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Biography of Nathanael Greene Page 1 of 3

Nathanael Greene was born on 27 July 1742 (Old Style) in Potowomut, Rhode
Island. The Gregorian Calendar, which is used today, was not adopted in England or her
colonies until 1752. Prior to that year, March was considered the first month of the year
in civil matters as opposed to January. According to his father's journal, Nathanael was
born on the twenty-seventh day of the fifth month of the year. This makes his birthday
July 27th (Old Style) or May 27th (New Style). He was named for his father, who was a
respected minister of the Society of Friends (Quakers) and a prosperous businessman.
Greene’s mother was Mary Motte, the second wife of his father. Because of Quaker
beliefs about education, Greene was only taught reading, writing, and business math.
Later, he would comment on this early aspect of his life, "I lament the want of a liberal
Education." But, he studied vigorously on his own. He made miniature anchors and
other toys to sell in Newport so that he could buy books. Furthermore, he would receive Nathanael Greene
guidance in his self-education from two influential men. The first man was Lindley
Murray, a young lawyer working for John Jay’s law firm in New York. Murray would
go on to become the country’s foremost grammarian. The second man was Ezra Stiles,
the future president of Yale.

As relations between England and thirteen of her colonies in North America


deteriorated, Greene was caught up in the general fervor of resistance in New England.
After attending a military parade in Connecticut, he became an avid reader of military
works. The unlawful seizure of one of the Greene family’s sloops by the H.M.S. Gaspée,
a British revenue schooner, made matters personal.

On 20 July 1774, Greene married Catharine Littlefield of Block Island. Caty, as she
was known by her friends, was attractive and vivacious and would give him six children.
She was the niece of two future governors of Rhode Island and the daughter of the deputy
to the General Assembly. During the war, she visited her husband as much as she could
and was very popular with his associates.
Horatio Gates
In August of 1774, the men of East Greenwich county formed a militia company,
which they later incorporated under the name Kentish Guards. Although Greene was a
founding member, his participation in the group was challenged because of a slight limp
that he had since childhood. The incident hurt him deeply and was only settled when an
influential member of the Guards and close friend, James Mitchell Varnum, threatened to
resign if Greene was forced to leave.

In April of 1775, the Assembly of Rhode Island met at Providence and established
an Army of Observation. Two months later, Greene was given command as a brigadier
general of state troops. There has been much speculation as to why a man who had never
held a military commission was given the command. Less than a year earlier, this same
man's position in a militia company had been challenged. He led his troops to Boston,
where he showed a talent for assembling supplies and suppressing intercolonial
jealousies. On 22 June 1775, he was commissioned as the youngest brigadier general in Charles Earl Cornwallis
the Continental Army. A month later, he took command of Prospect Hill during the
Siege of Boston. But, he missed the Battle of Bunker Hill on 17 June 1775 while
petitioning for more supplies in Rhode Island. In a letter describing the battle, he
exclaimed, "I wish we could sell them another hill at the same price we did Bunkers
Hill."

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Biography of Nathanael Greene Page 2 of 3

It was in Boston that Greene first met George Washington. Even during their initial
meeting, Washington was greatly impressed. Within a year, he would consider Greene
the best of his generals suited to succeed him in case of his death or capture. The feeling
of admiration and respect was mutual as Greene named his first born in honor of the
commander-in-chief. After the British evacuated Boston, Greene took command of the
city.

When the Continental Army moved to defend New York in early April of 1776,
Greene took command of Long Island. Here, he was placed in charge of the Brooklyn
defenses where the British Army was expected to attack. In August, he was promoted to
the rank of major general, but was bed laden with a fever during the Battle of Long
Island, on 27 August 1776. As a result, he did not see his first action until the Battle of Daniel Morgan
Harlem Heights on 16 September 1776. After the battle, he was placed in charge of the
American forces guarding the shores of New Jersey at Fort Lee. This would lead to his
most costly mistake of the entire war. Hoping for another Bunker Hill, Greene urged his
commander to hold nearby Fort Washington, a strategic bastion for the Continental Army
on Manhattan Island. Severely outnumbered and outgunned, the garrison of three
thousand men fell to the British with little resistance.

Afterwards, Greene played a prominent role in conducting the retreat of the


Continental Army across New Jersey. He commanded the right wing of Washington’s
task force during the Battle of Trenton on 26 December 1776. He also participated in the
Battle of Princeton on 3 January 1777. In March, Washington sent Greene to Congress
as his emissary to convince them of the pressing needs of the Continental Army.

At the Battle of Brandywine on 11 September 1777, Greene led his division four
Francis Marion
miles in under fifty minutes through broken country to set up a defensive line that
allowed Major General John Sullivan’s division to retreat. Then, he closed his lines and
held the British at bay until nightfall which gave the main force time to withdraw from
the field. At the Battle of Germantown on 4 October 1777, he led the left wing of the
army.

On 2 March 1778, Washington appointed Greene the new Quartermaster General of


the Continental Army. The Quartermaster Department was in shambles and he had to
labor long hours just to keep the Army operating. His reaction to his new assignment is
best summed up with the statement, "No body ever heard of a quarter Master in
History." Washington still consulted him on matters of strategy and tactics, and he
participated in all councils of war. The next battle that Greene took an active role in was
the Battle of Monmouth on 28 June 1778. On 7 June 1780, he commanded the front line
at the engagement of Connecticut Farms in New Jersey. Two weeks later, he led the force
that repulsed the British at the Battle of Springfield (23 June 1780). Andrew Pickens

Greene resigned as Quartermaster General on 26 July 1780 because he did not agree
with Congress’s new policy of requisitioning supplies from the individual states. In late
September of 1780, he presided over the military court that convicted Major John André,
the British officer who was involved in Benedict Arnold's treason, of spying. A month
later, Washington gave Greene command of West Point. After Major General Horatio
Gates was defeated by the British Army at the Battle of Camden (16 August 1780),
Washington appointed Greene the new Southern Commander.

After their stunning victory at Camden, the British had undisputed control of the
states of South Carolina and Georgia with a clear path into North Carolina and Virginia.
The British commander, Lieutenant General Charles Earl Cornwallis established a
chain of posts in order to secure his lines of communication and rally Loyalist support.
Greene would have to fight Cornwallis in a region that was a logistical nightmare. His
Thomas Sumter
first priority as Southern Commander was to rehabilitate an army that was outnumbered,
ill-equipped, and demoralized.

Greene split his force in the face of a superior enemy by sending a flying army under
the command of Brigadier General Daniel Morgan to threaten Cornwallis and bolster
local militia support. By separating his army, he was maximizing the limited resources of
the land, while keeping the separate units close enough to unite in order to fight. He
would avoid a major engagement with the British and harass them until he had the
advantage and could go on the offensive. He coordinated his efforts with local patriots

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Biography of Nathanael Greene Page 3 of 3

such as Francis Marion, Andrew Pickens, Thomas Sumter, and Elijah Clarke in petite
guerre (partisan operations) against the British.

Cornwallis reacted by sending a force under the command of his subordinate,


Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton, after Morgan in the hope of catching him
between the two British forces. When Greene learned of Tarleton’s pursuit, he wrote to
Morgan, "Col. Tarleton is said to be on his way to pay you a visit. I doubt not but he
will have a decent reception and a proper dismission." The result was the Battle of
Cowpens on 17 January 1781. Morgan soundly defeated Tarleton in the greatest patriot
victory of the war in the South, rivaled only by the repulsion of the British forces at Banastre Tarleton
Charleston in 1776. Then, Morgan reunited with the main force and the flight to the Dan
River began in earnest. When Greene learned that Cornwallis was in pursuit, he
exclaimed, "Then he is ours!"

