This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
2.1 Concept of Cellular Communications
In the late 60’s it was proposed to alleviate the problem of spectrum congestion by restructuring the coverage area of mobile radio systems. IMTS required a single powerful base station and line of sight (LOS) for the mobile units to cover areas of 50km radius. The cellular concept does not use broadcasting over large areas. Instead smaller areas called cells are handled by less powerful base stations that use less power for transmission. Now the available spectrum can be re-used from one cell to another thereby increasing the capacity of the system. However this did give rise to a new problem, as a mobile unit moved it could potentially leave the coverage area (cell) of a base station in which it established the call. This required complex controls that enabled the handing over of a connection (called handoff) to the new cell that the mobile unit moved into. In summary, the essential elements of a cellular system are:
1. Low power transmitter and small coverage areas called cells 2. Spectrum (frequency) re-use 3. Handoff
Magda El Zarki - Tcom 510 - Spring 98
etc. transmitter power..s 2.Spring 98 2 ..Tcom 510 .F2.F8. Magda El Zarki . terrain..F2.. foliage.. buildings.F6 MSC: Mobile Switching Center PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network Base Station Handoff Cell F1...1...F12 PENN (Theoretical) Practical Cell ..coverage depends on antenna location and height.F12 PSTN MSC F1.F6 F7..F8.1 A Cellular Network Other MSCs (IS 41) F7..
gain and directivity of the antenna.2 Some Deﬁnitions q q q PENN Forward path or down link . transceiver. etc.Tcom 510 . buildings.from base station down to the mobile Reverse path or up link . In addition each mobile unit is also permanently programmed at the factory with a 32 bit electronic serial number (ESN) which guards against tampering. Its shape and size depend on the location. obstacles such as foliage. It is essentially a radio communication center comprising radios.a portable voice and/or data comm.Spring 98 3 . height . The cell .s 2. the power of the transmitter. It has a 10 digit telephone number that is represented by a 34 bit mobile identiﬁcation number -> (215) 684-3201 is divided into two parts: MIN1: 215 translated into 10bits and MIN2: 684-3201 translated into 24bits. propagation paths.from the mobile up to the base station The mobile unit . its boundaries deﬁned by received signal strength! But for trafﬁc engineering purposes and system planning and design a hexagonal shape is used. the terrain. antennas and supporting equipment to enable mobile to land and land to mobile communication.a geographical area covered by Radio Frequency (RF) signals. It is a highly irregular shape.1. q Magda El Zarki .
Spring 98 4 . The MSC is also responsible for billing. MSCs intercommunicate using a link protocol speciﬁed by IS (International Standard) 41. The MSCis directly connected to the PSTN and is responsible for all calls related to mobiles located within its domain. it keeps track of signal strengths and will initiate a handoff when deemed necessary (note to handoff or not to handoff is not a trivial issue!) Magda El Zarki . etc. This enables roaming of mobile units (i. The mobile switching center (MSC) .e. delays. errors.a transmitter and receiver that relays signals (control and information (voice or data)) from the mobile unit to the MSC and vice versa. call dropping (due to handoff failure). Base stations are connected to the MSC via wireline links. it keeps track of air time.q PENN q The base station (BS) . It is also responsible for the handoff process. obtaining service outside of the home base). blocking.a switching center that controls a cluster of cells.Tcom 510 .
The home location register (HLR) is used to keep information regarding a mobile unit/user.Spring 98 . The control channels are known and carry signals pertaining to the cell sites.) A mobile unit when enabled (power on) scans the control channels and tunes to the one with the strongest signal. Inband signalling is used for control during the connection (disconnect. has to register with the MSC controlling the area it is in. handoff.1. When roaming.g. e. 5 q q q Magda El Zarki .3 The Basic Cellular Communication Protocol (based on using FDMA) q Every mobile unit whether at home or roaming. This process is called initialization. it is a database for storing and managing subscriber information. The cellular system uses out of band signalling.s PENN 2. Most of the control information is sent over different channels from the user information (voice or data) channels. The VLR is a dynamic database used to store roaming mobile subscriber information. If it does not register then the MSC does not know of its existence and will not be able to process any of its calls.Tcom 510 . etc. transmission power to be used by the mobile unit in a particular cell. a mobile unit registers with a foreign MSC and data from its HRL is relayed to the visitor location register (VLR). The HLR and VLR communicate via the MSCs using IS 41.
