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CHAPTER No.

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INTRODUCTION

Chapter No 1:

INTRODUCTION

1.1 WHAT IS DAM? A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates, levees, and dikes are used to prevent water flow into specific land regions. 1.2 HISTORY The word “dam” can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities. Some of the grandest and largest dams were constructed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Dams in Yodha Wewa and Parakrama Samudra of Sri Lanka were the largest until the 20th Century. As per Needham, Abhaya Wewa is the oldest reservoir that was made by the use of a dam, which has been dated to 300 BC. Most of the first Dams were built in Mesopotamia up to 7,000 years ago. These were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and could be quite unpredictable. The earliest recorded dam is believed to have been on the Sadd Al-Kafara at Wadi Al-Garawi, which is located about 25 kilometers south of Cairo, and built around 2600 B.C. It was destroyed by heavy rain shortly afterwards. The Romans were also great dam builders, with many examples such as the three dams at Subiaco on the river Anio in Italy. Many large dams also survive at Merida in Spain. The oldest surviving and standing dam in the world is believed to be the Grand Anicut, also known as the Kallanai, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in the state of Tamil Nadu located in southern India. It was built by the Chola king Karikalan, and dates back to the 2nd Century AD. The Kallanai is a massive dam of unhewn stone, over 300 meters long, 4.5 meters high and 20 meters (60 ft) wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri. The purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Cauvery across the fertile Delta region for irrigation via canals. The dam is still in excellent repair, and served as a model for later engineers, including the Sir Arthur Cotton's 19thcentury dam across the Kollidam, the major tributary of the Cauvery. The land area irrigated by the ancient irrigation network, of which the dam was the centerpiece, was 69,000 acres (280 square
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is the first known hydraulic engineer of China.  Medium Dam: . and often gave rise to the respective place's names in Dutch. natural causes. the Prime Minister of Chu (state). Du Jiang Yan in China is the oldest surviving irrigation system included a dam that directed waterflow.000. Such dams often marked the beginning of a town or city because it was easy to cross the river at such a place. It was finished in 251 B. The central square of Amsterdam. In ancient China.is any dam that is neither small nor large. For instance the Dutch capital Amsterdam (old name Amstelredam) started with a dam through the river Amstel in the late 12th Century . and Rotterdam started with a dam through the river Rotte.3 TYPES OF DAMS Dams can be formed by human agency. Man-made dams are typically classified according to their size (height).000 acres (4. His large earthen dam flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir (62 miles in circumference). By the early 20th Century the irrigated area had been increased to about 1.000 square kilometers). dams were often applied to block rivers in order to regulate the water level and to prevent the sea from entering the marsh lands. a minor tributary of the Nieuwe Maas. believed to be the original place of the 800 year old dam. Page 2 . ruler of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. 1.  Small Dam: .1 By size International standards define large dams as higher than 15 meters and major dams as over 150 meters in height.  Large Dam: . or even by the intervention of wildlife such as beavers. Sunshu Ao.000 acre-feet. 1.has an embankment less than 20 feet in height and reservoir capacity less than 100 acre-feet.C. a reservoir that is still present today.has an embankment height greater than 50 feet or a reservoir capacity greater than 10.CHAPTER No. In the Netherlands.3. He served Duke Zhuang of Chu during the reign of King Ding of Zhou (606 BC-586 BC). a low-lying country. intended purpose or structure. 1 INTRODUCTION kilometers). still carries the name Dam Square or simply the Dam.

embankment dams or masonry dams. generating hydroelectric power.3.3. arch-gravity dams. except during periods of intense flow that would otherwise cause flooding downstream. On occasion. a reservoir is contained by a similar structure called a dike to prevent inundation of nearby land.  A dry dam is a dam designed to control flooding. 1. Dikes are commonly used for reclamation of arable land from a shallow lake. A weir is a type of small overflow dam that can be used for flow measurement. flood control and containing effluent from industrial sites such as mines or factories.  A check dam is a small dam designed to reduce flow velocity and control soil erosion.  A saddle dam is an auxiliary dam constructed to confine the reservoir created by a primary dam either to permit a higher water elevation and storage or to limit the extent of a reservoir for increased efficiency. It normally holds back no water and allows the channel to flow freely.3 By structure Based on structure and material used. 1 INTRODUCTION 1. creating recreation areas or habitat for fish and wildlife. creating a faster channel that resists the accumulation of sediment. a). Arch dams Page 3 . improving navigation. Conversely. This is similar to a levee. which is a wall or embankment built along a river or stream to protect adjacent land from flooding. with several subtypes. a wing dam is a structure that only partly restricts a waterway.2 By purpose Intended purposes include providing water for irrigation or town or city water supply. dams are classified as timber dams.  A diversionary dam is a structure designed to divert all or a portion of the flow of a river from its natural course.CHAPTER No. An auxiliary dam is constructed in a low spot or saddle through which the reservoir would otherwise escape.  An overflow dam is designed to be over topped. creating a reservoir of water to supply industrial uses.