The "Race to the Dan" exemplified the superior mobility of the American Army. In
a month’s time, the Americans marched two hundred miles to North Carolina eluding the
pursuing British in harsh weather. It also exemplified Greene’s superior use of local
geography and contingency planning. Greene succeeded in escaping the British Army
and forced them to overextend their supply lines in one move.

Cornwallis returned southward to recruit additional Loyalist support and supplies,


while Greene recrossed the Dan River and trailed him. The two forces met head-on at the
Battle of Guilford Courthouse on 15 March 1781. Cornwallis succeeded in driving
Greene from the field, but he suffered severe casualties in a Pyrrhic victory. When the
British Parliament learned of the battle, Charles James Fox exclaimed, "Another such
victory would destroy the British Army." Weakened, Cornwallis withdrew to
Wilmington, North Carolina and eventually on to Yorktown, Virginia, where he was
defeated by a joint Franco-American force. William Washington

Next, Greene led his army back into South Carolina and began the 'War of the
Posts.' Forces under his command along with partisans simultaneously attacked various
points in the exposed British line of forts. He led his main army in three more
engagements, the Battle of Hobkirk’s Hill (25 April 1781), the Siege of Ninety-Six (22
May-19 June 1781), and the Battle of Eutaw Springs (8 September 1781), the bloodiest
engagement of the entire war. Although he succeeded in completely destroying British
authority in the southern states, he never achieved a single tactical victory. His lack of
success in winning a battle is best summed up in his own words, "We fight, get beat,
rise, and fight again."

In only twenty months, Greene succeeded in capturing all of the British posts taking
3,500 prisoners and splitting the British Army in half, bottling them up in Charleston and Henry Lee
Wilmington. He also played a vital role in the re-establishment of civil government in
the South. A major factor in his success was an outstanding group of subordinates
including: two Marylanders, Otho Holland Williams and John Eager Howard, two
cavalrymen, William Washington (second cousin of George Washington) and Henry
Lee (father of General Robert E. Lee), and his Polish engineer, Thaddeus Kosciuszko.

After the war, Greene moved his family to his new estate, Mulberry Grove, just
north of Savannah, Georgia. He attempted to settle down to the life of a Southern
planter, while spurning attempts by prominent Georgians to involve him in local politics.
He was forced to sell additional property awarded to him by the states of North and South
Carolina in order to solve severe financial problems caused by the war. Tragically, he
died at the age of forty-four on 19 June 1786 of a stroke, possibly caused by
overexposure to the sun. His remains and those of his son, George Washington Greene,
rest beneath a monument in Johnson Square in downtown Savannah. Eventually, Thaddeus Kosciuszko
Congress would pay off his debt and erect a monument to his memory in the nation's
capital. It will never be known to what great heights he would have risen had he lived a
longer life.

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SC Historical Society: Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion Page 1 of 1

[v. 3, No. 80.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion

CAMP AT RUGELEY'S, April 28, 1781.

Capt. Snipes has just arrived in Camp and says that reports were below, that we
were routed and totally dispersed. You will take measures to have the above
contradicted, and the people properly informed. By mistake we got a slight
repulse, the injury is not great. The enemy suffered much more than we did. What
has happened will make no alteration in our plan of operations, and therefore I
wish you to pursue the same plan as you had in contemplation before. In my last I
desired you to move up within 7 miles of Camden; but Capt. Conyers thinks that
with 50 men below, at the distance of 15 or 20 miles, all the supplies can be as
effectually cut off as if you were at a less distance, and that if you cross the Santee
you can take all the posts upon the Congaree, and those posts that lie between
Camden and the River. I have therefore sent Capt. Conyers to conduct the
Artillery to you, which I was informed this morning by Express, was on its return,
Major Eaton having heard of the reduction of the fort. You will cross the River
Santee, or detach Lieut. Col. Lee and direct your force as information and
circumstances may direct, either towards George Town or elsewhere, as shall
appear necessary, keeping me constantly advised of your situation, and leaving a
guard of about 60 men at, or about the High Hills of Santee, to prevent supplies
from going to Camden. Get all the good Dragoon Horses you can to mount our
Calvary; those for Col. Washington's Corps, Capt. Conyers will take care of. This
is a great object, and I beg you to pay particular attention to it.

I am, dear sir, your most obedient humble servant,

NATH. GREENE

(From Documentary History of the American Revolution, by Gibbes, Volume 3, p. 60)

Doc ID: Gibbes, v. 3, p. 60a


Date: 4/28/1781

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SC Historical Society: General Greene to Col. H. Lee Page 1 of 2

[v. 3, No. 81.] General Greene to Col. H. Lee

SUPPOSED TO HAVE BEEN WRITTEN THE 28th of April, 1781.

Dear Sir:

I have just received your letter of 19th, two of the 23d, and two of the 27th. I note
all the contents. You know best your own situation, and your own wishes, but you
are not well informed of mine. I have run every hazard to promote your plan of
operations, as well as to oblige you, as from a persuasion the public service would
be benefitted by it.

On the 25th the enemy sallied. It was what we wished for, and had taken a position
about a mile from the town for the purpose, on a very advantageous piece of
ground. The enemy were discovered by a fire upon our piquets. The line was
formed in a few minutes, ready for their reception. The Light Infantry lay in our
front, and a heavy fire soon commenced. I ordered the second Maryland Regiment
to flank the enemy, and the first to advance and charge them in front. The two
Virginia Regiments had orders to do the same, and Col. Washington to gain the
enemy's flank and rear. Our artillery from the advantage of position was doing
great execution. In this situation the action grew warm, and our troops advanced;
but from some unfortunate mistake of the true state of things the first Maryland
Regiment being a little disordered, had orders to retire to few rods. This threw
them into disorder. The second Maryland Regiment seeing them fall back soon got
into disorder also; and the whole retired off the ground. This encouraged the
enemy, who before were retiring, and they pushed on and gained the top of the
hill; and the Artillery was obliged to retreat. Col. Haws's Regiment was then
advancing to tolerable order, within forty yards of the enemy, and they in
confusion in front, but from the enemy having gained their flank, by the retreat of
the Marylanders, I was obliged to order them to retreat also, to save them from
being cut to pieces. I was with this Regiment myself, and they suffered more than
all the rest. Col. Campbell's Regiment got disordered about the same time the
Maryland troops did, but by his exertions, and Captain Pierce's, my aid, they were
soon rallied, and the whole of the troops rallied at different times, but not in such
order, or with such spirit, as to recover the misfortunes of the day. We retired
about two and a half miles and halted without loss of artillery, waggons or stores
of any kind, except a few of the soldiers' knapsacks and blankets. Col. Washington
never shone upon any occasion more than this. He got into the enemy's rear and
took upwards of 200 prisoners, whom he found retreating, and in the course of the
day made several charges, and cut to pieces their Dragoons. He was obliged to quit
the greater part of his prisoners, though he saved upward of and made good him
retreat out of the enemy's rear. We had about 150 men killed and wounded, and
the enemy a greater number. Among the wounded is Col. Ford, in the arm. A
considerable number of stragglers have not yet come in, but we have heard of
them. In this situation things are. You will undeceive the people respecting the
consequences of the action, which at the commencement of it I was almost certain

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would prove the enemy's ruin, as well from the superiority of our force as the
advantages of the ground. I have sent Captain Conyers to conduct the field piece
to you, if you and General Marion think it will be useful. Gen. Marion and you
will cross the river together, or act separately as occasion and intelligence may
dictate as necessary, but dont run great risques. I congratulate you on your late
success, and wish you fresh laurels.

Yours, affect'y.

N. GREENE

P.S. Col. Williams was very active and greatly exposed, but all would not do, the
day was lost.

