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prepared for the UNITED STATES
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract No. EX-76-A-01-2295 Task Order 37b
*on leave from the Polytechnic of Torino, Italy, Faculty of Engineering
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1
1 SOLAR RADIATION 1.1 Solar Constant Computation
2 ASTRONOMICAL PARAMETERS 2.1 Sun-Earth Distance
19 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27
2.2 Declination Angle 2.3 Azimuth and Altitude of the Sun 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4 Daytime 2.5 Zenith Angle 2.6 Examples 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 Declination Angle Computation Solar Altitude Computation Solar Azimuth Computation Geometrical Daylength Computation Problems Altitude Azimuth
28 29 30 32 33
3 INTERACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE 3.1 Radiation Absorption in the Atmosphere
Page 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 The Absorption Spectrum of Water Vapor and Water The Absorption Spectrum of Ozone and Oxygen The Absorption Spectrum of Minor Radiation-Absorbing Atmospheric Constituents 48 51
3.2 Radiation Scattering in the Atmosphere
4 SOLAR ENERGY RADIATIVE FLUX DEPLETION 4.1 Optical Depth for a Vertical Path
60 62 66 75 79
4.2 Atmospheric Mass: Optical Depth for an Arbitrary Inclined Path 4.3 Integral Transmission Factor of the Atmosphere
4.4 Attenuation of Solar Radiation by Clouds
5 CORRELATION OF THE SOLAR ENERGY RADIATIVE FLUX DEPLETION WITH METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS 5.1 Depletion "Constant" of the Atmosphere 5.1.1 5.1.2 Macroclimatic Approximation Microclimatic Approximation
89 91 91 98 130 130 131
5.2 Quantitative Aspects of the Cloud Presence 5.2.1 5.2.2
Macroclimatic Approximation Microclimatic Approximation
Solmet - Meteorological Data
5.4 Summary and Model Input Data 5.4.1 Energy Flux Density in a Clear Atmosphere (No Clouds)
Page 5.4.2 5.4.3 Energy Flux Density for an Atmosphere with Clouds Energy Flux 140 141
DEFINITIONS AND UNITS OF 144
1 Units of Measure 1.1 1.2 Radiometric Scale (S.I. Units) Photometric Scale
RADIATION LAWS APPLIED TO COMPUTATION
OF SOLAR ENERGY FLUXES 1 Lambert's Law 2 Stefan-Boltzmann's Law 3 Kirchoff's Law 4.1 First Wien's Law
150 150 151
152 153 153
4.2 Second Wien's Law 5 Planck's Law
COMPUTATION OF THE AMOUNT OF PRECIPITABLE WATER AND OF THE EQUIVALENT HEIGHT OF THE ATMOSPHERE 155
1 Precipitable Water Computation 2 Equivalent Height Computation
INSOLATION CLIMATOLOGY DATA ON SOLMET FORMAT
Page APPENDIX A5: W.O.M. CLOUD DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION 187 187 189 1 Cloud Classification 2 Cloud Definition APPENDIX A6: ANALOGIC RECORDS OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATION 193 CONVERSION TABLE 196 NOMENCLATURE 200 REFERENCES 205 .
The selective inter- action of the electromagnetic energy flux and atmospheric matter is described: the analytical model is derived and imple- mented on CIRR2 codes for the global energy flux computation. on the basis of a few meteorological data.ABSTRACT After defining Solar Energy Conversion System Input characteristics. A deterministic approach permits the evaluation of the energy input to the system. . an analytical model of the atmosphere is developed. at proper intervals of time. and comparison with experimental values is performed. This model is capable of computing the Solar Energy Flux on the collector area for a techno-economic feasibility analysis of Solar Energy Systems.
Consequently.e. economic evaluations of the system should take into account the transient mode of operation of the system. heavily rely on an adequate knowledge of the energy input to the system. Primary Energy Conversion Systems are engineered on the basis of an energy input that may be considered available any time at the desired intensity: this allows a quasi-steady state mode of operation of the system (and of the components) and reduces the excursion of the design parameters during operation. Georg. i. Upon definition of the energy load. they therefore operate in non-steady state conditions that strongly affect the performances of the system and the energy output itself.: II 490 Energy Conversion Systems engineering may be considered as an interface between the energy load and the energy input. Solar Energy Conversion Systems must be designed taking into account a highly variable energy input to the system. Solar Energy Conversion Systems engineering optimization. economic analysis and those energy strategies that strongly consider them. Therefore. on an adequate 1 .INTRODUCTION "Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas" Virgil.
as concerns energy flux values. quality and quantity of the data will sensibly improve the standardization of instruments.g. through correlation of the various radiative components of the radiation flux or through Monte Carlo methods. parameters already available through standard measurements). A stochastic or a deterministic approach may be used. both for system and components' analysis. is particularly poor and the information unreliable..S. etc. The alternative to using experimental data is to compute them. but generally obtained through largely macroclimatic correlations using empirical algorithms or through time-consuming large-scale meteo-atmospheric models. As will be shown. The quantity and reliability of experimental data available in the U. although these countries represent a highly attractive potential market. The present situation. however.e. giving to the analytical model the 2 . The former may be performed with regression models. Besides. being improved.knowledge of the solar energy radiative flux on the collector area. The criteria adopted in this work are the construction of an ahalytical model of the atmosphere on the basis of a reduced number of "generally" available meteorological parameters (i. are discussed on Chapter 5 and Appendices A4 and A6.the availability of the data for most other countries of the world. is somewhat more critical. the availability. number of stations. e.
and optimization techniques and techno-economical feasibility analysis are implemented through computer models. such as pressure. This solution is consistent with the engineering of the system due to the fact that many aspects of this engineering (for components and systems) are achieved via computer (due to the large time-dependent number of variables). Besides. The last point is particularly The measurement of most meteorological parameters is standardized. but their presence may be simulated with a stochastic approach without losing much precision and without losing information on the gradients of solar energy flux values. the instrumentation and techniques of measurements are simple and economical. The only exception to this are clouds.characteristics of a physical model of the atmosphere rather than a mathematical algorithm of correlation. important. some information on clouds is generally available. temperature. in that they are an important component in determining the radiative equilibrium of the Earth. of the solar energy flux. etc. a considerable amount of historical data are available. meteorological parameters do not change as rapidly--step function--as solar energy fluxes. with a relative low time of computation. even on a minute basis. It is attractive because of the worldwide dearth of solar energy flux data (but not of some standard meteorological measurements.). relative humidity. and therefore a relatively reduced number of measurements would allow the computation. This information permits a day-to-day match of 3 .
experimental values. Another reason why this approach has been used is that our purpose is to obtain a day-to-day (or hour-to-hour) match 4 . This approach has been chosen because it appears that an analytical model of the atmosphere may be realized.e. in a relatively simple way. using available standard meteorological measurements. An increase in precision of the physical model is theoretically possible. This same concept of information content approach has eliminated the regression models. computing the direct component of this energy flux from its global component or computing historical data from actual data. This is of paramount importance for load profiles (e. e. Its precision appears to be comparable to the precision (or anyhow to the real information content) of the solar energy flux measurements (obviously affected by errors and "local" effects that distort their real information content). up to a certain degree of precision. for instance..g. i.. the phenomena involved in the selective interaction of electromagnetic solar flux and the components of the atmosphere may be described. but it would then be problematic to find the necessary input data.g. analysis of the homeostasis of electrical energy obtained through solar energy conversion with the utilities grid).solar energy flux density with. but the information needed to perform the calculation (information on the atmospheric system) is not available.. by the classic-physics approach.
the solar energy flux depletion model is presented in Chapter 4.. The analytical model should therefore behave as a "transfer function: for the "normalization" of the solar energy input. The characteristics of the CIRR2 code obtained upon implementation of the analytical model are reported in Appendix A7 (Volume II).we are mainly interested in a deterministic approach. the computation of astronomical parameters is performed in Chapter 2. and A6. where the mathematical algorithm is developed. A4.of computed to experimental data.and micro-climatic approximation) and the analysis of the meteorological input data (as well as alternative ways of computing some of the input data) are performed in Chapter 5 and Appendices A2. The solar energy radiative characteristics are presented in Chapter 1 and radiation laws are recalled in Appendix Al. Monte Carlo methods). the analysis of 5 .g. That is. as has been shown previously with the homeostasis example. have been abandoned (e. Chapter 6 (inVolume II)contains the implementation criteria of the global energy flux model. the correlation of the energy flux depletion to the meteorological parameters (on a macro. although considered. A5. A3. this is why other powerful stochastic (non-deterministic) approaches. the selective interaction between the electromagnetic energy and the components of the atmosphere is discussed in Chapter 3.
the main criteria of development of the analytical model of the atmosphere are related to the fact that. The next paragraphs will be devoted to this 6 . It should be noted that the input definition of Solar Energy Conversion Systems is viewed as an introduction and not as a conclusion to this work. for the future development of the work. which aims to develop a technoeconomical feasibility and optimization analysis. Volume IVwill report overall analysis performed with CIRR's codes (all related to the input definition). with respect to Primary Energy Conversion Systems. Finally.the final results and samples of output information are reported in Chapter 7 (Volume II). to stress the real content of those requirements. due to the characterization of Solar Energy Conversion Systems. task. which follows directly from the characteristics of the Solar Energy Conversion Systems. It has been briefly shown how those requirements are satisfied by the approach chosen. Therefore. Direct and diffuse components compu- tation will be performed in Volume III. Those characteristics become evident from a rigorous definition of Solar Energy Conversion Systems. Itwould be proper. the solar energy input should be known following certain requirements.
on materials technology differentiations. energy available through conversion of natural high-available-energy "fuels"--or would not be covered at all. independent of its entity or entropy content. whose main 7 .. no dynamic component or dynamic artificial working fluid.. i. the definition of the different Solar Energy Conversion Systems will be based mainly on the type of physical phenomena involved in the conversion. is here defined as a Solar Energy Conversion System.e. on the end use of the energy converted. Many differentiations among Solar Energy Conversion Systems have been proposed and adopted. imposed on the output of the energy conversion system.e. is that the output supplies a load that. A Solar Energy System with no machinery. would otherwise be covered by primary energy--i. depending on the type of analysis performed either on systems or components differentiations. or on the temperature at which this energy is available. on either a passive or an active component.Any Energy Conversion System--including one-component systems--that has a partial or total energy input solar energy radiative flux. In this work. A further condition. when performing the techno-economical feasibility analysis. This is the definition that will be used in the fol- lowing volumes. or the level of availability of the energy output and/or the type of technology employed .
As concerns the input definition. All Solar Energy Conversion Systems are active following these criteria. above. Machinery or dynamic modules may be part of the system. since they do not convert or even transport energy. though. The active systems definition follows. therefore. will be defined a a Passive Solar Energy System. This is non-trivial information. A first subdivision considered is between direct and indirect conversion systems. The component definition is implicit It should be emphasized that the so-called passive sys- tems are not considered as Solar Energy Conversion Systems. many--but not all--of the considerations that will be presented apply to any Solar Energy System . being antithetical. we will refer to them just as Solar Energy Conversion Systems.function is to trap and not to convert the solar energy within the system. The latter do not convert the electromagnetic energy flux into 8 . but are not actively involved in the energy conversion phenomenon itself. The effect of their presence may only optimize the engineering or economic characteristics of the system as a whole. The former converts the electromag- netic flux into electrical energy with no machinery or dynamic subsystem or component associated with the conversion phenomenon itself (electromagnetic radiation to electrical energy). although it will be used mainly on the engineering optimization part of this work. or as a Solar Energy System.
etc. with respect to the ambience at 20 C. sun-tracking or fixed-collector areas. Those differentiations will be considered as second order. as energy output from the subsystem or component involved in the energy conversion. The threshold between the two different levels of availability is arbitrarily taken as the availability that would correspond to energy furnished as heat at 100 C and 1 atm.). This is only a reference value. of pressure. energy at high or low availability. for instance.e. in the sense that all the systems will be primarily defined in the optic previously presented . This apparently complex definition corresponds to the differentiation between low-temperature and high-temperature conversion systems. 9 . The indirect energy conversion systems may have.electricity satisfying the above-mentioned constraints--i. they are not based on the same physical phenomenon--or do not convert the electromagnetic flux into electrical energy at all. but into energy generally at lower availability levels. with location and period of the year.. The systems may also be differentiated by their technical or operative characteristics (concentrators or not. and varies. Those are the considerations that concern the phenomena involved and the thermodynamics of the conversion ("physical phenomena").
since they impose certain limitations on the conversion system . As has already been pointed out. The latter is information of paramount importance to engineering optimization of the system. There is. Therefore. a well-defined difference between the traditional approach to primary energy conversion systems and the also traditional approach to energy conversion systems. the overall performance of the Solar Energy Conversion System will depend upon all those parameters that affect the solar energy radiative flux .5]. 10 . since the components and system's design approach employed is the classical non-steady state conditions of operation design (transient operation mode) [4. The variations caused by this operation on some of the design variables may induce critical conditions of system operation (when approaching a limit curve of component operation) and strongly affects the reliability and efficiency of the system . those characteristics of the Solar Energy Conversion System affect not only the engineering but also the economics of the system.The engineering of these Solar Energy Conversion Systems requires the knowledge of both the values and the dynamics of variation of the design parameters.indeed. in that the differentiation of the energy input involves a different mode of operation of the two systems. and act on the overall efficiency. They are important and should be considered in any energy policy analysis.
temperatures. and global values of the energy fluxes on the collector area). scattered. operation mode. from what has been said about the design criteria of Solar Energy Conversion Systems. energy storage facility..e. this introduces: (ii) difficulty A in the optimization of the system and consequently.e. that it is necessary to dispose of a certain amount of (reliable) data on all those parameters that affect the energy input to the system (e. etc. and for an economic evaluation of the system. (iii) The necessity of an (iv) The energy input of the solar system depends upon the site of the installation (i.) also depends upon the site and so does. a greater importance of economic factors. is both suitable and recommended.. the cost of the energy produced. astronomical parameters related to the beam's direction. beam. at every "instant. The above mentioned "dependence factors" depend themselves upon a high number of variables. therefore. meteo-atmospheric conditions). the whole system's characteristics (i. latitude. Hence the use of computing programs for the simulation of operating conditions for the correct design and optimization.Implications are : (i) A sensible variation in the instantaneous efficiency of the energy conversion: operating conditions cannot be generally identified with the optimal conditions of operation. positioning of the collector of Suntracking." the interval of time magnitude being related to the time constants of the components and 11 .. consequently.g. It follows.
C. concentrating collector). Assuming that all the "solar-related parameters. They should be available for any "Standard Climatic Area" (S. considering particularly drastic microclimatic condition differences within the S. in order to constitute a proper "transfer function.A. it may go from minute to hourly or daily values [2. considered.5]. the amount of scattered radiation collected. at such a point that. on the most restrictive conditions on a minute basis. All this implies the need to dispose of a "transfer function" for the "normalization" of the solar input. for proper inclinations and orientations and at certain regions of the globe.C. They should be available for the entire world (both for national reasons and for market expansion reasons). the inclination of the collector affects. ceteris paribus. in order to consider the engineering of the Solar Energy Conversion System 12 . Let us focus our attention on the solar energy They should be available in a digitized array form." except the solar energy radiative flux values.the system and to the type of approach. for any location. may be easily computed (and have to be computed: for instance.) or. the global energy collected by the fixed surface might equal the amount of global energy collected by a Sun-tracking.A. flux values." they should be related both to a specific year (or month or day) and to a typical (not necessarily average) year (or month or day).
as an interface between the energy load and an energy input perfectly defined, following the requirements imposed by Solar Energy Conversion Systems themselves.
The Solar Energy flux data has been furnished by the Solar Energy Meteorological Research and Training Site at the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center of the State University of New York at Albany. The meteorological data has been furnished by Mr. William J. Drewes, Meteorologist in charge of the Weather Service Forecast Office of N.O.A.A. at Albany, New York. All the information related to SOLMET format, digitized records has been obtained through Mr. F. Quinlan, Chief Climatological Analysis Division, National Climatic Center, Environmental Data Service, U.S. Department of Commerce. Mr. J. McCombie, M.I.T. student, has done the computer work; Mr. P. Heron, M.I.T. Energy Laboratory, Technical Editor/ Writer, has edited the manuscript and Ms. A. Anderson has very patiently inputted the text on our Wang Word Processor System. The author shares the eventual merit of this work with all of these persons and organizations and gratefully acknowledges them.
CHAPTER 1 SOLAR RADIATION
The Sun's radiation covers practically the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays and cosmic rays through radio waves up to wavelengths of several tenths of meters. Some
of these emissions are strongly limited in time--i.e., they are intensive only under very particular conditions--and the spectrum in which the Sun emits its maximum energy is sensibly more limited: an order of magnitude of variation of the
wavelength around the visible range that lies between 4000 and 7000 A.
The temperature at the center of the Sun is estimated to be about 15 million degrees Kelvin. However, the photosphere
(having a depth of about 0.0005 solar radius), from which most detectable radiation is emitted, has a temperature ranging from 4500 to 7500 degrees Kelvin. The effective blackbody
temperature, i.e., the temperature a perfect radiator would have in order to irradiate the measured amount of radiation, is about 5800 degrees Kelvin [9,10,11].
SOLAR CONSTANT COMPUTATION
The energy balance of the Sun-Earth system, under the hypothesis that the dynamics of energy exchange consists of one emission and one absorbance only, is easily derived by applying three basic laws of irradiance (see Appendix Al):
i. Stefan-Boltzmann's Law for the emission of the Sun, W s is:
WS = 4
R e a T
Sun's emissivity (or graybody factor) [adimensional] Stefan-Boltzmann's constant
Sun's temperature [K].
[W m-2 K-4]
ii. The "solar constant," i.e., the solar energy flux density outside the atmosphere, ES, is:
-2) R W/(4 ) = R
[W m-2 ]
where: p = average distance Sun-Earth between perihelion and aphelion [m].
iii. WE, is:
Stefan-Boltzmann's Law for the emission of the Earth,
W = 4 w R2 e EO
where: RE = Earth's radius [m] [K].
TE = Earth's temperature
The energy balance of the Earth, under the above assumption, brings to (Kirchoff's Law):
R2 T4/- 2 = 4 TE RS Ts/P
Always assuming p as an average value between the
apihelion and the perihelion of the Earth's orbit, , and
TE = 288 degrees Kelvin , from eq. 1.4 we obtain for T S a value very close to 5900 degrees Kelvin. Hence, from eq. 1.2:
The solar spectrum is also furnished by the NASA-NASA Spectral Irradiance Values at mean Sun-Earth distance. 1. Planck's Law. the "instantaneous" distance Sun-Earth. p.1). which is a compendium of all the irradiation laws. E.6) The plottage of eq. 2. 17 .5) For the computation of the "instantaneous" values of the extraterrestrial density of energy flux. consents to make up the spectral analysis of the irradiation .5 versus day number is reported on the following page.ES = RS E a T/2 = 1380 + 30 [W m 2] (1. Therefore: ES = (T/P)2 Es [W m 2] (1. must be computed (eq.
