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High-Availability Network Attached Storage
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Table of Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................... i Chapter 1: Overview of High-Availability NAS Technology Solutions .........................................1 High-Availability NAS Fundamentals.............................................................................................2 Defining High-Availability NAS.........................................................................................2 Normal Availability Systems...................................................................................3 High-Availability Systems.......................................................................................3 Disk and CPU Fault Tolerance ................................................................................3 Hot Sparing ..............................................................................................................4 Clustering NAS Architectures .............................................................................................4 Clustering Scalable High-Availability NAS........................................................................8 Increasing the Scalability of High-Volume Servers ................................................8 Enabling Heterogeneous Computation ....................................................................9 Increasing the I/O Bandwidth to Requesters ...........................................................9 Improving Performance ...........................................................................................9 Managing SANs.................................................................................................................10 Making Sans as Self-Managing as Possible...........................................................10 Supporting Attribute-Based Management .............................................................10 Supporting Quality-of-Service Management.........................................................11 Facilitating the Dynamic Reconfiguring and Expanding of SANs........................11 Presenting a Single System View to Users ............................................................11 Presenting a Single System View for Management Purposes ...............................12 Utilizing High-Availability NAS from an Application’s Perspective ...............................12 Describing a High-Availability NAS System ....................................................................13 Operating Within a High-Availability NAS Environment ................................................14 Accessing High-Availability NAS.........................................................................14 Data Sharing and Concurrent Update ................................................................................16 Choosing a High-Availability NAS Solution ................................................................................17 Benefiting from a High-Availability NAS Solution ..........................................................20 Streamlining Architecture......................................................................................20 Reducing Server I/O Bottlenecks...........................................................................21 Increasing Reliability and Data Availability..........................................................21 Allocating Efficient Use of Resources...................................................................21 Simplifying Using a High-Availability NAS Solution ..........................................22
..................................................................................................................................................................................................................32 Improving Response Time and Availability .........23 Comparing High-Availability NAS with SAN ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................41 LAN-Free Backups ...........................31 Tasking the Storage Server Architecture ....................43 Centralizing Storage................33 Chapter 2: Designing High-Availability NAS Solutions............................................25 Trying to Standardize DAS...23 Strategizing Your Storage Solutions......22 Lowering TCO .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 Shifting Storage ...............................................39 Designing High-Availability NAS....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 SAN/NAS Server Component Redundancy ...................................................................................28 Confusing High-Availability NAS and SAN..........................................................................................................................42 Clustering...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................35 Point-to-Point Topology ......................................................36 Switched Fabric .................................Table of Contents Increasing Productivity .....................................................................................................................22 Comparing High-Availability NAS Appliances with General Purpose Servers ...............................42 Serverless Backups .................44 iii .................................................30 Case Study ..........................................................................................................................................27 Speeding Networks .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Video Editing ....43 High Availability ...........................................................................44 Disaster Recovery ...30 Hosting Service at a Higher Level ..............................................................................................35 Arbitrated Loops .....32 Summary ...................................................................................................................36 Fibre Channel Switching Hub......................................................................26 Standardizing High-Availability NAS.....34 Fibre Channel Topologies.................28 Designing Storage Subsystems with Parallel Processing ........................................................................................44 Backups.....................38 Customer Selection of Fibre Channel Products .....................................................................................................
..................73 Integrated MetaFrame and Lunar Flare NAS System..............................80 Security as the Highest Priority ...................................................................................................................55 Lack of NAS Standards .............79 Best Practices ...............................................75 Technical Benefits .................79 E7000 Overview ................................................................................................................79 Case Study 2 ...............................................................58 High-Availability NAS Solution Architecture...............................................................................................................66 The Snapshot Feature: Instantaneous File Recovery ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................46 Distributed Server Aggregation Layer........................................................76 Application Processing Scalability ........71 Case Study 1 ..................................69 Case Studies ....................................................................................57 Architectural Design Considerations .........................................52 Test Results for Network Design Option 2...................................................................................................61 System Availability.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................53 Cost Justification and Considerations.78 Scalable Bandwidth Between MetaFrame Servers and Lunar Flare NAS ......................46 Test Results For Network Design Option 1...................................................................................................71 Citrix MetaFrame.........................................................................76 High Availability .........................80 Performance as the Highest Priority ............................................................................................................................................................................62 Data Availability..................................................................71 Description of Systems ...........................................................................Table of Contents High-Availability NAS Design Options ..................................................................................58 Availability: Filer Cluster ..........................................................................68 Cost-Effective Automated File System Replication ............................72 Lunar Flare NAS.........................................59 Scalability: Network Storage ...........................................67 Instantaneous File System Recovery ...........................................................................48 Redundant Server Aggregation Layer ........................78 Lunar Flare NAS Scalable Storage Capacity..........................80 iv ................................................60 Flexibility: Wide Sharing and Local Sharing Deployments ...........................................................