(From Documentary History of the American Revolution, by Gibbes, Volume 3, p. 61)

Doc ID: Gibbes, v. 3, p. 61


Date: 4/28/1781

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Francis Marion University - Home: FMU Home: General Francis Marion Page 1 of 2

General Francis Marion


General Francis Marion
Biographical information on General Francis Marion

Francis Marion (c. 1732-1795), for whom the university is named, was a partisan leader in
the American Revolution, nicknamed by the British as "the Swamp Fox," and is one of South
Carolina's best remembered Patriots. "Bloody" Banastre Tarelton tagged Francis Marion that
"wily ole' fox of the swamps" in about 1781, giving rise to Marion's legend as the master of
strategy -- never caught, rarely followed, yet seemingly always at hand, just when needed by
the partisans.

Born sometime in 1732 in St. John's Parish, Berkeley County, S.C., his parents were French
Huguenots who lived and farmed along the Santee River. He was the grandson of Benjamin
Marion, a native of Poitou, who came to the province in 1690; and the fifth and youngest son of
Gabriel Marion, who married Esther Cordes.

In 1761, he distinguished himself as a lieutenant of militia in an expedition against the


Cherokee Indians. He rose to prominence in his community, and was a delegate in 1775 to the
South Carolina Provincial Congress. He was named a captain in the 2nd South Carolina
Regiment.

Promoted to major in February, 1776, he participated in the defense of Charleston on June


28. Later in 1776, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and assumed command of the
regiment. In October, 1779, he led his command in an unsuccessful assault against Savannah.
Due to a broken ankle incident, which makes for interesting reading, he was spared capture in
Charleston in 1780 when that city fell to the British.

At that point, organized resistance to the British in South Carolina became non-existent.
Marion began his campaign as a guerrilla leader. His work in disrupting British communications
and preventing the organization of the Loyalists from participating fully in the battle of King's
Mountain, along with other assaults and skirmishes, helped to turn the tide of the war in the
South.

In late 1780, he was appointed Brigadier General of the S.C. Militia. In cooperation with
troops under the command of Henry Lee, he raided Georgetown and took Fort Watson and
Fort Motte. He went on to support attacks on Augusta and Ninety-Six, S.C. He was elected in
1781 to the state senate and attended the general assembly of 1782.

After the war, he was appointed commander of troops at Ft. Johnson. He was re-elected to
the senate in 1782 and 1784 and sat in the state constitutional convention. In 1786, he married
Mary Esther Videau. The couple had no children and he died at his home "Pond Bluff," on Feb.
27, 1795. He is buried at Belle Isle, near present day St. Stephen, S.C.

Brief bios on Francis Marion can be found in the American Encyclopedia, Dictionary of
American Biography. He was known as a thin, slight fellow with a long, "hawk-like" nose.
Marion and his troops regularly roamed the "Pee Dee" area swamps (Pee Dee being the name
of a local Indian tribe and two great rivers that run through eastern/coastal South Carolina).
Snow's Island, at Johnsonville, S.C., near where the Great Pee Dee and Lynches rivers
converge, is home of the hero's hide-out.

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Francis Marion University - Home: FMU Home: General Francis Marion Page 2 of 2

Marion wrote the first American military book on the development and use of partisan troops
and guerilla warfare in the swamps and woods of S.C.

Larger works for reading about the Revolutionary War in South Carolina and its favorite Patriot
include:

z Battleground: South Carolina in the Revolution (publisher: Post-Courier Book, 1983)


z Savannah to Yorktown (publisher: USC Press, Dr. Henry Lumpkin, dated in the 1970s)
z Swamp Fox, the Life and Campaigns of General Francis Marion, (by Dr. Robert D. Bass, published 1959; 1974 by
Sandlapper)
z Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox, by Hugh F. Rankin, published 1973.

While many books have been written about Francis Marion, the last two are by far the most
historically accurate, according to most historians. They trace Francis Marion's movements
through the Pee Dee area (to include Horry County, present day Conway/Myrtle Beach) and
pinpoint his location about every three to four days. These books also go into detail about
many of the residents of the area and include a great number of local names, detailing how the
soldiers would live off the land as they passed through the local areas.

For other biographical information, consult:

z The "Biographical Directory of the South Carolina House of Representatives, Vol. III, 1175-1790" (by Bailey and Cooper,
USC Press)
z Charles H. Lesser's "South Carolina Begins: The Records of a Proprietary Colony, 1663-1721," p. 229
z The Swamp Fox at Pine Bluff, by J.A. Zeigler, 1957.

Also, there are good articles in the April 1958 American Heritage and January 1985
American History Illustrated.

Just a quick note from readings: It is estimated a third of South Carolinians remained loyal to
the crown during the American Revolution, especially portions of Marion County, from the
Lumber River (then called Drowning Creek) to Britton's Neck, were a loyalist stronghold. Two
prominent farmers in that area, Macijah Gainey, and Jesse Barfield, led a loyalist regiment
against Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox, in several battles. In contrast, the Williamsburg
County area, around Indiantown, was a Patriot stronghold, with a number of that community's
leaders forming a local Patriot regiment, often fighting with Francis Marion.

The following is a link to an annotated bibliography of works about Gen. Francis Marion on
the webpage of FMU's James A. Rogers Library.

http://library.fmarion.edu/english/jarl/fm_bib.html

Mission Statement

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Revolutionary History, Clarendon County, SC Page 1 of 12

General Francis Marion, The Swamp Fox , www.FrancisMarionTrail.com Swamp Fox Trail, Clarendon County SC
Revolutionary History in Clarendon County, SC
with General Francis Marion, The "Swamp Fox"
"The greatest guerilla fighter of the American Revolution"
"The American Revolution was won in the South
in what is called the 'Civil War' phase."
General Francis Marion Memorial Day: Enacted by the state of South Carolina May 2, 2007: The twenty-
seventh day of February annually is designated as 'General Francis Marion Memorial Day' in honor of this South
Carolina Revolutionary War hero."

Celebrate Rev. War Living History Encampment to honor General Francis Marion Memorial
Day.
Francis Marion Living History Encampment Days: Feb 28 - Mar 1, 2008 at Camp Bob Cooper.

Visit the Swamp Fox Murals Trail. ©2002

Much was learned at 5th Francis Marion Symposium October 19-20, 2007 in Manning, SC:
“Explore The Rev. War with General Marion in the South Campaign.”

See Francis Marion related items for sale.

Francis Marion returns in Clarendon County.


General Francis Marion is in the Continental uniform of his 2nd SC
Regiment after he occupied Georgetown, June 6, 1781.
Marion Sculpture by Robert G. Barinowski ©2006 (http://baronsstudio.com ).
Marion is sponsored by the Swamp Fox Murals Trial Society.
Come to Manning to see Marion at the corner of Mill and Boyce, Courthouse
Square.

The American Revolution was deadlocked in the north, after the


battle at Monmouth Courthouse, NJ in 1778. These Swamp Fox
engagements were after Charleston fell and the British occupied it
starting on May 12, 1780. Marion had escaped capture and was the
only senior Regimental or Continental Officer free to lead the local
militia.

Battle of Nelson's Ferry or Great Savannah (Thursday, August 24, 1780) *C-7 SF #1 Click for: Map
Directions: Southeast of Summerton, I-95 Exit 102, take Dingle Pond Road (SR 400) east
about 4.5 miles. Unmarked site is on Santee Wildlife Refuge, Pine Island Unit, and requires
walking.
The stage for this battle was set when the British Lord Cornwallis defeated
General Gates in a battle near Camden. De Kalb was killed and about 150
Marylanders were taken prisoner by the British.
General Marion was ordered by Gates to roam the Santee burning boats
so as to isolate Camden from Charleston. He was successfully engaged in this
task when he learned of the defeat at Camden. He withheld this information
from his sixty troops and continued to burn boats. He learned from a deserter
that a British Capt. Roberts with an escort of ninety troops was holding the 150
Maryland prisoners at General Sumter’s home, on the north savannah of the
Santee River near Nelson’s Ferry. He attacked after dark and killed or captured twenty-three of the escorts and
released all the prisoners. This is thought to be the first time Cornwallis heard of General Marion.