and ESN) of the source mobile unit to verify the originator. MIN2.q PENN If the mobile wants to initiate a call. it checks to see if the destination mobile unit is a subscriber (local or visitor/roamer). If the latter the call is forwarded to the PSTN. it relays it to the MSC. If the destination is within its cluster it sends out a paging message to all the base stations. If the former. it sends in a service request on the reverse path control link. The corresponding base stations pass this information on to the respective mobile units. The service request contains the destination phone number and identiﬁcation information (MIN1. The mobile units then tune to the correct channels and the communication link is established. The base station relays this response to the MSC. Every base station then relays this message by broadcasting it on its control channel. The MSC then checks to see it is it a number of another mobile or of a ﬁxed user. q q q Magda El Zarki . When the base station receives the request.Tcom 510 . The MSC then allocates channels to both the source mobile unit and the destination mobile unit.Spring 98 6 . If the destination mobile unit is enabled (power on) it will detect this message and respond to the base station. If not it relays the call to the PSTN to forward to the appropriate MSC.
The cells using the same frequencies must be dispersed across the cellular layout.4 Spectrum and Capacity issues: q PENN The available spectrum is limited .Tcom 510 .F2.. Allocated Spectrum F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FDM F1. frequencies must be re-used in the cellular layout (unless we are using spread spectrum techniques).F9: frequency channels q To be able to increase the capacity of the system.s 2.Spring 98 7 .1.. Frequencies cannot be re-used in adjacent cells because of co-channel interference.. The closer the spacing the more efﬁcient the scheme! q Magda El Zarki .
Spring 98 8 .Tcom 510 .PENN Fx:subset of frequencies used in a cell Cochannel Interference F2 F1 F1 F2 Minimum Re-use distance Magda El Zarki .
min.1. dist. and a hexagonal layout requires fewer cells (when compared to triangles or rectangles. Goal is to ﬁnd the minimum distance between cells using same frequencies. with constant signal power. R: cell radius 9 q q q i. The hexagonal was chosen as it comes the closest to the shape of a circle. 60% j D A R D . To achieve full coverage without dead spots. each cell site coverage area would be circular (barring any terrain irregularities or obstacles).integers -> intercell distance along cell centers i A i.j: multiples of 31/2R Magda El Zarki .Tcom 510 .j .5 Frequency Re-Use q PENN For an omni-directional antenna.Spring 98 . a series of regular polygons for cell sites are required.s 2. it has the largest surface area given the same radius R) -> less cells.
. negligible!). we ignore 2nd. 3rd.j are integers v R (u.PENN D=31/2R[i2+j2+ij]1/2 R = radius of hexagonal i.v) u 1 31/2R 31/2R R D 3 2 1 (0.Spring 98 10 . cause much less interference. etc. q Magda El Zarki . For simplicity we only take the ﬁrst tier of cells into account for co-channel interference (i.Tcom 510 . tiers.0) 300 u2-u1=31/2Ri v2-v1=31/2Rj q q For two adjacent cells: D=31/2R The closest we can place the same frequencies is called the ﬁrst tier around the center cell (minimal re-use distance -> lower -> more capacity!).e.
Spring 98 11 .PENN Original cell First tier of interferers Second tier of interferers They are all equidistant away from each other (D) Cluster of “N” cells with different frequencies Each cell has exactly six equidistant interfering cells D Radius First Tier (all use same frequencies as center cell) Radius = D R Cluster of “N” cells with frequencies different from center cell (large hexagon) Magda El Zarki .Tcom 510 .
q Similarly the area of each cell (i. small hexagon) is: Asmall = k[R2] Comparing these expressions we ﬁnd that: Alarge/Asmall = 3[i2+j2+ij] = D2/R2 From symmetry we can see that the large hexagon encloses the center cluster of N cells plus 1/3 the number of the cells associated with 6 other peripheral hexagons.Tcom 510 . between two co-channel cells = (3R2[i2+j2+ij])1/2 = D! Since the area of a hexagon is proportional to the square of the distance between its center and a vertex (i. its radius).Spring 98 12 . the area of the large hexagon is: Alarge = k[Radius]2 = k[3R2[i2+j2+ij]] PENN where k is a constant... Thus the total number of cells enclosed by the ﬁrst tier is: N+6(1/3N) = 3N Since the area of a hexagon is proportional to the number of cells contained within it: Alarge/Asmall = 3N/1 = 3N q q q Magda El Zarki .e.q q Radius = dist.e.
