CONTENTS

Preface

.............................. .......... ..... .

xii xiv· xvi

How to Use This Book Study Guide Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PART I: INTRODUCTION
FORMAT OF RECENT TOEFL GENERAL DESCRIPTION........ EXAMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....................•.•. ......... •..

3 4 8
12

QUESTIONS COMMONLY AsKED ABOUT THE TOEFL TAKING THE TOEFL:

A SUCCESSFUL OVERALL ApPROACH

PART II: ANALYSIS OF EXAM AREAS Ability Tested • Basic Skills Necessary Directions • Suggested Approach with Samples
SECTION 1: LISTENING COMPREHENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Part A................... Part B Part C A Patterned Plan of Attack
SECTION 2: STRUcruRE

...............

17 17 18 21 24 25 25 27 28 29 35

AND WRIITEN EXPRESSION. . . . . . . . . .

Part A............................................. Part B A Patterned Plan of Attack .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTION 3: READING COMPREHENSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Patterned

Plan of Attack

...................

iii

iv

CONTENTS

PART III: SUBJECT AREA REVIEWS with . Exercises and Mini-Tests
GRAMMAR REVIEW ......................•.............

1. Rules..........................................
2. Method of Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Normal Sentence Pattern in English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subject '" Verb....... .. Complement. . .... ... . .. .. .. ... .. ... . . .. .. .. .. .. Modifier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. The Noun Phrase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Count and Non-Count Nouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A andAn

The Other...........................................

'" .,.

39 39 39 39 40 41 42 42 44 44 47 48

52
54 54 55 57 57 59 59 61 62 62 64 65 67 68 68 71 71

5. The Verb Phrase , , , .. . . . .. Tenses and Aspects :........... ............ Common Irregular Verbs in English ......... Simple Present Tense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Present Progressive (Continuous) Simple Past Tense Past Progressive (Continuous) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Present Perfect ,........

For/Since , , , , . . . . .. . .. . . Yet/Already ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous). . . . . . . . . . . . Past Perfect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Subject-Verb Agreement. '" , .. , Subject Separated from the Verb .. , , . . . . .. Words That Always Take Singular Verbs and Pronouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

None/No....................................... Either/Neither , .. " ' .. " .,

' '" . .

72
74 74 75 76 76

Gerunds as Subjects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collective Nouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A Number Of/ The Number Of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nouns That Are Always Plural. ....................

ThereIsl'Ihere Are

'

".

CONTENTS

V

7: Pronouns ·...................... Subject Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complement Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possessive Adjectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possessive Pronouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflexive Pronouns :............... 8. Verbs as Complements Verbs That Are Always Followed by the lnfinitive. . . . . Verbs That Are Always Followed by the Gerund. . . . . . Verbs + Prepositions Followed by the Gerund Adjectives + Prepositions Followed by the Gerund. . . . Nouns + Prepositions Followed by the Gerund. . . . . . . Adjectives Followed by the lnfinitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pronouns Before the Gerund or Infinitive. . . . . . . . . . . . 9. The Verb Need. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In Need Of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Questions....................................... Yes INo Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Embedded Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tag Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Affirmative Agreement (Too/So).... .. 12. Negative Agreement (EitherfNeither) 13. Negation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Some /Any Hardly, Barely, Rarely, Seldom, etc , 14. COmmands...................................... Negative Commands , " . . . .. . . Indirect Commands , , Negative lndirect Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Mini-Test 1: Grammar Items 3 Through 14 . .... . . . . . . . .. 15. Modal Auxiliaries ..... , . . ... . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. Negation of Modals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Questions with Modals , Will. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Conditional Sentences , , Real Conditions (Possibly True) , . .. . Unreal Conditions (Not True) . As If/As Though HopefWish....

