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# Principles of Differential Relaying Patrick Arendse Specialist Engineer Secondary Systems

Hydro Tasmania Consulting

**Principles of Differential Relaying Introduction
**

Introduction Classification Current Balance Voltage Balance High and Low Impedance Schemes. The restraint characteristic Low Impedance Diff Settings Testing the restraint characteristic.

**Principles of Differential Relaying Introduction
**

Power systems divided into zones of protection E.g. bus, generator, transformer, transmission line, capacitor, motor, etc. Protection systems applied to these may be broadly classified as unit and non-unit protection systems. Unit systems bounded by CT locations. Major advantage of unit over non-unit is selectivity and speed.

Iin Iout Zone of protection Iin = Iout Idiff = Iin .Principles of Differential Relaying Introduction Differential relaying systems are based on the premise that under normal conditions current in equals current out (no source or sinks).Iout = 0 .

Iin Zone of protection Iin Iout Idiff 0 .Principles of Differential Relaying Introduction Inzone fault current in does not equal current out.

Principles of Differential Relaying Introduction With multi-terminal zones the vectorial sum of the currents at each terminal must equal zero. I2 I1 Zone of protection I3 Iin = Iout I1 + I2 + I3 = 0 .

CT mismatching. .Principles of Differential Relaying Introduction In reality provision has to be made for nonzero differential quantities under normal. These could result due to line charging current. the transformer tapchanger. healthy conditions. etc.

.Principles of Differential Relaying Introduction Provision is thus made for ways to prevent relay operation which could result due to differential current being present under normal system conditions. This is classically done by deriving a restraint quantity from the terminal currents (biased differential protection).

.Principles of Differential Relaying Introduction Alternatively the operating point of the system is increased by the use of a stabilising resistor (unbiased/high impedance diff protection). Manufacturers have their own unique ways of deriving the restraining quantities giving rise to many different kinds of restraint characteristics in modern differential relays.

Principles of Differential Relaying Classification Differential Protection Voltage Balance Translay Current Balance High Z (Unbiased diff protection) REF Buszone Generator Motor Low Z Biased Differential Solkor Trfr Generator Motor Feeder .

Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance I1 Protected Object I2 A i1 i 1 i2 R i2 B .

I diff CT secondaries only protection. I1 I 2 0 The secondary currents thus appear to circulate in the circulating current differential No relay current implies.Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance Normal conditions. relay at electrical midpoint. . VAB = 0. I1 = I2 By virtue of CT connections I1 and I2 add to zero through relay.

Principles of Differential Relaying Voltage Balance I1 Protected Object I2 i2 i1 R R .

. I1 = I2 as before. By virtue of CT connections I1 and I2 oppose each other and thus no CT secondary current. Implies that CT s are effectively open-circuited! Overcome by loading each CT with a resistor.Principles of Differential Relaying Voltage Balance Normal conditions.

Principles of Differential Relaying Voltage Balance I1 Protected Object i2 i1 V1 R Resistor R R Resistor R I2 V2 .

Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance Differential Protection Voltage Balance Translay Current Balance High Z (Unbiased diff protection) REF Buszone Generator Motor Low Z Biased Differential Solkor Trfr Generator Motor Feeder .

generator and busbar diff. This leads to a spill current which could operate the relay. Examples = REF. It is assumed with these schemes that a certain degree of CT saturation is possible under throughfault conditions.Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance High Impedance Also known as unbiased differential protection only one actuating relay quantity (current) required for operation. .

Relatively easy to set but it requires identical CT s (identical magnetisation characteristics) in order to minimise the spill current with normal load. Fault current through RS could lead to dangerous overvoltages voltage limiters are required. intended to raise the operating voltage of the system. .Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance High Impedance Stabilisation is achieved by means of a stabilising resistor. RS.

Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance High Impedance Protected Object A RS M R B .

Typically only used for EF schemes (transformers) but could be triplicated to offer phase fault protection as well generator. buszone. . Also buszones and generators.Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance High Impedance REF is fast and sensitive (more so than biased differential protection) Applied to transformer windings especially ones which have been impedance earthed. motor.

Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance High Impedance When setting a high impedance differential scheme the objective is to ensure stability under worst case through fault conditions. This is done as follows: . is required under worst case throughfault conditions. The idea is to determine what stability voltage setting. VS. System studies are required. At the same time maximum sensitivity is desired.

**Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance High Impedance
**

Determine worst case throughfault current. Determine which CT is most likely to saturate. Assume total saturation. Fault current flowing through saturated CT and associated wiring generates a voltage across the relay/RS combination. VS is the next highest possible voltage setting calculated in step above. For relays calibrated in volts this is all that is required. RS internal to relay.

**Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance High Impedance
**

Some relays have a current settings with external RS. Stability setting is then in essence the determination of RS.

RS

IOP = relay settings current (Note: relay impedance neglected)

VS I op

Current Balance

**High Impedance Example
**

30MVA, 132kV/11, Z = 10%

REF

200/1

200/1

If3

= 12.5kA

(1042A @132kV) If1 = 2.0kA

(Upstream line fault)

Current Balance High Impedance Example assume total saturation REF Worst case throughfault = 132kV upstream line fault Neutral CT most likely to saturate .

Current Balance High Impedance Example REF RLD RCT CTN XM 200/1 RS XM XM XM RRELAY .

Current Balance High Impedance Example REF RLD RCT RS XM XM XM VS IR RRELAY CTN 200/1 IF .

1. 0. e.Current Balance High Impedance Example REF Neutral CT magnetisation impedance goes to zero with full saturation.75) If RCT not known can use 5m /turn for 1A and 3m /turn for 5A CT. . Here assume RLD = 0.005 = 1 .1 or Class PL AS 1675.1 to calculate RLD if exact value not known. RCT usually obtained from CT spec (The R value in Class PX AS 60044. Use AS 3008. RLD = total loop resistance from relay to CT.g.05PX150 R0. Thus get 200 0.5 .

5 RCT 1.Current Balance High Impedance Example REF A RLD 0.0 RS XM XM XM VS RRELAY B 10A CTN 200/1 IF .

Current Balance High Impedance Example REF For the given out of zone line fault will have 10A flowing in the neutral CT secondary circuit. . VS = 10 (0. Required CT kneepoint voltage 2 VS = 30V. If relay operating current is say 20mA then RS = 15V/20mA = 750 . This will generate a voltage.5 + 1) = 15V between points A-B.

.Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance Low Impedance Characterised by two actuating quantities restraint and operate.

Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance Low Impedance Protected Object Rest/2 Rest/2 Oper Diff Relay .

Irest = Ibias = Istab It is very important to understand all the terminology used especially if one deals with a modern differential relay.Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic The restraint characteristic (or stability characteristic) warrants further attention. It is most commonly depicted as a plot of Idiff vs Irest. Two very different diagrams same axis labelling??? .

Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic I-DIFF ect2 I2 Restraint Region ect2 I2 ect1 I1 I-DIFF> ect1 I1 8 80 I-STAB .

Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic .

**Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic
**

What needs to be realised is that the first one is properly termed the restraint characteristic (RC) whilst the latter is an operating characteristic. Strictly speaking the RC tells us how much current a relay will use to restrain based on the currents measured at the respective CT locations. The currents at the CT locations are combined into a total current, the exact formula varying from one manufacturer to the next. Call this current ITOT.

**Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic
**

ITOT is commonly called the restraint current but in reality the restraint current is derived from it. ITOT is also a measure of the loading of the primary system. For example: consider a two winding transformer which has a slope 1 setting of 30% and a minimum differential operating current setting, IDIFFmin = 20% (or 200mA for a 1A relay).

**Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic
**

IREST (IDIFFmin)

Slope 1 = 30%

0.15A

P

IDIFFmin>

= 200mA 0.5A

TP1

TP2

ITOT

.Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic The manufacturer says that: 1 rest 2 What he is really saying is that 1 TOT 2 I1 and I2 are the currents measured at the respective ends.

3 x 0.5A (sec).15A (see point P on the restraint characteristic).15A is the minimum diff current required for relay operation if the system loading is 0. 0.e.15A relay operation results.5 2 0.5 = 0. Irest = 0.5A (sec) flowing at each end. Alternatively.5A The relay will now use 30% of this ITOT to derive its actual restraint current. Now if IDIFF > 0.5 0. i. I TOT I1 2 I2 0.Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic Suppose further that there is 0. .

