Poster presented at the conference "Relativity and Gravitation. 100 Years after Einstein in Prague", June 25 – 29, 2012, Prague, Czech Republic (http://ae100prg.mff.cuni.cz/).
It is often said that General Relativity predicts its own breakdown, by predicting the occurrence of singularities.
In addition, when trying to quantize gravity, it appears to be perturbatively nonrenormalizable.
Are these problems signs that we should give up General Relativity in exchange for more radical approaches (superstrings, loop quantum gravity etc.)?
What if the limits are in fact not of GR, but of our tools?
What if understanding the singularities also helps with the problem of quantization?

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Poster presented at the conference "Relativity and Gravitation. 100 Years after Einstein in Prague", June 25 – 29, 2012, Prague, Czech Republic (http://ae100prg.mff.cuni.cz/).
It is often said that General Relativity predicts its own breakdown, by predicting the occurrence of singularities.
In addition, when trying to quantize gravity, it appears to be perturbatively nonrenormalizable.
Are these problems signs that we should give up General Relativity in exchange for more radical approaches (superstrings, loop quantum gravity etc.)?
What if the limits are in fact not of GR, but of our tools?
What if understanding the singularities also helps with the problem of quantization?

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Cristi Stoica

Introduction

Do the singularities predict the breakdown of General Relativity?

It is often said that General Relativity predicts its own

breakdown, by predicting the occurrence of singularities.

In addition, when trying to quantize gravity, it appears to

be perturbatively nonrenormalizable.

Are these problems signs that we should give up Gen-

eral Relativity in exchange for more radical approaches

(superstrings, loop quantum gravity etc.)?

What if the limits are in fact not of GR, but of our tools?

What if understanding the singularities also helps with

the problem of quantization?*

*Usually is considered that when GR will be quantized, this will solve the singu-

larities too, by showing probably that quantum elds prevent the occurrence of

singularities. Here we will explore the opposite view.

The cure for singularities

Singular semi-Riemannian geometry

The methods of singular semi-Riemannian geometry (see [1, 2] and the appendix) allow us to:

nd mathematical descriptions of singularities, and understand them

replace the singular quantities with regular ones, which are equivalent to them if det g = 0

write non-singular eld equations, for example extensions of Einsteins equations

Singular General Relativity

Singular General Relativity is the application of the methods of singular semi-Riemannian ge-

ometry to General Relativity. For this, the metric is required to be benign, but often a metric

which is apparently malign can be put in a form which is benign, by a coordinate change.

Malign singularity: g

ab

. Benign singularity: g is smooth and det g = 0.

Results

Smoothening black hole singularities

Apparently, the black hole singularities are malign, because some of the components of the

metric are divergent (g

ab

). For the standard stationary black holes, we can nd transfor-

mations of coordinates which make them smooth. This also makes, for charged black holes,

the electromagnetic potential and eld smooth. The metric is put in a form which allows the

evolution equations to go beyond the singularities.

Malign singularities:

g

ab

Benign singularities:

g

ab

smooth, det g 0

Schwarzschild black hole (neutral):

In Schwarzschild coordinates

ds

2

=

r 2m

r

dt

2

+

r

r 2m

dr

2

+ r

2

d

2

,

where d

2

= d

2

+ sin

2

d

2

.

In non-singular coordinates [3]

ds

2

=

4

4

2m

2

d

2

+(2m

2

)

2T4

(Td + d)

2

+

4

d

2

,

where (r, t) (

2

,

T

), T 2.

Reissner-Nordstr om black hole (charged):

In Reissner-Nordstr om coordinates

ds

2

=

r

2

dt

2

+

r

2

dr

2

+ r

2

d

2

where = r

2

2mr + q

2

.

The electromagnetic potential is singular:

A =

q

r

dt

In non-singular coordinates [4]

ds

2

=

2T2S2

(d + Td)

2

+

S

2

4S2

d

2

+

2S

d

2

,

where (t, r) (

T

,

S

), T > S 1.