............................................................85 Begin Your Inventory with a Broad List .................................................................................85 Inventory and Analyze Your Environment.........................................................................................87 Fibre-Channel Switches ...89 Bridges .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................92 v ................................83 Identify Your Business Requirements .................................................................................................................................................81 Summary ................................................................................................83 Identify Your Top Priority ....................................92 Purchase Your High-availability NAS Solution ................91 Core-to-Edge: The Ideal Fabric Design Plan.....................................................................92 Planning High-Availability NAS Technical Solutions Customization........81 Computer Associates eTrust InoculateIT.............90 Calculate Your Needed Port Count...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................81 Trend Micro ServerProtect ..............................................................................................................................................................................90 Develop Your High-Availability NAS Design Plan........91 Pre-Tested High-Availability NAS Design Plans........................86 Analyze Your Inventory Information ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................81 Network Associates NetShield .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................85 Enlist the Help of High-Availability NAS Vendors ............90 GBICs ................81 Technical Benefits ......................................................................................89 Cable Connectors ......................87 Select Your Components ...................................................................................................................88 Storage Devices ...............................................................82 Chapter 3: Planning for High-Availability NAS Solutions .....................................81 Symantec Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition.........................83 Determine Your Requirements ..........................................................................................................................................86 Determine Your High-Availability NAS Components...............................................................................................................90 Validate Compatibility................................................................Table of Contents Security and Performance as Equal Priorities..........80 Supported Antivirus Software Packages.......................................89 Cabling.....89 HBAs..........................................................91 Keep Your Plan Simple to Start....................................
................113 Chapter 4: Installing and Deploying High-Availability NAS Solutions .............116 Testing Scenarios .....................................................................................................108 Tarantella ................................................................................................................108 Findings................................................................................................................................................................................118 Case Studies ...............116 Create a Prototype and Test Your High-Availability NAS Solution...................................................117 Running an I/O Load ................................................................................................................................................................................................ Multiprocessor Machines ....................................................................................................116 Switches First...........................................115 Naming Plan....................................................119 vi .................................................................................................96 NDMP .........................................................................................................................................114 Installation and Deployment Steps ......................................................................................................................115 Prototype and Testing Plan ................................117 Transition and Release to Production .....................114 Establish an Implementation Plan.................................110 Tricord Value Proposition for Tarantella Server Arrays ...................106 Case Study ........................................ Edge Devices Second......................................................109 Arrays vs..............115 Production Deployment Plan ...................................................................................................................................................................117 Create Documentation About Your New High-Availability NAS ..........................................................................................................101 Workgroup Collaboration ...................................................................................................Table of Contents The Need for Storage Networking.....116 Create a Baseline Logical and Physical Diagram ...................................................................................................................................................................................................96 Cisco and Network Appliance: An Integrated Approach ............97 Deployment Scenarios ........................................................................................98 Internet and E-Business Applications.............................................98 Business Applications in the Data Center.............................................................................................................................94 Storage Virtualization ....................................................113 Summary ......................................94 iSCSI ........................................................................................................104 Distributed Enterprise Storage with Secure WAN Connectivity...........111 Future Expansion ...................................................93 High-Availability NAS on the Edge ............ Hosts Last..........................111 Performing Additional Capacity Planning Tests ...............................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................121 Summary ..............119 Case Study 2: A Packaged Solution ................120 Case Study 3: Using HSM Technology .....................................................Table of Contents Case Study 1: Expanding Storage the High-Availability NAS Way......122 vii ..............................................................
