. Since their village had no official name, they decided to perpetuate the memory of the bell by calling it "Navugay-IRA." Some time later, they deleted "Na" and "Ira" to spell out "Vugay." Much later, the letter "V" was changed to "B" and the word pronounced "Buguey."

The sea has been a benevolent employer and fishing a lucrative job. Music, as revealed by the adoptness of the people in the use of musical instruments, like the harp, violin and guitar, were commonly found in the home of every Bugueyeno. The principal products are coconut, tobacco, rice, fish and timber, and one of the tourist spot is Bantay Pukis. Calayan, Cagayan This island municipality is said to have derived its name from an Ibanag word "calayaan" which means "full of ginger." Midway between Aparri and Batanes lies Calayan. It is one of the islands dotting the China Sea on the northern coast of Luzon . Built up with white sand and sharp rocks that jut out of the sea. This 29th town of Cagayan consists of four islands located in the Babuyan Channel, namely, Calayan, Camiguin, Dalupiri and Babuyan Claro. The island group was first visited by two Dominican Fathers, Fray Andres Sanchez and Fray Geronimo Morer, in 1916. An answer to their query as to what the island was called, the natives said "calayan," an Ybanag word meaning "where laya (ginger) abounded." Indeed the missionaries' sense of smell was assailed by the pungent aroma of the root crop. The good fathers applied the word "Calayan" to the island group. Father Sanchez and Morer did not stay long in the islands. They were followed by other Dominicans: Fray Francisco Capillas as the first parish priest in 1639 and Fray Martin Real dela Cruz, who later became the first Rector of the University of Sto . Tomas. Both also did not stay long in Calayan, leaving a word of faith among the islanders who had readily embraced the Catholic faith. A more dedicated missionary was assigned as parish priest of Calayan immediately upon his arrival to the Philippines in 1684: Fray Diego Pinero O.P. He stayed in the island laboring with the natives, doing his best to elevate their economic status and at the same time noted in writing the activities and progress of the people in their Christian life. The difficulties of the life of the people was compounded by frequent raids by Muslims from Mindanao and Sulu. However, it was also known that Chinese junks visited them and traded ceramics and cloth for the native products and beautiful sea shells. Up to 1902, the Calayan island remained part of the Batanes group. The last three gobernadorcillos under the Spanish regime were Don Licerio Duerme, 1896; Don Pedro Abad, 1897; and Don Angel Escalante, 1898-1902. From that year, Calayan was under Cagayan, with Don Angel Escalante as town executive. A change for the better came to the people of Calayan on January 10, 1940 when American Forces, brought in by the USS Princetown took formal possession of the islands. The soldiers brought with them medicines, bales of cloth and other goods which they distributed to the islanders. In return the Calayanos presented the Americans ancient Chinese jars, beautiful sea shells and various handcrafted articles. The American occupation soldiers put up schools, with themselves acting as teachers with English as the medium of instruction. They not only taught beginner pupils but also conducted a class teacher training course to adults who had some schoolings before. The Japanese Imperial Forces invaded the Calayan group in December 8, 1941 . According

to some Calayanos, the Japanese soldiers practically despoiled the islands of the improvements achieved during the American regime. However, the American Forces easily subdued the Japanese garrison during the early liberation period in 1944 and brought the Japanese prisoners to concentration camps in Luzon . Although Calayan became more integrated to the provincial government of Cagayan as its 29th municipality, the people were practically left to themselves due to lack of means of transportation. The first group of government officials, led by Governor Jose P. Carag, visited Calayan in 1954. In 1981, Governor Justiniano P. Cortez organized a big Mobile Government in Action Caravan that visited the islands. The Caravan dubbed "Mission of Love" was headed by Sangguniang Panlalawigan Members Atty. Dante L. Acorda and Mrs. Rosario K. Pablo. The caravan includes representative from national bureaus and agencies, provincial chiefs of offices and government and private medical practicioners. They visited the four islands, held dialogues with the people, performed medical/dental consultation and treatments and distributed rice, canned goods, vegetable seed and medicines. The "Mission of Love" was repeated in 1982, led by Governor and Dra. Cortez. Mrs. Cortez offered her services to assist in the medical project. A touching episode happened when a woman septuagenarian to whom the Governor was pointed, approached him, took his hand in hers and said: "Bendisionannaka ti Dios, Apo Governador, 'Tatta ta nakakitaakon iti governador, maragsakanakon a maisina iti daytoy a biag." When the third Caravan visited Calayan, the Calayanos met the group with the same joy and welcome as they did the previous ones. But the people had only few problems to tell, instead they expressed proposed thanks to Governor Cortez and party. Governor Cortez and the other officials in the caravan expressed sense of self-reliance and a greatly mitigated feeling of isolation among the people. Camalaniugan, Cagayan Along the Maharlika Highway , located between the northernmost towns of Luzon which is Aparri and Lallo, is the municipality of Camalaniugan . The town was named after the "malaniug" trees which grew in abundance during the early years. Camalaniugan was founded on Jun 15, 1596 , a rather early date because of its proximity to Nueva Segovia (Lallo). San Jacinto de Polonia was selected as their patron saint. The early settlers were the Ybanags and Ilocanos, both peace-loving citizens. They built their houses along the banks of the Cagayan River . They brought with them their knowledge of farming and skills in making weapons. According to the story related by the elders, among these "happy" settlers was Guiab, a famous strongman and leader of Camalaniugan. He did not like the missionaries. Because of this, he was arrested and later hanged from a malaniug tree by order of Juan Pablo Carreon. For years the people suffered injustice. Between the year 1887-1888, Fray Marcelino Cascos, O.P., built a convent. It was in this convent where Col. Daniel Tirona billeted his men after arresting the missionaries when he occupied the town in 1898. It is in this town where the oldest Christian bell in the Far East is located. It is also the birthplace of Don Vicente Nepomuceno, author of the history book "Historia Nac Cagayan" which is written in Ybanag. Claveria, Cagayan