hence not only should the arch be well seated on the side walls but also the character of the rock should be carefully inspected. If the upstream face is vertical the entire weight of the dam must be carried to the foundation by gravity. Page 4 . 1 INTRODUCTION In the arch dam.CHAPTER No.1 ARCH DAM For this type of dam.3. impervious foundations with high bearing strength are essential. caused by the water pressure is smaller than the moment caused by the weight of the dam. in order to prevent tensile stress at the upstream face and excessive compressive stress at the downstream face. For this type of dam. stability is obtained by a combination of arch and gravity action. The most desirable place for an arch dam is a narrow canyon with steep side walls composed of sound rock. sliding and crushing at the toe. However. The safety of an arch dam is dependent on the strength of the side wall abutments.3. The dam will not overturn provided that the moment around the turning point. b). When the upstream face is sloped the distribution is more complicated. Gravity dams In a gravity dam. while the distribution of the normal hydrostatic pressure between vertical cantilever and arch action will depend upon the stiffness of the dam in a vertical and horizontal direction. while the normal hydrostatic pressure will be distributed as described above. the dam cross section is usually designed so that the resultant falls within the middle at all elevations of the cross section (the core). stability is secured by making it of such a size and shape that it will resist overturning. firm reliable supports at the abutments (either buttress or canyon side wall) are more important. This is the case if the resultant force of water pressure and weight falls within the base of the dam. Fig. 1. The normal component of the weight of the arch ring may be taken by the arch action.

3. EMBANKMENT DAM d). The locations where timber dams are most economical to build are those where timber is Page 5 . an arch-gravity dam.3 A). c). Fig. 1." Grand Coulee Dam is a solid gravity dam and Itaipu Dam is a hollow gravity dam. A gravity dam can be combined with an arch dam." The solid form is the more widely used of the two. and have two main types. 1.2 A). for areas with massive amounts of water flow but less material available for a purely gravity dam. like the gravity dams made from concrete.3.3.CHAPTER No. Embankment dams rely on their weight to hold back the force of water. though the hollow dam is frequently more economical to construct. GRAVITY DAM Gravity dams are classified as "solid" or "hollow. similar to a barrel. timber dams must be kept constantly wet in order to maintain their water retention properties and limit deterioration by rot. Rarely built in modern times by humans due to relatively short lifespan and limited height to which they can be built. Timber dams B). EMBANKMENT DAM Timber dams were widely used in the early part of the industrial revolution and in frontier areas due to ease and speed of construction. Gravity dams can also be classified as "overflow" (spillway) and "non-overflow. Embankment dams Embankment dams are made from compacted earth.3. 1 INTRODUCTION Fig. GRAVITY DAM B). rock-fill and earthfill dams.