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Information Technology (IT) departments soon answered increasing information demands with general-purpose servers and DAS. transmitted. Let’s start with an extensive discussion of high-availability NAS fundamentals. And both internal and external customers are becoming more dependent on rapid. scalable solutions. Storage networking aims to deliver enterprise-class storage solutions to significantly mitigate these challenges and lower the total cost of ownership (TCO). For example. reliable access to company data. technical support. Thanks in a large part to the Internet. businesses need to meet skyrocketing storage needs. Data is created. High-availability Network Attached Storage (NAS) is the answer. and training. while leveraging existing investments and expertise in Internet Protocol (IP) networks—drastically reducing TCO.Chapter 1 Chapter 1: Overview of High-Availability NAS Technology Solutions The torrents of information storming through today’s businesses could hardly have been foreseen when the first computer systems achieved desktop status. and delivered around the clock. thus eliminating the need for a costly IT staff. Those companies that are not yet Internet-operational feel the pressure to get there fast. typically attached using a SCSI high-speed interface. Now these processing and storage initiatives are hard pressed to support and direct the monumental data requirements of enterprise resource planning (ERP). today’s information influx does not stop. simplified management. stored. IT. hardware and software upgrades. Enterprises face considerable challenges brought by the rapid adoption of emerging Internet business applications and the associated storage infrastructure requirements. This introductory chapter sets the stage for the rest of the book by presenting very detailed and in-depth coverage of applications utilizing high-availability NAS. and they’d like to do so without an exponential increase in talented IT professionals who are difficult to find and expensive to hire. Overall. Building on this early direct-attached storage (DAS) architecture. maintenance. 1 . These units came equipped with the storage capacity of a goldfish bowl by today’s standards. The TCO includes the original cost of a computer and software. Network Appliance and Cisco Systems are collaborating to deliver networked enterprise-class storage solutions to help enterprises meet these challenges. These enterprise-class storage solutions deliver key business benefits such as scalability. This scenario also leaves Internet and applications service providers (ASPs) as well as dot-com organizations scrambling for reliable. increased availability. and data warehousing for today’s companies. and security. performance.
audiovideo streaming. increasing the overall productivity of the organization. Although scheduled downtime for system maintenance and upgrades is inevitable. computer hardware failures. high-speed communicating. it is fatal to information services that are considered non-interruptible. Defining High-Availability NAS High-availability NAS is a concept of shared storage on a network. thus. such as Server Message Block (SMB). It communicates using Network File System (NFS) for UNIX environments. and operations and may handle such tasks as Web cache and proxy. or Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). This intelligence on the NAS device enables true data sharing among heterogeneous network clients. Furthermore. NAS devices are well suited to serve networks that have a mix of clients. firewall. HTTP. NetWare Core Protocol (NCP). singlepurpose machine or component. AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP). Human errors. OS failures. They are normal availability. you must first understand the definitions of the various levels of availability. tape backup. unscheduled downtime is unpredictable and should be avoided. The systems are simplified to address specific needs as quickly as possible—in real time. In addition. Highavailability NAS brings platform independence and increased performance to a network. high-performance. High-availability of critical information services is affected by both scheduled and unscheduled system downtimes. NAS servers are self-contained. NAS devices are often referred to as appliances because many can simply be plugged in to the network with little or no configuration. Think of NAS devices as types of Plug and Play (PnP) appliances. and efficiency of the network.Chapter 1 High-Availability NAS Fundamentals High-availability NAS is designed to separate storage resources from network and application servers to simplify storage management and improve the reliability. A file system is located and managed on the NAS device and data is transferred to clients over industry-standard network protocols (TCP/IP or Internet Packet eXchange—IPX) using industrystandard file-sharing protocols. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Common Internet File System (CIFS). high availability. 2 . Before I describe the methods for preventing these failures. and data storage with file serving. Network File System (NFS). CIFS for Microsoft Windows environments. and CPU fault tolerance. servers. NAS devices are optimized to stand alone and serve specific storage needs with their own OSs and integrated hardware and software. performance. intelligent devices that attach directly to your existing LAN. and other networking protocols. A NAS device is typically a dedicated. and network failures are usually the cause for most unscheduled downtimes. except NAS devices have the purpose of serving your storage requirements.