Claveria lies on the northwestern part of Cagayan. It is 185.3 kilometers from Tuguegarao, the provincial capital, and 613 kilometers from Manila via Ilocos Norte. More than a century ago, some strangers named Feliciano Valdez, Joaquin Nebab, Jacinto Semana, Gaspar Rumbara, Dionicio de Peralta , Leon Agra and many others, most of them from Pasuquin and Vintar, Ilocos Norte, cleared their trail northeastward and drifted to this part of Luzon . Their place was called Kabikungan which means "where the bikungs are." Since most of the people were fishermen, there was a move to transfer the community to the seashore but the Spanish missionaries opposed the move because the stone church which was the center of their faith, would be left behind. The transfer was not effected until the coming of the marauding pirates from the south seas called "tirong" plundered the place, burned some of their dwellings and started the destruction of the church. Strong earthquakes and ravages of time and weather completed the destruction. From then on, Kabikungan continued to be frequently attacked by the tirongs until Governor General Narciso Claveria's campaign against the Moro pirates was diverted to the North after successfully conquering the south seas for which he was conferred the Grand Cross of San Fernando by the Queen of Spain. Residents of Kabikungan petitioned the sympathetic Governor General that the village be made into a town and separated from Pamplona . Pamplona is 40 kilometers east of Kabikungan. General Claveria promised its conversion but was not realized due to his recall to Spain . On June 5, 1865 , Kabikungan became a town, and in recognition of Governor Claveria's unrelentless campaign against the pirates, his unforgetable visit and promise to convert the place into a town, and his humanitarian policies, Kabikungan was christened Claveria. Claveria today is one of the cleanest towns of the Philippines . It has many scenic spots like the famous Lakay-Lakay Lagoon, Mabnang and Kilkiling Falls , and beaches. Lallo, Cagayan Lallo has a rich historical background. During the early part of the 16th century, Lallo was the hub of religious, trade and commercial activities of Northern Luzon . One of the first four cities in the Philippines (others were Manila , 1571; Cebu , 1565; Naga, 1575), Lalloc, old name for Lallo, benefited and enjoyed the gifts from the Papal Throne. Named Nueva Segovia by Juan Pablo Carreon in 1581, the town was the seat of the Diocese on August 15, 1595 following the order of Pope Clement VIII, until it was trasferred to Vigan, Ilocos Sur in 1755, and it was the capital of Cagayan up to 1839 when the provincial government was moved to Tuguegarao. Very famous among the missionaries at that time was Bishop Miguel de Benavides, O.P., the first bishop elected to the Diocesan home of Nueva Segovia. He later founded the University of Santo Tomas . In those years, Lallo had three parishes. The parish of the Cathedral was served by the Seculars up to 1786. This was located in the "Centro" where the present Santo Domingo church now stands. The parish of Bagumbayan was entrusted to the Dominicans by Bishop Diego de Soria in 1613. The third, the parish of Tucalana, also under the Dominicans, was located in the present site of the "Compania Tabacalera," the ruins of which were used by the said company as foundations for their buildings and warehouses. The Tabacalera (Compaa General de Tabacos Filipinas) which was founded in 1881, played a vital role in the economy of the town. This firm had developed the Philippine Tobacco and stabilized the Philippine economy.