General Thomas Sumter's Plantation SF #10 Click for: Map Directions: I-95 Exit 102, take Dingle Pond Road (SR 400) east
approximately 5 miles on Santee NW Refuge, Pine Island Unit.
General Thomas Sumter's vast land holdings and home were located on a bluff overlooking the Santee Basin
about six miles from Nelson's Ferry. This was the 2nd location he lived in and the one used during the Revolution

http://web.ftc-i.net/~gcsummers/revolution.htm 3/8/2008
Revolutionary History, Clarendon County, SC Page 2 of 12

and it was burned by Tarleton. Sumter's first home was 1 mile NW of Eutaw Springs, SW of Nelson's Ferry, and
his last holdings were at Stateburg.
The Revolution: Burning of Mouzon's (August 7, 1780) Directions: I-95 Exit 132, Hwy 527, Black River Road, towards
Kingstree
Capt. William Henry Mouzon II was educated in France and spoke the language fluently. He became a
surveyor and civil engineer. Henry Mouzon had a warm friendship with Banastre Tarleton from their boyhood days
at school; yet so callous had Tarleton grown from a sense of duty to his King that he consented to burn the Mouzon
Plantation House, which he did on August 7, 1780. His daughter Ann always remembered the day that the British
burned the Mouzon Plantation House. She was eleven years old and was on top of the smoke house at the time,
helping to spread the bacon in the sun. Ann was the first to see the British coming and sounded the alarm to the rest
of the family. The Mouzon home was at Mouzon's Landing, located at Puddin' Swamp on the Black River on the
edge of St Marks Parish, and Tarleton’s Green Dragoon burned it.
Ride to North Carolina (Sept 8-24, 1780)
Following Marion's victories at Nelson's Ferry and the Blue Savannah the British were angry. Cornwallis
ordered available forces, over 1500 men, to go after Marion and his 60 men. Marion, who was guarding Port's Ferry
on the Pee Dee expected such a move and sent Major James with a cavalry detachment to snatch a British soldier so
they could question him. Thus, Marion learned he was greatly out numbered so he broke camp and moved to the
Great White Marsh of North Carolina. On his return he gathered his followers and his first action resulted in the
victory over Col. Ball at Black Mingo on September 28th. The Citizen Soldier mural depicts Marion gathering
men as he returns from
NC.
Citizen Soldier Mural
at SW corner of Sunset
Dr. (US 301) and Mill
St. (SC 260), Manning,
SC.

Battle of Tearcoat (Wednesday, October 25, 1780) *C-27 SF#2 Click for: Map
Directions: I-95, exit 132, South of Turbeville, take Black River Road (SC 527) East to Historic US 301. Go South on US 301, West on
N. Brewington Rd (SR 50). The battle area is about .5 mile East of I-95 (Follow the treasure hunt to find this mural.
http://www.geocaching.com/seek/cache_details.asp?id=26102)
While billeted near Waccamaw, General Marion learned Colonel Tynes with a party of over ninety Tories
passed through Camden where they drew supplies and new muskets. They were now camped at the edge of
Tearcoat Swamp, between the two forks of the Black River. ©2002
Battle of Tearcoat Mural at corner of Main St.
(US 301) and Park St., Turbeville, SC
Marion called a muster and with 150
men moved to Kingstree. He then
turned west and moved swiftly toward
Tearcoat. After scouting the
encampment Marion split his force into
three companies and attacked at
midnight. The attackers killed six, wounded fourteen and captured twenty-three men. They also captured the food,
baggage, ammunition, over eighty new muskets and horses with saddles. However, Tynes escaped, but was
captured a few days later in the High Hills (near Stateburg).
Confrontation at Richbourg's Mill (Tuesday, November 7, 1780) *C-6
SF #3  Map
Directions: I-95 Exit 108, from junction of Historic US 301 and US 15 in Summerton
go west on Gov. Richardson Road (SR 26). Site is on the Furse Branch just west of Jack’s
Creek.
Colonel Banestre Tarleton with the Green Dragoons left Charleston to
hunt down General Marion. Tarleton went to the late General Richardson’s
home, bivouacked and lit several huge fires. General Marion, attracted by
the light, began scouting the area. Mrs. Richardson sent he son Richard to
warn Marion. When Marion learned of the ambush Tarleton had prepared
he quickly withdrew to the east of Jack’s Creek, most likely to the area near
Richbourg's mill and plantation.
©2001

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General Marion enticing British


Col. Tarleton into Ox Swamp Mural in Manning
Chase to Ox Swamp (Wednesday, November 8, 1780) *C-25SF #4 Map Directions: I-95 Exit 119 - go east on SC 261. I-
95 Exit 122 – go east on US 521. (SC 261 & US 521 run together.) The road crosses Ox Swamp just east of Manning.
Upon learning from a Tory spy that General Marion slipped back east of Jack’s Creek, Tarleton gave chase with
the Green Dragoons. Marion, staying just ahead of the dragoons, and fighting a series of delaying actions with his
rear guard, rode to the head of Jack’s Creek, then down the Pocotaligo and finally slipped away into Ox Swamp.
Here Tarleton gave up the chase and said “as for the old fox, the devil himself could not catch him.” Thus, General
Francis Marion became known as the “Swamp Fox”. Marion and his men continued east to Benbow's Ferry on the
Black river where he had established the ambush for the British.
General Richardson Home Site *C-2 SF #9 Map
Directions: I-95 Exit 102, north on Historic US 301. At St. Paul turn left/west on Liberty
Hill Road (SR 373), turn left on Old River Road (SR 76). Site is most likely on the right
near the large tree, one-half mile west of St Phillips Church Road.
This is where Tarleton camped, started on the chase to Ox Swamp and
returned to harass the Richardson family. He made Mrs. Richardson prepare
dinner for him, then dug up Gen. Richardson’s body, burnt the house and
the barn with all the animals in it and finally flogged Mrs. Richardson in
front of her children.
Benbow's Ferry Site Directions: East of Manning on SC 261. Left, north, onto S-55
at Martine Crossroads. The ferry was located just east of where the bridge crosses the Black
River.
Marion positioned his force in an ambush for Tarleton along the approach to the ferry.
Battle of Half Way Swamp (Tuesday, December 12, 1780) *C-1 SF #5 Map
Directions: South of Summerton, I-95 Exit 102 north on Historic US 301. At St. Paul turn
west on Liberty Hill Road (SR 373), then left onto Old River Road (SR 76). Site is on the
left just past Elliott’s Mill Pond and Spring Grove Creek.
Major McLeroth and his British Regular troops met at Nelson’s Ferry
recruits for the Royal Fusiliers, who departed Charleston for Camden.
McLeroth was to escort them to the High Hills. General Marion with 700
troops intercepted McLeroth’s group and began driving in the pickets.
Under a flag of truce McLeroth complained and after they talked, it was
decided each side would field twenty men to face off and fight. Major
Vanderhorst and the picked twenty decided to wait until they were fifty
yards away to fire their buckshot. As they closed to less than 100 yards, the
Redcoats broke and ran. During the night the British stole away, leaving their equipment and supplies behind.
Marion sent James and his cavalry after them. James fired on the British at Singleton’s Mill but quickly departed
the mill area when he learned the Singletons had smallpox. Dec. 26, 1780, Lt. Col. John Watson Tadwell Watson
and the British 64th Regiment of Foot troops started building Fort Watson on the Santee Indian Mound.
First Battle of Fort Watson (Tuesday, Feb. 27, 1781) SF #8 Map Directions: South of Summerton, I-95 Exit 102. Historic
US 301 north, turn west onto Fort Watson Road (S- 803). Marker at the Visitors Center and the Indian Mound, site of Fort Watson, is at
the end of the road.
General Thomas Sumter had attacked Fort Watson atop the Indian Mound on February 28, 1781, attempting to
take it from the British. The next sequence of events comprise the Bridges Campaign or Watson Chase:
Battle of Wyboo Swamp (Tuesday, March 6, 1781) SF #6 Map
Directions: I-95 Exit 115. Take Historic US 301 north. Turn south (right) onto SC 260. Turn right on Patriot Road (SR 410). The site is
at the end of the road.
Lt. Col. John Watson Tadwell Watson and Colonel Welbore Ellis Doyle were sent to encircle and crush General
Marion. Early on March 5, Watson and his Buffs marched from Fort Watson down the Santee Path and bivouacked
near Nelson’s Ferry. Marion heard their location from his spy, Capt. Zach Cantey.
His men knew they must fight to prevent the enemy from continuing to overrun their homes and farms. Marion
ordered his troops to advance and set up an ambush, at Wyboo Swamp, a difficult pass on the Santee Road. The
British marched
into view and
out rode Watson
to survey the
scene. Out rode
Marion to face