2 0. .Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic If the relay in question was a 7SD.3 I TOT 0.3 2 Thus greater restrain here with the 7SD for the same throughcurrents.35A 0.5 0.5 0. then the restraint current would be given by: I rest Idiff 0.

Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic Concept well illustrated by the Reyrolle 4C21: .

.

Idiff is now compared to Irest and operating results if Idiff > Irest as illustrated by the operating characteristic. y = Idiff. no-op if y < x with the boundary defined by y = x. The characteristic is simple in that operation if y > x. x = Irest. .Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic The 7SD uses the RC to determine how much restraint current is to be applied based on ITOT.

Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic .

and the equations to derive Irest are as follows: .Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic The use of ITOT instead of Irest can be found in the SEPAM Series 80 range (machine and trfr diff). SEPAM uses throughcurrent. It.

Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic .

Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic The SEPAM formulas need a bit of rearranging: .

MICOM P54x.Principles of Differential Relaying The Restraint Characteristic Thus the actual process of determining Irest is a 2-stage process: 1. I 2 SEPAM 80 Series . I TOT I1 2 I2 KBCH. Type D. I TOT I1 I2 SIEMENS 7SD SEPAM 80 Series motor diff trfr diff Type C. I TOT I TOT I1 I 2 2 max I1 . SEL Type B. Determine ITOT Type A.

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Typically 3 IREST. IDIFF(min) 5 settings Operating Region S2 S1 IDmin ITP1 ITP2 Restraint Region ITOT .

(turning point 1 automatically defined by intersection of Idmin and Slope 1) .Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Settings generically defined as follows: Idmin = minimum differential current required for operation ITP2 = turning point 2 S1 = slope 1 S2 = slope 2 Idiff-hi = diff hi-set (when Idiff > Idiff-hi operation occurs irrespective of Irest.

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay More background theory Object to be protected RCTP I21P CT P XP IMP E2P RLDP M1 IR RRELAY VR RLDQ RCTQ I21Q E2Q XQ IMQ CT Q I2P M2 I2Q END P END Q .

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay E 2P E 2Q I 2 P R LDP I 2 Q R LDQ R CTP R CTQ I 2 P I 2 Q R RELAY I 2Q (3.2) Limiting case RRELAY = 0. E 2P E 2Q I 2 P R LDP I 2 Q R LDQ R CTP R CTQ (3.3) (3.4) .1) I 2 P R RELAY (3. Equations now become.

Thus the relay current equals the difference of the respective magnetisation currents. Thus IMP + I2P = IMQ + I2Q or I2P . I21P = I21Q.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay When primary current both ends are the same. Question why are there different magnetisation currents? .I2Q = IMQ IMP = IR. have identical turns ratios and no saturation then.

CT resistance or lead resistances are substantially different.IMQ < IROC.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Non-zero IDIFF can result if the CT mag curves. Let the relay operating current be IROC. This is the case when the relay is not located at the electrical midpoint of the secondary system. IMQ ) or even more conservatively. Then to ensure stability must have IR = IMP . . This translates into the requirement that the minimum current required to operate the relay should be > maximum difference between the mag currents at the two ends. IROC > IMP + IMQ. Thus IROC > max(IMP.

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay The minimum current required to operate the relay system assuming a single ended fault may be approximated as follows: FOC MP MQ ROC .

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Object to be protected RCTP I21P CT P XP IMP E2P RLDP M1 IR RRELAY VR RLDQ RCTQ I21Q E2Q XQ IMQ CT Q I2P M2 I2Q END P END Q .

IROC > 0. This is typically 1% of full load amps. It must also be ensured that the relay remains stable under no-load conditions when only transformer magnetising current flows from the primary side. should be at least > maximum difference between the mag currents at the two ends. IROC IMP IMQ 2. IMQ ) or even more conservatively. The minimum current required to operate the relay. IROC. Thus IROC > max(IMP. Escalate this to 5% to allow a sufficient margin of safety.05*IFLA*K1 K1 allows for CTR factor .Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Idmin 1.