. Cv.L.3. (f)r - C. J0 Cr) Z cl CD. 1-. C. CU =6 ru U. 0 LJJcr. 18 N . en . 0 DRY-NUMBER. (n (f)0 (n 0.
1 SUN-EARTH DISTANCE This section considers the ideal case of a pure Sun-Earth Newtonian system. N = 1.CHAPTER 2 ASTRONOMICAL PARAMETERS 2. it is possible to derive. through a trivial computation. first of January. anomaly i (see Figures 1 and 2): . 19 . as a function of the p = p/[1 + e cos(E)] = (N + 10) 2 r/365 (2. the instantaneous distance between the Sun and the Earth. From the equation of the ellipse in polar coordinates.1) (2. The parameters of the Earth orbit are known.2) where: N = progressive number of the days of the year.
The inclination influences. and 5).. and may be The declination. s equals zero and the length of day equals the length of night.800 years. The correspondent is only a few seconds a year. variation of neglected. +C and - At the summer and winter solstices. a. ceteris paribus. is defined as the angle between the line connecting the center of the Earth to the center of the Sun and the equatorial plane. the total irradiance on the ground and is the cause of the Earth's seasonal cycles. even being a constant.2. s equals respectively. owing to the precession motion. 4. This angle varies.e. the period of such motion is 25. at the equinoxes. i.2 DECLINATION ANGLE The rotation axis of the Earth is inclined with respect to the normal to the plane of the ecliptic. the angle that the solar beam forms with the equatorial plane (see Figures 3. The declination takes into account the dependence of the inclination of the energy beam upon the Earth's position in its orbit. at an angle = 230 27'. thus: 20 .
from the following expression: 6 = 23' 27' cos[180(A + N + T/24)/186]' [deg] (2. The value of may be derived within an approximation of 20' . 2. 21 . In the calculations we will assume a daily average value for a. called 60. T = G. obtained from eq.° -23 27' < < + 230 27'. 2. (Greenwich Mean Time) The declination varies from 0 to every 365/4 days: a variation of about 15' a day.3 for T = 12.T.M.3) where: A = 13 (12 on leap years) [adimensional] [hours].3 AZIMUTH AND ALTITUDE OF THE SUN The instantaneous position of the Sun with respect to a frame solidary with the Earth determines the trajectory of the apparent motion of the Sun.30'.
+. . are known. 2.9 we derive the following equation: 22 .6. the longitude. time.5.7) (2. of the Sun to the latitude.5) (2. . 2. and C is the extreme pole of the observer's hemisphere (see Figure 6): BOC a = 90 - (2.We will determine the general law that relates the altitude. where A is the subastral point of the Sun. where the observer stands.4.h (2. and the azimuth. we solve the spherical triangle ABC ("position triangle").3. Using the Eulero formulas. as a function of The latitude and the longitude of point B. and 2.8) (2. 2.6) (2.1 Altitude From eqs. h.a 0 AOB = c = 90 .4) AOC = b = 90 .9) cos(a) = cos(b) cos(c) + sin(b) sin(c) cos(a) cos(b) = cos(c) cos(a) + sin(c) sin(a) cos(s) cos(c) = cos(a) cos(b) + sin(a) sin(b) cos(y) 2. B is the observer's position. and the period of the year.
3. Conventionally.* Conventionally. t. A. the azimuth is equal to the angle for p between 0 and 180 degrees (see Figure 7) and is equal to the complement to 360 degrees of degrees (see Figure 8): for between 180 and 360 *One complete rotation of the Earth takes 24 hours. y.(T + x) (2. 23 . A. the azimuth is measured clockwise from the North. Thus.10) The pole angle. is zero when the subastral point of the Sun is on the antimeridian of the observer.t = 180 . From now on.11) 2. shifts during the day due to rotation. assuming implicit conversion when necessary. angles will be given either in degrees or in hours. one hour corresponds to 360/24 degrees.sin(h) = sin(^) sin(q) + cos(s) cos(4) cos(y) (2. solar time. is the angle between the projection on the horizontal plane (plane of the observer) of the meridian and the (instantaneous) Sun-Earth axis.2 Azimuth The azimuth. Then: y = 180 . because the subastral point of the Sun. from 0 to 360 degrees. of the position triangle varies with time.
= EAST (2. East in antimeridian and West in postmeridian hours. the general expression of (eqs.8) is: cos(s) = [sin(s) . since the Earth "sees" the Sun under an angle of about 30'. 2. However.10. 2.6.sin(h) sin(f)]/[cos(h) cos(f)] (2.13) The angle varies between 0 and 180 degrees (see Figure 5). 2. is equal to the time between geometrical sunrise and sunset. From eq. D. the daytime period is actually higher than the time we assume as D. 2.5.8wEST (2. recalling that at the instant of sunrise h equals zero and calling y' the angle at that instant. and atmospheric refraction brings solar radiation to the ground when the Sun is one degree below the horizon. we 24 .4 DAYTIME We assume that the daytime period.14) 2. 2.4.12) = 360° .
3.tan(6 0) tan(f))]/15 [hours] (2. the length of day is equal to the length of O0. -s night. 2.15) = acos[. 25 . 2. that the daytime period does not generally correspond to the period of direct sunshine on an arbitrary surface for obvious astronomical reasons and due to the presence of nonhorizontal skylines (due to natural or artifical obstacles lying in the path of the radiation beam).17.17) It is easily verified from eq. that at the equinoxes. recalling the definition of the y angle (Subsection 2.1): D=2 y' = [2 acos(. Consequently. for solar energy applications.derive the general expression for D as a function of the geographic position and the day of the year: sin(O) = sin(6) sin(f) + cos(4) cos(s) cos(y') (2. is obtained from eq.3.16) The daily average value of with T = 12.tan(s) tan(+)] (2. It should be noted.
will be defined as the angle formed between the projection on the horizontal plane of the normal to the surface and the superior pole. for the complete individuation of a slant surface. 2. The definition and the choice of the inclination and the orientation given above. two angles are needed. It should be noted that. The orientation angle of the slant surface. will be defined as the angle formed between the normal to the surface and the horizontal plane (see Figure 9). The inclination angle of the slant surface. although the easier computation would be an implicit one.5 ZENITH ANGLE The angle formed between the Sun's ray and the normal to the surface under consideration is called the zenith angle. 26 . e (see Figure 9). . upon implementation of this model [14. This angle can be visualized if it is thought of as the "azimuth" angle of the normal to the surface (see Figure 9).15]. '.This paper will develop one way to compute such an "apparent" daytime on a surface for some typical cases.
and OBC (see Figure 9). (2. and the inclination and the orientation of the slant surface. Using Eulero's formulas to solve the spheric triangles ABC and A'BC and using the spheric rectangular triangle formulas to solve the rectangular spheric triangles OAB.'1J)]. are arbitrary and do not correspond to any "normalized" (and nonexistent) notation.6 EXAMPLES This section performs a few computations with the formulas previously defined. they should be considered examples and will provide an idea of the order of magnitude of the computation error.however.19) 2.18) where: y' = atan[tan(c)/sin(j . an expression of the zenith angle as a function of Sun's altitude. OA'B. 27 . azimuth. is easily obtained: cos(e) = cos(i - 'I) cos(C) cos(h) + [1 + cos (j - 'I) (c)]1/2 cos sin(h) sin(y') ( 2.
The total between parentheses would be the same. the result would not change because the input data would be T = 15. Therefore.M. same day and time. 2.2. for the day and time considered.T. on April 18th of a "common year. and A = 12. N = 109. but largely within the limits of accuracy. are: 1970 ("common year"): 1972 ("leap year"): 6 = + 10 49' 6 = + 11° 00' It should be pointed out that the error changes with the date.90 degrees = 10° 54' For a leap year. 28 .9677(108 + 13 + 15/24)]1 = 10. using eq." The input data are: T = 15.1 Declination angle computation Derive the declination of 15 h 00 m G.00 hours. N = 108. The ephemerides values of the declination. A = 13.6.3: 6 = -230 27' cos[.
T. The input data are: = 64° 30' N. x = 1650 24' W.11: -=180 .M.T.M.6. 1972. Conversion of G. 2.: N.M. A = 12 The longitude value shows that Nome is eleven hours West of Greenwich (the eleventh time zone West going from x = 1570 30' to x = 172 ° 30'). t = 10 h 22 m.2.: 640 30' 165 ° 24' W) at 10 h 22 m on February 26th. the correspondent G. Alaska (lat.1659 24') = + 24° 54' 29 .50 degrees = 320' 30' The y angle is computed from eq.(3200 30' . may local time + 11 h 00 m = G. 10 h 22 m + 11 h 00 m = 21 h 22 m G. long.T. be computed: Therefore. N = 57. into degrees: (21 h 00 m + 22/60)15 = 320.2 Solar altitude computation Derive the solar altitude at Nome.T.M.
8 48'.Proceeding as indicated by Subsection 2. 2. is . 30 . long. is computed from eq. h.: 165 ° 24' W) at 10 h 22 m on February 26th.6.8° 55') cos(64' 30') cos(24" 54')] = 14.5. Alaska (lat: 64' 30' N. the declination is computed: 6 = .3 Solar Azimuth Computation Derive the solar azimuth at Nome.8 55') sin(64 ° 30') + cos(. from the ephemerides.8 48') cos(64 ° 30') cos(24° 54')] = 14.10: h = asin[sin(. 1972.8 48') sin(64" 30') + cos(.34 degrees = 140 20' 2. The solar altitude.1.23 degrees = 14' 14' or. with the exact value of the declination: h = asin[sin(.8 55' The exact value of the declination.
2. 2. with the exact values of a and h: acosin(. = 1650 24' W. from eq.14 the computed: angle of the "position triangle" is sin(- 8° 55') .2: a = .80 55' (exact value: . t = 10 h 22 m and.12: = 154' 35' (exact value: 1540 29') 31 .The input data are: = 640 30' N.20') cos(64.48 degrees East = 1540 29' E Thus. from Subsections 2.1 and 2.sin(l4 14') sin(64 30')] acos[ cos(l4' 14') cos(64 30') = 154.59 degrees East = 1540 35' E or.8 48') .8° 48') h = 14 14' (exact value: 14' 20') From eq.5.5.sin(14' 20') sin(64" 30')] acB = acos(14.30') = 154.
: 1650 24' w) for April 18th.17: D = [2 acos(. The input data are: + = 64° 30' N. the year datum will not be used as input. long.4 Geometrical Daylength Computation Compute the length of the day at Nome. Alaska (lat: 640 30' N. A = 13 From Subsection 2.1: ° 60 = .tan(10 ° 51')) tan(64 ° 30')]/15 = 15. N = 108. The longitude will not affect the daylength. 1970: Since the precession motion is not being considered.16 hours = 15 h 10 m 32 .9677(108 + 13 + 12 = 10.6. 2.6.85 degrees = 10° 51' From eq.2.23 27' cos[.
Meridian altitude at the tropics for solstices and equinoxes. y. Computation of the meridian altitude of the Sun (i. value at noon.tan(10 ° 49'))tan(64 0 30')]/15 = 15.. with the exact value of the declination: D = [2 acos(. maximum daily altitude of the Sun for a given location): hmax = 90 . Pole angle.6. 4.( + 6) 2.15 hours = 15 h 09 m 2. Geometrical sunrise and sunset azimuth angles.e.5 Problems Further examples might be: 1. 5. Declination angle value at the equinoxes (as a function of latitude).or. 33 . for a given location on a given day. 3.
Geometrical day length for an equinox (isit possible. 7. without specifying the location?). and 10. 9.6. JM 34 . Geometrical day length at the Arctic Polar Circle for solstices. Declination angle value at the solstices. Geometrical day length at the Equator for solstices. 8. Geometrical length of the polar night.
zl- Figure 1 THE EARTH ORBIT 35 .
Figure 2 THE EARTH ORBIT 36 .
THE ALTITUDE AND THE ZENITH 37 .z Figure 3 THE DECLINATION.
THE ALTITUDE AND THE ZENITH 38 .Figure 4 THE DECLINATION.
THE ALTITUDE AND THE ZENITH 39 .0-. 15 Figure 5 THE DECLINATION.
N S Figure 6 THE "POSITION TRIANGLE" 40 .
Z Horizontal Plane Vertical Plane t I II ®0 Figure 7 THE AZIMUTH 41 .
Vertical Plane i Figure 8 THE AZIMUTH 42 .Horizontal Plane - .
z N 71/2 Figure 9 THE ZENITH ANGLE 43 .
i.e. the latter will also substantially alter the beam characteristic of the incident radiative energy..CHAPTER 3 INTERACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE The interaction of the beam of radiative energy with components of the atmosphere causes a depletion in the beam's intensity and an alteration in the beam's characteristics. The interaction is relative to the corpuscular and wave characteristics of atmospheric components with respect to the solar energy beam spectrum. its spectrum and anisotropy. intensity and spectral composition of the radiation beam. 44 . This interaction may be quantitatively analyzed in terms of two phenomena: the radiation absorption and the radiation Both phenomena affect the scattering in the atmosphere.
Thus. Theoretically.1 RADIATION ABSORPTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE The absorption spectrum of the atmosphere extends over an extremely wide range. when knowing the several principles of spectral radiation absorption. however. It is useful to point out that even under an integral approach.17]. the energy distribution of the solar spectrum "outside" the atmosphere. and the dynamic 45 . In all cases. due to the selective aspect of the interaction." the transmission function-for the entire solar spectral interval. from X-ray to ultrashort waves. the physical nature of the absorption is highly varied and extremely complicated [16. its behavior is not solely dependent on the spectrum of the incident radiation or on its spectral lines but also in a number of cases on the pressure and temperature of the radiation absorbent. we cannot avoid considering the spectral characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation and its spectral interaction with the atmosphere. the main factor affecting the analysis will be the atmospheric content of the radiation absorbent. One fundamental problem is determining the absorption function--or its "complement.3.
On the other hand. Physically. it is possible to develop an analytical model of the interaction and. and even the lines-and-bands model approach is far more precise with respect to the meteorological data available [18-23]. consequently. let us first briefly and qualitatively examine the characteristics of the absorption spectrum of the various components of the atmosphere. inconsistent with available data. the many empirical relations that furnish the transmittance function of the atmosphere  are obtained through largely macroclimatic approaches and the approximations made on the model may exceed the uncertainty and lack of meteorological data. after absorption interaction. This is an extremely complicated approach. the energy distribution of the solar spectrum on the Earth. This is probably why existing analytical models of the atmosphere are either extremely complicated. the definition of the absorption function may be obtained considering only the very fine structure of the absorption spectrum. In order to develop a proper approach for our purposes.behavior of the atmosphere. due to the complexity of the spectrum considered. or only empirical approximations. A number of tabulations of the atmospheric 46 .
0.07 (ground level) 0.140 0.934 ppm* Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon dioxide Argon Neon Helium Krypton Xenon Hydrogen Methane (CH) 4 Nitrous oxide 18.3 0 .946 0.087 0. compiled from various sources by Glueckauf : Constituent - Percent by Volume Permanent Gases 78.500 Important Variable Gases Water vapor Ozone *ppm parts per million 0.20 (20 .30 km) 47 .components are available and are in fairly close agreement.10 .180 5.084 21.500 2.000 0. We will consider the following computation.0.003 0.240 1.
and carbon dioxide. such as nitrogen and oxygen. Let us finally point out that three quarters of the total mass of the atmosphere is in the troposphere. and hydrocarbon combinations (mainly for the thermal radiation) have a number of absorption bands (and lines) in various spectral regions. such as water vapor. the most intense absorption bands are related to water vapor and ozone in the ultraviolet 48 .1 The absorption spectrum of water vapor and water The atmospheric absorption spectrum is schematically presented in Figure 10 : The most intensive absorption bands of the atmospheric gases are clearly individuated. The main gases of the atmosphere. As concerns solar radiation. nitrogen. The variable atmospheric constituents. contribute only slightly to the radiation absorption. using the altitude as an extensive parameter. oxides. as shown in Figure 11.1.Finally. oxygen and ozone (for the shortwave radiation). 3. we will consider the atmosphere divided into regions.
740 . Moller  has proposed an empirical formula for the calculation of the radiation absorption in the cloudless atmosphere: Rad. = total water vapor content in the atmosphere in the vertical direction [g cm-2]. The longwave radiation absorption. is not of interest and will not be discussed further.region of the spectrum.. is existent--and is a well-known effect--also due to the fact that the energy content of the solar spectrum to the frequencies affected by the ozone.347 log(m we)) . 49 . because it is affecting the re-emitted radiation interaction.... although we have mentioned it. The predominance of the water vapor in atmospheric absorption caused by vibrational-rotational transitions. is quite low. = exp[2. Abs.006(log(m w ))3)] [cal cm-2 min-i] where: m = atmospheric mass w.3026(.056(log(m w) 2 .
The water exerts its influence mainly on the thermal radiation region. although water vapor has some nonintense bands on the visible region of the spectrum.2 min-1] where: B = optical atmospheric mass caused by scattering. = .exp(. Both these empirical relations and others available in the literature are in fairly bad agreement.In order to account for the influence of pressure on the radiation absorption. 50 .23 w/(.23 w + )] .10[. After analyzing the available experimental data.21[1 .m ) exp(-. Abs. Angstrom  proposed another formula that also takes into account the scattering of solar radiation: Rad.23 m )] [cal cm. it appears that a statistical approach is the best for the absorption band model. Moller proposed to use a value of the pressure equal to 7/9 of the pressure of zero altitude.
centered at . but only in the far-ultraviolet. radiation absorption is not great. are located near the 2-micron region. The computation of the integral of the solar radiation flux absorbed by the ozone shows that the effect of the ozone on the solar spectrum is extremely reduced (1 .75 microns. the Schumann-Runge system and the Herzberg system.3.69 and . The main interest in the study and analysis of these bands would be to individualize the bands responsible for the dissociation-ozone "source" bands. there are two visible bands in the visible region. Their influence on solar The 1-micron region--Holefield bands--is characterized by the presence of unidentified. nonintensive bands.2 The absorption spectrum of ozone and oxygen Ozone has several absorption bands in the ultraviolet and far-ultraviolet regions. 51 . Atomic oxygen intensively absorbs radiation. As concerns the oxygen.1.3 percent) . Two other bands.
even under the particularly moist conditions found at sea level.. water vapor's role is predominant also as concerns the gaseous absorption of the terrestrial radiation.). ). We will therefore consider water vapor as the only variable component of the atmosphere. heavy water (H30) and other very minor radiation-absorbing components. . .3 The absorption spectrum of minor radiation-absorbing atmospheric constituents There are nitrogen oxides (NO... Their weak and very narrow absorption bands are located mainly in the infrared spectrum. it may absorb up to five times as much solar radiative energy as do all the other gases combined.1.. Although water vapor usually comprises less than 3 percent of atmospheric gases. C2H4. from 3 to 5 microns . A simple explanation 52 . Although we are not interested in the phenomenon. N20 4. when calculating the transmission function. hydrocarbon combinations (CH. at least under a macroclimatic approach. while in the case of longwave radiation (thermal radiation) carbon dioxide also plays an important role.. N20. sulfurous 4 gases. C2H6.3. As a conclusion we might state that in the case of shortwave radiation the absorption by water vapor strongly predominates.