Chapter 1 Normal Availability Systems Normal availability systems are defined as general-purpose computer hardware and software systems that have no hardware redundancy or software enhancement to provide fault-processing recovery. human intervention to identify a failed component. Failover Model—The Failover Model utilizes duplicate server hardware configurations in which one server has the role of an active server for data and application services and the other is a backup server that monitors the state of the active server. These systems require no manual. execute a procedure to avert a system failure. When the backup server detects a hardware or software failure that has occurred on the active server. Fault-handling capabilities are integrated into and become a function of the OS. expensive. There are two distinct highavailability models for client-server architectures: the Replicated Services Model and the Failover Model. and tightly coupled duplicated systems. 3 . the data and applications are accessible from an alternative server. High-Availability Systems High-availability systems are defined as loosely coupled NAS with redundant hardware components managed by software that provides fault detection and correction procedures to maximize the availability of the critical services and applications provided by that system. it takes over the role and identity of the active server. repair) the failed component(s) and restart the system before resuming normal operations. and notice the averted failure. These systems have spontaneous and fully automatic response to system failures and provide uninterrupted services. They require manual. When a server failure occurs. human intervention to identify and correct (that is.” Disk and CPU Fault Tolerance The disk and CPU fault-tolerance definition consists of proprietary. • Replicated Services Model—The Replicated Services Model utilizes distributed applications and distributed databases on multiple servers in a LAN/WAN environment in which the data is replicated to some or all the servers. • The backup service is also known as the “passive node” or “passive server. This configuration minimizes the possibility of immediate data loss and service interruption.
Although NLB clusters offer 100 percent uptime. server clustering generally refers to the grouping together of servers for the purpose of enhancing their performance and/or providing failover protection in the event that a member server malfunctions. For example.1 shows. as Figure 1. Tricord’s Automatic Hot Spare Support ensures high-availability in the event of appliance failure by automatically rebuilding data onto the spare appliance. When you assign a disk to be a hot spare. All storage transactions are processed on a separate network with dedicated bandwidth for data.2 shows. Data is transferred via serial I/O rather than network protocols. 4 . higher performance data replication options. there are many benefits associated with clustering them together as part of high-availability NAS. Clustering NAS Architectures Though servers can be clustered together outside of a Storage Area Network (SAN) environment. Uninterrupted and seamless availability of data and applications during and after a server failure is a primary benefit of a server cluster architecture within high-availability NAS. Its purpose is to replace a failed member of a fault-tolerant set. tape libraries. that disk is put aside and is not used for storing data. and enhanced resource availability through the inherent advantages of high-availability NAS–based storage systems. One must be careful with the word “uninterrupted” here. improved storage scalability. as Figure 1.Chapter 1 Hot Sparing Hot sparing is a fault-tolerant configuration that reserves a disk for use when something goes wrong with another disk in the array. In a high-availability NAS context. The advantage of using a hot spare is that disk failures can be resolved without the need to shut down the system or interrupt data access. A SAN is a discrete network of servers and storage devices (RAID. The next part of the chapter lays the foundation for developing high-availability NAS requirements by positing a system architecture in which NAS solves fundamental problems or offers significant functional advantages over traditional architectures. These benefits include shared access to resilient disk and tape backup systems. such as Fibre Channel. and so on) attached together via a high speed I/O interconnect. and raw data requests are made directly to disk and not over the LAN. an application can be unavailable for a few seconds to several minutes during a server cluster failover. It affords the administrator the flexibility to use spare appliance as additional capacity when necessary.
Chapter 1 Figure 1. 5 .1: Server clustering.
larger systems tend to be sold in lower volume than smaller ones. If the user outgrows the architecture that the user started with. Another disadvantage with this model is the poor residual value of computer equipment. such that these conversions are avoided if at all possible. At multiple points in this sequence. the user may have to convert from one OS to another or even from one vendor’s proprietary architecture to another’s. to replace the system with a bigger system. Converting entails huge costs for the organization in both dollars and employee time.Chapter 1 Figure 1. 6 . as Figure 1. The traditional progression for an end user is to purchase a system and when additional processing capability is needed. which results in each new system having a higher cost of computing.2: Server clustering: physical disks residing in a dedicated SAN fabric. This method has been the prevailing method for mainframes in particular. traumatic discontinuities occur. Moreover.3 shows. A system replacement often results in the invested capital being lost when the old system goes out the door.