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his opponent.
The quarter mile causeway spanned the muck and morass of Wyboo swamp. Watson, towering and majestically
uniformed, sitting a splendid charger and backed by Britain's finest soldiers, opposite the small Huguenot, sitting a
sorrel gelding and backed by farmers in homespun.
Watson opened the battle. He sent Col. H Richborg and his Loyalist horsemen thundering over the causeway.
Anticipating this, Marion sent Peter Horry and his horsemen to meet them. After a brief skirmish on the narrow
roadway, both sides recoiled. Marion again ordered Horry to charge. Watson’s regulars held. A fusillade of
grapeshot sent Horry’s cavalry reeling backward. Watson threw in the Troy dragoons. Battle of Wyboo Swamp
Mural (3 panels), Manning. Gavin James, powerful of frame and fierce of courage, turned back to dispute
Harrison’s passage. Mounted on a gray horse and armed only with musket and bayonet, he threw himself directly in
the path of the dragoons. Their foremost man he dropped with buckshot. Before he could reload, a dragoon rushed
him with his saber. James slew him with his bayonet, and a second with the same bayonet. In falling he seized the
barrel of James’ gun and for 50 yards in his retreat Gavin James dragged the dying Tory.
As the dragoons crossed the causeway, Marion’s militia charged, driving the Tories back across Wyboo. Watson
ordered his Guards to clear the passage. Marion knew his men could not stop the veterans and called them to mount
and retreat. Marion withdrew to a position near the Cantey Plantation.
Mount Hope Harassment (March 10-28, 1781) *C-29 SF #7 Map
Directions: South of Manning, south on SC 260, left on Kenwood Road (S-323). Large brick and metal gate on the right, south side, of the
road mark John Cantey’s Plantation.
Colonel Watson encamped at the Cantey Plantation on March 9th. He then attempted to join Doyle who was
moving from Camden down the Pee Dee north of the Black River. At Mount Hope Swamp Watson met severe
harassment from the Swamp Fox and his men. He again met stiff resistance at the Lower Bridge over the Black
River and was unable to cross the river to reach Kingstree. He then camped at the Witherspoon and the Blakely
plantations but was forced to head for Georgetown. He was ambushed and stopped at Ox Swamp and then made a
dash for Georgetown via the Old River Road. When the British reached the Sampit River, General Marion
ambushed them. Watson had suffered many casualties at every encounter and leaving his dead where they fell, he
arrived at Georgetown with two wagons filled with wounded soldiers.
Siege of Fort Watson (Monday to Monday, April 16-23, 1781) *C-3
SF #8  Map
Directions: I-95 Exit 102, South of Summerton. Historic US 301 north, turn
west onto Fort Watson Road (S-803). Marker at the Visitors Center and the Indian
Mound, site of Fort Watson, is at the end of the road.
Colonel Harry Lee and Lee’s
Legion from Virginia had joined
General Marion and Marion’s
Brigade on the Black River on April
14, 1781. Marion and Lee elected to
capture British, built in December
1780 and held, Fort Watson to
secure the area and to get badly needed supplies. They laid siege to the fort. While
waiting for a cannon to arrive Major Maham suggested building a tower and
having sharpshooters pick off the Redcoats inside the fort. The tower was erected
over night after collecting saplings for several days. The use of the tower by the McCottry riflemen at sunrise led to
the quick surrender of Fort Watson by Lt. James McKay on the morning of April 23, 1781 and was the final Battle
of Fort Watson.

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Re-enactment at Santee Indian Mound, Victory at Fort Watson


Encampment October, 2003

©2002
General Marion's Siege and Victory at Fort Watson
Mural in Summerton by Will Anderson

Richardson Cemetery and St Mark's


Parish Church *C-2SF #9 Map
Directions: I-95 Exit 102 north on Historic US 301.
At St. Paul turn west on SR 373, then left onto SR
76. Site is on the left just past Richardson Branch.
In an effort to teach the Richardsons
and other Patriots a lesson for helping
General Marion, Colonel Tarleton had his
troops dig up General Richardson who was
buried six weeks earlier and forced his
family to view the body. Two SC governors
and the founder of the Citadel are also
buried here at this historic site. St. Mark’s
Parish Church was located here when the
British burned it as they considered the
church “a sedition shop”.

Eutaw Springs Battle was Saturday, September 8, 1781.


Directions: I-95 Exit 98 east on SC 6 to Eutaw Springs.
The Battle of Eutaw Springs was the last large battle fought in the
campaign to end British occupation of the Carolinas and Georgia. On
September 8, 1781, Major General Nathanael Greene's Continental
Army accompanied by militia attacked the British Army under the
command of Lt. Col. Alexander Stewart at Eutaw Springs. Over 4000
men fought for more than 4 hours in the stifling heat. It was the bloodiest

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battle of the Revolutionary War and soldiers reported wading through


puddles of blood on the field and men were standing, dead, impaled on each other's bayonets. When the carnage
was over, the British evacuated the area and moved to Chaleston Neck. Five weeks later, when the British
surrendered at Yorktown, they had no claim to the Carolinas and Georgia. The Battle of Eutaw Springs had ended
British control. (from Christine Swager: "The Valiant Died")
Cantey Plantation *C-29 SF #11    Map
Directions: South of Manning, I-95 Exit 119 east on SC 261, south on SC 260, east on
Kenwood Road (S-323). Large brick and metal gate on the right, south side, of the road
mark Plantation.

John Cantey’s home was about halfway between Nelson’s Ferry and
Murray’s Ferry. Gen. Marion was staying here when he learned that General
Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown on October 19, 1781. Joseph Cantey,
John’s father, purchased the Mount Hope Plantation about 1739. It was
located east of John’s near the present Cantey Cemetery.
Nov. 10, 1781, Saturday, Celebration party at John Cantey’s: “a fine party
for the ladies of Santee”

Significant Events in the Life of Francis Marion:


** Battles or skirmishes Marion engaged in **
Winter 1732 Marion was born in the Low Country of South Carolina, youngest of six.
1738 (c) Family moved to Winyah Bay close to Georgetown.
1747 (c) Francis went to sea. Disaster changed his mind about a career at sea.
1750 (c) Francis Marion's father died and Francis, unmarried, managed farm.
**1756 Francis and brother, Gabriel, enlisted to fight Indians. Indian fighter to 1761
1773 Francis purchased land on the Santee, 4 miles below Eutaw Springs.
April 19, 1775 Battles at Lexington and Concord, MA
May 1775 Marion learned of the struggle in New England and went to Charleston to Enlist, Commissioned as
Captain on June 21, 1775, in SC Regiment.
June 18, 1776 South Carolina Regiments incorporated into Continental Army.
**June 28, 1776 British attack Sullivan's Island from the sea. Marion commanded the guns at the fort. (Now Fort
Moultrie)
--- South Carolina troops serve in SC and GA. Most action is in New England