2 RADIATION SCATTERING IN THE ATMOSPHERE As has already been pointed out. Scattering phenomena are present in any location where there is a spatial inhomogeneity of the dielectric constant of 53 . which uses integral absorption data. as concerns the solar radiation. 3. The so-called diffuse component of the solar radiation beam on the Earth is the amount of scattered radiation that arrives on the Earth. the scattering of the radiation is the second main process that characterizes the interaction between the radiation beam and the components of the atmosphere. For the longwave radiation. two different methods are generally used: the "spectral" method (by Elsevier and by Kondratyev). To compute the integral absorption function.of this may be given by analyzing the vibrational and rotational motions induced on the water molecules. the medium's emission should also be taken into account. which uses the spectral absorption characteristics. and the "integral" method (by Brooks and by Robinson).
. haze. water droplets. air density) and by the localized presence of particular components (e.the medium in which the radiation is traveling. if the dimensions of the scattering medium are sensibly smaller than the wavelength). For each 54 .. or as dry aerosol in the case of dust particles. then the scattering is Rayleigh scattering (or molecular scattering of Rayleigh). a scattering medium and a radiation beam traveling within it. These spatial inhomogeneities that determine scattering may be caused by fluctuations of a physical parameter that individuates the state of the medium (e. This definition is clearly understood if we take into consideration that in this case the refraction index inhomogeneities are of the same order of magnitude as the conventional "physical" dimensions of molecules.g. The scattering caused by water droplets or other "large" components is known as aerosol scattering.. dust particles. The first type of scattering is known as molecular scattering.g. etc.). smoke.g. If the dimensions of the scattering particles are sensibly smaller than the wavelength of the incident radiation (e. Let us consider. in a chemical approach.
) is a volume coefficient of radiation scattering.wavelength. by dr. P) = a(x. for the wavelength and angle of scatter considered.2) as: 55 . 3.1) where E(x) is the monochromatic density of energy flux of the incident beam and (x. the infinitesimal amount of radiant energy dE(x. scattered by the components present in an infinitesimal volume dr on an infinitesimal solid angle d on the direction of -t ) being the angle between the scattered ray considered and the incident beam-will be: dEs(x. ) E(x) dr d (3.1 may be rewritten (following eq. eq. f) = (X) (p) (3. To compute the density of energy flux scattered over a solid angle.2) where ~(q) is the scattering function that defines the . and p(x) is the intensity of the scattered ray at an angle parameter that takes into account the optical properties of the scattering medium. a(X. 3. The a factor will also depend upon the optical We express a as: properties of the scattering medium.
This complete definition. the volume scattering coefficient.4) The theory of electromagnetic scattering would consent the evaluation of the parameter p(X) and the function (f). although very accurate under nonlimitative assumptions in describing molecular and aerosol scattering.ES(X) = 2 p(X) E(x) dr 0 ( ( sin(Q) d (3. the elaboration of the experimental data available would furnish approximated values of the (x. requires a complete definition of the scattering medium.) ( (f) sin(f) d (3. particularly for local or aleatory aerosol conditions. is very difficult to obtain. may be defined as: (X) ES(~) (X) = =2 (X. Instead. the widely used semi-empirical approach of Angstrom  will be quoted.3) Normalizing dr. 56 . The electromagnetic scattering theory. empirical relations that are largely macroclimatic are not of interest here. P) [31-33]. Once again. Under an empirical approach.
57 . which may be computed rather precisely from direct irradiance data.This approach uses a so-called turbidity factor.
) U. CV N 0 0 OU a 58 .0 0 w Caw LO oU : v - 0 DIcn 0< ouuJ 0 W U W N N 00 .
He High atmosphere 70 Light gases Mesosphere I + + (Stratopause) 30 Ozone Stratosphere Low atmosphere of the total mass of the atomosphere 3 Photodissociation 0 2 (Tropopause) 10 - Troposphere + 0 Figure 11 THE ATMOSPHERE 59 .1L Km I I Exosphere + Thermosphere 120 - Ionosphere (Mesopause) H2 .
dz. exponential. taking the input data constraints into consideration.CHAPTER 4 SOLAR ENERGY RADIATIVE FLUX DEPLETION Chapter 3 performed a general analysis of the interaction of the radiative energy beam with the components of the atmosphere. will permit the evaluation of the attenuation of a flux of direct radiation. for every wavelength. through a slab.1 might be rewritten as follows: dE(x)/dz = K(x) E(x) p(z).e. here defined as K(x). to the number of nuclei per unit volume and to the intensity of the incident beam through a parameter of proptionality. which is the analytical representation of the fact that the attenuation of the beam on an arbitrary path dz in the atmosphere is linearly propotional. the beam's Te'pletion with respect to z will be.. solar beam. as expected. 60 . This chapter will derive a physical model to describe the solar energy radiative flux depletion in its atmospheric path. A simple physical consideration of the interaction of the radiation beam with the atmosphere. of atmosphere of density p(z) for each wavelength x:* *Equation 4. Since the beam's depletion is linearly proportional to dz through a parameter which is a function of x only. accepting the nonlimitative assumption that the gas molecules do not "shadow" each other. i.
K(x) f Z p(z) dz] (4. Equation 4.3) where: EZ(x) = density of energy flux of wavelength x at elevation 2 Z [W m.] Eo(x) = density of energy flux of wavelength x at elevation 2 o [w m. gives: EZ In E(X ) () K(x) 0j Z p(z) dz =- EO~~~x Z (4.1. 4.2) or: EO(X) = EZ(x) exp[. Integration. 61 .dE(x) = E(x) K(x) (z)dz (4.].1) where K(x) is the absorbance "constant" for a determined gas and wavelength . between elevation zero and elevation Z of eq.3 is often called Beer's (or Bouguer's) Law. and z is the altitude of the slab dz considered.
being a "density integral.3 is often called "optical depth. the integral term of the exponent is also referred to as "optical depth." Sometimes. 4. This will permit computation of the integral factor in eq.1 OPTICAL DEPTH FOR A VERTICAL PATH Halley's Law gives the variation of atmospheric density with the altitude." If the Sun is at the zenith. 4. z." although it represents only a mass concept.K(x) o(z) dz] (44) where: Ei(x) = density of energy flux incident on the "upper 2 limit" of the atmosphere [W m. 4. here it will be extended to the entire atmosphere. the beam's path will be on the z axis (elevation or zenith axis).]. a factor that will be defined as AO. As stated in Halley's Law: 62 .4.The exponent of the exponential factor in the second term of eq. then an integration over all the atmospheric path-let us say from 0 to --will furnish the attenuation of the beam on its atmospheric path: EO(x) = Ei(x) exp[.
Thus: H = P(O)/(p(O) g) (4. Developing the trivial integral in eq.6) The term between parentheses is often referred to as equivalent height (or scale height).5 may be rewritten as: AO = p(O) H = P(O)/g (4.z (O)g/P(O)] dz (4. of the atmosphere.7) Equation 4. 4.5: AO = p(O) [P(O)/(p(O) g)] (4.].8) 63 . i.e.5) where: A(z=O) = density integral of the atmosphere [kg m-2] 0(O) = density of the atmosphere at z = 0 [kg m-3] = acceleration of gravity [m s-2] 2 P(O) = atmospheric pressure at z = 0 [N m.. H. the height the atmosphere would have given that its density is invariable with height and equal to p(O).A(z=0) = A0 = J p(z) dz = O p(O) exp[.
the optical depth value for a zero elevation is the superior limit of the optical depth value.9: Az = p(O) H exp(. The upper limit of integration (infinity) for the atmospheric density integral. 4.5 might be rewritten as: A(z=z )= Az = z (z) dz 0 z p(O) exp[.9 the following is obtained: Ao(z) = p(O) exp[. if the optical depth of the atmosphere is computed for a site at a certain altitude. and computing A0 as a function of z. from eq.z p(O) g/P(O)] dz 64 [kg m 2 ] (4.Obviously. 4.11) .z p(O) g/P(O)] dz ~~~~~0 0 ~(4. since A depends on the elevation. its value will be different from A0 K(x). For an altitude zo. as always to be equal to 0. although mathematically correct.z /H) o (4. might create some misunderstandings in its physical interpretation. 4. Initially assuming the elevation-observer's location.9) Developing the trivial integral in eq.10) As expected. eq.
225 kg m.500 m.* -2 *For the 1962 Sta~dard Atmosphere. z = 1. H. which would give a physical sense to the integration. would be 8.000 m for different parametrical values of z (zo = 0 m.z p(O) g/P(O)] dz (4. say 50 km.14 is plotted for z varying from z to 64.13) or: A(z) = p(O) H [exp(.000 m. would be 10. 65 .14) In Figure 12.80616 m s..at 45 degrees of latitude.000 m). = 500 m. Under this assumption. AO.z/H)] (4. the value adopted by the World Meteorological Orqanization for the acceleration of gravity is 9.exp(.zo/H) . zo = 1.exp(. zo = 2. P(O) = 101.or: Ao(z) = p(O) H [1 . Therefore. 4.333 kg m-2.325 N m and p(O) = 1. eq. eq. It is o clear that the "time constant" of the exponential factor is relatively small and that the exponential term in z tends rapidly to zero. the upper limit of integration for the density integral might be. 4.z/H)] (4. at an altitude of a few tenths kilometers.11 may be rewritten as: A(z) = z p(O) exp[.435 km and the correspondent value of the atmoshere density integral at zero elevation. a standard value of the equivalent height of the atmosphere.12) If the observer's elevation is zo.
. it indicates how many times the optical depth along the arbitrary path exceeds the optical depth along the vertical path. i. the optical depth of an arbitrary ray will be related to the optical depth in the direction of the vertical.e.e.4. indicates the lengthening of the beam's path with respect to the vertical path. it has no relation to any It just general or particular concept of atmospheric mass. 66 . i. being adimensional.15) The function A1(e) is often indicated as atmospheric mass. Obviously. as computed in Section 4.. Considering the fact that A0 is a function of the zenith angle.2 ATMOSPHERIC MASS: PATH OPTICAL DEPTH FOR AN ARBITRARY INCLINED To compute the attenuation of the solar beam. Instead of performing such a calculation for every ray path. it is first necessary to compute the optical depth along an arbitrary ray path.1. e.. the ray path for a non-zenith position of the Sun. for every position of the Sun.e. the following adimensional function must be computed: Ao (e) Al (e) o = [adimensional] (4. i.
4.17) Obviously. the ratio s/H gives the lengthening of the atmospheric beam path with respect to the minimum (zenith) path: 1/2 Al(h) = s/H = . as follows. (4. Considering the frame (x. the equation of the circle of ray RE + H (see Figure 13) is: x2 + 2 = (RE + H) (4.18) 67 .RE sin(h)/H + [1 + 2 RE/H + (RE sin(h)/H) ] (4. eq.RE sin(h) + [RE sin (h) + H2 + 2 RE H]1 /2. h) (see Figure 13) are introduced.16) If the center of the circle is moved from 0 to 0' and the polar coordinates (s. z). therefore neglecting the deflection of the ray due to refraction.16 becomes: s = .It will be computed then with a simple geometrical approach.
RE cos(e)/H + [1 + 2 RE/H + (RE cos(e)/H) ] 2 1/2 (4. the deflection of the beam due to refraction has not been considered. 4.18 becomes: Al(e) = s/H = .4 percent error on the exponential factor evaluation) and 68 .For most computations in solar energy engineering (i. which is rigorously true only for shortwave radiation.. and this is strictly true for those beam's paths close enough to zenith. Furthermore. However.e. since the approximation is excellent until e values less than 70 degrees (0. Taking this into account. The error introduced by those approximations is extremely reduced: on the fourth significative figure of A1 for zenith < 70°. e and h are complementary angles.19) The assumption has been implicitly made that Al(h) is not dependent on the wavelength. For the horizontal surface.5 percent error in the exponential factor evaluation). for all those that consider tilted surfaces) the meaningful parameter is the zenith angle. and on ° angles inferior to 600. on the third for 60 < the second for 70 < e < 800 (corresponding approximately to a 2 percent error in the A evaluation and a 2. eq. .
2 percent. then the maximum error introduced in the transmission factor evaluation by the A1 computation is certainly not larger than 1. the following equation is obtained: A 1(O) = [J K(x) (s) ds]/[ K() p(z) dz] (4.20 might suggest that A1 (e) is strongly dependent on atmospheric physical conditions (e. in the extreme conditions (i. and the average error for the year is less than 0. winter days).. which is itself proportional to the pressure at sea level. the density integrals in numerator and denominator of eq. the 30 percent of the daily energy flux.20) Equation 4. 4.g.since for larger values of we are considering instants in which the total amount of energy flux on the ground does not exceed. 4.20 also shows that pressure variations will not affect A(e) values. 4. Rewriting eq. But eq. The temperature dependence is significant only at very large zenith angles.5 percent.. pressure and temperature). where the density of energy flux of the 69 .20 being approximately proportional to the physical mass of one atmospheric column of unit section.15 in an explicit form.e.
18. mainly for hand-pocket calculators. and 4.21) For h values less than 30 degrees but greater than 10 degrees.4 km. It therefore may be neglected.8/h2 )2 (4. 4.radiative beam is very low and the energy flux on the horizontal of the observer is strongly affected by Lambert's Law.19) sec(e) .17) cosec(h) . 70 . 4.2. 4.18 and 4. eqs.22 in particular are computed for three different values of H: H = 8. For quick computations of the atmospheric mass. H = 400 km. a simpler form of A(h) is often used: A1 (h) = sec(e) = cosec(h) (4.22 are tabulated below. 4. Equations 4.21.2. H = 20 km.22) where e and h are expressed in degrees. the following empirical formula is often used: A1(h) = (eq.8/(90 = (eq.
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as explained in Section 4. the concept of "scale" height. following the assumptions made. The atmospheric height of the atmosphere used on the A(h) definition is related.1 and related to a physical property of the atmosphere (the pressure).Although H has been indicated as the equivalent height of the atmosphere. previously defined. 74 . as concerns the relative atmospheric mass computation. and its only purpose is to define the geometric "lengthening" of an arbitrary beam's path with respect to the vertical path It still has implied. It should be stressed that the meaning of the latter is different from the meaning of the former. though. an atmospheric height of 400 km will be assumed as "scale" height and this value will not have to be identified with the equivalent height of the atmosphere. the same symbol has been used here to define the denominator of s/H. Thus. For instance the values that have been shown to give better results are the ones reported in column four of the previous tabulation. thus to the mass of the atmosphere. and that is the reason why the same'symbol has been here adopted. to a merely geometric characteristic of the beams' path.
23 becomes (from eq.23) Note that eq.K(x) . for a non-clouded real atmosphere at zero elevation (i. 4. as it is implicit in the "scale" height concept. sea level)..4 is applicable only for the zenith path (i. as follows: EO(X) = E() exp[.9): E0 o() = Ei(x) exp[..The atmosphere has different "scale" heights following the parameter to which this conventional magnitude is referred.23 as: 75 . 4.6 and 4.4 may be rewritten (using eqs. eq. eq. 4.K(x) A Al(h)] (4.23 is valid for any beam's path.24) Rewriting eq. 4.18). 4. 4.e. vertical path). while eq. 4.e.A 0 Al(h)] (4.3 INTEGRAL TRANSMISSION FACTOR OF THE ATMOSPHERE Having computed the optical depth of the atmosphere along any beam's path. 4. If the observer is at a zo altitude.
4.X) A1(h) (4.EO(x) = Ei(x) exp[.26. 4. eq.25 may be rewritten as: EO() = Ei(x) p(.28) where: EO = energy density flux on the Earth at zero elevation [W m-2] 76 . p(x).27) Integrating over x: Al(h) EO = Eo() dx = Ei(X) P(x) dx (4.26) Taking into consideration eq.A(h) Jo K(x) p(z) dz] (4.25) The monochromatic transparency coefficient. is then defined: p(x) = exp[- O K(x) p(z) dz] (4.
of the density of energy flux on the ground. Introducing a value of the transparency coefficient weight averaged over the whole spectrum. are available.28 becomes: A l( h ) I0X A l(h) EO = (h EO() dx = p ES (4. often referred to as solar "constant" p = integral transparency coefficient [W m . an integral approach versus the monochromatic transparency coefficient appears more coherent and more consistent with the precision and. 77 . with the quantity of meteorological data currently available. 1. Being mainly interested in an integral value with respect to the wavelength.6. using eq. as indicated in Section 1. mainly.] 2 [adimensional]. The solar constant value will be computed on a daily basis. under particular assumptions. A numerical solution is more suitable. 4. 4. eq.1. although this is a nontrivial problem due to the complex dependency of the function p(x) over x.29) where: ES = density of solar energy flux outside the atmosphere.Methods of analytical integration of eq.28.
