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# Section 4.

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1. The differential equation is linear.

## 2. The differential equation is nonlinear.

3. The differential equation is linear.

## 5. The differential equation is nonlinear.

6. We will use the equation mg - kL = O. If the mass is 8 lb, then mg = 8. If the mass stretches the spring 6 inches, then L = 6. Therefore , 8 - 6k = 0 which means k = 4/3 Ib/inch.

7. Again, we use the equation mg - kL = O. Here the mass is 10 kg. The force due to gravity is 9 = 9.8 m/s2. Therefore, mg = 98 Newtons. The mass stretches the spring .7 meters. Therefore, k = 98/.7 = 140 N/m. 8. The spring constant is k = 2/(1/2) = 4 lb/ft. The mass m = 2/32 = 1/16 Ibs 2/ft. The
equation of motion is

or

y"

+ 64y =

## with initial conditions y(O) = 1/4 ft, y'(O) = 0 ft/sec.

9. The spring constant is k = .98/.05 = 19.6 N/m. The mass m = .1 kg. The equation of
motion is

.1y" + 19.6y = 0
or

y" + 196y = 0
with initial conditions y(O) equation of motion is

= 0 m, y'(O) = .1 m/sec.
3/(1/4) = 12 lb/ft. The mass m = 3/32 Ibs 2/ft. The 3 32 Y" + 12y = 0

## 10. The spring constant is k

or

y"
with initial conditions y(O)

+ 128y =

## = -1/12 ft, y'(O) = 2 ft/sec.

X

11. The inductance L = 1 henry. The resistance R = O. The capacitance C = 0.25 farads. Therefore, the equation for charge q is

10- 6

## = 10- 6 coulombs, q'(O) = 0 coulombs/sec.

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12. The spring constant is k = .196;'05 = 3.92 N/m. The mass In = .02 kg. The damping constant is , = 400 dyne-sec/cm = .4 N-sec/cm. Therefore, the equation of motion is

or

y" + 20y'

+ 196y =

## with initial conditions y(O) = .02 m, y'(O) = 0 m/sec.

13. The spring constant is k = 16/(1/4) = 64 lb/ft. The mass In = 1/2 lbs 2 /ft. The damping coefficient is ~I = 2 lb-sec/ft. Therefore , the equation of motion is

or

y"

+ 4y' + 128y =

## with initial conditions y(O) = 0 ft, y'(O) = 1/4 ft/sec.

14. The spring constant is k = 3/.1 = 30 N/m. The mass In = 2 kg. The damping coefficient is I = 3/5 N-sec/m. Therefore, the equation of motion is

2y" +
or

~y' + 30y =

y"

+ .3y' + 15y =

## with initial conditions y(O) = .05 m , y'(O) = .1 m/sec.

15. The inductance L = 0.2 henry. The resistance R = 3 C = 10- 5 farads. Therefore, the equation for charge q is
X

## 102 ohms. The capacitance

0.2q"
or

+ 300q' + 10 5 q =

q" + 1500q'

+ 500, OOOq =

## with initial conditions q(O) = 10- 6 coulombs, q'(O) = 0 coulombs/sec.

16. We know the net force acting on the mass satisfies
F net = InX"(t)

where x" is the acceleration of the mass. Here, we assume the spring is pulling the mass to the left. We will consider that to be the negative direction. The force due to the spring is given by Fs = -k(L + x). The force due to air resistance, Fd , is acting in the direction opposite to the direction of motion of the mass, and is proportional to the velocity of the mass. Therefore,

Fd = -,x'(t)
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