Two common variations of timber dams were the crib and the plank. inadequate quality control during construction can Page 6 . often with the addition of mud or stones. plastic membrane. in the form of sticks. Rock-fill dams are resistant to damage from earthquakes. cement is costly or difficult to transport. Filters are specifically graded soil designed to prevent the migration of fine grain soil particles. 1. In the instances where clay is utilized as the impervious material the dam is referred to as a composite dam. The impervious zone may also be within the embankment in which case it is referred to as a core. Fig. branches and withes. When suitable material is at hand. e). been hidden under earth embankments or been replaced with entirely new structures. The earth utilized often contains a large percentage of large particles hence the term rock-fill. concrete. The heavy crib structure supported the dam's face and the weight of the water. steel sheet piles. TIMBER DAM  Timber crib dams were erected of heavy timbers or dressed logs in the manner of a log house and the interior filled with earth or rubble. Very few timber dams are still in use.  Timber plank dams were more elegant structures that employed a variety of construction methods utilizing heavy timbers to support a water retaining arrangement of planks. but most have failed. However. Timber. 1 INTRODUCTION plentiful. Rock-fill dams Rock-fill dams are embankments of compacted free-draining granular earth with an impervious zone. Timber dams were once numerous. the core is separated using a filter. The impervious zone may be on the upstream face and made of masonry. timber or other material.CHAPTER No.4 A).3. TIMBER DAM B). especially in the North American west. is the basic material used by beavers. To prevent internal erosion of clay into the rock fill due to seepage forces. transportation is minimized leading to cost savings during construction. and either a low head diversion dam is required or longevity is not an issue.3.

are constructed as a simple embankment of well compacted earth. and by providing adequate compaction during construction Fig. ROCK FILL DAM f). Liquefaction potential can be reduced by keeping susceptible material from being saturated. they can be very cost-effective in regions where the cost of producing or bringing in concrete would be prohibitive. ROCK FILL DAM Earth-fill dams. also called earthen.3. A homogeneous rolled-earth dam is entirely constructed of one type of material but may contain a drain layer to collect seep water. Earth-fill dams B). Fig. Modern zoned-earth embankments employ filter and drain zones to collect and remove seep water and preserve the integrity of the downstream shell zone. EARTHFILL DAM B). A zoned-earth dam has distinct parts or zones of dissimilar material.6 A).3. typically a locally plentiful shell with a watertight clay core. An outdated method of zoned earth dam construction utilized a hydraulic fill to produce a watertight core. rolled-earth or simply earth dams. 1. 1. 1 INTRODUCTION lead to poor compaction and sand in the embankment which can lead to liquefaction of the rock-fill during an earthquake.3. This makes it better for the environment too. EARTHFILL DAM Rolled-earth dams may also employ a watertight facing or core in the manner of a rock-fill dam. Page 7 . in which a coolant is circulated through pipes inside the dam to maintain a watertight region of permafrost within it.CHAPTER No.5 A). An interesting type of temporary earth dam occasionally used in high latitudes is the frozen-core dam. Because earthen dams can be constructed from materials found on-site or nearby.3.

and to settlements in the foundation. concrete or steel sheet piling. Air is pumped into the space. Steel dams Page 8 . and similar structures. When the project is completed.7 ASPHALT CONCRETE CORE DAM The type of asphalt used is a viscoelastic-plastic material that can adjust to the movements and deformations imposed on the embankment as a whole. The flexible properties of the asphalt make such dams especially suited in earthquake regions. Asphalt-Concrete Core A third type of embankment dam is built with asphalt concrete core. the cofferdam may be demolished or removed. In such cases the cofferdam is fabricated from sheet steel and welded into place under water. Fig. The majority of such dams are built with rock and/or gravel as the main fill material. 1. Cofferdams A cofferdam is a (usually temporary) barrier constructed to exclude water from an area that is normally submerged. displacing the water allowing a dry work environment below the surface. h). 1 INTRODUCTION g). Made commonly of wood. Upon completion the cofferdam is usually deconstructed unless the area requires continuous maintenance. bridges. See also causeway and retaining wall.3.CHAPTER No. Almost 100 dams of this design have now been built world-wide since the first such dam was completed in 1962. cofferdams are used to allow construction on the foundation of permanent dams. i).3. Common uses for cofferdams include construction and repair of off shore oil platforms. All asphalt-concrete core dams built so far have an excellent performance record.

4 DAMS IN PAKISTAN Pakistan is an agricultural country. Hub dam Page 9 . j). In Pakistan mainly rock fill and earth fill dams are constructed. Pakistan has various types of dams including small and major dams. The flooded region also allows beavers access to food. It has one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. steel dams were an (arguably failed) experiment to determine if a construction technique could be devised that was cheaper than masonry. especially during the winter.CHAPTER No. 1. b). Beaver dams Beavers create dams primarily out of mud and sticks to flood a particular habitable area.3. Fig.4. Punjab. By flooding a parcel of land. barrages and canals. but sturdier than timber crib dams. concrete or earthworks.1 SMALL DAMS a). Irrigation system consists of dams.3. 1 INTRODUCTION A steel dam is a type of dam briefly experimented with in around the turn of the 19th-20th Century which uses steel plating (at an angle) and load bearing beams as the structure. The Dam is a local tourist attraction for residents of Gujar Khan.8 STEEL DAM Intended as permanent structures. Dohngi dam Dohngi Dam lies 2 kilometers northwest of Gujar Khan in Rawalpindi. 1. 1.Pakistan. beavers can navigate below or near the surface and remain relatively well hidden or protected from predators.