If a different vendor has leapfrogged the original supplier in terms of offering what the user needs at the time of upgrade. Although it is perhaps too simplistic to tie the continued importance of mainframes in the systems market to only two characteristics. 7 . the threshold to entry is lower. The upgrade cost can be controlled more precisely by adding only the amount of additional resources required. Enter high-availability NAS.4. there are two significant ones that prevent clusters of open architecture systems from pervasively replacing mainframes. The other arises from the extensive experience the mainframe world has in managing storage and data. There are more advantages. the user would be free to choose the best value without concern about migration or conversion to a new architecture. standards-based servers offers compelling advantages to the user. there might never be a need for conversions from one OS to another. With no dependence on proprietary architectures. Figure 1. If clusters of systems are to replace mainframes. making the cost of computing less. or developing new procedures—all of which have plagued mainframe customers in the past.3: Traditional mainframe computing model. these two deficiencies will have to be remedied. the availability of equipment from multiple sources lets the user choose the best alternative with each purchase.Chapter 1 Figure 1. retraining of staff. There are fundamental architectural roadblocks to be overcome if the cluster model is to realize its potential. These smaller systems are sold in higher volume. Because the cluster can start off as a single system. You should consider the alternative architecture shown in Figure 1. One is the inability of clustered systems to share data in a way that lets the cluster take on the workload that a single mainframe can. With the right architecture. This experience has evolved into management software that simply has as yet no equivalent in the open systems markets.4: Clustered high-availability NAS computing model. Replacing a mainframe computer with a cluster of smaller. It would be nice if the clustered high-availability NAS computing model were as easy to achieve as it is to draw.
It should also liberate the processors in the same way. and highavailability NAS research aims to eliminate this barrier to scaling. Making a cluster of servers process the same workload a mainframe accepts is easy. high-availability NAS aims to do the following: • • • • Increase scalability of high-volume servers Enable heterogeneous computation Increase the I/O bandwidth to requesters Improve performance Increasing the Scalability of High-Volume Servers High-availability NAS increases the scalability of high-volume servers by applying clusters of them to large. in loosely coupled. high-availability NAS will not only will provide sufficient connectivity for a large group of servers to have access to all the storage they require (in terms of both distance and number). This ability is what a cluster model must demonstrate if it is to replace mainframes. The challenge to the cluster’s ability to do so is giving the servers the ability to share data. With this. and expanded with no impact on the processor configuration or operations—if high-availability NAS is done right. each processor in the cluster can accept any transaction that would have arrived at the mainframe and process it. but a separate and equal architectural entity. and processors could be added as needed with no fall off in performance. monolithic applications that traditionally have been serviced only by mainframes or tightly coupled processors. If. an airline’s reservation system. but also provide a mechanism so that many servers sharing update access to common storage can do so without the excessive overhead that accompanies clusters today. This element is the easy part of scalability. The ability to scale processors and storage independently and linearly is a fundamental goal of high-availability NAS. sharedprocessor systems today. unless it requires that all the servers process transactions on the same data. Unless a cluster can run enterprise applications such as a Fortune 500 manufacturing system. there is hope for the cluster model. or a financial institution’s complete inventory of transactions. Storage can be managed. For high-availability NAS to deliver fully on its scaling promise. there must be no overhead that increases appreciably faster than the rate of scaling. The high-availability NAS concept physically disassociates storage from processors. This kind of overhead severely limits scalability. 8 . this interprocessor-communication activity goes up exponentially as the number of processors increase. any server in the cluster could process any transaction. changed. Specifically. Devices are no longer peripheral components of a processor.Chapter 1 Clustering Scalable High-Availability NAS High-availability NAS offers the prospect of solving both open system shortcomings mentioned earlier. a cluster cannot replace a mainframe. In other words. For instance. however. including having concurrent update rights in a way that increasing the number of processors does not destroy performance.