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Revolutionary History, Clarendon County, SC Page 7 of 12

Summer 1779 Lord Cornwallis has orders from London for the Southern Campaign.
**October 9, 1779 Attempt to retake Savannah from British. Marion was involved
January 20, 1780 Marion, now a Lt. Col., commands the 2nd SC Regt.
March 19, 1780 Marion at a party at Tradd St. Jumped out window and broke leg (ankle?) Evacuated from the
besieged Charleston which fell May 12, 1780.
August 16, 1780 Camden fell, Cornwallis defeated Gates
**August 17, 1780 Marion (age 48) assumed command of the Williamsburg Militia; controlled Santee River
traffic, boats destroyed
**August 24, 1780 Nelson's Ferry, Santee River, Marion attacked British Soldiers conveying prisoners.
**September 4, 1780 Blue Savannah, Marion ambushed Tories under Micah Ganey. Wemyss's Campaign of
Terror. Marion at Great Swamp (Waccamaw) in NC.
**Sept 7, 1780 Kingstree – snatched Brit for interrogation
**Sept. 28-29, 1780 Marion, back in SC, attacked Col. Ball at Black Mingo.
October 7, 1780 Battle at King's Mountain.
**October 25, 1780 Marion attacked Brits at Tearcoat Swamp, Black River, during the night.
**November 7, 1780 Confrontation at Richbourg’s Mill & Gen.Richardson’s Plantation/Big Home
**November 8, 1780 Jack’s Creek to Ox Swamp Chase, Marion became known as the “Swamp Fox”
**Nov. 15, 1780 Marion at White’s Plantation & Pen’s Plantation
Dec. 2, 1780 Greene took command from Gates
**Dec. 5, 1780 Tory Tavern
**Dec. 12, 13, 1780 Marion at Halfway Swamp near Santee River, and Singleton's Mill.
Dec. 16, 17, 1780 Reconnoitered Camden Outposts, Santee Road Recon/Interdiction
Dec. 28, 30, 1780 The Camp near Georgetown, Chased Rangers from Williamsburg to Georgetown
January 14, 1781 Waccamaw
January 17, 1781 Battle of Cowpens, Morgan defeated Tarleton. (Marion not involved)
**January 25, 1781 Marion at Georgetown with Lee.
**January 29, 1781 Raided Moncks Corner & Congaree
**March 6-28, 1781 Marion at Wiboo Swamp, Mount Hope Swamp, Lower Bridge of the Black River, Snows
Island and Sampit Bridge.
**April 15-23, 1781 Marion and Lee Siege of Fort Watson, Ft. fell with Maham Tower, Santee River
**May 6, 1781 Marion and Lee at Fort Motte
May 28, 1781 Georgetown
June 6, 1781 British evacuate Georgetown.
July 8, 1781 Moncks Corner & Orangeburg
**July 17, 1781 Marion and Lee at Quinby Bridge & Shubrick’s Plantation
August 4, 1781 Col. Isaac Hayne is hanged in Charleston.
**August 13, 1781 Marion ambushes Fraser and his Loyal SC Dragoons at Parker's Ferry Causeway
**Sept. 8, 1781 Battle of Eutaw Springs on Santee River
Sept. 20, 1781 Port’s Ferry on Pee Dee River
October 19, 1781 Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown
Nov. 9, 1781 Marion learns of Cornwallis surrendered
Nov. 10, 1781 Celebration party at John Cantey’s: “a fine party for the ladies of Santee”
February 24, 1782 Two encounters with Loyalist cavalry. Tydiman Plantation Skirmish w/foragers
August 29, 1782 Fair Lawn Skirmish, Marion encounters Fraser and is forced to retreat
December 14, 1782 British evacuated Charleston. Militia not allowed to participate and had been disbanded.
Marion has returned to his home at Pond Bluff
April 20, 1786 Marion (age 53) married to Mary Esther Videau
Feb. 27, 1795 Marion died at his home at Pond Bluff, area presently under Lake Marion

Paper from Francis Marion: Stranger Than Fiction


Compiled by Christine Swager & George Summers
Note: *C #s are Historical Tour Guide Map Signs
(Maps available at Clarendon County Archives)
Note: Researched information from works of:
John R. Alden, A History of the American Revolution, 1969
Lawrence E. Babits, A Devil of a Whipping, 1998

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Revolutionary History, Clarendon County, SC Page 8 of 12

Lawrence E. Babits, Southern Campaigns, 2002


D.W. Barefoot, Touring SC's Revolutionary War Sites, 1999
Robert D. Bass, Gamecock, 1961
Robert D. Bass, Swamp Fox, 1974
Robert D. Bass, The Green Dragoon, 1973
M. C. Beckham, Colonial Spy, 2005
Douglas H. Bennett, Trail of the Swamp Fox, 2000
Mark M. Boatner III, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, 1966
William Willis Boddie, Traditions of the Swamp Fox, 2000
Melissa L. Bohrer, Glory, Passion and Principle, 2003
John Buchanan, The Road To Guilford Courthouse, 1997
John Buchanan, The Road to Valley Forge, 2004
Jimmy Carter, The Hornet’s Nest, 2003
Edward J. Cashin, William Bartram and the American Revolution on the Southern Frontier, 2000
Henry Clinton, The American Rebellion, 1954
Suzanne E. Coffman, et al., Williamsburg - Three Hundred Years
H. S. Commager & R. B. Morris, The Spirit of Seventy-Six, 1995
Kay Cornelius, Francis Marion, 2001
William P. Cumming, North Carolina in Maps, 2001
Sidney W. Dean, Knight of the Revolution, 1941
Walter Edgar, Partisans & Redcoats, 2001
Walter Edgar, South Carolina History, 1998
Leland G. Ferguson, Archeology at Scott’s Lake, 1975
Walter J. Fraser, Jr., Patriots, Pistols and Petticoats, 1976
Noel B. Gerson, The Swamp Fox, 1967
John W. Gordon, South Carolina and the American Revolution, 2003
P. G. Gourdin, Life Along the Santee, 19??
John Grafton, The American Revolution, 1975
William T. Graves, James Williams, An American Patriot, 2002
Anne King Gregorie, Thomas Sumter, R. L. Bryan, 1931
Don Higginbotham, The War of American Independence, 1971
Historical Documents, Revolutionary War Battlefield Map, 1962
Stewart H. Holbrook, The Swamp Fox of the Revolution, 1959
Wm. Dobiein James, A Sketch of the Life of Brig. Gen. Francis Marion
and a History of His Brigade, Three Rivers Historical Society, 1821
C. Brian Kelly, American Revolution, 1999
F. M. Kirk, Pond Bluff, 2000
Roger Lamb/Dan N. Hagist, A British Soldier’s Story, 1811/2004
Bruce Lancaster, The American Revolution, 2001
John Lawson, A New Voyage to Carolina, 1709, reprint 1967
Henry Lee, Jr., The Campaign of 1781 in the Carolinas, 1824
Terry W. Lipscomb, Various Booklets, 1988
Benson J. Lossing, Hours with the Living Men and Women, 1889, Scoggins, 2005
Benson J. Lossing, The Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution, 1859
Silas E. Lucas, Jr., Mills' Atlas Of South Carolina, 1980 (1825)
Henry Lumpkin, From Savannah to Yorktown, 1981
David B. Mattern, Benjamin Lincoln and the American Revolution, 1995
Bill Mauldin, Mud & Guts, 1978
Hugh M. McLaurin, III, The Swamp Fox, 1988
Robert Margan, Brave Enemies, 2003
Horatio Newton Moore, Francis Marion, 1845
Dan L. Morrill, Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution, 1993
Bobby G. Moss & Michael C. Scoggins, African-American Patriots in the Southern Campaign
of the American Revolution, 2004
National Geographic Society, America’s Historylands, 1962
Cassie Nicholes, Historical Sketches of Sumter County, 1975
Patrick O’Kelley, Nothing but Blood & Slaughter-Rev. War in the Carolinas, Vols. 1 & 2, 2004
Patrick O’Kelley, Nothing but Blood & Slaughter-Rev. War in the Carolinas, Vols. 3 & 4, 2005
Patrick O’Kelley, Unwaried Patience and Fortitude, Francis Marion's Orderly Books, 2007
John S. Pancake, This Destructive War, 1985
Howard H. Peckham, The War for Independence, 1958