The electromagnetic potential is non-singular:

A = q

TS1

(d + Td)

A. If the singularity is malign, entering infor-

mation is lost. When accounting for Quantum

Mechanics, this causes in particular a violation

of unitarity, if a system which is entangled with

another system is lost in the singularity.

B. If the singularity is benign, the eld equa-

tions can be extended beyond the singularity,

and the information is preserved [3, 4, 5, 7].

Information paradox

Penrose-Carter diagrams for non-rotating and electrically neutral evaporating black holes.

A. B.

Malign

spacelike

singularity

Light ray joining the singularity

and the infinity

Benign

spacelike

singularity

Einstein equation at singularities

Singular semi-Riemannian geometry (see appendix and [1, 2]) introduces generalizations of

semi-Riemannian spacetimes which admit degenerate metric but have smooth Riemann cur-

vature R

abcd

. But the Einstein tensor is usually singular. Yet, in 4D we can rewrite the Einstein

equation in terms of quantities which remain smooth at singularities. The resulting equations

are equivalent to Einsteins so long as the metric is regular, but work as well at singularities.

Densitized Einstein equation

On 4D semi-regular spacetimes the Riemann

curvature R

abcd

is smooth. Hence the Einstein

tensor density Gdet g is smooth too, being:

G

ab

det g = g

kl

a

kst

n

lpq

R

stpq

.

We can write a densitized version of the Ein-

stein equation:

G

ab

det g + g

ab

det g = T

ab

det g,

For regular metric it is equivalent to Einsteins

equation, but works at singularities too [1].

Expanded Einstein equation

A quasi-regular spacetime is a 4D semi-regu-

lar manifold with smooth Ricci decomposition

R

abcd

=

1

12

R(g g)

abcd

+

1

2

(S g)

abcd

+ C

abcd

where S

ab

:= R

ab

1

4

Rg

ab

, and

(h k)

abcd

:= hack

bd

h

ad

k

bc

+ h

bd

kac h

bc

k

ad

.

In this case we can write the expanded Ein-

stein equation [9]:

(G g)

abcd

+ (g g)

abcd

= (T g)

abcd

.

Friedmann-Lematre-Robertson-Walker spacetimes

The FLRW spacetime is the warped product

I a , a : I R, a 0, with metric

ds

2

= dt

2

+ a

2

(t)d

2

where usually is S

3

, R

3

, or H

3

[2].

The energy density and pressure density p

are singular at the Big-Bang, where a(t) = 0:

=

3

a

2

+ k

a

2

, + 3p =

6

a

a

.

But in terms of the correct densities

=

g, p = p

g,

the equations become smooth:

=

3

a

2

+ k

, 3 p + =

6

a

2

a

.

Hence, and p are smooth, as it is the densi-

tized stress-energy tensor

T

ab

g = ( + p) uau

b

+ pg

ab

.

These singularities are quasi-regular [8, 13].

Weyl curvature hypothesis

The Weyl curvature hypothesis was proposed by R. Penrose, to account for the high homo-

geneity and low entropy characterizing the Big-Bang. It states that at the Big-Bang singularity,

the Weyl curvature tensor C

abcd

= 0.

At a quasi-regular Big-Bang singularity, C

abcd

is smooth. At the singularity it vanishes, because

it lives in T

Dimensional reduction and Quantum Gravity

Different results suggest that a dimension < 4

may act like a dimensional regulator for QFT

and for QG. In lower dimension, the Weyl ten-

sor vanishes, and the local degrees of free-

dom (gravitational waves and gravitons) disap-

pear, allowing QG to be renormalizable.

Benign singularities undergo a dimensional re-

duction, and may be the needed dimensional

regularizers for QG:

g

ab

is independent on some directions.

det g 0, reducing the contribution of

lower distance Feynman integrals.

The admissible elds live in lower dimension

spaces:

rank gp = dimTpM = dimTp

M < 4.

For quasi-regular singularities C

abcd

= 0.