can grow up to 9 feet in length and more than 110 lbs. 2001. e).CHAPTER No. it envisages provision of dependable irrigation supplies on the two banks of the river. The Mahseer (Tor putitora).000 m³) of water. d). It is an important staging and wintering area for an appreciable number of waterbirds and contains a variety of fish species which increase in abundance during periods of high water. Pakistan. The project has been completed in November 2006 and inaugurated by President Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan. about 30 miles west of Turbat in Makran Division of Balochistan.000. Mirani Dam multipurpose project. Mirani dam Mirani Dam is located in Gwadar District. an indigenous riverine fish found in the Hub River. About 10 to 15 minutes drive from Convention Center Islamabad towards Murree 1. about 25 miles (40 km) from Islamabad. The reservoir supplies water for irrigation in Lasbela District of Balochistan and drinking water for the city of Karachi. Balochistan. is located on Dasht River.352 million. Khanpur dam Khanpur Dam is a dam located on the Haro River near the town of Khanpur (NWFP). 1. It forms Khanpur Lake. 1 INTRODUCTION Hub Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in 1981 on the Hub River on the arid plains north of Karachi on provincial border between Balochistan and Sindh. Simly dam Simly Dam is located around 30 kilometer (19 miles) north of Islamabad. Hub Dam was designated a Ramsar site on May 1. c). The dam was completed in 1983 after a 15 year construction period believed to have cost Rs.2 MAJOR DAMS TERBELA DAM Page 10 . Pakistan. a reservoir which supplies drinking water to Islamabad and Rawalpindi and irrigation water to many of the agricultural and industrial areas surrounding the cities.000 acre feet (140.4. The Hub reservoir can grow up to 32 square miles and provides for excellent angling. It is 167 feet (51 m) high and stores 110. Pakistan.

Dam Height Dam Crest Length Dam Crest Width Year of Completion Total Volume of Dam Haripur.2.F.A. miles 14.A.10.3 M.4.268x103 C.CHAPTER No.yards MANGLA DAM (JHELUM RIVER) Page 11 . River Indus Irrigation & Power 95 Sq.4 M.F.000 cusecs 11.a) Salient features of TERBELA Dam Location Purpose Reservoir Area Design Flood Discharge Total Storage Capacity Live Storage Capacity Total Generating Capacity Dam Type Max. 1 INTRODUCTION Table 1. 3478MW Earth & Rockfill 470 ft 9000 ft 40 ft 1976 158. 9.

CHAPTER No.00. The Basha Diamer Dam was declared technically feasible and economically sound.34 M.000 ft 1202 ft. Government of Pakistan (GOP) with Azad Kashmir on River Jhelum Irrigation & Power 100. An earth core rockfill dam (ECRD) 210 meter high. Monenco carried out the study in 1982 and identified 25 promising sites for the hydroelectric power generation.b Salient features of MANGLA Dam Location Purpose Reservoir Area Design Flood Discharge Total Storage Capacity Live Storage Capacity Total Generating Capacity Dam Type Max. Jehlum and Swat rivers for identification of possible dam sites and determine their ranking. Page 12 .88 M. Dam Height Dam Crest Length Max.A. 144000x103 1967 Upper Jehlum Canal the assistance of Canadian Government through Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). This was followed by the feasibility study carried out by Monenco in year 1984. The ranking of the dam sites for storage and hydroelectric power generation concluded that Basha Diamer Dam (revised name) site ranked first. engaged Montreal Engineering Co Ltd. 5.000 cusecs 5.3 MAF) capacity. 1 INTRODUCTION Table 1.2.0 sq.F.A. 2400 MW Earthfill 454 ft 11. Water Level Total Volume of Dam Year of Completion Off-Taking Canal 1.5 BASHA DIAMER DAM Recognizing the water and power crisis in the country. The GOP and CIDA agreed to this recommendation. (MONENCO) to undertake study of Indus. having power generation capability of 3360 MW was recommended.F.D. S.P. miles 11. creating a reservoir of 9 BCM (7.4.