78 78 79 80 81 81 83 83 84 85 86 87 87 89 90 91 92 92 93 94 96 98 100 102 102 103 103 104 104 104 105 112 112 113 113 114 116 117 119 120

vi

CONTENTS

Would : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Used To Would Rather , , ., " .. '" . .. . . Would Like. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Could /May /Might. . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. Should , .. .. . . .. . . . . .. . . Must Have To
Modals

Could/May/Might + Perfective , .. , " Should + Perfective. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Must + Perfective. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
16. Adjectives and Adverbs .; . . . .. . .. ... . . . .. .. .... ... Adjectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Adverbs. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . .. Adjectives with Linking (Copulative) Verbs. .. .. . .. .. 17. Comparisons.................................... Equal Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Unequal Comparisons ". Illogical Comparisons ' , Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives. . . . . . . . . . .. Multiple Number Comparatives , .. .. .. Double Comparatives '"

+ Perfective

,

" . .. . ..

No Sooner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Positives, Comparatives, and Superlatives " . . .. . .. 18. Nouns Functioning as Adjectives " 19. Enough with Adjectives, Adverbs, and Nouns. . . . . . . .. 20. Cause Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Because/Because Of

"

Purpose and Result (So That) " Cause and Effect (So, Such) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Mini-Test 2: Grammar Items 15 Through 20.. . .. . . .. . ... 21. Passive Voice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22. Causative Verbs , .. , ,

Have/Get. Make............ Let............. Help...........

. .. .. ..

123 123 125 128 128 129 130 130 131 131 i31 132 134 134 134 136 138 138 140 142 144 145 146 146 147 150 152 153 153 155 156 160 167 170 171 172 173 173

CONTENTS

vii 174 174 176 177

23. Relative Clauses The Relative Pronoun.

: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Clauses "

Who/Whom......................
Restrictive and Nonrestrictive

Whose
Relative Clause Reduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24. That-Other Uses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Optional That. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Obligatory That. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. That Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25. Subjunctive " 26. Inclusives....................................... Optional

178
180 181 181 182 182183 185 185 186 187 188 189 189 190 191 192 192 193 193 194 194 195 196 204 204 204 207 209 211 212 216 219 221

Not Only ... But Also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. As WellAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Both And , " 27. Know jKnow How
28. Clauses of Concession.

Despite/In Spite Of Although/Even Though/Though..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

"

, . . . . . . ..

. .. . .. .. . .. . . . . . ..

29. Problem Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Rise. .. Raise...................... Lie...... Lay.. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. Sit ,. Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Idiomatic Expressions with Set, Lay, and Raise. . . . . . ..
Mini-Test 3: Grammar Items 21 Through 29. . .. . .. .. .. ..
STYLE IN WRITIEN ENGLISH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

1. Common Stylistic Problems That Appear in Grammar
Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Sequence of Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Say/ Tell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Antecedents of Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. The Pronouns One and You " Illogical Participial Modifiers (Dangling Participles). . .. Participles as Adjectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Redundancy :. . . . . . . . .. Parallel Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

viii

CONTENTS

Transformation of Direct and Indirect Objects Adverbials at the Beginning of a Sentence . . . . . . . . . . .. 2. Elimination of Incorrect Answers in Style Questions. . .. Examples of Style Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Mini-Test 4: Stylistic Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
ANSWERS FOR EXERCISES THROUGH 4. . . . . . . . . .

22~ 22i 22S 23( 232

1 THROUGH 53 AND MINI-TESTS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 23~ 263 264 26~
27t 277 27) 27e 278 275 28(]

PROBLEM VOCABULARY AND PREPOSITIONS

1. Commonly Misused Words.

2. Confusingly Related Words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3. Use of Prepositions :................. During , , . " " . . . ..
From Out of By In

On At Miscellaneous Expressions with Prepositions. . . . . . .. 4. Verbal Idioms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5. Common Combinations with Prepositions. . . . . . . . . . . .. Nouns + Prepositions .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Verbs + Prepositions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Adjectives + Prepositions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Mini-Test 5: Problem Vocabulary and Prepositions. .. . . .. Mini-Test 6: Problem Vocabulary and Prepositions ..... "
ANSWERS FOR EXERCISES MINI-TESTS 5 AND 6