The quantities det g and C

abcd

vanish as ap-

proaching singularities. But QG needs them

to decrease with the scale. They may do this:

As the energy approaches the UV limit, the

number of the particles in Feynman diagrams

increases. If particles are benign singularities,

this means lower det g and C

abcd

. We conjec-

ture: this gives the needed regularization [11].

References

[1] C. Stoica. On Singular Semi-Riemannian Manifolds. May 2011. arXiv:math.DG/1105.0201.

[2] C. Stoica. Warped Products of Singular Semi-Riemannian Manifolds. May 2011. arXiv:math.DG/1105.3404.

[3] C. Stoica. Schwarzschild Singularity is Semi-Regularizable. Eur. Phys. J. Plus, 127(83):18, 2012. arXiv:gr-qc/1111.4837.

[4] C. Stoica. Analytic Reissner-Nordstrom Singularity. Phys. Scr., 85:055004, 2012. arXiv:gr-qc/1111.4332.

[5] C. Stoica. Kerr-Newman Solutions with Analytic Singularity and no Closed Timelike Curves. November 2011. arXiv:gr-qc/1111.7082.

[6] C. Stoica. Spacetimes with Singularities. An. S t. Univ. Ovidius Constant a, 20(2):213238, July 2012.

[7] C. Stoica. Globally Hyperbolic Spacetimes with Singularities. August 2011. arXiv:math.DG/1108.5099.

[8] C. Stoica. Big Bang singularity in the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker spacetime. December 2011. arXiv:gr-qc/1112.4508.

[9] C. Stoica. Einstein equation at singularities. March 2012. arXiv:gr-qc/1203.2140.

[10] C. Stoica. On the Weyl Curvature Hypothesis. March 2012. arXiv:gr-qc/1203.3382.

[11] C. Stoica. Quantum Gravity from Metric Dimensional Reduction at Singularities. May 2012. arXiv:gr-qc/1205.2586 .

[12] C. Stoica. An Exploration of the Singularities in General Relativity. Seminar held at JINR, Dubna, May 2012. arXiv:gr-qc/1207.5303.

[13] C. Stoica. Beyond the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker Big Bang singularity. March 2012. arXiv:gr-qc/1203.1819.

Cristi Stoica holotronix@gmail.com

APPENDIX. Singular semi-Riemannian geometry

Cristi Stoica

Singular semi-Riemannian manifolds

A singular semi-Riemannian manifold (M, g) is a differentiable manifold M with a symmetric

bilinear form g, named metric, on the tangent bundle TM. The metric g may be indenite, and

may be degenerate (i.e. det g = 0 at some points). It may have constant or variable signature.

Malign singularity: g

ab

. Benign singularity: g is smooth and det g = 0.

The problem

The geometric quantities cant be dened:

c

ab

=

1

2

g

cs

(ag

bs

+

b

gsa sg

ab

)

R

d

abc

=

d

ac,b

d

ab,c

+

d

bs

s

ac

d

cs

s

ab

R

ab

= R

s

asb

, R = g

pq

Rpq

G

ab

= R

ab

1

2

Rg

ab

These quantities are not usually dened even

if g

ab

are nite, since g

ab

when det g 0.

The idea of a solution

Use non-singular quantities, equivalent to the

singular ones for non-degenerate metric g.

Singular Non-Singular When g is...

c

ab

(2

nd

)

abc

(1

st

) smooth

R

d

abc

R

abcd

semi-regular

R

ab

R

ab

[det g[

W

, W 2 semi-regular

R R

[det g[

W

, W 2 semi-regular

R

ab

Ric g quasi-regular

R Rg g quasi-regular

But how to dene them?

Degenerate metric and covariant contraction

(V,g) V*

u

u+w

w (V

,g

)

(V

,g

)

V

=V/V

morphism : V V

is dened by u

u

:= (u) = u

ker = V

V

:= im V

product g induces on V

ned by g(u

1

, u

1

) := g(u

1

, u

2

), which is the in-

verse of g iff det g ,= 0. The quotient V := V/V

consists in the equivalence classes of the form

u + V . On V , g induces an inner product

g

(u

1

+ V , u

2

+ V ) := g(u

1

, u

2

).