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Revolutionary History, Clarendon County, SC Page 9 of 12

Hugh F. Rankin, Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox, 1973


Ray Raphael, A People's History of the American Revolution, 2001
Roe Richmond, Island Fortress, 1952
Parke Rouse, Jr., The Great Wagon Road, 1996
David Lee Russell, The American Revolution in the Southern Colonies, 2000
Henry Savage, Jr., River of the Carolinas: The Santee, 1968
George F. Scheer & Hugh F. Rankin, Rebels & Redcoats, 1987
David Schenck, North Carolina 1780-81, 1889
Michael C. Scoggins, The Day It Rained Militia, 2005
Anthony Scotti, Jr., Brutal Virtue, 2002
W. Gilmore Simms, The Life of Francis Marion, 1844
Sol Stember, The Bicentennial Guide to the American Revolution, 1974
D. W. Stokes, The Life of Francis Marion, 1974
Christine R. Swager, Black Crows & White Cockades, 1990
Christine R. Swager, If Ever Your Country Needs You, 2001
Christine R. Swager, Come To the Cowpens!, 2002
Christine R. Swager, The Valiant Died, The Battle of Eutaw Springs, September 8, 1781, 2006
Craig L. Symonds, Battlefield Atlas of American Revolution, 1986
Banastre Tarleton, History of the Campaigns of 1780 & 1781, 1787.
Don Troiani, Soldiers in America, 1998
M. L. Weems, The Life of General Francis Marion, 1824
Russell F. Weigley, The American Way of War, 1973
C. Keith Wilbur, The Revolutionary Soldier, 1969
W. B. Wilcox, Clinton’s Narrative of The American Rebellion, 1954
Beryl Williams & Samual Epstein, Francis Marion, 1958
David K. Wilson, The Southern Strategy, 2005

Discussions with:
Fin Coffey, Windy Corbett, Doug Crutchfield, Dr. Marion Davis, Dr. Walter Edgar, Dr. Elizabeth Fenn, Dr. George Fields, John Frierson,
Harold Furse, Christopher George, Val Green, Norman McFadden, Lauren Pogue, Dr. Tom Powers, Ann & Herb Puckett, John
Robertson, Steve Smith, Ross St. George, Frank Stovall, Dr. Joe T. Stukes, Drs. Christine and Bob Swager, Luther Wannamaker, Athena
Westeren, Scott Withrow.

Swamp Fox Map

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Revolutionary History, Clarendon County, SC Page 10 of 12

Battle of Nelson's Ferry or Battle of Great Savannah (August 20, 1780) *C-7 SF #1
Battle of Tearcoat (October 25, 1780) *C-27 SF #2
Confrontation at Richbourg's Mill (November 7, 1780) *C-6 SF #3
Chase to Ox Swamp (November 8, 1780) *C-25 SF #4
Battle of Half Way Swamp (December 17, 1780) *C-1 SF #5
Battle of Wyboo Swamp (March 6, 1781) *C-28 SF #6
Mount Hope Harassment (March 10-28, 1781) *C-29 SF #7
Siege of Fort Watson (April 16, 1781) *C-3 SF #8
Richardson Home Site & Cemetery (November 8, 1780) *C-2 SF #9
General Thomas Sumter's Plantation (November, 1780) *C-7 SF #10
John Cantey Plantation Site ( 1781) SF #11

Choke points on the Santee River


& Black River where Marion
cut the British supply lines.

Celebrate 'General Francis Marion Memorial Day'


Re-enactment & Living History: February 28 - March 1,

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Revolutionary History, Clarendon County, SC Page 11 of 12

2008
Marion Memorial Day enacted by the state of South Carolina May 2, 2007 for
Twenty-seventh day of February every year.

Visit Santee National Wildlife Refuge / Historic Santee Indian Mound / Site of Historic Fort Watson

South of Summerton. SC 29148 803-478-2217 * I-95/Exit 102, US 15/301


Scheduled Events Times Approximate
Hosts: Santee Refuge Friends & Swamp Fox Murals Trail Society

(Come by the Archives


for a Historical driving Guide Map* to tour Clarendon County.)
Check out: South Carolina's Front Door Website:
SCIway - The South Carolina Information Highway

Return to Swamp Fox Murals Trail Society Homepage

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Revolutionary History, Clarendon County, SC Page 12 of 12

http://web.ftc-i.net/~gcsummers/revolution.htm 3/8/2008
SC Historical Society: Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion Page 1 of 1

Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion


[Horry MS.]

Uxbridge, August 20, 1782.

Sir:

I this day received your letter of the 19th inst., enclosing me a return of the state of
Maham's corps, at which I am exceedingly chagrined indeed, for it appears there are no
more than seventeen men whose time of service will not expire in a month or six weeks.
This deficiency, together with that in the corps brought into the regiment by Conyers,
makes the regiment at least but a skeleton, when I expected the State would have had the
services of a very respectable corps; and, to add to the misfortune, I cannot command the
means of making it better. I have, in two or three instances, involved myself in a vast deal
of trouble, by making engagements which I thought I should have been able to comply
with; but, on experience, have found myself deceived, and, in consequence of which, I
have embarrassed myself exceedingly, and brought on myself much unmerited censure, for
which reason I am determined never to pass my word for a guinea, without I have the
means in my hands of fulfilling the contract the moment it becomes due; therefore, I have
no present means in my hands, nor the least prospect of any before the meeting of the
Legislature. It is utterly out of my power to furnish the money to re-engage Maham's men.
I can only lament the injury the State must be subject to by this unlucky circumstance, for
it is not in my power to remedy the evil. As a body of horse will be what we shall most
want when Gen. Greene leaves us (which he will do immediately, as the town is
evacuated) I think the best way of disposing of the regiment will be to select the best of the
accoutrements and horses, and mount the whole of the men that are retained, and form
them again into a regiment of cavalry, and let them remain thus until the meeting of the
Legislature, which I shall call together immediately on the evacuation of the town. As you
are well acquainted with the state of the corps, I should be glad to have your sentiments on
the matter. The enclosed is a copy of my letter to you by Col. Moultrie, who being taken
and carried into town, suppose the letter is lost.

I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

JNO. MATTHEWS

(From Documentary History of the American Revolution, by Gibbes, Volume 2, pp. 209-210)

Doc ID: Gibbes, v. 2, p. 209


Date: 8/20/1782

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SC Historical Society: Capt. Conyers to Gen. Marion Page 1 of 1

Capt. Conyers to Gen. Marion


[Horry MS.]

Traveller's Rest, October 9, 1782.