as a single metadata retrieval can service requests from multiple requesters. There is the problem of the internal data structures of a file. the metadata never travels over the interconnect. there are some clear opportunities for benefit. Metadata is data about data. Given the size of many data warehouses. The number of I/O operations is correspondingly reduced. Metadata is essential for understanding information stored in data warehouses and SANs.Chapter 1 Enabling Heterogeneous Computation When high-availability NAS enables heterogeneous computations. In other words. Though there are a lot of factors affecting how caching is done and how it is affected by the object abstraction. the cache space can be more effectively utilized. If the end user could just wheel up such a system and have it act upon the data already in place. it would be much more cost effective than if the end user had to purchase a completely separate system. Nevertheless. even system caches are not tied closely to the file system and do not reflect what the OS knows about files being open or closed. which must be reconciled at the application level. 9 . When several servers are accessing the same data. the data movement time alone would be prohibitive. Metadata describes how and when and by whom a particular set of data was collected. Increasing the I/O Bandwidth to Requesters High-availability NAS also makes storage available to requesters at network speeds without “channeling” it through a server. high-availability NAS understands quite precisely which objects are in use and which are not. the key to fully understanding such complex topics as enabling heterogeneous computation is to become intimately familiar with the various internal data structures that reside within the confines of the kernel. while others reside at a much lower level. Perhaps an end user with a cluster of servers in a data mining application finds that a supercomputer doing statistical analysis on the data would be of value. A common cache of the metadata serves all requesters with no coherency issues. Furthermore. the fact that high-availability NAS makes the storage data organization free for the OS should make it possible for a server running any OS to access the data. This ability means increased performance for high-availability data applications. Improving Performance High-availability NAS improves performance by eliminating the necessity for a server to translate a request into physical device accesses. including a duplicate set of storage devices. thus. Typically. the latter would not be possible. and how the data is formatted. systems are allowed to run different OSs that access a common pool of storage and shared data. Direct access to some of these structures is necessary for even the most primitive operations.
small functions performed concurrently. an OS assumes the responsibility for allocating space on a disk drive. High-availability NAS would take over space management. By breaking down management from a huge CPU task to many small activities assigned to the lowest possible level. A server with dozens of disk drives would get the benefit of all those devices. Supporting Attribute-Based Management High-availability NAS should make it possible to support attribute-based management by having the devices take action based on the properties assigned to a given object or set of objects. They could contribute to breaking the task of data management into many simple. The NAS view is to make all components of the SAN architecture participate in the management. Every time the object was closed after an update. an attribute could be set for an object that called for that object to be versioned. the storage device could automatically keep the old version of the object while giving the new one a separate identifier. and directing those activities by means of simple attributes expressed by the user. a SAN takes on the responsibility for managing itself. The many engines (each storage device having some usable processing power to apply to this task) available would be put to additional use by helping with more than just space management. Doing so for one drive is not difficult. Today.Chapter 1 A file can be closed and then be needed quite soon thereafter. reclaiming space from deleted files. 10 . Even this condition can be accounted for in the high-availability NAS environment. with an indication that an object being closed will be soon accessed again. and (in some cases) deallocating bad sectors. For instance. Managing SANs The second fundamental problem is that of SAN management. contributing horsepower for managing the SAN resource. A cache that is not as closely tied to the file system may happen to fortuitously retain data that otherwise would have been discarded. High-availability NAS should make it possible to • • • • • • Make SANs be as self-managing as possible Support attribute-based management Support quality-of-service management Facilitate the dynamic reconfiguring and expanding of SANs Present as nearly as possible a single system view to users Present as nearly as possible a single system view for management purposes Making Sans as Self-Managing as Possible Making SANs as self-managing as possible will eliminate the associated drudgery now imposed on the OS by such requirements as space management. It should also make scalability more linear by increasing SAN management capability at the same rate as the number of storage devices increases. but a server with dozens of drives could find it consuming quite a good portion of its processing cycles. eliminating any increase in OS overhead associated with the number of drives on a system.