Once we have dened the reciprocal inner product g(, ), we can dene covariant contrac-

tion for 1-forms from V

.

T(

1

, . . . , , . . . , , . . . ,

k

)

We extend these denitions to a singular semi-Riemannian manifold (M, g).

0 TpM (TpM, g) (V , g

) 0

0 T

pM T

p

M (T

pM, g) 0

i

T

p M

i

Covariant derivative

The covariant derivative

X

Y cant be de-

ned. We can use instead the Koszul form:

/(X, Y, Z) :=

1

2

XY, Z + Y Z, X ZX, Y

X, [Y, Z] + Y, [Z, X] + Z, [X, Y ]

For non-degenerate metric

X

Y = /(X, Y, )

.

The Christoffels symbols of the rst kind are

abc

= /(a,

b

, c) =

1

2

(ag

bc

+

b

gca cg

ab

)

The lower covariant derivative:

(

X

Y )(Z) := /(X, Y, Z), for any Z X(M).

A singular semi-Riemannian manifold is radical-

stationary if /(X, Y, ) /

(M) := (T

M).

Covariant derivative of covariant indices:

(

X

) (Y ) := X ((Y )) g(

X

Y, )

(

X

T) (Y

1

, . . . , Y

k

) = X (T(Y

1

, . . . , Y

k

))

k

i=1

/(X, Y

i

, )T(Y

1

, , . . . , , . . . , Y

k

)

A singular semi-regular manifold is a radical-

stationary manifold so that

X

Y

Z /

(M).

Isotropic singularities. A manifold (M,

2

g),

where g is a non-degenerate metric, and a

smooth function, is semi-regular.

Curvature

Let (M, g) be radical-stationary.

The lower Riemann curvature operator is:

1

XY

Z :=

X

Y

Z

Y

X

Z

[X,Y ]

Z

The Riemann curvature tensor is:

R(X, Y, Z, T) := (1

XY

Z)(T)

R

abcd

= a

bcd

acd

+ (ac

bd

bc

ad

)

The Ricci tensor: Ric(X, Y ) := R(X, , Y, )

The scalar curvature s := Ric(, ).

If (M, g) is semi-regular, the Riemann curva-

ture is a smooth tensor eld, but the Ricci and

scalar curvatures may be singular.

Singular warped products

The warped product of two singular semi-Rie-

mannian manifolds (B, g

B

) and (F, g

F

), with

warping function f F(B) is the singular semi-

Riemannian manifold

B

f

F :=

B F,

B

(g

B

) + (f

B

)

F

(g

F

)

,

where

B

: B F B and

F

: B F F

are the canonical projections.

The inner product on B

f

F takes the form

ds

2

= ds

2

B

+ f

2

ds

2

F

.

The usual denition of warped product requires

(B, g

B

) and (F, g

F

) to be non-degenerate, and

f > 0. Here we allow it to be f 0, including

by this possible singularities.

If (B, g

B

) and (F, g

F

) are radical-stationary

and df /

B

f

F is radical-stationary.

If (B, g

B

) and (F, g

F

) are semi-regular, and

df A

1

(B), the warped product manifold

B

f

F is semi-regular.

Example of warped product: the Friedmann-

Lematre-Robertson-Walker spacetime.

References

Stoica, C. 2011a. Tensor Operations on Degenerate Inner Product Spaces . arXiv:gr-qc/1112.5864, December.

Stoica, C. 2011b. On Singular Semi-Riemannian Manifolds. arXiv:math.DG/1105.0201, May.

Stoica, C. 2011c. Warped Products of Singular Semi-Riemannian Manifolds. arXiv:math.DG/1105.3404, May.

Stoica, C. 2011d. Cartans Structural Equations for Degenerate Metric. arXiv:math.DG/1111.0646, November.

Cristi Stoica holotronix@gmail.com

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