Dear General:

This will be handed you by Capt. Taylor, who comes to attend the sitting of the
Board of Officers. Capt. Simons' resignation ends the dispute between him and
Capt. Taylor. Capt. Martin claims the same as Capt. Simons; he was left out in the
consolidating. How that matter is to be settled, you are the best judge. A few, and
a very few of the junior officers, think Simons' resignation ought not to continue
both Martin and Taylor, and that if Taylor is the youngest, he ought to be left out;
but I hope he will not. I have enclosed the different claims, as I am confident I
shall not be able to ride so far. I am now an object of pity, and the fever continues.
Capt. Nelson informed me that you, as usual, have been helping us in clothing. It
is to you, and from your favorable assistance only, that we can make that
appearance, or be enabled to do that service to our country that is expected from
us. The Governor is poor, and, I find, contracted in his opinion of matters in
general; that he has no resource unless he has money, no strategem, no policy;
and, in short, he is poor.

My compliments to Simons, Muller, Edwards, Elliot and Neufville, and receive


the best respects from, dear General,

Your most obedient and very humble servant,

JAMES CONYERS

(From Documentary History of the American Revolution, by Gibbes, Volume 2, pp. 233-234)

Doc ID: Gibbes, v. 2, p. 233


Date: 10/09/1782

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SC Historical Society: Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion Page 1 of 2

Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion


[Horry MS.]

Ashley River, July 18, 1782.

Sir:

I received your letter of the 16th late last evening. The officers of Col. Maham's
corps seem to imitate the principle upon which the incorporation is founded. They
appear to imagine it to be an admission of Major Conyer's corps into Col.
Maham's; but this is not the case. There is a material difference between drafting
one regiment into another, and consolidating two regiments into one. In the first
instance, the drafted regiment is either disbanded altogether, or the officers sent
out to recruit; in the second, there is an indiscriminate mixture of men, without
giving a superiority in either one or the other, and the officers are commonly
retained according to their rank; but sometimes the arbitrary rule of retaining
them, according to their merit, has been adopted from this state of the case. The
objection that Conyers is disliked by Maham and some of his officers, is frivolous,
because Conyers can with equal propriety make the same objection to Maham and
his officers; and these gentlemen deceive themselves very much when they set up
a claim of superiority, for they have no manner of pretension to it, for the reasons I
have given; and as to the abilities of Major Conyers, I believe, sir, you are no
stranger to them, and that they entitle him to a claim equal to most officers; his
merit stands confessed by every impartial man who knows him. If, after these
considerations, gentlemen will suffer themselves to be guided by private pique,
and rather resign their commissions than submit to the established rules of
propriety and justice, why, they must do so, and we must endeavor to find men
that will engage in the service from a pure, ardent zeal to love their country. Such
will be less governed by passions, when they can't have their own humour
gratified. I send you an extract of the minutes of the Council, from which time the
commissions of Conyers and his officers are to bear date. It is true the corps was
ordered by Gov. Rutledge to be raised in September; but, as it was afterwards
rejected by the Legislature, the whole of that arrangement was done away, and can
only be considered as commencing from the re-establishment by me after I came
into office. On consulting Gen. Greene, I find Maham's must be considered as a
State corps, on Continental pay. I should be very glad to be furnished with a return
of Maham's and Conyer's corps as soon as you can procure it with accuracy.

I am very sorry to hear of poor Gough's fate; but it is astonishing to me that


gentlemen will venture themselves in that part of the country when they see we
cannot afford protection to it, and that it is a nest for a great part of the devils in
the British service. I have sent you an order for 100 stand of arms. I have some
faint idea that there is some medicine at Richardson's, on the high hills of Santee.
When you send for the arms, pray enquire if there is no one there. I know of no
mode of getting them but from Georgetown; I, therefore, enclose you a letter to
Heriot and Tucker, desiring them to endeavor to procure you a supply agreeably to

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SC Historical Society: Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion Page 2 of 2

such list as you may send them. The Continental hospitals here are but scantily
supplied at present. Your presence is very much wanted in this quarter; indeed,
every day renders it more and more necessary. I enclose you two brevets for
Messrs. Huggins and Rothmahler, agreeably to your request, and have left the
name blank. Savannah was completely evacuated on the11th instant. Wayne, who
is usually very sanguine, supposed, upon the commencement of the evacuation, it
would have been pushed forward with great rapidity, and this led me to say to you
that it was evacuated; indeed, it would have been so in three days, were it not for
the Tories and their negroes, whom they were obliged to carry off. Our prospects
are flattering, and if rightly improved, there is reason to expect we shall soon be at
ease. It affords me very singular pleasure to hear you have finally settled the
tranquility of the district of Little Pee Dee; so happy a conclusion to an affair,
which, in its first stage, wore but a gloomy aspect, reflects great honor on you, sir,
and promises lasting advantage to the State. Pray, is Ganey returned; I wish he
may not be playing a fast and loose game. Mr. David Rumph has proposed to me
to raise a party of militia horse for the protection of the part of the country he lives
in. I have directed him to apply to you to know whether you approve of the plan.

I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

JOHN MATTHEWS

(From Documentary History of the American Revolution, by Gibbes, Volume 2, pp. 199-200)

Doc ID: Gibbes, v. 2, p. 199


Date: 7/18/1782

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SC Historical Society: Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion Page 1 of 1

Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion


[Horry MS.]

Uxbridge, September 12, 1782.

Sir:

I have just received yours of the 12th inst. by Major Conyers. I certainly will not
give Col. Maham leave to give up the horses you mention, and I think it
extraordinary he should attempt to release them without my permission. I should
imagine he would hardly presume to disobey your orders; but, if you apprehend
any danger, I will immediately send you a press warrant, to prevent them from
being taken away.

I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

JOHN MATTHEWS

(From Documentary History of the American Revolution, by Gibbes, Volume 2, p. 225)

Doc ID: Gibbes, v. 2, p. 225a


Date: 9/13/1782

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SC Historical Society: Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion Page 1 of 2

Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion


[Horry MS.]

Uxbridge, September 18, 1782.

Sir:

I have written to you by Major Conyers respecting Maham's corps; also, what
must be done with those persons who come out of Charlestown. Since the time
specified in my invitation, the refugees have obtained permission to remain until
the 26th inst. I proposed a plan to Col. Lushington, some time ago, for manning
the galley at Georgetown; I have not since heard from him on the subject. If that
plan dues not take, I know of no other at present; for, as I have before observed to
you, I have no money, nor have I the means of commanding any. It would be a
mere trifle for the merchants and inhabitants in and about that place, to advance as
much money, or something else, as would fit out the vessel, and they are the most
immediately interested in it. A few years ago, the public spirit of our people would
have stimulated them to do such a thing without being asked; but, alas! that seems
now to be vanished. Mrs. Matthews is now on her way from Philadelphia, and I
expect she will be at the high hills of Santee about the 7th of next month; and, as
the road from Laurens' Ferry to this place is very dangerous, I must desire an
escort might be sent to meet her at the ferry, and conduct her down to my quarters.
Let the escort be at Laurens' by the 7th, and send on one of the men to Capt.
Richardson's, to wait there until she arrives (if she should not be there before) that
she might know the escort waits for her; otherwise, she may stay there a day or
two, and I don't want the men to be absent longer than necessity requires. You are
a better judge than I am what number of horse will be sufficient to render her
passage safe; therefore, I shall leave the appointment of the party to you. I think it
would be well to caution the person who is to command the party, not to say for
what purpose they are ordered, lest some villains might be tempted to waylay the
road before she gets to the ferry, for she has only one white man and two negro
servants with her, and Capt. Richardson informs me there are some bad men in
that neighborhood, who have lately plundered several people. If it would not be
fatiguing the horses too much or attended with particular inconvenience, I would
be glad they could be sent as far as Capt. Richardson's, to meet her. However, I
shall leave the matter to you, as I dare say you will be disposed to accommodate
her as far as the service will admit. Yours, &c.,

JOHN MATTHEWS

(From Documentary History of the American Revolution, by Gibbes, Volume 2, p. 228)

Doc ID: Gibbes, v. 2, p. 228


Date: 9/18/1782

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