During the last World War, Lallo was made the central office of the "Gunmai" (Naric) which was controlled by the Imperial Army of Japan. The big warehouse and buildings of the Compaa Tabacalera were used by the said Japanese-controlled corporation as offices, bodegas and arsenals. These were all destroyed when the Unites States Air Force bombed the town on January 6, 1945 . After the war, her inhabitants worked hard to make their historical town retain the lustre and prestige it enjoyed during the Spanish regime. Lallo has been known also as the only town in Cagayan where clams (cabibi) abound. This is one of the source of income to many of its town people. Some of the historical and interesting spots which is still existing today is the "cotta," a kind of fortress similar to the walls of Intramuros. Iguig, Cagayan The Spanish encomienderos came to Iguig were well impressed by the friendliness displayed by the natives of the place and their willingness to embrace Christianity. In honor of the towns chieftain who was popularly called "Ig", the Spanish authorities named it Iguig. Fray Ambrocio dela Madre de Dios, O.P. and Fray Juan Layba, O.P. spearheaded the groundbreaking ceremony in the construction of the first parish church in the area. The first three churches built were washed away by great floods. And finally the fourth was built on a high hill where it is now with San Tiago as patron saint. The Ilokanos begin to settle in Iguig in the early part of the year 1608. A cholera epidemic in 1898 decimated the population and a conflagration reduced to ashes almost all the houses in the town. During the outbreak of the second World War, the people fled to the hills. The municipal officials who refused to serve the Japanese government went to Tuao where the Resistance Government of Governor Marcelo Adduru was functioning. After the wartime, the evacuees returned to their homes and started a new life. The struggle to rehabilitate was eased by war damage payments. Today, Iguig, though only a small town, is conspicous to commuters along the Maharlika Highway with its great land markers: the Iguig historic centuries-old parish church on the hill and the popular tourist attraction, the Iguig Calvary in which the 14 Stations of the Cross are depicted in life-size concrete monuments; the mildew-coated Rectory well constructed in 1768 which was then the only source of drinking water and the brick stairway to the west of the church. This stairway was used for visiting Spanish dignitaries who travelled aboard barangays (banca) which plied up and down the river. Gonzaga, Cagayan Lying on the northern coast of Cagayan is the town of Gonzaga . Wangag, the former name of the place was changed to Gonzaga in honor of Don Gracio Gonzaga, the first Governor of Cagayan. The early inhabitants of Gonzaga were the Negritos and the Ilokano settlers. With the coming of the missionaries, more settlers were attracted and Wangag grew. With this, another settlers was founded by the missionaries and they called "Gampao" (meaning mountainous). Wangag was given ecclesiastical recognition on February 23, 1769 with

Nuestra Seora del Pilar as its patroness. The two settlements were then fused and it was called "Rumag-ay" (meaning progressive). Francisco Torres, one of the distinguished leaders of the town, submitted a petition to the effect that Gonzaga be made an official town. The government refused to recognize their plea on account of the town's few taxpayers. As a solution, Torres convinced the Negrito laborers in his lumberyard to pay their annual "cedulas" and it was only then that Gonzaga was finally established as a regular municipality in 1918. Apart from fishing and farming as major sources of the towns income, forest products have also been contributing to its annual revenues. Gonzaga is an ideal place for fun-seekers. The wide caves in Cabanbanan Norte, the hot spring in Baua and the beautiful crater of Mt. Cagua . Cool, shady, running brooks at Mission and Pateng are inviting grounds for swimming and picnicking. Enrile, Cagayan Enrile, originally known as Cabug, was once a barrio of Tuguegarao. In September, 1849, it was established as a separate town and named in honor of Governor General Pascual Enrile, who was responsible for the construction of roads in Northern Luzon . Also on this day, the Dominicans gave Enrile her first priest in the person of Fray Concha. He was supposed to build Enrile a church but it turned out to be Fray Pedro Alcantara, O.P. who started the construction. However, the sporadic activities of the nucleus of the Revolution hampered its completion. It was only late in 1877 when Fray Francisco Bueno, O.P. and Atty. Vicente Guzman completed the church. When the Revolution broke out in 1898, priests, nuns and Spanish gentlemen from different parts of the province attempted to elude captivity in Enrile. For months they covered in the safe chambers of the church. Although in the end they were all captured but spared from harm by Don Vicente Guzman who had become a respected nationalist. General Emilio Aguinaldo was in Enrile when he retreated from the American Forces. He was later captured by the Americans in Palanan, Isabela. (General Aguinaldo revisited Enrile on May 8, 1940 ). During World War II, Enrile was again a place of refuge. The military government was organized from March 5 to June 30, 1945 by Agustin Palattao who was appointed Mayor. Liberation time, the town people began to rise and face the future. The people have banded themselves as one to achieve a common aspiration, the education of the children to produce a professional in every home. The development of its human resource potentials seems to have occupied the top priority in their effort to uplift living condition. Gattaran, Cagayan In the place where Gattaran lies today were three former ecclesiastical towns: Nassiping, Dummun, and Gattaran proper. Nassiping is the oldest among the three, founded on June 15, 1596 with Santa Catalina as the patron saint; Dummun was founded on May 24, 1598 and Gattaran, May 20, 1623. Since each of these towns had few inhabitants and had only one priest to administer to their religious needs, they were merged for ecclesiastical convenience into one municipality in 1877 by virtue of a Diocesan Order from the Bishop of Nueva Segovia (Lallo). Fray Francisco Suejos, O.P. was the first Gobernadorcillo. During the Spanish regime, the natives grew spiritually; but with the Americans, they grew educationally and the inhabitants assimilated a more sophisticated lifestyle. Under the Commonwealth Government, the first Municipal Mayor was Melencio Adviento, who begun