26. 4. for higher atmospheric masses. most of the attenuation will happen near the "resonance" peaks of absorption.29 may be rewritten as: E = ES exp[. are also available. For low atmospheric masses. most of the integrated energy flux is obtained within low atmospheric masses: This decreases the importance of the variation of the transparency factor with respect to atmospheric mass. and thus this dependency may be neglected. 4. introducing therefore an error inferior to . calculated values for the ideal atmosphere. Fortunately. Using eqs. the increase of attenuation will be slower due to the influence of the less intensively attenuating far wings of the band. It is important to note that the transparency factors are a function of the atmospheric mass.5 and 4. 78 .30) the definition of KT being implicit. using the theory of molecular scattering.KT A0 A1 (h)] (4. This is due to the selective character of the interaction of the solar radiation with the atmosphere. eq.The integral transparency coefficient may be determined empirically.5 percent.
e. 4. they play an important role in scattering solar 79 . As concerns eq.28. and microclimatic approximations. which will be obtained for macro-. 4.4 ATTENUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION BY CLOUDS It is well known that "large" particles are intensive "light" scatterers.The exponential factor on the second term of eq. Introducing the integral transparency does not substantially increase the error on the E0 computation and furthermore the meteo correlation.. thus. mes9-. the inverse of the integral attenuation factor of the atmosphere on a cloudless day). defined on a cloudless day (i. This would permit a numerical computation of EO with a precision of a few percent--radiation data on the Earth are affected by at least a 1-2 percent error and the error on the determination of the solar spectrum (or solar constant) is at least 2 percent. Clouds consist of a large number of water droplets. 4. the hypotheses until now have been nonrestrictive. This factor is time-dependent (through A(h)) and will be correlated to meteorological conditions (through KT).30 is the integral transmission factor of the atmosphere. will be a far more important constraint.
e. strictly selective and complicated by the presence of cumulus clouds. a "precise" model also should consider the "position" of the clouds on the dome--if it is not completely covered--and it would be utopic to expect to find this information.e. percent of the celestial dome covered by clouds. height. cloud type. experimental data available on the clouds.. i. and unreliable. i. which may be presented in the form of a homogeneous horizontal surface of relatively moderate thickness [35-37]. The available theoretical calculations are valid only for stratus clouds.. extension and thickness of the layers. etc.. irregular formations and considerable vertical extension.again. Finally. the quantitative dynamics of this process are still being studied. are so rare and approximate that a detailed model of the scattering and absorption process would be quite expensive. The theoretical computation of the diffusion of radiation by clouds is particularly complicated. Furthermore. in depleting the direct beam. The phenomenon is.radiation. Note that clouds may also absorb solar radiation. In the literature there are many empirical expressions for the correlation of the irradiance on the ground with 80 . which have isolated.
39]. and that assume two or three sets of values during the year [38..2 (r/M))] S = minutes of sunshine per day D = length of the day in minutes r = number of rainy days in the month M = number of days in the month hr = average relative humidity. through parameters that are dependent upon the geographic position or meteorological conditions. Angstrom's Equation : FO/(FO)S= D = a' + b' S/D where: 81 . is worthwhile to mention some of these relations. It Reddy's Equation [40-42]: F0 = K /(hr)1/2 where: F0 = integrated solar energy flux on the ground (irradiance) K = = K(f) [1 + 8 (S/D) (1 .meteorological data.
(Fo)S= D = irradiance in the hypothesized absence of clouds.296 o_ This clearly shows that the correlation is macroclimatic. Sherma and Pal introduce a particular albedo value. Other relations correlate the integrated flux directly with the presence of clouds.238 a = . Penman and Black's Equation : Fo/F6 = a + b S/D where: F0 = irradiance in the hypothesized absence of atmosphere. A typical yearly average value of a and b in two different climatic zones of Europe. Italy (45 Trapani. with parameters corresponding to the different classes of clouds . defined as the ratio 82 . Lumb considers nine classes of clouds and correlates the irradiance with a sine function of the altitude of the Sun . Italy (38 N) N) a = . are: Torino.281 b = .379 b = .
The coefficients of correlation are probably obtained with regression techniques that use a "large" set of experimental data from different locations during the year. using a largely empirical. Angstrom's. especially if compared with the simplicity of some of those relations.g. It is appropriate." One piece of useful information derived from those relations is that the ratio S/D (minutes of sunshine over daylength in minutes) is used. as an extensive parameter to determine the cloud presence [40. to directly introduce an intensive factor 83 . macroclimatic approximation. for each value of the altitude of the Sun.44].43. All those empirical relations and others not reported here correlate the energy flux on the Earth with the clouds. instead of using empirical coefficients to "mediate" the ratio S/D (that is. e. and the precision itself may vary with respect to the period of the year--at the same location or from location to location-in the same "Standard Climate Area. to associate an "intensity" to S/D). Penman and Black's-although they are not very accurate. The results obtained are of interest.between the total integrated flux in the case being examined and the correspondent integrated flux with a "standard" composition of the atmosphere. directly or indirectly..
and of the ratio S/D (extensive factor). becomes: E0 = f(a. Thus.32) should be always verified to justify the usefulness of the factor n. the clouds might also be used. For this purpose. although it is reasonable. the albedo. appears inevitable. S/D) ES exp[.30. relation S/D + n = 1 (4. eq.31) The use of the intensive factor previously mentioned. a. the albedo of the clouds (see Appendix Al) is introduced. 4. and the effect of the clouds on the solar energy radiative flux's depletion may be taken into account as a function of the albedo (intensive factor). The choice of S/D as an extensive factor does not appear as inevitable.KT A0 Al(h)] (4. for a cloudy day. 84 . The amount of the celestial dome covered with If the latter is called n.that defines the "intensity" with which each type of cloud interacts with the radiative beam.
eq. This is because the n factor does not give any information on the position of the clouds.34) Using eqs. the parameter S/D (on an hourly or daily basis) will be used. A very linear and simple approach.Equation 4.35) Equation 4. S/D) will be defined as follows: f(a. provided that: 85 . and consequently the function f(a.34.c a) ES exp[.c a (4.35 furnishes for any location a value of the instantaneous density of energy flux.32 is only approximately verified in most cases. which might or might not be intercepting the beam. induces the following definition of c: c = 1 . that follows from the definition of albedo (see Appendix Al). 4.33 and 4. 4. S/D) = 1 .33) where c is a function of S/D. Therefore.KT A0 Al(h)] (4.31 may be rewritten as: EO = (1 .S/D (4.
The minutes of sunshine per interval of time must be known. A. K T. the density of energy flux outside the atmosphere) is known. The atmospheric attenuation parameter. it will be expressed as a function of atmospheric pressure and temperature." 4. 5..1. or computed. and "molecular scatterers. The albedo of the clouds is indirectly computed through observation of the cloud cover. if A must be computed for a given elevation. merely as a geometric factor. clouds. The extraterrestrial density of energy flux. is computed as a function of the atmospheric constituents or "agents" of the considered effect: mainly water vapor and standard gases of the atmosphere. Al(h) is computed. AO may be expressed as a function of the atmospheric pressure although.e. and 6. 3. is computed. in order to compute the c factor. ES (i. aerosol. The density integral of the atmosphere. with the standard measurements available. at the considered elevation. 86 . 2.
000 3. m Figure 12 THE OPTICAL DEPTH 40.000 E < 6..000 Alt.000 1.000 20.10.000 6.000 4.000 37 .000 7.000 2.0()0 50.000 30.000 0 0 10.000 5.000 8.000 9.
Zenith x Figure 13 THE PATH OF THE ENERGY BEAM IN THE ATMOSPHERE 88 .
4.e.35 that are dependent on meteorological conditions. It is assumed. plus some 89 . for which only standard meteorological data are available (i. for these purposes.35 will be considered. pressure. temperature. mesoclimatic approximation will be defined. 4.. that no meteorological data are available. The mesoclimatic approximation will reduce the "Standard Climatic Areas" to a relatively narrow zone." for techno-economical feasibility studies of solar energy applications.CHAPTER 5 CORRELATION OF THE SOLAR ENERGY RADIATIVE FLUX DEPLETION WITH METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS This chapter will develop the concepts and techniques needed to compute those coefficients of eq. A macro. a The purpose of a macroclimatic approximation is to derive the energy flux values within "Standard Climatic Areas. Consequently.and microclimatic approximation for each coefficient of eq. and dew point or relative humidity).
This will allow solar maps of those regions that have good records. main cloud type or cloud layer. The microclimatic approximation will assume that local meteorological data are measured at the site under consideration. The main criteria of this chapter will be: i. This approximation will serve the engineering optimization of the solar energy conversion systems.. to avoid those extremely precise physical models that. although they might theoretically be constructed. to obtain the maximum precision of the correlation through a physical model. will be in high contrast with the amount and the quality of meteorological data "generally" available. or minutes of sunshine)--this information being furnished on a daily average basis. on an hourly basis--or at least a few times a day--and that some precise information on the clouds is available.e. and/or a history of "standard" meteorological data that are absolutely unrelated to solar energy flux measurements. percent of dome covered by clouds. but ii. 90 .information on the clouds (i.
in different "Standard Climatic Areas. From the experimental values of the energy flux on the ground.5 10 5 [ ] Kg-1 91 . from eq.30.1) where: E0/E S = attenuation factor of the atmosphere [adimensional].1 it is possible to determine the KT values under a macroclimatic approximation: KT = 2. equation 4.or the experimental values of the attentuation factors--on clear days.1.34 then becomes identical to equation 4. no clouds).5. for which c equals zero (from eq. Equation 4. 4.1 DEPLETION "CONSTANT" OF THE ATMOSPHERE 5..1 Macroclimatic approximation Consider a clear day (i. 5. setting S/D = 1).30 may be rewritten in explicit form over KT as: KT =- ln(EO/Es) (AO Al(h))-1 [m2 Kg-l] (5.e." and computing A0 and A(h).34. E0 -.
2 10 . will cause a substantial increase of KT -5 (approximately. Particular polluting agents. continental climatic conditions (clear atmosphere and medium level of humidity). continental climatic conditions or desert climates (particularly clear atmosphere and low level of humidity). to determine whether those KT values refer to the global or direct attenuation. -5 2 K T = 3. . fog. KT = 3. Therefore. haze. It would not make sense. smoke.0 10 5 2 [m Kg 1] for temperate summer. such as dusts. under this approximation..6 10 in particularly critical conditions). the range of variation of KT is from -5 -5 2. since they are largely obtained through averaged meteorological conditions.5 10 [m Kg ] 1 for humid (tropical) climatic conditions (clear atmosphere and high level of humidity). etc. 92 .for temperate winter.3 10 to 4.
4.2) Equation 5. The constant of proportionality has been empirically determined. this confirms the methodology adopted for the relative atmospheric mass computation and the value chosen to be the height of the atmosphere for this computation. On the other hand. and KT is consequently defined. at this stage on a large macroclimatic approximation. a better approximation is obtained if the KT values previously defined are correlated to the clouds' presence through the following empirical relation.2 states that. KT does have a dependency with respect to the clouds' presence and this fact is independent of the clouds' absorbance. KT is increased by a quantity linearly proportional both to the clouds' quantity and KT itself (up to a maximum value of 1.3 n) [m Kg ] (5. Using eq.The computed KT values appear to present a very low sensitivity with respect to the solar altitude.2 KT). which gives the density of energy flux on a cloudy day.35. in the presence of clouds. 93 . which takes into account the clouds' absorbance and the increase in water vapor in the atmosphere due to the clouds' presence: KT = KT (1 + .
4.The attenuation factor.2 for the KT computation.. is plotted: The results for different values of n and for each of the "Standard Climatic Areas" previously mentioned (i. -. for each of the KT values already computed) are reported below. 5.e.35. for a Standard Atmosphere and using eq.3 94 . obtained from eq.
) 95 .cD to -j C: z rD z .L C: Ir) C: u13 z U !-(3 M/KG) cj - ' -- 12.0 .6 TIME (HRS.
C.5 M/KG) E = 0.- CO CD Cz LU =4 =4 a: n: C. 96 .r. 2?) (SQ. z K T = 3.50 7 (RDIM) (ROIM) (ROIM) RODIM) (RDIM) < X = 0..75 X 7 = 1.00 o o 6 TIME HRS. 25 + Xl = 0.xl10 . K LLJ Cu CU = KT (1 + 0.00 A 1 = 0.
281) K T = 3.75 X = 1.5 (SQ.00 c: A + < X 7 = 0.50 1 = 0. I 0 . (RDIM) M/KG) Cl '1 = 0.6 TIME (HRS.) CD I-C -4 CD cr Lrz V z --- TO CZ an (rD K TO = KT (1.5x10 .25 '1 = 0. 0 to - 0 U.CD 0.00 [(RDIM) (ROIM) (RDIM) (RDIM) 0 .) 97 . + 0.
Theoretically.or microclimatic approximation. they should be determinable (by computation or measurement) in a relatively simple and economic way. to the meteorological parameters. determinable.. 98 .g.2 Microclimatic approximation For a meso. the higher will be the precision of the model. their measurement should generally be already available (e. It is evident that the number of parameters considered may be as high as required.1. in order to be able to use a physical model. Nevertheless. the KT computation should be strictly related.5. or at least. because data have been developed for other purposes). obviously. all the parameters considered should be determined and. since those parameters-here called meteorological parameters (to enhance their dependency with respect to time and location)--are nothing more than all those factors that qualitatively and quantitatively describe the components of the atmosphere as concerns their interaction with the electromagnetic beam. in an explicit form. the higher the number of factors considered. Furthermore.
permanent gases. and alternative ways of computation have been indicated. the simplest possible approach has been used.e. With these criteria in mind. as concerns the complexity. etc. trying different methodologies of correlation.Records of meteorological data are extremely rare. even when they imply an appreciable drop in precision. and amount of polluting agents and dispersers. KT will be expressed as a function of the standard components of the atmosphere. Therefore. that relatively complete physical models are rather sensitive to a lack of strong approximation on the values of the input data needed. fog. This is rather hard to accomplish with clouds. as concerns the availability and significance of data. a general criterion for the microclimatic correlation has beeneadopted: implement as complete a model as possible but keep it always compatible with the meteorological input data "generally" available. It has been noticed. In these cases. amount of water. precision. or for the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere. i. and imprecise. and cost of necessary measurements. than simpler models for which the input data are available with a certain precision and extension. such as haze. incomplete.. dust. Thus: 99 . They often appear to be less precise. even drastically so.
A nonlinear dependence of KT with respect to the water vapor present in the atmosphere has been found. Ar. water vapor. local factors) The following form will be used: P3 KT = P1 + P2 w + P4 p (5. etc. obtained for S/D = 1 and no "pollution" : 100 . p= It is well known [47-49] (see Chapter 3) that water vapor exerts a considerable influence on atmospheric absorbance.K T = KT (standard components.) w= P2 = amount of precipitable water intensive factor of depletion due to precipi table water P3 = intensive factor of depletion due to precipi table water P4 = A_ intensive factor of depletion due to "local" factors extensive factor representing depletion due to "local" factors. 03. 02.3) where: p1 = depletion due to permanent components of the atmospheric gas (N2. as may be seen from the following tabulation. and therefore on the radiative energy flux depletion.
These phenomena could be modeled with relative accuracy. here defined as the "local" factor. related to aerosol presence. it will also be hard to just tabulate the factor .. As a matter of fact. 40 3.50 0.mm H2 0 10 5 0 1.. should take into consideration all these phenomena of the interaction of the electromagnetic beam with the atmosphere components.. the analytical expression of eq.89 0. consistent with the general ideas of this work..32 0. dust..87 1 1.3 takes it into consideration in a satisfactory approach...98 0.. The introduction of an "integral" term as concerns the effect of the permanent gases of the atmosphere. haze. theoretically justified. 5.. and should not pose any problem.73 ..76 20 2... The factor p... that justifies such an approximation.. fog.82 10 2.82 0......67 KT Eo/ES ~~~~~ As concerns the precipitable water term..69 60 3. 101 . etc.. is coherent.58 0. and it is only the above-mentioned lack of data needed for the definition of the modeled system.
Once P1 has been obtained. considering the meteorological data records "generally" available. 4.29. 5. This relation is believed to be the most precise and realistic obtainable. the factors P2 and p3 are obtained. considering a real atmosphere on a particular clear day with no clouds or polluting agents. Furthermore. 4. thus showing a physical content and a non.907 Recalling the definition of the integral transparency coefficient from eqs.26 and 4. and setting w and p equal to zero in eq.3. 5. 102 .(totally) empirical formulation.910 0.3 permit the obtaining of a satisfactory relation between KT and the atmospheric parameters. recalling eq. The integral transparency coefficient for a dry and clean atmosphere on a clear day with no clouds is known to be: after Kastrov [51-52] International Radiation Commission (1956) after Sivkov  0.915 0. assuming p equals zero.Both the form and the parameters considered in eq. the factor P1 may be easily computed (or verified).29. using a best-fitting procedure (least-square regression technique). it appears to be quite independent from the geographic location to which it is applied.
T. Measured values of precipitable water for the U.00 and 12.00 hours.40) - Kg (5. is reported in Appendix A3. The sensitivity analysis of KT with respect to the three parameters.For the moment. Under these circumstances. using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and elementary concepts of physics of the atmosphere.M. pi. and temperature values.40 -5 K = 10 (1. 5. is reported below for different values of w. at 0.S. G.3 may be rewritten as: -5 . extrapolated (or multiplied by a 1. eq. using the "spider" graph technique. needs to be elaborated and.3 will be considered without the "pollution" (or "local") factor p. and p2 and p3 values correspond to a smooth best-fitting. dew point (or relative humidity). P2 and p3.15 factor). The basic raw data generally up to 500 mbars. eq. and on a first approximation.00 + .4) where the amount of precipitable water is expressed in millimeters. 103 . 5. An alternative way to compute the amount of precipitable water from pressure.40 w 40) [m 2K-(. accomplished with southern European data. are available on the basis of two balloon measurements per day. sometimes.
O a 00 104 .
0 CD .00 106 .
00 107 .0 C .
dl 00 108 .
0 a 109 .
(10-5( 1. + . 4. which computes the energy flux density for noncloudy days.4). may be rewritten as: 4 E = E5 exp[.30. is reported below. following eq. 5.4 w' ) A0 A1(h))] (5. 110 .5) A self-explanatory example output of the E computation. eq.Taking into consideration the explicit form of KT (given in eq. 5.5.
z Ek E- w u 04 H a40.4 2u Me r rI .5 1i 111 . 54 -C m C P II II ~- z . ' H0 0 li ~Ii 0 . C 54 C Ui :3J >sz 2z tr _ a W1 ZU tw H 12. I-i U.4J U. .3 z 0 E: 0 -C rII i. - WI E-4 5. H 31 E 3 .r II >4 J '. . U.41.i2 4 ..5 E tI >4 r: 4 E w -4 i U..i I = "I u 2t II :3 3 i I C a' E~in II II II II II II I * e _ O 11 E-a '. W _it w r . I C.e t :a3:O 01 '. 3: 1 En2 1 L. t>.Y a 0 0 _i a C z . H Z rm _ > wr E 3 .4 0 t. H0 2 0 aa raj 0 U. C2 t^. a E.4 Eclr C3 F.4 Hc rY a' 54 >4 m O r o tn X _a Ifef E-1 U 74 4 -I ?4 0 r. 54 3c .4 Z* _4 54 C r 0 L~~~~~' . a 04 _i H a' i U EiN r.U.' ii A 0 2 -4 -a r. * ). WII fa X.I II II II II -CI II II I I N o H 2 00 Ek t4 cn 20 b U. .
