Lecturer: R. Shaldjian Morrison Introduction to Japanese Literature Final Exam 2012 I. Short Answer Questions (30%) 1.
What is waka 和歌 (also called tanka 短歌)? Be as specific as you can. 2. What is kaimami 垣間見? In what context does it appear in the Genji chapters that we read? 3. What is an onryō 怨霊? Who usually becomes an onryō? In what work(s) did we see the appearance of an onryō? 4. What is mononoke 物の怪? What are its two types? 5. Murasaki Shikibu’s use of the mononoke motif was innovative because it was the first to ___. 6. There are at least fifteen relationship triangles in Masks. Give the three triangles you find to be the most important, and briefly explain their significance. 7. Describe the role of the shite シテ in a Noh play. Who is the shite in “Aoi no ue”? 8. Describe the role of the waki 脇 in a Noh play. Who is the waki in “Aoi no ue”? 9. Describe the role of the tsure 連れ in a Noh play. Who is the tsure in “Aoi no ue”? 10. Critics have pointed out that the structure of Enchi Fumiko’s Masks is based on a jo-ha-kyū 序 派 急 rhythmical pattern. What is this pattern? Where does it originate? How is it incorporated into the work? 11. Briefly describe the yaseotoko 痩せ男 Noh mask. Which character in Masks is it associated with? What is yaseotoko-like about this character? 12. Briefly describe the ryō no onna 霊の女 mask. In what context does it appear in Masks? Who is this mask associated with? 13. Briefly describe the masugami 増髪 mask. In what context does it appear in Masks? Who is this mask associated with? 14. Describe the fukai 深井/深女 mask. In what context does it appear in Masks? Who is it associated with? 15. Are Kawabata’s Snow Country and Ishikawa’s The Nymphs examples of naturalist works? II. Short Answer Questions (30%) 1. Briefly describe the han’nya 般若 mask. In what work did we encounter this mask? Describe the context in which it appears. 2. “Aoi no ue” is an example of a katsura 鬘 (wig) Noh, the third category of Noh play. This type of play is different from the other types in that it features a __________________. 3. Give the narrative point of view for each of the following works: Tale of Genji, Masks, Snow Country, The Nymphs. (Hint: Try to use the terms we learned in the first half of the semester.) 4. In a renga sequence, what is the hokku 発句? What is the ageku 挙句? 5. Briefly describe the differences between renga 連歌 and haikai no renga 俳諧の連歌.
6. In the Meiji period, a “ku” or verse came to be read as an independent unit. Historically, however, each ku was appreciated in four contexts simultaneously. What are the four contexts? 7. Kakari かかり is arguably the most important aspect of renga. What is kakari? 8. The kakari between verses can be either shinku 親句 or soku 疎句. What do these terms mean? 9. What are the three types of kakari according to Matsuo Bashō? 10. What is a ninjō verse 人情の句? What is a ninjō nashi verse 人情無しの句? 11. What are the three possible narrative points of view of a ninjō verse 人情の句? 12. In traditional Japanese poetry, what is the hon’i 本意 (of a given dai 題)? How does this notion of hon’i make traditional Japanese poetry very different from Western realism/mimesis? 13. A “bowdlerized” translation is a translation that ___________________. 14. Briefly define literary naturalism in the West and literary naturalism in Japan. 15. There are two kinds of translation methods: naturalization and alienation. Briefly describe these two methods. III. Short Essay Questions (40%): Choose and answer two of the following.Cite ample evidence. 1. Is Lady Rokujō simply a jealous, murderous villain, or is she a complex and troubled character victimized by her male-dominated society, and thus deserving of our sympathy? (Hint: Consider what causes her on’ryō 怨霊 spirit to wander, what causes her grief, whom she attacks/possesses, her motivations for doing so, etc.) 2. Nympholepsy is defined as a “state of rapture supposed to be inspired by nymphs, hence, an ecstasy or frenzy of emotion especially inspired by something unattainable.” How does the narrator of Ishikawa Jun’s The Nymphs suffer from this condition? What are the two entities that vie for control of him and drive his actions? How do these entities relate to his quest for that undefined “sublime object” that he seeks? 3. The theme of “possession” (or perhaps more broadly, “obsession”) appears in Masks, The Nymphs, The Tale of Genji, and Snow Country. Choose two of these works, and compare and contrast how this theme is presented and developed in each. 4. How is Snow Country an example of “mukōgawa” literature 向こう側の文学? 5. “Viewed from the bathroom window, overlapping rooftops on a steep and narrow alleyway formed a succession of triangles tumbling down to where the sea (this too a triangle standing on its head) lay softly blue and sparking” (Masks, 96, Atami episode). This passage is significant in that it hints at Mieko’s plot: to “stand the triangle on its head” (phallic △ →vaginal ∇), i.e. to subvert the male-dominated order. Describe this plot of Mieko’s, and explain how the various characters (Harume, Ibuki, Mikame, Yasuko, Mieko’s late husband, etc.) fit into it. In the end, is she successful?