financial. This stage will take another 42 months. The dam site is located on a pronounced bend of the Indus River. the river is some 160 metres wide.CHAPTER No. 1. social and environmental investigations and studies were proposed to be carried out to fully assess the feasibility. in a section with steep rock slopes covered locally with a thin veneer of talus and acree. At the dam axis. PLANNED STAGES OF DIAMER BASHA DAM Page 13 . The activities of this stage are expected to be completed in 54 months. The development of a high dam at Basha will create significant storage capacity in the Indus valley between Rakhiot bridge and Dasu-Sazin gorge. The material constituting the riverbed is also compact and has low compressibility.2 Stage I Additional comprehensive technical.1 LOCATION The Basha Dam project site has been identified about 314 km upstream of Tarbela dam on the River Indus and about 165 km south of Gilgit City.5.5. moderately jointed norite (a form of gabbro) and is suitable as foundation and embankment material. 1 INTRODUCTION 1. with the possibility of overlap of a period of 12 months. The bedrock has high strength. The maximum depth of the river bed alluvium is 55 metres near the right bank. This would also facilitate the selection of an appropriate project layout to develop the hydroelectric potential of the Indus River at Basha. However. The selected axis is the first suitable site for the construction of such a dam downstream of the relatively wide and flat reach of the river dominated by the town of Chilas. its location requires the laying of long distance transmission lines to connect the hydel power generated to the national grid. Tender documents of all major contracts will also be completed. Stage II The detailed engineering design of the selected project layout will be prepared to the level required for tendering purpose in this stage.

The Upgraded Feasibility Report of the Project was submitted by M/s NEAC on 31st August. International Panel of Experts declared that the Project is technically feasible. 2004.CHAPTER No. Page 14 . The work on the project was stopped in January 1990 due to interference of local people. 1 INTRODUCTION Fig.1 Location of Diamer Basha dam 1. 1989 for up-gradation of the Initial Feasibility Report. WAPDA appointed M/S NEAC Consultants. 90% detailed Engineering Design Work has been completed upto February 2008. a joint venture consisted of local & foreign firms. WAPDA appointed Local Consultants in December. 1. The contract for review of Feasibility Studies. with M/s Lahmeyer a leading firm).5.5.3 FEASIBILITY STUDIES Initial Feasibility Report of Diamer Basha Dam Project was prepared by Canadian Consultants “Montreal Engineering Company (MONENCO) during 1981-1984. Detailed Engineering Design and preparation of Tender Documents awarded to M/S Diamer Basha Consultants (DBC) (Joint Venture of local & foreign firms. NESPAK (Lead Firm) for up-gradation of the Initial Feasibility Study. The DBC mobilized on 5th September. 2005 and the assignment is scheduled to be completed by March. 2008.

Page 15 . Problems & constraints. Environmental impacts. economic & financial Evaluation and findings & recommendations. hydraulic aspects of Diamer Basha Dam project. 1 INTRODUCTION In the coming chapters we will discuss the layout planning.CHAPTER No.

1.CHAPTER No. 1 INTRODUCTION Fig.5.3 Feasibility Report Page 16 .

(54.3 M.5’x65.700 acre 682.6’) 6.5. Operating Level Full Supply Level Total Volume of Dam Spillway Type 660 ft 3018 ft 3560 ft 3806 ft 58x106 C. 1 1. Dam Height Dam Crest Length Min. Spillway Gate Design Discharge Sill Elevation 6 No. Max. 2400 MW Zoned earth-rockfill with central core & concrete cut-off to bedrock. 3740ft Page 17 .000 Cs.000 Cusecs 7.7 M. 5.CHAPTER No.F.82. on River Indus Irrigation & Power 27.yards Overflow.4 GENERAL FEATURES OF BASHA DAM INTRODUCTION Location Purpose Reservoir Area Design Flood Discharge Total Storage Capacity Live Storage Capacity Total Generating Capacity Dam Type Chilas. flip bucket & plunge pool.F.A.A. with concrete lined chute.