the construction of the present municipal building. The building was finished during the term of the next mayor, Atty. Hipolito Mandac. The municipal building was inaugurated in September, 1941. Four months after its inauguration, World War II broke out, the Japanese Forces occupied the town and all records, cadastral titles and others were confiscated by the invading forces. With the coming of the Americans, the whole province was liberated from the Japanese forces. The first election of the Republic in 1947 made Delfino Liban the mayor. The administration marked the building of roads in the barrios, improvements of streets and others. Gattaran also boasts of historic spots which makes it a tourist landmark, like the Maduppaper Caves , the Mapaso Hot Spring and the Tanlagan Falls whose warm and cold waters meet and flow together on one bed to become the Dummun River . Another pride of Gattaran is Bolos Point, a wildlife sanctuary. Lasam, Cagayan Lasam was once a part of Gattaran, but as the population increased, the residents of the western part of the town asked that it be created a separate municipality. In 1950, Lasam was created as a municipality by virtue of Republic Act No. 507 signed by then President Elpidio Quirino. It was named after the late Cagayan Governor Honorio Lasam. It was officially inaugurated as a town separate from Gattaran in January 1951. Ignacio Jurado was appointed as the first mayor and his first major task was to build Lasam as a new town separate from the mother municipality of Gattaran . Lasam is primarily an agricultural community and its people derive their income mainly from farming and livestock raising. Piat, Cagayan Piat is known throughout the Philippines because of its Lady of Piat (Nuestra Seora de Visitacion). Pilgrims and land tourists from all walks of life pay homage in her shrine in Piat. In the "Historia de Nuestra Seora de Piat", Father J. Malumbres tells us that the image of our Lady of Piat was brought from Macao , a colony of Portugal in China. The year 1600 saw the massacre of Spanish settlers who made the mistake of abusing the impartial friendship offered them by the Kalingas and Negritos. This incident made the Spaniards realize the danger of coming back to live in Piat. It was only in 1604 that an intrepid missionary succeeded in pacifying the belligerent Piateos. With these, the Spaniards returned to the town. The only resentment of the natives after the said incident was when the authorities compelled them to wear hats, shoes and formal dresses during holidays. The Spaniards had left when the Americans came led by Captain William Hawkins. Except for the almacinero (warehouseman) and two Spanish priests. Hawkins and his men were proffered a cordial welcome by Gobernadorcillo Vicente Oate. They occupied Piat for a year only, after which Hawkins married Seorita Esperanza Gannaban. Historical landmarks in Piat are the following; brick watchtower (for fear of invaders a sentinel used to stay on guard there), concrete bridge bordering the Centro and Maguilling was constructed in 1911, the "Gabaldon" school building was built in 1922, and many others.

Pamplona, Cagayan Pamplona is the result of the fusion of two villages; Abulacan (now barrio San Juan ) and Masi. Abulacan was founded by the ecclesiastical authorities on April 30, 1757 with San Juan Nepomuceno as the patron saint. Sometime in 1842, Vicar Pedro Montenegro, O.P. convinced the people to unite the two towns. The vicar named it " Pamplona " in memory of his hometown Pamplona in Spain . After the fusion, an agreement was made that there would be two patron saints of Pamplona : San Juan Nepomuceno and San Pedro de Martir. This is the reason why the town fiesta is celebrated for two days and the images of the two patron saints are carried during religious processions. The town fiesta is celebrated every April 29. In 1919, some of the prominent people of Pamplona recommended the transfer of the same to Bidduang, a barrio of Pamplona . The transfer was made on November 16, 1919 , during the administration of municipal president Esteban Meneses by order of General Wood. In 1928, on the sixth year of the administration of municipal president Paulino Ifurung , one of his last acts was the transfer of the municipal government back to its old site, Pamplona , by then called " Albano ." Most interesting spot is the mouth of the Pamplona River . It saw history in the making for it was the starting point of Salcedo and his conquistadores when they explored Cagayan in 1572. Because of the river's strong current and unpredictable floods, Mayor Nicolas B. Aquino built in 1955 a steel level and an irrigation system. It was the first of its kind in Cagayan. The town is also noted for its Malagabavi Cave . It is located at the foot of a mountain virtually shaped like a pig. Legend has it that this cave was used by a giant as an entrance to his abode. It is said that he was a normal being like a human until his tranformation to a giant by a goddess who fell in love with him. Peablanca, Cagayan Peablanca has for its eastern boudary a long stretch of the Pacific Ocean , on its southern edge is the Pacific Ocean to Namabbalan, Tuguegarao; from the point, its western perimeter touches the eastern side of Tuguegarao, Iguig and Amulung up to the southern boundary of Baggao. In the mid 18th century, the Spanish authorities made this town a part of Tuguegarao and it was named "Barrio de Bubug" because of the abundance of "dapdap" trees known as "bubug" in the Ybanag dialect. Peablanca was then considered by the Spanish friars as a hunter's paradise. Its forest were excellent hunting ground, where deer, wild pigs and wild birds of various kinds abounded. The first settlers were a group of hunters composed mostly of Ybanags from Tuguegarao. These settlers adopted the kaingin method of farming and they occupied the central part of the town now known as the Poblacion. At the later part of the 18th century, a Spanish friar was assigned to propagate Christianity in the town and suggested that this be named "Peablanca" because of its white rocks. Peablanca was finally made into a town on November 21, 1896 by virtue of a Royal Decree by the King of Spain. The town is blessed with natural resources rich forest, abundant marine life in its lakes and rivers and vast fertile agricultural lands. Peablanca accelerated growth and development may be attributed to its being the site of