* * . 0 I I - . * *1 UlA *- (N (N 0 *.3 I 3 I3 4 Co Y. bc - LL n A L L L ( L LA L A I I * n r e * L N r * II * * * 0 N = .C I I C N * * t (I LA ro o -. 0._J -' % t3 FA1 0 00 . F g :I I o a o-1 - o----- 3 N * A = . O N O U* _ f9 N ! If0 CH 13 W . = ~ :. '~ - In 0% on I- X 0 0 W- 0 LA eLA FLA e LA 1 zr __ tNJ _b _ O~N~_ 4 ( tN _ _ ts9 _ - tr _ _ tq _ _ _ H ~ m_ _ ~_ - ~_ o0 _ =W . -C M 1 P.3 : t · I~ I(b I 0- d i~r Clba~nr 0* f 109 % I0 . 3 0 V Ln C 2. 0 0 tN 0 x ' Q 1: . m .N N N N N 4 fN N 4 b. z E- .4 W W - o '3 1- * Ul ID * F. - W ul l- C -4 0 = IC En J 6 N~~~~~~~O~~~~~~n b F N ~ ~ -2._ _ I ~ O _ _- 0_ _ 0__ .4 I .) z ~--44 = v: W -4 F'. . 0 ' * eN * N A *0 -0 N 0 . 0 r.4 0 a0 O 0 0 a IC 13 Z I I I I I _ -_ _- _- _- _. * En3 01 L' "I i--- r- r4 11 cm E-4 .- _ 0_ O 033 . a. *.NI. 4 cocm ( 112 . % 0 els L C C O -5 C 0% 19 e5 N N 1. LA L Inr v.0 '0. _- _ _ _- _ - i I I * I I = . L4 i- 0- 0 N _ _ a..r I--. cia4 . (N N - F4 C4 C - E. 9 - LA a0 . Oc · > A Io co G % 0 o _ 0 LA 19 I 1 If oa O a DO 4 O .I W m 0-4 W.. * * LA M LA _.-------_-_-__ 43 -4 94 1 u) WI LA 0 0 eD 0v 0 0 ** * O 0 LA 0 * _* tn 0 * N LA 0 * Ln 0 :t * Ln 0 @ IA LA 0 * %0 L 0 S a: * r4l LA * C N A LA UL N LA t% :r L 9 0 N 0 r._ ' I I z.. V) 3 0o 000 0 ' 0cn D0 * W4 Q.
the normal to the surface coincides with the zenith. the density of energy flux on the horizontal (Lambert's Law) can be directly derived: E = ES exp[. h (see Chapter 2). only for the horizontal plane: Thus.Recalling that eq.6) where: e = angle between the beam's direction and the normal to the surface being considered (often called zenith angle) It should be noted. therefore the same symbol will be used when computing the density of energy flux for any surface. recalling the definition of the altitude of the Sun. and cos(e) = sin(h) (5. 5. 5.5 furnishes the value of the density of energy flux (watts per square meter). as concerns eq.7) The symbol E0 has been extensively used throughout this work to represent a density of energy flux. that as concerns the horizontal surface. This implies a slight alteration in the physical meaning of the vector energy flux density.KT AO Al (h)] cos(6) (5.6. it is immediately seen that the altitude and the zenith are complementary angles. since the 113 .
both for E on the horizontal (eq. 114 . 5.6) (energy flux density on the horizontal) and E0 ortogonal to the beam's direction (eq.5. The results are reported below. the latter will affect the KT computation--atmospheric attenuation "constant") for four different hours of the day. 5. The "spider" technique sensitivity analysis is applied to eqs. and the E0 sensitivity is analyzed with respect to the atmospheric pressure and the amount of precipitable water values (the first independent variable will affect the A0 computation--density integral.6 and 5. 5.4. 5. using the expression of KT furnished by eq.flux density of a vectorial magnitude is always computed through a surface perpendicular to the vector.5) (energy flux density).
C C 00 115 .
O Ca 116 .
00 118 .o II .
- 119 .
0 a 120 .
00 121 ..
123 . appears in the latter equation but not in the former. 5.4 differs from eq.3 in that the parameter p. It then accounts for a maximum of approximately 20 percent of the KT value.5-. A tentative tabulation of the local factor will be attempted. using available experimental data.4. of . The "spider" technique sensitivity analysis is applied to eq. and the E sensitivity is analyzed with respect to the parameters P1. P 2.6 10 .5. and P3. The order of magnitude of the importance of the term p 4p has been previously mentioned to have a maximum. called "local" factor. 5. using the expression of KT furnished by eq. in normal -5 conditions. for different values of the amount of precipitable water. 5. and the correspondent p4 "importance" (intensive) factor will be determined.Equation 5.
o00 125 .
CO C 00 126 .
00o 127 .
00 128 .
00 -80.00 00 129 .00 -60.i-100.
2. an "integral" approach. Therefore. through an intensive factor (albedo) and an extensive factor (minutes of sunshine per interval of time). in order to construct a physical model of the interaction itself. as deep as the available measured data allowed. and minimum in the subtropics. the clouds strongly deplete the radiation beam through diffusion (and absorption). even assuming that a sensible amount of data on the clouds are available. was almost impossible to accomplish.5. It should be stressed that the clouds' presence strongly affects the precision of any model. There it was stressed that. as large particles are strong light scatterers. cloud cover is maximum at high latitudes and in the tropics. It has also been pointed out how a "differential" (punctual) approach to this interaction. has been attempted.1 Macroclimatic approximation  Worldwide. 130 The global mean . 5.2 QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF THE CLOUD PRESENCE The dynamics of the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and the clouds have been described in Chapter 3.
2. with the accuracy permitted by the available data.1. using eq. quarterly and for "Standard Climatic Areas. most measurement techniques and terminology have been determined by the world Meteorological Organization.31 and the global mean cloud cover is 0. 131 . These values are quoted only as reference. Since one of the fundamental climatic This variables is the global mean temperature.2 Microclimatic approximation l Cloud information.albedo is 0. but clearly cannot be adopted in any model. The measurement of the minutes of sunshine per interval time may be a particularly simple relevation and.35 and the macroclimatic values of KT furnished in Subsection 5.53.2. for every region and climatic area. is due to the great interest that meteorologists have in climate models. which depends on the global albedo. More precise data. are available for many locations. generally. 5. an important part of which depends itself on the clouds. a relatively complete set of cloud data is "generally" available. although aleatory. 4." are available and should be used for largely approximated computations [55-59]. is generally available. predominant cloud types. more realistic computations may be achieved. Computing albedo as indicated in the next section.
6 7. considering nine cloud layers.6 7. CLOUD TYPE Supersaturation Supersaturation Supersaturation Supersaturation Supersaturation\ Penetrating convection Middle-level convection Low-level convection LAYER 2 3 4 5. numbered from 1 to 9 from top to bottom. cirrus might be considered as having an optical thickness of 1.8. under these criteria.0.The parametrization of clouds assumed in this work will be the one adopted by the GISS Model . the short-wave optical thickness is defined a priori from observations. The tabulation of the different cloud types and optical thicknesses. equally spaced in sigma coordinates.9 4-9 5. ceteris paribus.8 ANALOGY Cirrus* " Altostratus* " Stratus Cumulonimbus Altocumulus Cumulus OPTICAL THICKNESS 1 2 4 6 8 32 8 16 *Depending on the available data. of the analogous types of clouds. is given below.5 and altostratus as having an optical thickness of 5. For each layer. 132 .
Environmental Data and Information Service. at least.13 T) (5. This information is being furnished now only to give an idea of the availability of the required data. once the optical thicknesses of the different cloud types are derived from the previous tabulation. U.S. 57 on a simulation of the January climatology.** The minutes of sunshine per interval time (or the percent of the celestial dome covered by clouds--although this factor gives a lower precision in the calculation) should be known on an hourly or. based on the scattering theory : a = 0.13 T/(1 + 0. on a daily basis. Department of Commerce. The n factor is *From now on the "Analogies" of the previous tabulation will be defined as "cloud types. and the obtained results appear to be realistic .C.The albedo for the various analogies of the different cloud types* is computed from an approximate formula. 133 ." **The information needed under this hypothesis of calculation is--or will be--furnished by the data recorded on the SOLMET tapes.8.8) This is the parametrization used in ref. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. prepared by the U. Asheville. National Climatic Center. Therefore.A. 5. The analysis of the SOLMET data will be discussed further in this chapter.S. the cloud albedo will be computed using eq.. N.
if the percent of sky cover is used. both in FORTRAN and uniform format. 134 . Details on the acquisition systems are described in the National Weather Service Observing Handbook No. units [61. because SOLMET now retrieves data from the "New National Weather Service network and cooperators. however. beginning in the early 1950s and ending in the mid-1970s. "Solar Radiation Observations. It will be complete.-the minutes of sunshine should be known on an hourly basis. 3. Historical data are available." here indicated as reference . therefore. furnish records of solar radiation and "related" periodical (hourly or tri-hourly) meteorological measurements in S.particularly sensitive to the minutes of sunshine per interval time information and.3 SOLMET .I. 5.62]. The data collection is not complete and the amount of information varies from station to station and with respect to time for each datum." A description of SOLMET data and relative format is reported in Appendix A4.METEOROLOGICAL DATA SOLMET tapes.
and iii.e. see Appendix A4) and amount of clouds in tenths. 135 . i. The meteorological data given in SOLMET tapes (see Appendix A4) cover 222 stations in the United States. if needed. converted into degrees Kelvin (adding 273.16) or degrees Rank ine). from rehabilitated  observed hourly hemispherical and hourly direct energy fluxes. i. temperatures are given in degrees Celsius.S..Due to incoherencies in calibration and problems in instrumentation. As concerns the cloud cover and the clouds the SOLMET also reports visual evaluations (see Appendix A4) of: i. Pressure values are in kPa.. tenths of celestial dome covered by clouds or obscuring phenomena through which the sky or the higher cloud layers are invisible. total sky cover. tenths of celestial dome covered by clouds. cloud types (14 different indexes. ii. at the moment. are available. for the visible part of each of the four layers considered. to be. total opaque sky cover. . only modeled ("regression" techniques) direct hourly energy flux.e. dry-bulb temperature and dew-point readings are made every three hours. The pressure. for 27 stations in the U. they should be converted into N m-2 (multiplying by a factor of 10).
T 8 12 16 32 6 (lower layers) 4 (higher layers) 8 2 (lower layers) 1 (higher layers) 2 8 16 32 28 8 2 . as an input tape. as follows: TAPE FIELD No.M.M. 209 . classification is an outgrowth of a system published in 1803 in England by E.O.Since the model considers the cloud types classified in the synoptic table of Subsection 5.2. **The present W. 136 .TAPE CONFIGURATION 02-15 SOLMET CLASSIF ICATION 2 = Stratus* 3 = Stratocumulus* 4 = Cumulus* 5 = Cumulonimbus* 6 = Altostratus* 7 = Altocumulus* 8 = Cirrus* 9 = Cirrostratus* 10 = Stratus fractus* 11 = Cumulus fractus* 12 = Cumulonimbus mamma* 13 = Nimbostratus* 14 = Altocumulus castellanus* 15 = Cirrocumulus* ASSUMED OPTICAL DEPTH. Recalling the classification of the clouds. to the model here discussed.O. adopted by the W. S *Cloud definition in Appendix A5. Howard and reviewed by Renoud and Hildebrandsson. if SOLMET has to be interfaced. the cloud types furnished by SOLMET will have to be reduced to the cloud types considered in the model. SOLMET cloud type data have been regrouped.2.** (and reported in Appendix A5).
A. from the U. this refers to the second sheet of the daily surface weather observation records. In Appendix A6 the analogic data record format is presented.S.S." Most of the available solar data for the U. and through the New National Weather Service network members or cooperators as concerns solar measurements (accomplished following an improved. Post-1975 experimental values have not yet been implemented in SOLMET format. however.A. A legend for reading and interpreting the data is also furnished. Dept. in an analogic form. of Commerce. National Weather Service as concerns all surface weather observations.. The related solar data situation. They are available. 137 . standardized. in logical or analogical form. and strict methodology). This is clear if it is understood that SOLMET tapes are a digitized source of practically all available data.In the beginning of this section. it was stated that SOLMET furnishes digitized meteorological data until approximately 1975. mainly in that values furnished have been modeled or "massaged. N. and for the period actually covered by SOLMET data present this problem.O. is somewhat critical. though.
using an "analytical" approach.4 SUMMARY AND MODEL INPUT DATA Since the availability of input data has been one of the main concepts discussed throughout this work.4. 138 .O.6. under different operation options of the model.M.2. and 2. values of the geometric parameters of the Earth's orbit. both for a clear atmosphere and for an atmosphere with clouds. a few words will now be devoted to the qualitative analysis of the data needed. 2.1 Energy flux density in a clear atmosphere (no clouds) Equation 4.1. 5. ES: Daily values of ES are computed through equations 1. AO.8 percent  to provide a value on absolute scale. The sensitivity analysis of all parameters involved in the computation has been performed in the previous chapters.5. assuming the solar "constant" to be 1377 W m -2* and the W.30 computes the energy flux density as a function of E. KT. and Al(h). *Computed from the recommended values in reference  adjusted upwards 1.
if eq. As an alternative. 5.3 is used).1. at least daily values of precipitable water should be known (ithas been already pointed out that two daily readings are generally available--see Subsection 5.2--for a large amount of locations in the United States and throughout the world). inserting quarterly values for the amount of precipitable water and local factor (taking into consideration.KT: For a macroclimatic approximation. the ensity 139 . eq. KT is expressed as a function of precipitable water.1 may be used. and from consistent dry-bulb and dew-point temperatures. For a microclimatic approximation. that the maximum value of the term P4P is 0. Equation 5.5 10-5).1. from hourly (or daily) values of the atmospheric pressure. again. Ao: For a macroclimatic approximation.4 (or 5. w (or precipitable water and "local" factor p. for the latter. In this approximation. the KT values furnished in Subsection 5.4 must be used and. 5. as reported in Appendix A3. the amount of precipitable water may be computed.5) may also be considered. Measurements of these three "state" parameters of the atmospheric conditions are available on both SOLMET tapes and analogic sheets provided by the National Weather Service.
35 computes the energy flux density as a function of E S K. as defined in It may be Section 4.integral value for the Standard Atmosphere.2. as a function of the zero elevation atmospheric pressure and temperatures and the station elevation). is a strictly "astronomical" parameter. as a function of the Sun's altitude. . 4.10 as a function of the latitude. as a function of the atmospheric pressure (for a zero station elevation). If the equivalent height of the atmosphere is known (and if the station is at an altitude superior to a few hundred meters). The Sun's altitude is expressed in eq.18. may be used. 2. A0. For this approximation. Al(h): The relative atmospheric mass. computed for every instant from eq.8 (or from eq. given in Section 4.8. For a microclimatic approximation.4.3). A(h). h. and of the pole angle (computed as a time function from eq. and a. A0 may be computed from eq. 4. 4. 2. of the declination (computed daily from eq. c.11. 4.2 Energy flux density for an atmosphere with clouds Equation 4. 5.11). the A computation should be performed on an hourly basis. 140 .1. the density integral may be computed again from eq. 2.
35.2--format description in Appendix A6). 4.3 Energy Flux The energy flux (J m-2) computation is performed by numerical integration of eqs." For a microclimatic approximation.1. c may be computed from eq.34. see Section 4.2. either from SOLMET recordings (as indicated in Section 5. c is computed through eq. average (yearly) values of the albedo may be used. 4. a: For a macroclimatic approximation.34 (or as a function of n.The first four parameters are computed as indicated in Subsection 5.4). For a microclimatic approximation. 4. Average (quarterly) values of S/D (or n) may be used.2.8.2--format description in Appendix A4) or from the analogic format of the data furnished by the National Weather Service (as indicated in Section 5.30 or 4. hourly (daily) values of the albedo should be computed from eq.3. 5.4. using hourly (or daily) values of S/D. 141 .4. and Subsection 5. either for the world or for "Standard Climatic Areas. 5. c: For a macroclimatic approximation.3 and in Subsection 5.
17. low quality. which is equal or inferior to 900. 2.10) where: D = geometrical day length [hours]. will be the instants of geometrical sunrise and sunset. e. from eq.9) (5. or "low frequency" meteorological data available) and six intervals per hour (microclimatic approximation. and "frequency" of meteorological data). but the start of the computation of the meteorological correlation functions (and energy density flux) should coincide with the first value of the zenith angle. The computation will end for the next value of e 142 .D/2 sunset = tf = 12 + D/2 [hours] [hours] (5. For an arbitrary slant surface. The intervals of integration.The optimal integration interval will depend on the climatic option adopted (macro or micro) and on the frequency and quality of the meteorological data available. for computing the energy flux on the horizontal. the computation of the astronomical parameters should be made starting from ti. as follows: sunrise = ti = 12 . computed. it should be between a maximum of one interval per hour (macroclimatic approximation. acceptable quality. However.
2. and 2. 2.14 as a function of the Sun's altitude).superior to 90.5).11 as a function of the time. 2.13.12. 2. 143 . the Sun's azimuth (computed from eqs. declination-day. and latitude).19 as a function of the Sun's altitude (computed from eq.18 and 2. the surface inclination and orientation angles (as defined in Section 2. The zenith angle is computed from eqs.
a radiometric scale. Units of Measure In photometric measurements. Obviously. etc. it is sometimes convenient to take into consideration values in photometric units of the parameters. However. ii. a photometric scale. taking into account the sensitivity of the human eye through the International Curb of Sensitivity. which tends to define the various physical parameters in "energy" terms. correlation are presented. i.. as concerns most solar energy applications. the main interest is focused on the energy content-visible or not-of the radiation.APPPENDIX Al IRRADIANCE: DEFINITIONS AND UNITS OF MEASURE 1.. That is why both scales aiia their 144 . two metric scales are widely used: i. which tends to define the various physical parameters in terms of a conventional amount of radiation (light).e. analysis of materials employed. for some particular cases.
UNITS) . . . or an imaginary surface: E = dw/dA E is measured in watts per square meter [W m-2 ].1. or emitted. an emitter. It is often useful to consider: . I is measured in joules EJ].radiative flux.I. R: unit solid angle: the radiative flux per 145 . or that crosses an imaginary surface: w = dI/dt w is measured in watts [W].1 RADIOMETRIC SCALE (S. w: the amount of radiative energy per unit time received. I: the amount of energy prespnt in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Radiative energy.radiative energy intensity. E: the amount of radiative energy per unit time that passes through the unit srface of a receiver.density of radiative flux.
R = dw/dw = d2I/(dw dt) R is measured in watts per steradiant [W ster-1]. B: per unit area: the light intensity emitted 146 .brillance of a surface.radiance. or the intensity per unit normal area: B = dI/dA B is measured in watts per steradian per square meter [W ster. R: solid angle: the light flux emitted per unit R = dw/dw where w is the conventional amount of light [lumen] irradiated by a source per unit time. .light intensity. per unit normal area.1 m-2]. 1. R is measured in candles [cd]. .2 PHOTOMETRIC SCALE . B: the flux per unit solid angle.