S1 When applied to motors and generators this setting is based on worst case unbalance that could result due to CT errors up to 120% of rated load.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1. PX. PR) a setting of between 10 to 25% is recommended. etc. . With high accuracy CT s (Class PL.) a setting of between 0 and 10% will suffice whilst for low accuracy CT s (Class P.

S1 When applied to power transformers this is based on the worst case IDIFF that could result due to the action of the tapchanger. This is usually the maximum boosting tap. Transformers Determine the tap which results in the largest unbalance. . Denote the turns ratio corresponding to this tap position by TRMIN (maximum boosting corresponds to the minimum turns ratio).Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1.

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1. S1 TRMIN is calculated as follows: TR MIN where VHV-MAXTAP = HV voltage corresponding to the maximum tap (on nameplate) = nominal HV voltage corresponding to the nominal tap position (on nameplate) = nominal turns ratio of the transformer VHV MAXTAP TR NOM VHV NOM VHV-NOM TRNOM .

IFLA. Then. flows through the transformer IFLA being the LV current.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1. ILV IFLA LV CTR CFLV CTR LV and IFLA LV TR MIN CTR HV IHV CTR CFHV CTRCFLV CTRCFHV = LV CTR correction factor = HV CTR correction factor . S1 Suppose rated current.

C or D relay. IREST depends on whether it is a Type A. B. In each case the slope setting is given by.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1. S1 IDIFF 100 % ITOT Allow 5% for relay and calculation errors. . S1 IDIFF IHV ILV .

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1. CTRLV = 19000/1 IFLA LV 420MVA 3 23kV 10543 A primary or 0. nominal tap = tap 9.305 = 3.555 = 1. 17.305A secondary. HV voltage at maximum tap = 450.8.4% Tapchanger = 21 taps. 530kV/23kV.5kV.28 . IFLA-HV = 457. S1 Example Transformer = 420MVA. CTRHV = 1500/1. Thus CTRCFLV = 1/0. Thus CTRCFHV = 1/0.555A secondary.52A primary or 0.

587 ILV IFLA LV TR MIN CTR HV 0.8 1 10543 19.587 1500 IHV CTR CFHV 3.177 A . S1 TR MIN VHV MAXTAP TR NOM VHV NOM 450.28 1.555 1.5 530 530 23 19.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1.

Set to 20%.177 1 ILV 2 0. S1 Type A relay.177 1 1.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1. get a slope setting of 17.1%.177 100 % 16.177 A 1.0885 A 2 S1 0. IDIFF ITOT IHV 1. .26% 1.0885 Allowing for a 5% error.

.5%.177 1 0.13% 0.177 100% 2. S1 Type B relay.177 Allowing for a 5% error. Set to 10%.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1. IDIFF 1.177A ITOT IHV S1 ILV 1. get a slope setting of 8.177 1 2.177 A 8.

177. get a slope setting of 15. Set to 20%.04% 1.6%. I LV S1 max 1.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 1. S1 Type D relay.177 A 0. .1 1. IDIFF 1.177 1 0.177 Allowing for a 5% error.177 100 % 15.177A I TOT max I HV .

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Turning Point 2. . ITP2 C) Turning Point 2. For large power transformers this could be up to 200% of rated current. Thus it is meant to be effective up to the maximum possible loading of the transformer. ITP2 Slope 1 dictates the relay restraint characteristic over the load current range of the transformer.

ITP2 For smaller transformers allowable maximum loading could be anything from 100% to 200% of rated load typically 150%. For most cases a turning point of 2 (corresponding to twice rated load) suffices.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Turning Point 2. .

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Turning Point 2. ITP2 Type A: ITOT Type B: ITOT 2 IFLA 2 2 IFLA 2 IFLA thus ITP2 = 2 2 IFLA 2 IFLA 4 IFLA thus ITP2 = 4 Type C: ITOT max 2 IFLA thus ITP2 = 2 .

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Turning Point 2. This approach leads to ITP2 typically being greater than ITP2 = 2 as advocated above. ITP2 Alternatively some texts advocate that slope 1 is effective over the linear operating range of the current transformer. . Implies improved sensitivity over the linear operating range but less stability. ITP2 should thus be set at this limit.