the Callao Caves Resort and Park which is the premier tourist spot in the region. The cave has seven chambers and its chamber is 100 meters long, 50 meters wide and 36 meters high. Governor General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. visited the cave in 1932. The cave is also a rich source of guano, a fertilizer useful to farmers. Considered as its prime agricultural products are rice, corn, mongo and peanuts. Poultry and swine projects in the locality are fast progressing too. Rizal, Cagayan Rizal is Cagayan's epic town where Ybanag legendary figures Biuag and Malana, were said to have fought their epic battle for supremacy over the hands of a beautiful "maginganay" by hurling each other volleys of uprooted trees and live cattle. Know as Malaueg, its name dates back in the early 1600s when Spanish conquistadores exploring the Itawes found themselves on a plateau. Feeling very thirsty, they drank the water from a brook which their nature guide called "ueg." One of the Spaniards became ill after drinking and called the brook "malo ueg" (meaning bad or evil river). A couple of years later, the leader of the people inhabiting the community where the "malo ueg" was, heard of the new benevolent faith being embraced by the people in nearby communities. This leader, Untal Pagulayan, travelled to Nueva Segovia and requested the authorities there to send religious persons to his place. The Father Provincial, Fray Miguel de San Jacinto , O.P., sent Father Mola with Untal Pagulayan back to his place. Father Mola met some of the Spanish soldiers who told him of the "ueg" incident. Forthwith, the missionary called the community "Malo Ueg." It did not take long before the area became popularly known as Malaueg. On April 26, 1608 , the Dominicans accepted the ecclesiastical administration of the town. This is recorded as the official founding of Malaueg. Father Pedro de Santo Tomas baptized Untal with the name Luis Pagulayan and his sister as Luisa Ballinan. Luis and Luisa worked devotedly for the welfare of their people, so much so that the death of Luis in 1620 was greatly lamented. Luisa continued the good work. When a strong earthquake leveled the church to the ground in 1628, Doa Luisa Ballinan rallied the people to pool their resources and furnish the labor for the restoration of their house of worship. At that time, the Indios of Zimbuey, a village not far from Malaueg rebelled and killed their encomiendero, Luis Enriquez, because of his ill treatment to them. Fearing for their lives, the Spanish missionaries left for Nueva Segovia. Missing the kind administrations of the priests, the leaders of the revolt persuaded Doa Luisa to lend them to Nueva Segovia to beg forgiveness and to beg that the priests return to their communities. The authoriites granted their request. Soon, a civil government was established in Malaueg with Martin Cauilan as the first municipal president. Through a resolution passed by the municipal council of 1914, under Municipal President Paverisno Palmea, the name of the town was changed to Rizal. Rizal now is an Iluko-Itawes 6th class municipality with 13 barangays and a land area of 12,440 hectares. It is an agricultural, rural municipality having the strongest native tobacco ever. Sanchez Mira, Cagayan

The jungle clearing which grew to become what is now Sanchez Mira was then a hunting ground called Malolokit of the Kalinga. They were a nomadic tribe from the nearby subprovince of Apayao . When the Spanish friars came, it became barrio Malolokit of Pamplona. Because it was located at the tip of the productive elevated region and near the sea, settlers from Paoay, Ilocos Norte came by sailboat in 1883 to farm, hunt and fish. They were the Negro, Mackay, Cacatian, Marzan and Paclibon families. ther immigrants followed after hearing of the easy life the settlers enjoyed. The present day inhabitants are also a conglomeration of natives, so with their occupation, distinct characteristics and outlook towards life. What makes them a bit different is their outward hospitality. Guests are usually treated to bannawag (arac or nipa wine), kilawen, roasted chicken or barbequed fish. The official founding of Sanchez Mira was on August 20, 1894 , a day after the fiesta of Malolokit. The town was named in honor of Manuel Sanchez Mira, a Spanish Brigadier General assigned in the Cagayan Valley , upon strong recommendation of Hilario Pulido and Fray Santiago Jugla. Actually, Malolokit was declared a town by virtue of a Royal Decree on September 14, 1894 . For his public spirit, Hilario Pulido was appointed gobernadorcillo. In 1895, Pulido was succeeded by Mariano Arjonillo whose administration was characterized by unrest because of the Philippine Revolution against Spain . Captain Catalino Pulido took over the reigns of the town government sometime in 1898. Among his achievements was the maintenance of peace and order because the people were still cold and unresponsive to the policies introduced by the Americans. Though not as scenic as in other parts of the country, Sanchez Mira has its lures also. The ruins of "Nagtutulagan" or "Nagsisiiman" atop the promontory in Pata. It was also in Pata where the seven first baptized natives were born. With a land area of 19,880 hectares and 18 barangays, coconut trees are abundant in this town. Solana, Cagayan Once a part of Tuguegarao, Solana was established as a municipality and named after Governor General Antonio Urbiztondo Marquez dela Solana on August 18, 1851 . Augmenting its first Ybanag inhabitants were immigrants from Pangasinan, Ilocos and few Tagalog provinces. The many prudent elders who served as foundation were Seores Ligot, Juan Bayone, Jose Balauitan, Mariano Lasam, Vicente Maddela, Cayetano Miguel, Felipe Lorenzo, Antonio de Asis and Tomas Pagulayan. Men like Cayetano, Miguel and Felipe Lorenzo were among the worthy Ilocano traders. While the town was progressing, Alonzo Ligot followed the footsteps of these two men. Together with Castillo, Romero, Santo Tomas, Alcantara, Marzan and Singson, they headed their own group of new Solana citizens. Those coming from Pangasinan were enticed by Pio Guaring, while those from Capiz were headed by Lacerna. Those from Tuguegarao were lured by Vicente Carag and Gabriel Lasam. With the combined pioneering drive of these local leaders and those of the conquestadores, the new town saw much progress. During the Japanese occupation, the government of Tuguegarao evacuated to barrio