. the light flux (photometric) with the radiative flux (radiometric) and often called the "light efficiency.B = dR/dAe B is measured in candles per square meter [cd m-2]. E: unit area: the light incident flux per E = dw/dAi E is measured in lux [lux]. V(x). 147 . furnishes the visibility curve. The sensitivity factor.luminance of a surface.1] where K(x) has a maximum of x = 5. defined as the ratio between K(x) and K(5.550)." is defined by: K(x) = Wp/W r [lm W.550 A. A coefficient that correlates to a given source.
the molecules will absorb energy (resonance).coefficient of transmission. The transmissivity is defined as the fractional part of *Although absorptivity and reflectivity are generally defined in terms of a surface. In a very simplified approach.emissivity.2. we might say that if the state of oscillations (frequency) of the molecules of the gas is compatible with the frequency of the radiation. they may be considered also in terms of the atmosphere. Reflectivity might be justified by stating that in a gas.* (or albedo. Definitions Several dimensionless parameters that define the radiative properties of materials are introduced. reflection phenomena are due to the back-scattering components. it is also dependent on the incidence angle. . . . 148 . T: the ratio between the radiative flux transmitted by a body and the incident radiative flux. .reflectivity.absorptivity. : the ratio between the radiative flux emitted by a body and the radiative flux emitted by a blackbody under the same conditions. a): the ratio between the radiative flux reflected by a body and the incident radiative flux.* a: the ratio between the radiative flux absorbed by a body and the incident radiative flux.
Obviously these coefficients vary between 0 and 1. They are strongly dependent also on the wavelength of the radiation. For every wavelength: p(k) + T(X) + a(X) = 1 149 .the radiation transmitted through the medium per unit of distance (or mass) along the path of the radiant beam.
APPENDIX A2 RADIATION LAWS APPLIED TO COMPUTATION OF SOLAR ENERGY FLUXES 1. Lambert's Law This Law states that the amount of radiation emitted or absorbed by the unit surface in the unit time is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle formed between the beam's direction and the normal to the surface--emitter or absorber. In analytical form: E(e) = E(n) cos(e) where: E(e) = density of radiative flux in the direction e[W m-2] E(n) = density of radiative flux in the direction n [W m-2]. 150 .
£ = . it is given by the following relation* (in terms of power).85.e. Stefan-Boltzmann's Law has been initially stated for a perfect radiator. i. Kirchoff's Law Essentially.72 10 [W m-2 °K-4] Earth and Sun are "greybodies..85. this Law states that the emissivity is a function of wavelength and temperature and that. (W/A)2 = (X) T4 [W m 2 ] where: a = -8 Stefan-Boltzmann's constant = 5. 151 .. for a given *Actually. for which = 1. 3. blackbody. Stefan-Boltzmann's Law This Law states that the quantity of radiant thermal emission from a unit area surface in the unit time into a 2steredian solid angle is a function of the absolute temperature.e. i.2." and their "greybody factor" is roughly .
T) For instance.3806 10-23 K-1] 152 . following the relation: x(Ema) = C1 T max where: C1 = constant* = 2.1 First Wien's Law This Law states that the wavelength correspondent to the maximum emission of radiative energy depends only upon the absolute temperature of the radiator.T) = ((x.wavelength and temperature. the emissivity equals the absorptiv ity.9651 K) where: h = Planck's constant = 6. 4. In analytical form: c(x. clouds weakly absorb--and emit--the visible and ultraviolet radiation but strongly absorb--and emit (almost as a blackbody)--the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth. *Actually. C1 = hc/(4.899 10-6 [m K].626 10 34 [J sec] c "light speed" = 3 108 [m sec-l K = Boltzmann's constant = 1.
Second Wien's Law
This Law states that the maximum of the emission power on the semispace-that happens at the wavelength determined by the First Wien's Law--grows proportionally to the fifth power of the absolute temperature:
E(x max ,T)max max
-6 12.61 10 T5
5. Planck's Law
This Law furnishes the spectral distribution of the radiative energy emitted by a blackbody radiator, for a unit surface and per unit time, as a function of its temperature:
E(x,T) = 2
-5 [exp[h c/(x K T)] - 1]-1
E(x,T) = 3.719 10 16
-5 [exp[0.014/(x T)] - 1]-1
-16 and 0.014 are known as the where x is in meters. 3.719 10 first and second radiation constants, respectively.
Actually, Planck's Law is a compendium of all the irradiance laws:
i. By integration between x = 0 and x = , the Stefan-Boltzmann's Law is obtained; ii. By setting its derivative with respect to x equal to zero, First Wien's Law is obtained; iii. The relation obtained by substituting E(xmax, T)max onto the first term of its analytical expression and max onto the second term, Second Wien's Law is obtained.
APPENDIX A3 COMPUTATION OF THE AMOUNT OF PRECIPITABLE WATER AND OF THE EQUIVALENT HEIGHT OF THE ATMOSPHERE
It will be assumed that the gases that constitute the atmosphere behave as perfect gases. Thus, for each:*
Pi Vi = Ri T
. . .
Pi T vi Ri = partial pressure [N m-2] = temperature [K]
3 - ] = specific volume [m Kg 1 2 = specific gas content of the i-th gas [m s- 2
The R i gas constant is related to the molar gas constant, R, and the molecular weight of the i-th gas, M i by the relation:
*Equation of a perfect gas.
According to Dalton's Law:*
If v is the specific volume of dry air (i.e., the volume of one kilogram of air) and if m i is the mass of the i-th gas in one kilogram of dry air, then:
v. = 1 mi
Substituting in eq. A3.1, summing, and from eq. A3.3:
Pi = v PD = T E
mi R i
Define RD as:
n RD = E m R i i=l From eqs. A3.5, A3.3, and A3.6, the following may be written:
*". .. the pressure of the mixture equals the sum of the partial pressures."
1] Moist air is a mechanical mixture of dry air and water vapor. 157 .2.PD v = RD T (A3. RD = 287 2 [m sec .8) partial pressure [N m-2 ] 3 [m Kg. A3. vw = specif. Although the atmospheric temperatures are lower than the critical temperatures of water vapor. the gas constant of dry air may be Thus: computed when the composition of the atmosphere is known. From eq.1] 2 [m sec . A3.2 deg-1]. volume Rw = "water" vapor constant From eq. it will be assumed that the physical properties of water vapor approximate those of a perfect gas. Rw may be computed: Rw = 461 2 [m sec.7 is formally known as the equation of state of dry air. Thus the equation of state of water vapor can be written as: Pw Vw = Rw T where: Pw = (A3.2.2 deg 1].2 deg.7) Equation A3.
The equation of state of the dry fraction of the moist air may be written as: ) (PM .2. of the moist air.10) where: v = volume of kilograms of water and (1 . From eq.a) kilograms of dry air.10 and A3.11: 158 .8 and A3. VD. A3. v. vw. and water vapor.9. A3. the following may be derived: Rw/RD = 1.12 into eqs.Pw VD = RD T (A3. are: vD = v/(1 .12) By substituting eqs.S) V = V/a (A3.608 [adimensional] (A3. A3.The dry air and the water vapor are uniformly distributed within the entire volume. the specific volumes of dry air.9) (A3. A3.11) where: PM = total pressure of moist air [N m 2] Pw = partial pressure of water vapor [N m2].
159 . (A3.16) where: RM = RD (1 + 0. the concept of virtual temperature.608 R T (A3. T.15) Equation A3. A3.608 a)) and the equation of the state of moist air may be written in terms of the dry air gas constituent.15 is known as the equation of state of moist air.14) Adding eqs.13) (PM . a.608 a). is introduced (T = T(1 + .a) = RD T (A3. It may be rewritten as:* PM v = RM T (A3.14 gives: PM v = T RD (1 + 0.13 and A3.17) It should be stressed that RM is a function of the air humidity.608 a) (A3.Pw PwaD = 1.P) vl/(1 . This is often done in meteorological applications. *If the factor (1 + 608 ) is considered to affect the temperature term.
Recalling eq. and the air humidity.Defining the mixing ratio as the ratio of the mass of water vapor per unit volume to the mass of dry air per unit volume.18) The difference between the mixing ratio and a is very small. From this definition and from equations A3. A3. A3.8 (equation of state of water vapor). the equation of state of moist air (eq.19) Therefore.17) may be rewritten as: 160 .11 (equation of state of the dry fraction of moist air) and eq.11. MR.S and A3. the mixing ratio may be expressed as follows: MR = (RD/Rw)(Pw/(P . A3. its numerical value will equal the amount of water vapor per unit mass of dry air.Pw)) (A3. the relation between the mixing ratio. a. may be simply derived: MR - 1-a (A3.
Washington. The partial pressure of the water vapor in the gas mixture may be computed. It will be assumed that dry-bulb temperature and pressure are known. using the following numerical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation:* logoP = 10. such as relative humidity.10-8.02808 log10(TSK/TDp (A3.1] *From the Smithsonian Institution.1) ] + 0. The amount of humidity will be considered through the dew-point "temperature.21) P) ) + 1. 2 9692 (TDp/TsK .20) 1.TSK/TDp) + 5.50474 10-4[1 .608 MR) (A3. Precipitable water computation With all these concepts established.2195983 .2. computation of the amount of precipitable water may be attempted.TSK/TDp) .RM = R D (1 + 0. might be used. 161 .42873 10-3[10 4' 769 551( . D.C." although other parameters.79586(1 .
TDBK = station dry-bulb temperature Recalling the concept of "equivalent height of the atmosphere. Recalling eq. units will be implicitly assumed from now on.16 [K] [K].21 furnishes Pw in atmospheres. TDp = station dew-point "temperature" Note that eq.8." the amount of precipitable water may be computed from the following relation: w = w Hw w where: w = amount of precipitable water [mm] (A3. its conversion into S.where: Pw = partial pressure of water vapor [atm] TSK = 283.3] [K]. the water vapor density may be computed as: Pw = Pw/(Rw TDBK) (A3.23) 162 . A3. A3.22) where: PW = water vapor density [Kg m.I.
A dimensional analysis will help to understand eq.Hw = "water vapor scale height" of the atmosphere Pw = water vapor density [m] [Kg m-3 ]. Due to complete ignorance of the even low atmospheric movements here assumed. pressure. follow: 163 . A3. reported in Chapter 5.] = [dm3m 2] = [106mm3 10mm-2] = mm The "water vapor scale height" of the atmosphere (or the equivalent height of the atmosphere generally adopted in those applications) is two kilometers. and experimental precipitable water daily values are available. Recalling that 1 kg of water = 1 liter of water = 1 dm3 of water. the precision of this calculation is low.23. Seasonally optimized values for different "Standard Meteorological Areas" have previously been computed. The results of the amount of precipitable water computation for a location at which temperatures. final results may be obtained with an error range of 40 percent. The consequent error of the E0 computation may be immediately derived from the sensitivity analysis plottages.23 would be: -3 -2 3-2 6 3 6 2 2 [Kg m m3] = [Kg m . A3. the dimensional analysis of eq.
I t v< P) W -= 54 V e EL~d 2 W4 ow Oa nz bia~ EIi = 0U OH bi M3 G2 ad 0E 4 - A r 2 C 3a 34.I a 54 3 = a UG IC t rb M rn-a <1 ra .U . H c U a . a c E n3 2 113 or 1 11 C a a8-1 .-SJ) . 554 = a 54H inM 4 Oc a. M l i 01 ix 54 200 no 54 I H0CA.4 H 54 Eat-. ne 1 Pl=S E 01 1 E-1 C M CD .a1= Yz C = -UI v0 94 * t1n OE * 2 E0 Cffl D -4 4 E1 IMW b 6" W vI V E 1 " as W Z= . * E-4 tl.* S 4n ol 5 lowSac ad105 bH-1 2 H 2 2 12i 54 > 3 * O wI C 0 a M C 0' 0 0 L.O54 .01 -E4 O-C a a :O 4E*. H [ MCk W 4 5Z = CZ UC-4 o tn eI * o 9s1f 0 a= * j..N 4 E 43UVlra 54 4 * Iot54Z Z * 2 4 a a -Cv 2 54U 2X * 04 U - 0 * F l..1 U a. ad .
N 0 U H _ 0 o OA N 0 O LK O N *.. s c o 0c 0 C 0 C o 0 0l 0 o o O C 165 . 4 E3 ol *C. 0 a N 0 9- 9- . S _ o* iC _ s O. * o r.-. 0 N NS N N N N N N N N N N N 'a 0 ' '! O. rv . '..*W F= * o l* * * . >4 :. N ad ** U.4 II II E4 N- 0 C o 39 II It II LA r4W) N S * F~ t S . . N N I Ino '00 .. .. 0 u A 4 3I -3 0 * fN E- 4 : Oz COa C 1 o 0 0 o o o 0 0 o o o o 0 0 0 0 O 0 O 0 O O0 N 0 0 OA N la O CN 0 0 . . C L. - - I 0 : N II II 0 N 4 '0 N p- N N _J000J 06 9r- 6 o 9- . m N l LA t^ 0 M en 0% z 0% gr 0 Zs 3: e . Ln - P N m t o 'A. N.. .. ~ °EP r~ m 0 0 _ N _ \ c 0 %C o a 0) a Ln * 0 * N * N N I 0% * NN I 0 o I ~0o * NI I N * * I 0 * / . -t O tn P uli co :r . Wb4 t% *r * N a .
e I N I N I N I N I 9 e O n( 0 . .o 0 N . ^ _ 0 . a- r 0 166 .. II II 4 M3 W e a. M0* I I I I 4 N I . e * * uA 0 5% ~ ' _ 0 . . ( 0 in _ LA LA N LA LA >0 M 0 LA . . * . * 9 0\ o Lj ':0 . LJ4 Q. 04 N * *z cc L A_ N ! 0 "'~ 0 1 L Cl _. 0 0 A a- 0 n 0 0 0 . a a 03 3 064 Uz i 0 I U Ca '-4 02 -C H N * hi 3 a o 0 0 0 0 o * O 0 N 0 0 N o o o* N o 0 N 0 o N 0 0 U 14 04 o 0 0 8 o 0 0 CN 0 oo N 0 o 0 000 * iC [X O 0 N 0 *. 0 . . N r a LA o N 0 N ut c LA N N N N N N o a N N 0 *n N N _ II II 11 =.H X F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 -. V 0 N C4 N Uo N LA LA LA eN N 0 N 0 o * N J N 0 N N N N N N n _ %C Io CN N %x '~0 (V x Nv N N NN %Q r 0 N N r CC qCI N t Cl t~x N o : . . U LA %a r 5% c 0 LA ON 0% LA 0 'A 'A U z 0 X 84 w 0 I E-4 E 0 z LA N ^~~6~0 L N N LA LA 0 % 0 0 * :r 0 _a T L 0T :t * . as E-4 0 * . N * e.C4 e n G 0 LA o 0 LA 0 LM 0 LM Go Lm c Lm CI Un co t 0 Un c L co 0 4OI 4 Ef 0 N .
4 1-4 0 1%. J S~ -_ :t ~~ Is a. IL N _* '.C old=1.t 1.IC W. 0A* 9 02 . N 0 9- N 0 - 'N :r 0i W z 5 * N N II II 0 C-4 r 0 0 * 0' (N 0%0 * O_ *N | 0 H D.0 * 0% 0 LA a' 0% Ln L A 0% 0 LA) i% u0 '0 *l *0 N 0 E r. W a l 0 'D * Ln" * 0 - * - * - _ _- L 0 11 0C~. * * * I_ * * * * * 0 VS :Y m .- *. N a 0 N N 0 SMP 0 - N N 0 - ( 0 N CD 9- N 0 : N 0 -. LA O 0 0 F4 en 0 0 _ S . CA 0 14 3 0 C 0- :. W.. = II 0 0 * II I yk.:s~ ~. | 0 0 | co n | 0 - c c C a U. c 14 1. _ 0 1 CC 0 167 . 0 rn o 4 s~ CN *1 0 Ln Ui) a 9- 4S 0% . Oa Ei L) HZ h 000S X -C Q 0 > P < 14 *c m H 0 U H u or0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 o o * 0 0o 0 o * 0 0 0o 0 0 o o * 0 00 0 0 0 < .4 a N rA N N * N N * N N N N N NV 0 O N1 * * N 0 N N N t * * N * N * N N N N * U. X F Ie > XW Xcx >* H (r I * 0I Aa _ c1 We H < ti N. 0 a U W3.a -_ :. N4 %0 LA N r tr N (N N U1 (N 0 a 0 N N N W LM 0 W tn N N N N N N 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 ot N O O 0 N 0 0n 5- 0 0 - 0 O 0: 0 O O *N * 0.
4 a ICii il 11 II i1 II a 3. 'C %C r \0 4 'C 0 C: 0 C1 co 0 c 0 5 ^ S o C 0DQ en ra UM oCA 0 '.2 .o m o * 'C * un 0 " c 4 N eN N z 0 H j-4 -C 3. 0 4t 0% m ID la -* 1o a o Mn Q n <c Cy' -I e %Q 0% " 0 Da U hi D * * * * . iH _ : ~ o e. a 0 0 Ca3 :LA.o _ 0% II 2 II N N N N N N N N N N N N tz N N N N N4 N N a4 * * N N No N O = : J00o * 0 O N h0 O _0O O O O 0 O 0 0 0 0: 0 168 . . .4 4C as rLI . . o - o N M I II M I I I I I !o N I N I I I I I I "c kg .C * '0 a- 0 u U Ca 3. a: :h O 0 L * C 0 ' e N .- = (N N m '. . 0 0 * 0 OO .r - n L * ' t LA0 en o =D _ . *C . a .0 :s = ' :s. 0 . 0 0 0 * 0 OO 0 0 0 0 O O 0 a Ut hr 04 N g in Q -C * H co N. *= = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~o o O a0 -0 10a . .
. o O O * 0 0a Ca Wu 23 o 0 0 0 Cdw 0 N P1 0 G~ 1..c in CZ 4 C o o* o 0 14 0 o o 0 O 0 0 o O o o 0 0 oO O . 0 H L) C H U 0 0- en 0 0 0 Or o n 0 O O * LA Ln 0 0W0 b. LA Q . rl 0 O - N rr 0 0 rr o r P 0% L- C W P L 0 0o P. LA O * 0 -I . iOI 0 N '0 rv N P. c * . X 0 iW 0 U .. H 4 . rN NN N (1V N N N '0 N fN 4' N 0 N O o N '0 N L 4' LA Ln N N N o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o _. o o o P1 0 0 o 4 O U. .= . LA .4 0 3 bZ II II n3= E-.< L 0 in 0 in C 0 L 0 t tm 0 LAn L 0 t km tn 0 0 0 LA 0 C . P. '. H I-4 H = 0 f" 0 0 0 er N 0 11 l 0 * .1 Ut . %O - P.1= II II II O W S 1-4 C o 0 4.. N UZcc Ln 1:.4 H . 0 0 N 0 o 0 r - L - 0 N - O O0 N x 0 m s _ *N rv :tC ~ N% C C* CD *0 z O H I. 1.I : 0 G- 0 N 46 :t 0 4' LA P. r . rn . r4 3 :. . 0 l 0 9 0 C C 0 0 0 169 .0'-D cGI a.3 - - - E 3 0 t4 0 0 .. . % x C . _9 _- _ _ 9- 01 O r -'D N e N N N N NN NJ N II II P atn xQ 9 %Q \o 5-4 C4d LA N N N 4 N N CS vo R N *. 4. 0 L) * P. P. LA = 0 r.