If all requesters accessing a high-availability NAS configuration (and all users contacting the requesters) get a single view of the data regardless of which member of a cluster they are connected to. Suppose a disk drive has several levels of transfer-rate performance to offer a requester. Extrapolating this very simple process. and unprotected storage. This could be the basis for OSs being more dynamic and flexible as to what hardware they are operating with at any point. there is a central authority to which any sever in the SAN could turn to find additional space or to find all storage devices available to it. 11 . Doing so is a little more complicated for some data. leaving the device to act on those attributes and use its resources accordingly. RAID 5. A quality-of-service management system could interpret user choices into attributes associated with particular objects. even this requirement can be handled by a straightforward extension of the basic capability. and informing the appropriate service of those conditions or acting in response to those conditions as guided by policy assignments. Facilitating the Dynamic Reconfiguring and Expanding of SANs High-availability NAS facilitates the dynamic reconfiguring and expanding of SANs. This ability could as easily apply to high-availability NAS that has combinations of mirrored.Chapter 1 Similarly. and these actions would result in a copy of that object being sent to another device. this view will be key. For example. they could make sure that an export operation only took place when an object was in a consistent state. Supporting Quality-of-Service Management High-availability NAS supports the quality of service management by having the storage devices be as knowledgeable as possible about their own conditions. If clusters of high-volume servers are to replace large monolithic systems. However. If the devices knew enough about what work was going on. Presenting a Single System View to Users High-availability NAS presents as nearly as possible a single system view to users. The device could allocate an object to whatever zone is most appropriate given the users’ interest in cost versus performance. an entire storage complex could participate in a timelier and less intrusive backup function. Whenever additional space is required. with the user selecting the residence for particular data depending on the user’s requirements for resiliency. clusters of systems can look and feel much more like a single system than otherwise. complex data structures such as databases may require that a multiple NAS appliances take coordinated action to set them up. It need not be the peripheral set that was present at system generation time or even power up time. an attribute might be set to indicate that an object should be exported after it is updated. Tricord’s Lunar Flare NAS clusters scale multiple Lunar Flare NAS appliances into a single storage pool for Windows and AppleTalk clients. This setting could cause the device to start a sequence of actions independent of the application processor.
NFS. robust storage solution that is easily managed and scaled. For example. see the sidebar “Tricord’s Cluster-to-Cluster Replication. The deployment of highly available NAS infrastructures for all environments is thoroughly discussed in Chapter 4. (For an example of a product that accomplishes this goal. The best design practices that integrate network and storage to enable the creation of highly available NAS solutions are extensively covered in Chapter 2. Tricord’s Illumina software makes deployment and management of a cluster as simple as managing a single appliance. Utilizing High-Availability NAS from an Application’s Perspective As data requirements increase at a rapid pace. the management tools must let the user control the configuration as if it were a single. High-availability NAS has led the way for the mainstream deployment of storage solutions that facilitate data consolidation and sharing. are fully discussed in depth throughout Chapter 2 through Chapter 6. IT managers constantly seek more affordable. and contributes to a scalable and reliable network and SAN infrastructure. Workgroup collaboration—High-performance data sharing across heterogeneous OS environments. availability. end users demand reliable. Distributed storage over secure WAN—Collaboration among distributed sites with centralized administration and disaster recovery. and security. but are beyond the scope of this introductory chapter. and CIFS). and global access to information from anywhere at anytime. Chapter 6 covers all advanced application solutions. This possible solution addresses customer requirements for high-availability NAS in several dynamic application areas: • • • • Internet e-business applications—High-performance data-sharing and scalable-networked storage infrastructures for e-businesses.”) The preceding applications. high-performance. For example. By leveraging well-understood technologies (such as IP. high-availability NAS enables a flexible. 12 . the IP/Gigabit Ethernet networking technology combined with storage appliances is one possible solution for delivering high-performance applications and features such as scalability. even if there are multiple vendors and OSs represented. coherent computing facility. manageable storage solutions that meet these user expectations. Business applications in the data center—Superior data availability and recoverability for enterprise business applications within a data center. high-availability NAS presents as nearly as possible a single system view for management purposes. Gigabit Ethernet. as well as others.Chapter 1 Presenting a Single System View for Management Purposes Finally. If clusters are to work as well as mainframes.