Natappian. President Carlos P. Garcia inaugurated the new municipal hall in Solana on January 18, 1959 . Solana has vast fertile agricultural lands and can look forward to the near future as the "Rice Granary of Cagayan." Sta. Ana, Cagayan Situated at the northeastern tip of the province bordering its eastern shore is the Pacific Ocean and its northwestern shoreline touching the China Sea . Formerly barrio Palawig of Gonzaga, the town was created by an Executive Order No. 289 of then President Elpidio Quirino, dated October 21, 1949 . The town was not named after any saint but the word "ANA" came from the first letter of the family names of then three provincial officials, namely: the late Governor Nicasio Arranz, for the first letter "A", the late Federico Navarro, for letter "N" and Roberto Avena for the last letter "A", both members of the provincial board. The first inhabitants were the Negritos and "hatcheros" (woodcutters) under Don Julian Astigarraga of Aparri. Then, some fishermen from Minanga, a barrio of Gonzaga came and resided in Palawig. In 1891 Felipe Aragpao with some settlers organized a "gimong" (society) called "Inanama." The purpose of the organization was to acquire and occupy lands around the place. That same year, Briccio Campaano of Lapog, Ilocos Sur, together with some others for Ilocos came to Palawig to apply for homesteads in the sitio of Marede. These settlers organized another "gimong" called "Dagupan." In 1935, the gimongs "Inanama and Dagupan" fused into one called "Da Inanama," headed by Navarro, they began to work for the separation of Palawig as a municipality independent from Gonzaga. Their application was held in obeyance because their population did not meet the needed number required by law. The move was suspended in 1941 and unluckily, the war broke out and the move was not carried out. It was in 1949 that Palawig and its barrios were separated from Gonzaga. Some of its agricultural and aquatic products are rice, corn, peanut, fish, lumber, shells, etc. Among its natural resources are limestone deposits at Bawac Mountain , coal at Carbon Mountain at Sta. Clara and guano deposit at Kapannikian Cave . Scenic spots/historical landmarks are Cape Engao Lighthouse Verde point, white beaches and waterfalls.

Sta. Praxedes, Cagayan Formerly Langgangan, Sta. Praxedes can claim an exclusive situation which no other town in Cagayan was ever in. In 1917, Langgangan was plucked from Mountain Province to become part of Cagayan but because of boundary dispute it was decided that it had to go to the more aggressive Ilocos Norte. Finally in 1922, by an executive order, it was decided that it really belongs to Cagayan. It was inhabited by Itnegs and Apayaos only to be overwhelmed by Ilocano migrants who now make this 11,000 hectares town their home.

Fishing is the main livelihood of the people which includes area weed gathering that results to having the dried seaweed "gamet" for a delicacy. Natural resources like oil, gold and forest products are likewise abound. 202 kilometers away from Tuguegarao and much nearer to Ilocos Norte having for a neighbor the famous town of Pagudpod. It has 18 barangays and is presently a 6th class municipality. Sta. Teresita, Cagayan Youngest town of Cagayan , it was born in 1963. Originally the biggest barangay of Buguey, it is 113.7 kilometers away from Tuguegarao. A 6th class municipality and with 19 barangays, Sta. Teresita is dependent on its riceland, gold, oil and manganese resources, although the Iluko-speaking residents augment their income by engaging in native crafts. The name Teresita comes from former Governor Teresa Dupaya, wife of former Congressman Tito Dupaya, who passed the bill for its creation. Sto. Nio, Cagayan It was said that this community grew around the place where a native chieftain and the leader of a team of Spanish soldiers from Nueva Segovia met and struck friendship by exchanging gifts--the latter reciprocating with a box of "imitation jewelry." The community was first known as Tabang, later changed to "Cabarungan" and still later to Sto. Nio. Then, by virtue of Executive Order No. 2390, dated February 23, 1914 , issued in response to the petition of the residents, Sto. Nio was changed to Faire. The village of Tabang grew in population and a certain level of socio-economic importance. The natives took to dressing like the Europeans and through the zealous efforts of the missionaries, embraced the new Catholic faith. As a reward, the Spanish authorities in Nueva Segovia caused the construction of a church in Tabang in 1731. Years later, a barangay of people from Dingras, Ilocos Norte, settled in Tabang. One of the Ilocano immigrants was Manuel Faire who was the first resident in the town of Cordoba to which Tabang belonged then. There he met and married Felicitas, the beautiful sister of Capitan Ubaldo Pagulayan. Through hard work and thrift, and with his marriage to the family of a landholder, Manuel Faire became an influential community leader himself. Because he demonstrated his concern for the welfare and well being of the people, both Ilocanos and natives, he won their affection and respect. The people built a big house for him and his beautiful wife. Through his examples, and with the farm technology brought in by his fellow Ilocano immigrants, the people raised good crops of corn, rice, coconut and tobacco. It is said that he was one of the signatories to the founding of Sto. Nio on November 27, 1897 . The grateful people perpetuated his memory by petitioning the authorities concerned for the renaming of their town from Sto. Nio to Faire, approved on February 28, 1914 . In the 1960s, the town of Faire was marked prominently on the map of Cagayan when the STANVAC invested some $3 million in oil exploration there. Although drilling was abandoned, the venture catalyzed economic activity in the municipality.