Ad LA GI N I * * I 0 * 0 f N co N * . N LA UZ *0 -* 0 N 04 N N r N · N - N 9- * ' 0 S * 0 3 0 o N N C- N N N N . * M tLA * . r o N Sr N N N N N N N N · N 0 N N 0r N N N N H=r E UJt - o0 O * 0 0 o C0 o - O o * N O (= 0 O 0 0 u 0 0 '. Ua 0 z 2 O 3 z. 0 en . N.M uL LM LA LM tn LA Ln r Ln Ln tn · Ln LA . a r' 0 F~ a 'D r. I11. H 0 rN o Sb N O _ 0 o _ 0 * 0 a 0 S * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o 0 0 0 o o 0 0 o o o o o o o o It 0 o 414 . . 0 M *. k rE me 04 : w '. 0 - 0 - 0 - - U H H H = a o P U z 9 11 0 I.n 0 O. 0% M 0 O 0 0 0 9- 0 0 0 0 0 0 o - . co H C. O O f AJ lO =. 0 0 _ 0 0 0 *r 9 - H o .41H O4 c@ r * 0 * o% 0 _. NN _ *Nr. m U Ca * N 0 g v.0 0 Z . % *33 O en 0 N 0 0 N 0. . 0 toQ 0 ~G 0 O * C ° * o _ N el r 170 . C-4 U E E E44 x 0 P _r II II II : N N N _ -t _* * : AT I :s 12 =O E o 0 0 * 0 - 0) . m %a:_ * . in 0 in I= O 0i co o o rt L 0 IN Ln 0 N LA UZ r N LA LA z a* -._ _ .
20. There it was shown how it is possible. H may be computed from eq. for a location at a zero elevation. H may be computed as follows.] 3 [Kg m. the mixing ratio is computed from eq. A3. the moist air constant is computed from eq. However. 4. The results of the equivalent height computation. iii. Equivalent height computation The equivalent height of the atmosphere has been given in Chapter 2.7: H\= P(O)/[p(O) g) where: H = equivalent height of the atmosphere [m] P(O) = sea-level atmospheric pressure p(O) = moist air sea-level density g = acceleration of gravity 2 [N m.19.15 (the equation of state of moist air). ii. A3. are: 171 .2.]. for a location at which temperatures and pressures are known.] 2 [m s. A3. i. A. to avoid its computation for the determination of the density integral. the moist air density computation may now be performed from eq. Therefore.
'r. O V E. ep L n o o U o E ~mb W = Q 04~~~~~~~ E-4 CD : E-4 ra3 " ~ ' H 3L. _-G a~~~~~~~~~~ L ZZ a2~~~ r Zt 4 4 *e c z n X- . H a E-4 C aa s W z.o~~~~~~~~~Zi . s: w 11 11 11 .C9 O E~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-V C U:X V c 05 Z 2 E. a M3O: a OI ^uz . cc o tl E I :Mtl II = II I t-( : II a. I = l _72 dlco U= :4 5 v: 0-L~ s Z .'~ "OU s S . 3 H V1 i · 1 31 01 · ~. u a VI w da u a W a. l Z ~nZ UX z t_4z 0E Cn v =*.f. Ei ' ~ Pc ~'U=r x: ·· Z~~ Cn s ~4 rCy 44 0I Z D~ -4 - E7 C6 0 v E ~~~~~acNEAQ 41 r. :r£ 4 s 41 ~172 . <: 1. 1 a 9 < O > =u U: · a . a zO I IC w Q.~ 4 _ X~~~~~~~~E J * 3 tQ a. (0 .4 z1 ° ti =5 UZ UU O ¢ CcsY~ Zs 2 2:bo a~~~~P WU al: Zz V)) - ¢ O < E: t~x P a ei Y ~~m O b UaOP U a :s: 5:x V) <r ^s 5: - '1 1O:c z 0a ss.C.. 4 to <F 14 . _ Vt CO im 0 o* CC o o °· : P~ &4 aZ PO 0 aN~~~ 22c~~~~~:s t. Ir sz cn 347. z~r a.-I a C 11~1 .~ . 0bg~n '3 Z ".4~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~a ¢ > pb < <G~ eO U U EF 3 si D.J..
J. = ~ o . -. x W 9 11 H 0 . * 0 I.0 u .0 0' 9. .0 0 9 9 0 0 0 0 r" o re r .3 04 0 0D 0 r. - .0 0 - la 0 i0 _ 99 0 S ro e '- r . . . 0 0 34 o 9 m 2:m1§ e r V) 0 s E-0 IfI > 0 az mm * . I * _ la w N * N f 0% * N 0 * N 0 5 N ON 9 - a.'. 0 03 0. o'l I. - 0 I. 0 0 0r - 9 33 a 999-9v:-9 9 - ~4 C ~ Cn H~ 0'0 U a. Lr ' 1. *. 0 . 0 .r 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0' 0 0 0 = ~ - 0 P. tW P. *.ab 09-0 70 9-0 9-9 9-0 99 ~ 9 0 95 N N r E0 H 0 Cf. 0 9 9 0 09 :D 0 09 0) 0 0.0 p 9 . 0 _ V) E- *. P. .9t' * 00 0 f"r 9 ~f 99~ 0 * ' * 00 ' U w 1~0 o 2 S = r. * % . 0' li 0 t U' '1 6.0 P' U' U U I.a: * QIo _-C a.0 9- j o 0 0 0 0 0 p 9 W>r ~0 0 0 . p. S f% 9- - - - - - - - 9 0 * = 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 m 0 9 0 9 0 A * CO % * 0 ~ ~ * 0 r90 5 t m 5.0 p 9 4 9 0 0~ 0 0 0. . Y~ .0 p 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C.' .10 co o c 14 0 o 0 _ 0 - . * 0 S ON r o 9. W N N . . LC O o 0* * q0 0 0 0. '." 0 9 4~ ." 0 S 0 S P. 0*. oo x it N N Ei un u N N L) N4 L - N V) N N V) 0I : * N N Nu . P.' . 0 . N C. P.0 co w 0 - ." CN N N N4 N N N N C 104X w : o 0 0 0 CD 0 0 0 O 1 Il 9- 0 0 0 CD 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 O o * _: 0 _ C x N~ r L: 173 . l 0 U.' 0 I= w - * .
o I N LA LA L N f -A t co 0 0 CD 0 co 0 c lr co cc en n M t en . jJLA ' N t- N N N JJAjA N N 2 N N (O e a 0 I N 0 N 0 9 o N 0 N4 0 0 0 - _ a0 N 0 0 " 0 N N N N N N N N N N N ' *0 '. A '9 o *r. I 0 0N * co * .I N 04 -1 ~ * ' 0 ' o 09 . a * * N E < __ rn I N F LL (N o N * * IC N N : : **m m t Ct t . .Qs W M L Ln S Ln LM Ln Ln Ln LM Ln Ln LA < C:o C 9 Co I 0 0a 9 co 0.0 * 0 M a 0 c co * 0 E r ! 0 Qi 0 r U - L _ o . o 0 4 o 0 0 o 0 0 o 0 0 o 0 0 o L -N oo N 0 D or _ n 90 o. . N *. '0 . 0 00 oa I 0 O 0N ' 0 0 0 0 0 co 0 o 0 0 0n 04 o 0 o N.0 '0Q 'D '0 .---.
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from SOLMET Vol.APPENDIX A4 INSOLATION CLIMATOLOGY DATA ON SOLMET FORMAT Pages 1 to 7 of the data and format description of SOLMET tapes. User's Manual . 1: below. are reported 179 .
HOUR.097 .004 005 .D S O A H LEVEL|TION BULB|PT. F F U S E R AD IA T IO RADIATION N ' T E.STANDARD YEAR CORRECTED DATA ADDITIONAL RADIATION MEASUREMENTS MINUTES OF SUNSHINE TIME OF COLLATERAL SURFACE OBSERVATION (LST) CEILING HEIGHT (DEKAMETERS) SKY CONDITION VISIBILITY (HECTOMETERS) WEATHER PRESSURE (KILOPASCALS) TEMPERATURE (DEGREES CELSIUS TO TENTHS) WIND (SPEED IN METERS PER SECOND) CLOUDS SNOW COVER INDICATOR 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 7/77 . MO. I P T M Y E R D AO P I L U E dg mn/s N H T T O B S E R V AT CLOUDS SECOND A T H S A M Y E U M 0 P I M 0 G .122 .009 010 .080 .085 . DAY.076 .115 .162 180 . I 'OBS T L T E D N O BS RV 2 VALUES KJ/m GLOBAL ' ENG STD COR YR COR AT IO N S B N S H I N IE AU N97 XXXX XXX X FIELD 97 24 XOOX XX XX X 001 002 03 ]X X X 004 XXX 110i0 101 102 10 103 10 104 05 105 106 107 107 108 D106 109 108 109 I 110 110 N I S U M A MT T FOURTH A T H M Y E 0 P I U E G N H T s 0 N P 0 A W Q U C E O V E dam R lx x 111 111 NUMBER 0 C BIE I T L I I MN E G L S dam SKY COND VSBY WEATHER hm S U R F A C E ME T E O R O L O G I C A L PRESSURE TMP .023 024 028 033 038 043 048 053 058 063 073 075 077 081 086 090 098 108 116 123 163 027 032 037 042 047 052 057 062 072 074 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109.OBSERVED DATA GLOBAL RADIATION ON A HORIZONTAL SURFACE . 110 111 DIRECT RADIATION DIFFUSE RADIATION NET RADIATION GLOBAL RADIATION ON A TILTED SURFACE GLOBAL RADIATION ON A HORIZONTAL SURFACE . WIND kPa *C T LOWEST SEA ISTADRY DEW.ENGINEERING CORRECTED DATA GLOBAL RADIATION ON A HORIZONTAL SURFACE . MINUTE) LOCAL STANDARD TIME (HR AND MINUTE) EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIATION 020 .089 .972TAPE 9724DK SOLMET PAGE NO 1 I I DE NT I F I C AT I ON TAPE WBAN SOLAR LST ETR DECK STN TIME TIME J/" I M DY SO L AR D I" R E C T I.019 ELEMENT TAPE DECK NUMBER WBAN STATION NUMBER SOLAR TIME (YR. U N H A N I T M T T dam da I clCxx CC l THIRD T H Y E P I E G H T dam x xxxx ixxxxxx xx x 1 201 202 203 204 205 x 206 xx xxXuXXl x l lxI xxx 207 208 xxxlxx x 209 xxxxlxx lx xxxlx xxx Z10 TAPE FIELD NUMBER 001 002 003 004 101 TAPE POSITIONS 001 .107 .
2400 Year of observation.1999 Month of observation.9 2000 .nighttime values defined as zero kJ/m 2 for all solar radiation data fields.9 0000 .4957 Observed value.019 010 012 014 016 . 00 01 01 0001 99 12 31 .062 GLOBAL RADIATION ON A HORIZONTAL SURFACE 106 048 . 00 . during the solar hour ending at the time indicated in field 003. For Appendix A.4957 n 048 .019 TAPE FIELD NUMBER 001 002 003 ELEMENT TAPE DECK NUMBER WBAN STATION NUMBER SOLAR TIME YEAR MONTH DAY HOUR TAPE CONFIGURATION 9724 01001 .047 043 044 . scattering. Total o direct and diffuse radiant energy in kJ/m received on a tilted surface (tilt angle indicated in station .2 listed stations.037 033 034 . Amount of solar energy in kJ/m 2 received at top of atmosphere during solar hour ending at time indicated in field 003. 2 Portion of radiant energy in kJ/m received at the pyrheliometer directly from the sun during solar hour ending at time indicated in field 003..027 EXTRATERRESTRIAL RADIATION 0000 . For all other stations. 01 .004 005 .4957 103 033 .032 DIRECT RADIATION DATA CODE INDICATOR DATA 0 . Total o direct and diffuse radiant energy in kJ/m received on a horizontal surface by a pyranometer during the solar hour ending at the time indicated in field 003.032 028 029 .Dec.042 NET RADIATION DATA CODE INDICATOR DATA 0. 107 053 .037 DIFFUSE RADIATION DATA CODE INDICATOR DATA 0. elements with a tape configuration of 9's indicate missing or unknown data. TAPE POSITIONS 001 .2359 101 024 . 9999 . A constant of 5000 has been added to all net radiation data.2 listed stations.12 .011 .052 OBSERVED DATA DATA CODE INDICATOR DATA 0. . etc.98999 CODE DEFINITIONS AND REMARKS Unique number used to identify each station.period of record list) during solar hour ending at the time indicated in field 003.9 0000 .023 LOCAL STANDARD TIME 0000 .9 0000 . For Appendix A.4957 102 028 .042 038 039 .015 .8000 105 043 . 104 038 .052 048 049 . 004 020 .nighttime values of extraterrestrial radiation.9724 SOLMET 2 NOTE: Except for tape positions 001-027 in fields 001-101. and 8000 corresponding nighttime value in Field 108.4957 Amount of radiant energy in kJ/m 2 received at the instrument indirectly from reflection.99 = 1900 . Day of month End of the hour of observation in solar time (hours and minutes) Local Standard Time in hours and minutes correspinJing to end of solar hour indicated in field 003.9 0000 .057 ENGINEERING CORRECTED DATA 7/77 REV 8/78 181 .s). based on solar constant 1377J/(m 2.047 GLOBAL RADIATION ON A TILTED SURFACE DATA CODE INDICATOR DATA 0. Difference between the2 incoming and outgoing radiant energy in kJ/m during the solar hour ending at the time indicated in field 003.009 010 . add 30 minutes to the local standard time on tape. 0000 .013 .Jan.
0 cover) 6 = Opaque overcast (1.1 .062 058 059 .085 SKY CONDITION INDICATOR SKY CONDITION 0 0000 . clear 8888 = unknown height of cirroform ceiling Identifies observations after 1 June 51.9 cover) 5 = Thin overcast (1.076 MINUTES OF SUNSHINE TIME OF TD 1440 OBSERVATION 00 .9 0000 . 109..0 cover) 7 = Obscuration 8 = Partial obscuration 7/77 REV 8/78 182 .. 068 064-067 069-072 ADDITIONAL RADIATION MEASUREMENTS DATA CODE INDICATORS DATA DATA 0.TPE ECKPAL 9724 TAPE FIELD NUMBER TAPE POSITIONS NO.Opaque broken (. 0 to 30.1 . 110 063 . recorder and sensor calibration changes.5 cover) _Zp 00 .062 STANDARD YEAR CORRECTED DATA DATA CODE INDICATOR DATA 0.5 cover) 3 = Thin broken (.085 081 082 . Coded by layer in ascending order. etc.3000 7777 8888 203 081 .9 cover) 4 .6 .4957 Observed value adjusted to Standard Year Model.60 For Local Standard Hour most closely matching solar hour.) 111 201 073 . Supplemental Fields A and B for additional radiation measurements. This model yields expected clear sky irradiance received on a horizontal surface at the elevation of the station.000 meters 0000 .9 0000 . type of measurement specified in station-period of record list.23 202 077 . Ceiling height in dekameters (dam = m x 10:).080 CEILING HEIGHT 0000 . four layers are described.. SOLMET TAPE CONFIGURATION 3 ELEMENT CODE DEFINITIONS AND REMARKS 053 054-057 DATA CODE INDICATOR DATA 0.9 NOTE FOR FIELDS 102-110: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Data code indicators are: Observed data Estimated from model using sunshine and cloud data Estimated from model using cloud data Estimated from model using sunshine data Estimated from model using sky condition data Estimated from linear interpolation Reserved for future use Estimated from other model (see individual station notes at end of manual) Estimated without use of a model Missing data follows (See model description in Volume 2.3000 7777 = unlimited.6 or greater. ceiling is defined as opaque sky cver of .074 075 .8888 2 = Opaque scattered (.4957 Observed value corrected for known scale changes. station moves. Local Standard Hour of TD 1440 Meteorological Observation that comes closest to midpoint of the solar hour for which solar data are recorded.. if less than 4 layers are present the remaining positions arc coded 0. 108 058 .1 cover 1 = Thin scattered (.Clear or'less than .6 . The code for each layer is: 0 .072 063.
7/77 REV 8/78 183 . All occurrences since this date are recorded as a 5.Light snow grains = Moderate snow grains = Heavy snow grains Beginning April 1963 intensities of snow grains were discontinued.Moderate rain 3 = Heavy rain 4 5 6 7 8 092 OCCURRENCE OF DRIZZLE. reaching 22 knots or more and lasting for at least one minute).Light Drizzle .097 090 WEATHER OCCURRENCE OF THUNDERSTORM.1600 8888 Prevailing horizontal visibility in hectometers (hm = m x 102). RAIN SHOWERS OR FREEZING RAIN 2 . 2 .Moderate snow pellets = Heavy snow pellets = Light ice crystals = Moderate ice crystals Beginning April 1963 intensities of ice crystals were discontinued.Moderate or heavy freezing rain .Heavy drizzle = Light freezing drizzle . 0-8 0 = None 1 . 0000 .lightning and thunder. if any. and hail. TORNADO OR SQUALL 0-4 0 = None 1 . if any.1600 = 0 to 160 kilometers 8888 .Squall (sudden increase of wind speed by at least 16 knots. 3/4 inch or greater diameter.Light rain 091 OCCURRENCE OF RAIN. All occurrences since this date are recorded as an 8.None 093 OCCURRENCE OF SNOW. less than 3/4 inch diameter. Wind gusts less than 50 knots.Moderate snow showers = Heavy snow showers . FREEZING DRIZZLE 0-6 1 2 3 4 5 6 0-8 = Light rain showers = Moderate rain showers = Heavy rain showers = Light freezing rain . SNOW PELLETS OR ICE CRYSTALS 0 = None 1 = Light snow 2 = Moderate snow 3 a Heavy snow 4 5 6 7 8 = Light snow pellets . 4 .frequent intense lightning and thunder. 094 OCCURRENCE OF SNOW SHOWERS AND SNOW GRAINS 0-6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 = None .Moderate drizzle . Wind gusts 50 knots or greater and hail.unlimited 205 090 .Heavy freezing drizzle 0 .Thunderstorm .Moderate freezing drizzle . 3 Report of tornado or waterspout.TAE DEC 9724 TAPE FIELD NUMBER TAPE POSITIONS PAG SOLMET TAPE CONFIGURATION CODE DEFINITIONS AND REMARKS NOSOLMET 4 ELEMENT 204 086 .089 VISIBILITY 0000 .Heavy or severe thunderstorm .Light snow showers .