282 282 284
289

289 29(] 29(] 291 293

54

TIfROUGH

57 AND "

,

297

PART IV: PRACTICE-REVIEW-ANAL VZE-PRACTICE
Six Full-Length Practice Tests
ANSWER SHEETS FOR PRACflCE TESTS PRACTICE TEST

1-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

303

1 " , " , , ,. Section 1: Listening Comprehension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

315 315 324 332

CONTENTS PRACTICE TEST 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

ix
343 343 353 361 374 374 383 391 404 404 413 421 434 434 443 451 463 463 472 480

Section I: Listening Comprehension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension . . . ..
PRACTICE TEST 3

, . . .. .. . . .. . . . .. Section 1: Listening Comprehension. " .. .. . .. .. . .. . . ... Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension " Section 1: Listening Comprehension " " Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

PRACTICE TEsT 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

PRACTICE TEST 5

Section 1: Listening Comprehension " Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
PRACTICE TEST 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Section 1: Listening Comprehension .... , ..... . .. .... . .. Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. PART V: LISTENING COMPREHENSION SCRIPTS, ANSWERS, AND EXPLANATIONS FOR PRACTICE TESTS 1 THROUGH 6 How TO USE PART V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
CONVERTED SCORE SHEET •• • . . • • . • • • • • • • • . . . • • . • • • . • • ••

495 496 498 498 500 501 509 509 513

PRACTICE TEST 1

Answer Key for Practice Test 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Practice Test I: Analysis-Scoring Sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 1: Listening Comprehension Script. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Explanations for Practice Test 1 Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension .. , . '" .' .. . . .. ...

X

CONTENTS

PRACTICE TEST

2 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Answer Key for Practice Test 2 ..... " .. " ... " . . . . . . .. Practice Test 2: Analysis-Scoring Sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 1: Listening Comprehension Script. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Explanations for Practice Test 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Answer Key for Practice Test 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Practice Test 3: Analysis-Scoring Sheet Section 1: Listening Comprehension Script. . . . . .. .. . .. .. Explanations for Practice Test 3 Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Answer Key for Practice Test 4 , Practice Test 4: Analysis-Scoring Sheet , Section 1: Listening Comprehension Script . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Explanations for Practice Test 4 , Section 2: Structure and Written Expression , Section 3: Reading Comprehension ,

519 519 521 522 530 530 534 541 541 543 544 552 552 556 563 563 565 566 574 574 578 585 585 587 588 596 596 601 607 607 609 610 619 619 623

PRACTICE TEST

PRACTICE TEST 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

PRACTICE TEST

5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Answer Key for Practice Test 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Practice Test 5: Analysis-Scoring Sheet , Section 1: Listening Comprehension Script. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Explanations for Practice Test 5 , Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

PRACTICE TEST

6 , Answer Key for Practice Test 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Practice Test 6: Analysis-Scoring Sheet , Section 1: Listening Comprehension Script , Explanations for Practice Test 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Section 2: Structure and Written Expression. . . . . . . . . .. Section 3: Reading Comprehension

CONTENTS

xi

PART VI: TEST OF WRITTEN ENGLISH Ability Tested • Basic Skills Necessary • Generallnformation •
PLANNING YOUR ESSAY. . . • . . • • • . • . • • . . • • • • • . • • . • • . • . . .•

Standard Outline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Cluster Outline .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Introductory Paragraph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Body Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
SAMPLE ESSAYS ...•.•••...•.•••.•••••••.••••.•••.•.. "

634 635 636 636 637 637 637 637 639 643 647 648 652 655 656

Sample Essay 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Sample Essay 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Sample Essay 3 " A Patterned Plan of Attack .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
SAMPLE TOPIcs. . . • . . . . . • . • . . • . . . . • . . • . . . • . . • • • • . • • • . .. FORM. .. ..........•................ ESSAY EVALUATION

Final Preparation: "The Final Touches" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Index to the Reviews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..