Tuao, Cagayan When the early Spanish missionaries were busy laying the foundation of a church late in the 1500s at a site about six kilometers from the present town of Tuao, a big bird came circling over them and then alighted on the wooden cross erected to mark the place where the corner stone was laid. It flapped its wings noisily, cried "battuao, battuao, battuao" and then flew away. The native laborers in the construction stopped working and refused to continue telling the priests that the site had not been well chosen. They insisted that a party should find out where the bird had flown to. To humor the pagan natives, one of the priests allowed himself to be led by a party of natives to look for the mysterious bird. To his surprise, they found the bird serenely perched on top of a tall tree on the edge of a wide clearing ideal for a town site. He sent one of the natives to call for the other priests, who, on their arrival, found the place much to their liking. And so the first church of Tuao was constructed on the site where the present edifice now stands. When the civil authorities founded the town in 1604, the natives insisted that it be called Tuao. Eight years later on May 13, 1612 , Tuao was accepted ecclesiastically. Father Miguel de San Jacinto , O.P. gave the town Santos Angeles Custudios (Holy Guardian Angels) as its patron saints. The early missionaries in Tuao were zealous evangelists and tactful pacifiers of warlike natives. One of them was Father Francisco Capillas who later became the first martyr in China . The first parish priest, Father Juan B. Cano, O.P. worked patiently with the people. A late comer, Father Gabriel Serrano, O.P. built a strong brick and mortar church, a rectory (convento) and a fort (cotta) in which the Spaniards and the natives sought refuge every time the town was raided by the Kalingas from the Caraballo ranges. Unfortunately, these priceless monuments to the politicalization and evangelization of Tuao by the Spaniards were destroyed by a strong earthquake on December 29, 1949 . In protest of abuses committed by some Spanish civil petty officials and soldiers, the inhabitants of Tuao and neighboring Malaueg, rose in revolt in 1781 under Magtangaga and Tomas Sinaguingan. The uprising was put down by Capitan Juan Pablo de Orduna. Tuao became famous nationwide during World War II as the seat of the successful renaissance government of Governor Marcelo Adduru. The Japanese Forces garrisoned the town when Adduru was captured late in 1943, but Adduru returned shortly after having been freed by his guerrilla soldiers early in 1944 and with his contact with Blackburn , staged from Tuao stronger guerrilla actions against the Japanese in Tuguegarao. After the war, the inhabitants work in silent diligence. Most of them used their brawn to make living, they are independent from outside help and are friendly people. Tuguegarao City (CAPITAL) Once the only first class municipality in the province, Tuguegarao is now a component city, its conversion affirmed in a plebiscite held on December 18, 1999 . Though not a big municipality in terms of area, with just 14,480 hectares in its name,