0 m/s 207 108 .Light sleet or sleet showers (ice pellets) 2 .Blowing dust 5 .1500 7/77 184 .TAPE DCK 9724 SOLMET PAGOL NOM 5 TAPE FIELD NUMBER TAPE POSITIONS 095 ELEMENT OCCURRENCE OF SLEET (ICE PELLETS).102 103 .Heavy hail 7 . 0000 with 000 direction indicates calm. in kilopascals (kPa) and hundredths.Heavy sleet or sleet showers (ice pellets) 4 .107 098 . reduced to sea level.Moderate sleet or sleet showers (ice pellets) 3 . 2 or 3 in this position.Fog 2 .0°C Degrees m/s and tenths.Light small hail 8 .None 1 .10999 Pressure. BLOWING DUST OR BLOWING SAND 0-5 0 .Light hail 5 . Beginning September 1956 intensities of hail were no longer reported and all occurrences were recorded as a 5.111 112 .Moderate or heavy small hail Prior to April 1970 ice pellets were coded as sleet.Ice fog 3 .0 to 150. BLOWING SPRAY 0-6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 None Smoke Haze Smoke and haze Dust Blowing snow Blowing spray U These values recorded only when visibility less than 7 miles.10999 = 80 to 109.Moderate hail 6 .122 TEMPERATURE DRY BULB DEW POINT WIND WIND DIRECTION WIND SPEED -700 to 0600 -700 to 0600 208 000 .Blowing sand These values recorded only when visibility less than 7 miles. 206 098 .0 to +60.99 kPa °C and tenths °C and tenths -700 to 0600 = -70.10999 08000 . 08000 .118 119 .115 108 . BLOWING SNOW.107 PRESSURE SEA LEVEL PRESSURE STATION PRESSURE 08000 .122 11 .115 116 .360 0000 . 0000 . 096 OCCURRENCE OF FOG.Ground fog 4 . Pressure at station level in kilopascals (kPa) and hundredths. SLEET SHOWERS OR HAIL TAPE CONFIGURATION 0-8 CODE DEFINITIONS AND REMARKS 0 None 1 . DUST. 097 OCCURRENCE OF SMOKE. HAZE.1500 . Beginning April 1970 sleet and small hail were redefined as ice pellets and are coded as a 1.
Cirrocumulus = Obscuring phenomena other than fog 7/77 185 ." (1) Tape Configuration and Remarks for Tc )tal Sky Cover.162 123 .Nimbostratus .144 145 .I 9724 SOLMET 6 TAPE FIELD NUMBER TAPE POSITIONS ELEMENT TAPE CONFIGURATION CODE DEFINITIONS AND REMARKS 209 123 .16 Remarks Generic cloud type or obscuring phenomena.150 151 .Stratocumulus 4 .162 NOTES: CLOUDS TOTAL SKY COVER LOWEST CLOUD LAYER AMOUNT TYPE OF LOWEST CLOUD OR OBSCURING PHENOMENA HEIGHT OF BASE OF LOWEST CLOUD LAYER OR OBSCURING PHENOMENA SECOND LAYER AMOUNT TYPE OF SECOND CLOUD LAYER HEIGHT OF BASE OF SECOND CLOUD LAYER SUMMATION OF FIRST 2 LAYERS THIRD LAYER AMOUNT TYPE OF THIRD CLOUD LAYER HEIGHT OF BASE OF THIRD CLOUD LAYER SUMMATION OF FIRST 3 LAYERS FOURTH LAYER AMOUNT TYPE OF FOURTH CLOUD LAYER HEIGHT OF BASE OF FOURTH CLOUD LAYER TOTAL OPAQUE SKY COVER See following explanatory "NOTES. 0 .Cumulonimbus 6 . Opaque means clouds or obscuration through which the sky or higher cloud layers cannot be seen.Altostratus 7 .142 143 .126 127 . Cloud Layer Amount.10 Remarks Amount of celestial dome in tenths covered by clouds or obscuring phenomena. Summation of Cloud Layers and Total Opaque Sky Cover Configuration 00 .Cumulus 5 .124 125 .None 1 = Fog 2 .Altocumulus Castellanus .Cirrostratus = Stratus Fractus = Cumulus Fractus = Cumulonimbus Manmma .128 129 .134 135 .Stratus 3 .140 141 .154 155 . Configuration CO .132 133 .146 147 .156 157 .152 153 .136 137 . (2) Tape Configuration and Remarks for Type of Cloud or Obscuring Phenomena.160 161 .Altocumulus 8 = Cirrus 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .
3000 7777 8888 210 163 SNOW COVER INDICATOR Remarks Dekameters 7777 . 7/77 186 .4 SOLMET 7 (3) Tape Configuration and Remarks for Height of Base of Cloud Layer or Obscuring Phenomena.Unknown height or cirroform layer 0. clear 8888 . 1 indicates more than trace of snow on ground.Unlimited.972.1 0 indicates no snow or trace of snow on ground. Configuration 0000 .
Cumulonimbus 2. Cumulus 3. Stratocumulus 5. their obscuration characteristics. classification  does not consider as a classification criterion the forming process of the clouds. Stratus 4. and their shape or particular visible optical effects.* This is done to allow visual recognition of the sky dome.M. Altostratus *Reference  also reports photographs of the different types of clouds. CLOUD DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION 1. Principally.M.O. Cloud Classification The W. 187 .O. 10 genera of clouds are considered in ascending order as follows: 1.APPENDIX A5 W. it tries instead to consider their general appearance. Nimbostratus 6.
000 to 8. Altocumulus 8. An approximate description of the height of the layers. and cirrus. and cumulonimbus extend over more than one layer. all the other layers being the same. Nimbostratus. the highest layer maximum elevation would be approximately 40 percent higher than in the temperature regions. altocumulus in the middle layer. would be as follows (for temperate regions): Low layer: surface to 2..000 m Medium layer: High layer: In tropical regions. 188 . generally starting from the higher limit of the lower layer. The layer definition is aleatory. elevation of the inferior limit of the layer. Cirrocumulus 10. mainly with latitude.e.000 m from 2. Cirrus Stratus and stratocumulus clouds are generally found in the lower layer. Cirrostratus 9. in the sense that it varies. i.000 to 14.000 m from 5. cumulus. cirrocumulus and cirrostratus in the higher layer. Altostratus clouds are generally located in the middle-higher layers.7.
there are frequently low ragged clouds either merged with it or not. Cloud definition (from reference ) 1 Cumulonimbus: Heavy and dense cloud. Sometimes. domes. and precipitation sometimes in the form of virga. 2. or striated. cumulus is ragged. or towers. fibrous. with a considerable vertical extent. At least part of its upper portion is usually smooth. of which the bulging upper part often resembles a cauliflower. this cloud.Every genus may be further divided into species and varieties. developing vertically in the form of rising mounds. and nearly always flattened: this part often spreads Under the base of out in the shape of an anvil or vast plume. The sunlit parts of these clouds are mostly Their base is relatively dark and nearly brilliant white. Species or Varieties: Cumulonimbus mamma (among others) 2 Cumulus: Detached clouds. horizontal. Cumulus fractus (among others) Species or Varieties: 189 . in the form of a mountain or huge towers. generally dense and with sharp outlines. which is often very dark.
often dark. the appearance of which is rendered diffuse by more or less continuously falling rain or snow. enough throughout to blot out the Sun. patch. When the Sun is visible through the cloud. . with which they may or may not merge. small elements have an apparent width of more than 5 degrees. etc. or both gray and whitish. most of the regularly arranged. composed of tasselations.3 Stratus: Generally gray cloud layer with a fairly uniform base . rolls. . . . rounded masses. sheet or layer of cloud which almost always has dark parts. ragged clouds frequently occur below the layer. 190 . 5 Nimbostratus: Gray cloud layer. which in most cases reaches the ground. Species or Varieties: Stratus fractus (among others) 4 Stratocumulus: Gray or whitish. Sometimes stratus appears in the form of ragged patches. It is thick Low. which are nonfibrous (except for virga) and which may or may not be merged. its outline is clearly discernible .
191 . etc. ripples. rounded masses.6 Altostratus: Grayish or bluish cloud sheet or layer of striated. composed of very small elements in the form of grains.. most of the regularly arranged small elements usually have an apparent width of between one and five degrees. most of the elements have an apparent width of less than one degree. totally or partly covering the sky. fibrous. sheet or layer of cloud without shading. totally or partly covering the sky . . or uniform appearance. 9 Cirrocumulus: Thin. Species or Varieties: others) Altocumulus castellanus (among 8 Cirrostratus: Transparent. rolls. etc. merged or separate and more or less regularly arranged. generally with shading. and having parts thin enough to reveal the Sun at least vaguely as through ground glass . or both white and gray. sheet or layer of cloud. . 7 Altocumulus: White or gray. which are sometimes partly fibrous or diffuse and which may or may not be merged. patch. composed of laminae. white patch. whitish cloud veil of fibrous (hair-like) or smooth appearance..
delicate filaments or white or mostly white patches or narrow bands. These clouds 192 . have a fibrous (hair-like) appearance.10 Cirrus: Detached clouds in the form of white.
. "second layer" refers to the next layer up. - Total Sky Cover Amount of the celestial dome covered by clouds or other obscuring phenomena. a reading of 2 indicates that a total to two tenths. or 20 percent. Station Pressure = Dry Bulb = Dry-bulb temperature [degrees = Wet Bulb Relative Humidity - Wet-bulb temperature [degrees Fahrenheit]. Fahrenheit]. Clouds and Obscuring Phenomena The term "lowest layer" refers to that layer of clouds that is closest to the surface of the Earth. of the celestial dome was covered by clouds or other obscuring phenomena.APPENDIX A6 ANALOGIC RECORDS OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATION Surface weather observation chart: Form MF1-1OB LEGEND Reading the chart from left to right: Time (L.) = Local Standard Time.g." 193 . = Relative humidity [percent]. A reading of 10 would indicate that 100 percent of the sky was covered by clouds or other obscuring phenomena. and so on through to the "fourth layer. This recording represents the actual time at which the meteorological readings were made [hours. e. Barometric pressure (air pressure) as measured at the recording station [inches of mercury].S. Values are in tenths. minutes].T.
snow. Number of minutes of direct sunshine [minutes]. in thousands of feet. Net 3-Hr. 1-digit code indicating the tendency of the barometric pressure (going up.01 inch. measured in inches. Total Opaque Sky Cover Pressure Tendency Amount of celestial dome. e.000 feet. 194 . covered by the layer.. Type = Type of clouds present in the layer. i. = = Net change in barometric pressure for the past three hours [inches of mercury]. E45 means "estimated to be 45. but was still detectable. the amount of precipitation was less than 0. rain that has fallen during this particular hour.. of the base of the layer. that is covered by any sort of opaque covering. Height = Height. T indicates that a "trace" of precipitation fell.Amount = Amount of the celestial dome.g.e. going down. in tenths. in tenths. Change Sunshine Precipitation = Amount of precipitation (of all types). An E before a reading indicates that this measurement is estimated. no variation). e.g." An M before a reading indicates that the reading is the result of an actual measurement of the height.
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CONVERSION TABLE (in alphabetical order)
To convert from
multiply by (power of 10) 3.048 2.540 3.281 3.937 -1 -1 0 1
foot/sec 2 inch/sec 2 meter/sec 2 meter/sec 2 Area: sq. foot sq. inch sq. mile sq. yard sq. meter sq. meter sq. meter sq. meter Energy: BTU calorie kilocalorie kilowatt hour joule joule joule Joule Energy/Area Time: BTU/foot2 sec BTU/foot2 min BTU/foot2 hr
meter/sec 2 foot/sec 2 inch/sec 2
sq. meter sq. meter sq. meter sq. meter sq. inch sq. foot sq. yard sq. mile
9.290 6.452 2.590 8.361 1.550 1.076 1.196 3.861
-2 -4 6 -1 3 1 0 -7
joule jou le joule jou le BTU calorie kilocalorie Kilowatt hour
1.056 4.185 4.185 3.600 9.470 2.390 2.390 2.778
3 0 3 6 -4 -1 -4 -7
4 2 0
CONVERSION TABLE (inalphabetical order) (continued)
To convert from
multiply by (power of 10) 1.634 6.973 1.000 8.811 5.288 3.173 6.120 1.434
Energy/Area Time: (continued) BTU/inch2 sec W/m2 calories/cm2 min W/cm 2 w/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 2 W/m 2 w/m Force: dyne kilogram force pound force Newton Newton Newton Length: inch foot yard mile meter meter centimeter millimeter W/m2 W/m2 BTU/foot2 sec BTU/foot2 min tTU/foot2 hr BTU/inch2 sec calories/cm 2 min W/cm 2
6 2 4 -5 -3 -I -7 -3 -4
Newton Newton Newton dyne kilogram force pound force
1.000 9.807 4.448 1.000 1.020 2.248
-5 0 0 5 -1 -1
centimeter meter meter meter mile foot inch inch
2.540 3.048 9.144 1.609 6.214 3.281 3.937 3.937
0 -1 -1 3 -4 0 -1 -2
CONVERSION TABLE (in alphabetical order) (continued)
To convert from
multiply by (power of 10) 1.054 1.757 4. 184 6.973 7.460 9.488 5.692 2.390 1.434 3 1 0 -2 2 -4 -2 -1 1
Power: BTU/sec BTU/min calories/sec calories/min horsepower watt watt watt watt Pressure: atmosphere bar inch of mercury (60 F) inch of water
watt watt watt watt watt BTU/sec BTU/min calories/sec calories/min
N/sq. meter N/sq. meter N/sq. meter N/sq. meter N/sq. meter N/sq. meter
1.013 1.000 3.377 2.488 1.000 1.333
5 5 3 2 2 2 0 2 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -3 -3
millibar mm of mercury (O C) Pascal torr (O0C) N/sq. meter N/sq. meter N/sq. meter N/sq. N/sq. N/sq. N/sq. meter meter meter meter
1.000 N/sq. meter 1.333 N/sq. meter 9.872 atmospheres 1.000 bar 0 inches of mercury (60 F) 2.961 4.019 inches of water (60°F) 1.000 millibars 7.502 mm of mercury (O0C) 7.502 torr (O°C)
CONVERSION TABLE (in alphabetical order) (continued)
To convert from
Temperature: Fahrenheit Fahrenheit Celsius Celsius Rank ine Kelvin
Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit Kelvin Kelvin Rank ine
(5/9)(tf - 32)
tk = (5/9)(tf + 459.67)
tf = (9/5)(tc) + 32
tk = tc + 273.15 tk = 5/9 tr tr =
A = parameter on the delination computation; in Appendix Al, area A0 = density integral of the atmosphere
A1 = relative atmospheric mass
b = radiance in Appendix Al (Subsection 1.1) or brilliance (Subsection 2.1)
D = geometrical day length
E = energy flux density; in Chapter 2, East; in Appendix Al (Subsection 1.2), luminescence ES = extraterrestrial solar energy flux density for average Sun-Earth distance ES = extraterrestrial solar energy flux density for daily computed Sun-Earth distance E0 = solar energy flux density on the ground F0 = irradiance (integrated energy flux) F O = irradiance in the hypothesized absence of atmosphere
H = equivalent height
I = energy as electromagnetic radiation K = absorbance function of the atmosphere KT = integral absorbance function of the atmosphere without clouds KT = integral absorbance function of the atmopshere with clouds M = number of days in the month M i = molecular weight of gas i
MR = moist ratio
N = progressive number of the days of the year, first of
January N = 1 P = pressure
Appendix A3 molar gas content = gas constant of gas i ki kD RW S = gas constant of dry air = gas constant of water vapor = minutes of sunshine S/D T = minutes of sunshine for interval time (hour or day) = G. otherwise. velocity of the electromagnetic radiation e g = = Earth orbit parameter acceleration ot gravity h hr = altituoe of the Sun. (Greenwhich Mean Time).1) or light intensity (Subsection 1.R = radius. Planck's constant = relative humidity m = mass 201 .2). in Appendix Al. west p Wr r Z = = light tlux (photometric units) radiative flux (radiometric units) = elevation Z a c = albedo = 1 . in Chapter 1 and Appendixes absolute temperature TDbK = ary-bulb temperature TDp : V h dew-point = sensitivity factor (associated with the visibility curve) = energy emission (electromagnetic waves) in Chapter 1. in Appendix Al radiative energy intensity (Subsection 1.S/D is the extensive factor of the cloua presence. in Appendix Al.T.M.
4. transparency coefficient of the atmosphere. radiative tflux A_ w. 2. absorptivity =Bangle of the "position triangle" (azimuth computation) Y = angle of the "position triangle" (hourly angle) y' = hourly angle value at sunrise (or sunset) 6 = declination eclination 6o = daily averagea c I* = emissivity coefficient c = angle between the Earth axis and the normal to the plane of the ecliptic. in Appendix A3. partial pressure A_ pi = intensive factor of of the atmosphere epletion aue to permanent components P2 = intensive factor of depletion aue to precipitable water P3 = intensive tactor of depletion due to precipitable water P4 = intensive factor of depletion due to "local" factors r = number of rainy days in a month s = generic beam direction abscissa t = solar time tf =sunset time (solar time) ti = sunrise time (solar time) w = amount of precipitable water. = total water vapor content in the atmosphere in the vertical direction x = generic abscissa z = zenith (vertical) axis abscissa zo = elevation zo Greek a = angle of the "position triangle". in eq. Earth orbit parameter ana in eqs.27. in Appendix Al.28.1. and 4. in Chapter 2 (Subsection 2.5) inclination angle of an inclined surface 202 . in Appendix Al.29. 4.p = "local" factor of the KT expression.
in Chapters 1 and 2.1415927 p = density. longitude = anomaly of the Earth in its orbit = 3.= total cloua cover n t -otal opaque cloud cover e = zenith angle A = wavelength. in Appendixes. in Appendix Al. aaily average value of the Sun-Earth distance. retlectivity coefficient p = average between aphelion ana perihelion of Sun-Earth distance = Stetan-boltzmann's constant = a T transmission coefficient = latituae + = function symbol = azimuth = ='orientation angle of an inclined surface ("azimuth" of the normal) w = solia ang e Superscripts = degrees = minutes Subscripts D E = dry air = Earth i = incident. in astronomical computations. i-th gas 203 .
1 m = local = meridian = moist air = maximum M1 max S W = Sun = water vapor = elevation Z Z 0 = zero 204 .
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