.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Turning Point 2. ITP2 For this reason the approach of ITP2 = 2 is adopted in this text. When it comes to generators and motors a turning point of 120% times rated current is generally considered sufficient as motors and generators are rarely loaded above this.

. IDmin to cater for differences in CT magnetisation currents and transformer magnetisation currents and the slope 1 which caters for the action of the tapchanger. Thus additional restraint is provided on top of the two other restraints already mentioned so far. S2 The second bias slope is intended to ensure additional restraint with severe throughfault currents that could lead to CT saturation.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 2. viz.

S2 Most manufacturers recommend a slope 2 setting of at least 80% (Type 1 relay). .Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 2. The limitation is that there should be a sufficient margin of safety between the restraint characteristic and the inzone fault characteristic to ensure relay operation for high current single ended faults.

S2 Singe-ended inzone fault characteristic: IDIFF Type A: ITOT IHV IHV ILV 2 . ILV IHV 2 IHV and so slope IHV IHV 2 100 200% .Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 2.

S2 Singe-ended inzone fault characteristic: IDIFF Type B: IHV ILV IHV ITOT IHV . ILV IHV and so slope IHV IHV 100 100% .Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 2.

IHV and so slope IHV IHV 100 100% . S2 Singe-ended inzone fault characteristic: IDIFF Type C: IHV ILV IHV ITOT max IHV .Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 2. ILV .

IDIFF(min) A B C D IDmin ITP1 A B C D = = = = ITP2 ITOT single-ended inzone fault characteristics for a Type 1 relay single-ended inzone fault characteristics for Type 2 and 3 relays typical restraint characteristic for a Type 1 relay typical restraint characteristic for Types 2 and 3 relays . S2 IREST.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Slope 2.

considering maximum DC offset. .Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Idiff-hi Whenever IDIFF > IDIFF-HI operation results irrespective of the value of IREST. The objective is to ensure fast. i.e. saturating under worst case throughfault conditions. yet selective protection operation for high current inzone faults. The settings criteria is based on one set of CT s .

Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Idiff-hi Object to be protected RLDP RCTP I21P CT P XP IMP E2P VR I2P M2 END P END Q M1 IR RRELAY CT Q RLDQ RCTQ .

The differential current is thus IDIFF = I2P = IF/CTR. Thus.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Idiff-hi In the previous figure have that the throughfault current leads to CT Q being fully saturated. IDIFF HI IF K1 K 2 CTR IF = maximum symmetrical throughfault current CTR = current transformer ratio K1 = allows for the CTR correction factor K2 = safety factor .

. depends on several factors. Clearance times are then in the order of 100ms and with high X/R ratios full saturation may take up to 1s. However. via RLDQ and RCTQ as well. it is conservatively assumed that RRELAY << RLDQ and RCTQ The choice of safety factor.Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Idiff-hi Note: there is parallel path for I2P. K2. For properly sized CT s full saturation is only a remote possibility especially if a close-up throughfault is cleared by a unit protection scheme such as buszone.

With smaller transformers ( 20MVA. K2 = 1. i.3).e. A higher degree of saturation is now possible and so a safety factor of 30% may be necessary (K2 = 1. Their size also would imply large LV fault currents making buszone protection a near certainty. X/R 20) a close up throughfault may not be cleared in 100ms.05 to 1. .Principles of Differential Relaying Setting a low z diff relay Idiff-hi A safety factor of 5% or at most 10% will suffice. This is generally applicable to large transformers as they have high X/R ratios.1.

Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic Slope 2 (k2) Slope 1 (k1) TP2 IS1 TP1 IS2 = 1 Restraint characteristic of the P541 ITOT TP3 .

The objective here is thus to calculate the currents that need to be injected at each end (2-terminal application) corresponding to the above-mentioned test points.Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic The restraint characteristic may be verified by means of test points TP1. as well as the turning point IS2. TP1 verifies the pickup setting while TP2 and TP3 checks slopes 1 and 2. TP2 and TP3. .

Irest and ITOT.1) (4.2) I TOT I1 2 I2 I1 2 . we now have two equations and two unknowns solve for I1 and I2. Test Point 1 (TP1) Id I1 I 2 I1 Type 1 I1 (4.Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic Methodology : Find the expressions for Id. Set Id = Irest (one equation) and using the expression for ITOT (2nd equation).

Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic For ITOT < IS2 have.4) . Thus I1 I S1 k1 I1 2 or I1 I S1 k1 1 2 (4. I rest I S1 k 1 I TOT I S1 k1 I1 2 (4.3) Set Id = Irest and solve for I1.

5) . Define its exact location by means of factor f2. I TOT I1 2 I2 f 2 I S2 (4. Value of f2 determining exactly how far TP2 is to the left of IS2. Thus.Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic Test Point 2 (TP2) Id I1 I 2 I rest I S1 k 1 I TOT Need TP2 to be to the left of the turning point.

Then Id I1 I 2 I1 I 2 (4.Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic rest S1 1 2 S2 and so I1 I2 I2 I S1 k 1 f 2 I S2 (4.6) To get rid of the absolute value signs. let I1 > 0 and I2 < 0 with I1 .7) .

. Solve for I1 and I2 to get.Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic Similarly 1 2 1 2 (4. I1 I2 I S1 2 f 2 I S2 k 1 f 2 I S2 (4. two unknowns.8) Substituting get.9) I1 I2 Two equations.

Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic I1 f 2 I S2 1 I S1 2 1 k 1 f 2 I S2 2 (4.10) (4.11) I2 I1 2 f 2 I S2 .

have y = k2 x + c. . As the slope necessarily equals k2. Choose x = IS2 = ITOT. Use Irest = IS1 + k1 IS2 and so point is (IS2.Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic Test Point 3 (TP3) Id I1 I2 I TOT f 3 I S2 (4.12) Here f3 determines how far to the right of IS2 does TP3 lie. Equation is of the form y = mx + c. Need an expression for the restraint function when ITOT > IS2. IS1 + k1 IS2). Need to find a point on the restraint characteristic in order to determine c.

15) . I S1 k 1 I S2 k 2 I S2 c (4. c I S1 I S2 k 1 k2 (4.Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic And so.14) The desired restraint equation is thus.13) from which we get. I rest k 2 f 3 I S2 I S1 I S 2 k1 k2 (4.

17) .16) I1 I2 2 f 3 I S2 2 f 3 I S2 I1 I2 k 2 f 3 I S2 I S1 I S2 k 1 k2 (4. Then Id and Two equations: I1 I 2 I1 I 2 I1 I2 or I1 I1 I2 I2 (4.Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic Again let I1 > 0 and I2 < 0 with I2 I1 .

19) .Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic Solve for I1 and I2 to get I2 k 2 f 3 I S2 I S1 I S2 k 1 2 and k2 2 f 3 I S2 (4.18) I1 2 f 3 I S2 I2 (4.

let s first revisit: .Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic The above methodology may be applied to any biased differential relay in order to verify the restraint characteristic. For example in order to test the M87 motor diff.

Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic These are actually highly secret equations for the restraint quantity when ITOT 2 and for ITOT 2 Is = minimum Id required for relay operation (setting) Idx = minimum Idiff required for relay operation for a given Itx (ITOT) = Irest .

Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic May thus be rewritten as: I I 2 rest Is 2 I 32 2 TOT May be rewritten as: I2 rest 8 0.0002 4 .0052 2 I TOT 8 32 2 I TOT 0.

i.0002 in get I 2 rest 2 I TOT 0.Principles of Differential Relaying Testing the restraint characteristic If we neglect the 0.e. 2nd part of restraint characteristic has a 50% slope Thus have Id I1 I 2 I TOT I1 I 2 2 And the two restraint equations so we are now in a position to calculate the test points .0002 4 I rest I TOT 2 .

Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study 132kV 30MVA 132/11kV YNd1 11kV .

. Field services had swopped two phases on the two outgoing feeders somewhere outside the substation to ensure customers had correct rotation.Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study Numerical transformer differential relay Internal compensation for CTR correction and vector group Vector group numeral for winding 2 = 1 Shortly after commissioning transformer tripped on differential protection Occurred a further two times and then I really sat up! Investigation revealed that two phases had been swopped on the incoming supply to the substation.

Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study IA IB IC IA IC IB ia ib ic ia ib ic ia = ia .ib .ic ib = ib .ia ic = ic .

Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study IA IC IB Incoming primary currents direction of rotation .

Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study IA ia ib ic IC IB Adding secondary currents direction of rotation .

ic ib = ib .ia ic = ic .Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study IA IB IC IA IC IB ia ib ic ia ib ic ia = ia .ib -ic ia ia .

Operations shutdown the sub until issue properly resolved. New setting was implemented and all went home in high spirits !!! The peace was shortlived.Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study Since Ia now leads IA by 30 I gathered transformer vector group is now YNd11. . Shortly after throughfault lead to another diff trip.

Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study Solicited the help of two experts. Said a prayer and two days later it dawned on me what was happening!!! .

Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study IA IB IC 1 A 2 A IA IC IB ia ib ic 3 a ia ib ic ic ib 4 a B B b b C C c c (PPS) (NPS) IA (NPS) (PPS) ia = ia .ia ic = ic .ib IC ib ia ia ic ic IB ib .ic ib = ib .

IC . Should the diff ct s be located at 1 and 4 the relay vector group numeral should be set to 11.Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study IA IB IC 1 A 2 A IA IC IB ia 3 a ia ib ic IA ia ic ib 4 a B B ib ic b b C C c c (PPS) (NPS) (NPS) ia (PPS) Suppose the ct s were located at positions 1 and 4 : ia leads IA by 30 ic leads IB by 30 ib leads IC by 30 Yd11 (comparing ia with IA) Yd11 (comparing ic with IB) Yd11 (comparing ib with IC) ib ic ib ic IB There is pps rotation at both sides and the transformer appears to be a Yd11.

Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study IA IB IC 1 A 2 A IA IC IB ia 3 a ia ib ic IA ia ic ib 4 a B B ib ic b b C C c c (PPS) (NPS) (NPS) ia (PPS) Suppose the ct s were located at positions 1 and 3 : ia leads IA by 30 ib lags IB by 90 ic leads IC by 150 Yd11 (comparing ia with IA) Yd3 (comparing ib with IB) Yd7 (comparing ic with IC) ib ic ib ic IB There is pps rotation on the HV side but nps on the LV side. What must the relay vector group numeral be set to? IC .

Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study IA IB IC 1 A 2 A IA IC IB ia 3 a ia ib ic IA ia ic ib 4 a B B ib ic b b C C c c (PPS) (NPS) (NPS) ia (PPS) Suppose the ct s were located at positions 2 and 4 : ia leads IA by 30 ic leads IC by 150 ib lags IB by 90 Yd11 (comparing ia with IA) Yd7 (comparing ic with IC) Yd3 (comparing ib with IB) ib ic ib ic IB There is pps rotation on the HV side but nps on the LV side. What must the relay vector group numeral be set to? IC .

Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study IA IB IC 1 A 2 A IA IC IB ia 3 a ia ib ic IA ia ic ib 4 a B B ib ic b b C C c c (PPS) (NPS) (NPS) ia (PPS) Suppose the ct s were located at positions 2 and 3 : ia leads IA by 30 ib leads IC by 30 ic leads IB by 30 Yd11 (comparing ia with IA) Yd11 (comparing ib with IC) Yd11 (comparing ic with IB) ib ic ib ic IB There is nps rotation on the HV side but nps on the LV side. What must the relay vector group numeral be set to? IC .

a few tests were conducted and the diff relay was stable!!! IC PHEW!!! . What must the relay vector group numeral be set to? ic IA ic IB ib In reality both HV and LV sets of currents phasors are rotating in the clockwise direction (NPS) relay sees a Yd1 phase relationship in all 3 phases. Relay vector numeral was set to 1 again.Principles of Differential Relaying Case Study Suppose the ct s were located at positions 2 and 3 : ia leads IA by 30 ib leads IC by 30 ic leads IB by 30 Yd11 (comparing ia with IA) Yd11 (comparing ib with IC) Yd11 (comparing ic with IB) ia ia ib There is nps rotation on the HV side but nps on the LV side.

au .8430 5437 patrick.Thank you! Patrick may be contacted at: Mob: 0435 844 420 Tel : 07 .arendse@hydro.com.