Ik = interference signal power from the kth cell. Ni = number of interfering cells.Spring 98 13 . If we only assume the ﬁrst tier of interfering cells. (2< γ <5) q q Magda El Zarki .and all cells interfere equally (they are all equidistant!).q Substituting we get: 3N = 3[i2+j2+ij] = D2/R2 Or: D/R = q =(3N)1/2 “q” is referred to as the reuse ratio! The co-channel interference ratio S/I is given as: S S -. then Ni=6.= ----------------------Ni I ∑ 〈 I k〉 k=1 PENN q q q q S = desired signal power in a cell. The signal power at any point is inversely proportional to the inverse of the distance from the source raised to the γ power.Tcom 510 .
and S is proportional to R . Therefore q = [6x63.41)2/3 = 6.= ----I –γ –γ 6 6⋅D 6⋅q q q q q q Recall that: D/R = q =(3N)1/2 S/I = 18db (decibels=10logS/I) = 63.49 ≈ 7 This means that if we have 49 frequency channels available.q PENN q –γ –γ Ik is proportional to D .41 when γ = 4 Substituting for N we get N = (4.Tcom 510 . each cell gets 49/7 = 7 frequency channels. ﬁnd i. Therefore: –γ γ S R 1 q -.= ----------------.j that satisfy the equation! 14 q q Magda El Zarki .714 -> which means that 5 cells will have 12 and 2 cells will have 11! How does that translate to “i and j” for a cell layout? N = [i2+j2+ij].2]1/4 = 4. If we have 82 available then 82/7 = 11.= --------------. gives an acceptable voice quality.1. A value of 4 is commonly used for cellular communication environemts. where γ is the propagation path loss and is dependent upon terrain environment.Spring 98 .
its advantage: it does not require more infrastructure.Spring 98 15 .PENN 7 2 1 6 1 5 N=7 -> i=2.Tcom 510 . j=1 q 7 7 i 2 D 3 4 D = 4. q q Magda El Zarki . An easier solution exists. What is drawback of shrinking the size of the cells (cell splitting)? Increase in the number of handoffs -> increased load on the system! Also need more infrastrucutre -> base stations (each cell needs a BS). sectorization. It does not reduce handoffs.41R j 1 2 We can see that by reducing the area of a cell we can increase capacity as we will have more cells each with its own set of frequencies.
s 2. q Magda El Zarki .e. F1+F2+F3+F4+F5+F6=Fa F1 F6 Fa: A cell’s set of frequencies F2 F3 F4 F5 6 sectors F1+F2+F3=Fa 120% F1 F3 3 sectors q q 60% F2 What does that mean? We can now assign frequency sets to sectors and decrease the re-use distance or improve S/I ratio (i.1.6 Sectorization q q PENN We can also increase the capacity by using sectors in cells.e. Question: By how much? Depends on number of sectors (i.Tcom 510 . signal quality). will only beam over a certain angle.Spring 98 16 . Directional antennas instead of being omnidirectional.. 60% or 120%).
q Magda El Zarki .Tcom 510 .“A”: set of frequencies in a sector PENN A A:Do not interfere with “A”sector of center cell A A” A’ A” First Tier (all use same frequencies in sectors as A” center cell) A’ A’:Cause Cell site to mobile interference A’ A”:Cause Mobile to cell site interference q For 120% sectors we get interference from two cells (whether interference for mobile or interference for BS).Spring 98 17 . For 60% sectors we get interference from one cell only (whether interference for mobile or interference for BS).
7 ) –4 I ( D + 0. = --------------------------------------- –4 –4 I D –4 + ( D + 0.7 ) –4 PENN q q And for 60% sectors S/I is given as: S R –4 -..Spring 98 18 .q For the worst case scenario (i. and D+.7 ⋅ R ) –4 q + ( q + 0.7 ⋅ R ) –4 q We see now that for the same “q” we get a better S/I ratio! Or for the same S/I we get a smaller “q” -> smaller “N”! Sectorization is generally used to improve the S/I ratio for improved signal quality once the “N” has been decided upon using a smaller S/I value (i. Therefore the S/I ratio for 120% sectors can be given as: 1 R S = -------------------------------------------------.7R for 60%). mobile is at the edge of its own cell) the distances from the interferers are: (D.= ----------------------------------.Tcom 510 . and D+.e.= ( q + 0.e..7R for 120%. minimum required value!) q Magda El Zarki .
the battery life of a mobile can be extended. It also helps in reducing -channel and adjacent channel interference. Another implementation basically has all channels available to all cells. q Magda El Zarki . Power control: by reducing the transmitted power.Spring 98 19 .Tcom 510 .s Other capacity or signal improvement techniques q PENN Dynamic channel allocation (DCA): allows cells to borrow frequencies from other cells within the cluster if not used by them. they get allocated based upon demand. Can be used to alleviate hotspots.