Tuguegarao boasts of a very high rate of socio-economic development. The word "tuguegarao" was developed from either of the following: "garao" (swift river current), "taraw" (a specie of palm tree whose trunk is used for many things) and "tuggui gari yao " (this was cleared by fire). The last seems plausible if interpreted to mean that the areas pointed to by the natives to the first Spaniards was a "kaingin." The written history of Tuguegarao begins with its founding as a "mission-pueblo" on May 9, 1604 , with Fray Tomas Villa, O.P. as first vicar. He initiated the construction of a temporary church with Saint Peter and Saint Paul as patron saints. It was in 1724 when the San Jacinto Chapel, the first structure to be made of brick and mortar, was constructed by the Dominicans. Then Father Antonio Lobato, O.P. laid out and developed the straight, east-west/south-north oriented streets of Tuguegarao. And in 1761, Father Lobato started the construction of the Saint Peter's Cathedral which was finished in 1768. Father Geronimo de Zamora, O.P. was at one time parish priest of Tuguegarao. He later became Rector of the University of Santo Tomas and first president of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran. The most important act the Spanish authorities made was the transfer of the provincial capital in 1839 from Lallo to Tuguegarao, in recognition of this town socio- economic progress catalyzed by the opening of the Cagayan-Manila road in November, 1738 by Fray Jose Martin. With the provincial government came the Spanish civil and religious officials, more soldiers and the Guardia Civil. The Spanish Governors were: Don Rafael Martinez, 1886; Don Ignacio Chacon, 1890; Don Enrique Altamirano, 1894 and 1898; Don Antonio Marquez, 1895; and Don Demetrio Caminas, 1896. During this formative period of Tuguegarao, the trend in its development was on education. In 1896, Don Vicente Nepomuceno (the man who wrote the history of Cagayan in Ybanag dialect) venture to open a school in the later part of that year. Don Ricardo Tuyuan and Don Vicente Pagalilauan were the first instructors. Spanish grammar, Latin, Greek, geography and mathematics were the subjects taught. In 1907, the Dominicans opened another, the Colegio Sagrado Corazon de Jesus, exclusively for children, it was run by the French Religious Sisters of Saint Paul of Chartres. Another school, this time for the public, was built during the term of municipal president Esteban Quinto. After further investment on educational institutions, the far-sighted Cagayanos reverted their interest to Fourth Estate. The following publications were considered reputable: El Porvenir, Don Pablo Salo's Noticiero, Don Honorio Lasam's El Voz del Pueblo or La Verdad (also published in Aparri), and Don Nicanor's Sinceridad. The United States entered the Philippine picture when President Mc Kinley passed the initiative to the U.S. Congress on April 11, 1898 . At this time, General Emilio Aguinaldo who had been living in exile in Hong Kong returned to the Philippines and led a patriotic declaration of independence from Spain . The First Philippine Republic, with Aguinaldo as President, became operative in January 1899. But almost immediate, trouble started between the United States troops and Filipinos who had grown weary of foreign colonizers. Unites States troops led by Bachelor occupied Tuguegarao on December 12, 1899 and billeted themselves at the San Jacinto College . Colonel Hood, by wire from Washington , was appointed military governor of Cagayan, dispatched soldiers to augment Bachelor's

force. In 1902, the Filipinos were finally convinced by American assurance of Filipino selfgovernment through peaceful means. Simultaneously, improvements in Tuguegarao were realized. The first Provincial Capitol was built during the administration of Governor Pablo Guzman. It was completed in 1909 by Governor Antonio Carag. The town hall was built during the administration of Don Antonio Soriano. The public market was built during the incumbency of Don Honorio Lasam. The municipal board, during the administration of Governor Gracio Gonzaga, purchased the residence of George Weber, to house the provincial high school. The Cagayan Trade School was founded by Claude Andrews, an American educator. Governor Fermin Macanaya constructed the Cagayan High School building in 1922, completed by Governor Proceso Sebastian in 1923. The peaceful life given by the Americans to the people of Tuguegarao and all Filipinos turned into chaos when Japanese forces in a simultaneous attack on the United States and the Philippines , landed in Luzon in December 8, 1944 (Immaculate Conception Day). Tuguegarao was bombed on this day. Governor Marcelo Adduru transferred the provincial government to Tuao on December 10, 1944 . The Japanese Imperial Army occupied Tuguegarao on December 12. The people evacuated the town, but returned, late in 1942 and early 1943, the Japanese occupation command appointed Nicanor Carag as Governor and Domingo Gosiengfiao as Municipal Mayor. The Kempetai (Japanese military police) instituted judgment without the benefit of any trial. Potential spies were tortured to death. United States Air Force planes began bombing Tuguegarao in December 1944 and relentlessly continued the air raids, reducing the town to complete rubble, including the Cathedral. Early in June 1945, Filipino Guerillas entered Tuguegarao and found the Japanese had gone. Tuguegarao was officially liberated in June 25, 1945 . President Sergio Osmea, Jr. appointed Governor Marcelo Adduru as Secretary of Labor in his cabinet, and appointed Baldomero Perez as provincial governor. After Independence , President Manuel Roxas appointed Engineer Peregrino Quinto as governor of Cagayan in the 1947 elections, Attorney Nicasio Arranz was elected governor and Dr. Venancio del Rosario, Sr. as mayor of Tuguegarao. Worthy to mention was the holding of the Philippine Interscholastic Athletic Meet on April 9, 1949 , here in Tuguegarao, which was officially opened by no less than President Elpidio Quirino. The Provincial Capitol at Alimannao was constructed under the administration of Governor Nicasio Arranz and the provincial offices transferred to the new building in 1954 at the beginning of the administration of Governor Jose P. Carag. Tuguegarao has been serving as the Provincial Capital of Cagayan since 1893 because of the notable socio-economic progress of the town. In 1975, having adequate facilities and amenities aside from being the region's geographic center and having capabilities of serving as the administrative seat of government for the Region, Tuguegarao was declared the regional Capital of Region 02.

The Ybanag literature, like other literature is the expression of cagayanos joys and sorrow, hopes and fears, love and hatred, the ingredients that whipped up all literary genre handed down to us. The Ybanags, like other groups of people, meet life in all its naked conflicts: man versus man, man versus environment, man versus himself, man versus his conscience and man versus his God.