A file server performs management and security functions such as request authentication and resource location. The requesters are the servers or clients sharing and directly accessing the OODs.Chapter 1 Tricord’s Cluster-to-Cluster Replication Recently. making it realistic to support disk-based backup as the first stage of a multi-tiered backup environment. 13 . a file server. developer of Illumina clustering software and Lunar Flare clustered-server highavailability NAS appliances. while the requesters are relieved of SAN management to the extent that the file server assumes that responsibility. allowing business operations to continue almost uninterrupted. a dedicated file server might not be feasible. released its enhanced protocol support and general availability of a replication feature in Illumina that allows customers to use Lunar Flare appliances for business continuance and online backup. Replication performance is optimized to take advantage of the highly parallel nature of the Tricord clustered architecture. In environments in which the security and flexibility that the file server brings are not desired or an overriding need for performance calls for the cluster of requesters to talk directly with (and only with) the OODs. requesters. tape drives. jukeboxes. Tricord. Four components constitute a high-availability NAS architecture or configuration: object-oriented devices (OODs). Describing a High-Availability NAS System A high-availability NAS-based system can be constructed of equipment and software from many different vendors. Tricord replication enables customers to maximize their business continuity by distributing their data between two Tricord clusters. Lunar Flare clusters are priced affordably. a subsequent release will support cross-platform replication to Tricord clusters. In smaller systems. They must have an I/O channel attachment to the requesters that will access them. The feature is built upon an enhanced version of the Internet-standard rsync protocol.5: High-availability NAS configuration. optical drives. and the interconnect (see Figure 1.5). tape libraries. They include disk drives. and any other storage devices to be shared. Cluster-to-cluster replication can also be used for online backup. a requester may take on the responsibility for overseeing the operation of the high-availability NAS environment. The OODs depend on it for management direction. The OODS are the storage components of the system. Its constituents collaborate in a way that should make it appear to the world outside as one large computer system. a file server might not be present. Figure 1. It is key to the self-management capability of NAS. The current cluster-to-cluster replication offering represents the initial phase of Tricord’s comprehensive disaster recovery/business continuance efforts. RAID subsystems. Tricord’s near real-time mirroring is supported between clusters separated by a LAN or WAN. user access can be switched to the mirrored cluster within minutes. In the event of a disaster.
in a Fibre Channel-based high-availability NAS environment. Similarly. From the set of accessible storage devices. First. It must have properties of both networks and channels. The interconnect offers network-management techniques to be used for this identification. while the OODs learn where to go when they need to locate another device or invoke a management service such as backup. Any device-level service attributes could be communicated once to the file server. 14 . the OODs and requesters would log on to the fabric. Operating Within a High-Availability NAS Environment When high-availability NAS is powered up. read. To what extent the file server controls access to storage is a function of the security requirements of the installation. From the file server. which would be triggered by an attribute set when the requester logs on to the file server. it may be able to go directly to the OODs or it may have to go to the file server for permission and location information. In this case. the file server can learn of the existence of OODs from the fabric services. Accessing High-Availability NAS When a requester must open a file. from which all other components could learn of them. all devices must identify themselves either to each other or to a common point of reference. including conveying important characteristics. a requester may be denied access to some equipment. a requester may want to be informed of the introduction of additional storage subsequent to startup. That is. let’s consider the case in which the installation is physically secure. and have the low latency and flow control properties of a channel. databases. The file server could do this automatically whenever new OODs are added to the configuration. such as it being RAID 5. such as the file server or interconnect. mirrored. and close objects just as if they were natively attached to the requester. Depending on the security practice of a particular installation. Any component wanting to determine the operating configuration could use fabric services to identify all other components. a requester is in a position to access and create objects directly on an OOD. For instance. it can then identify the files. it must have the manageability features of mainframe-class peripherals. For instance.Chapter 1 The interconnect is the physical infrastructure through which all high-availability NAS components communicate. Also. there is not a requirement to protect the transmission of command and data between a requester and the OODs. write. but one that does not oversee the requester I/O. It can open. have distance and addressability to adequately connect all components in the networks. each high-availability NAS component can identify to the file server any special considerations it would like known. At the same time. the requesters learn of the existence of the storage devices they could have access to. There might still be a file server present for management functions. and free space available. and so on.
6: Read object sequence. In the second case. The OODs will also be informed of the installation security policy when they log on to the file server. which might be a root directory (see Figure 1.Chapter 1 A typical sequence might go something like this: The requester reads from an OOD one or more well-known objects that reveal the logical volumes or partitions of the device (more about this later) and how to start looking at objects. they will not allow an I/O request unless it is properly constructed— including encoded with a valid permission. the file server interposes itself into the I/O chain to the degree necessary for the desired level of protection. Figure 1. The file server may also withhold the OODs location information from the requesters at initialization time in support of the security requirement. The file server accredits the request by returning sufficient information to allow the requester to communicate directly with an OOD. not a Logical Block Address (LBA) whose address is relative to the start of the storage device. the difference being that the data is referenced by the object ID and a displacement within the object. Based on this.6). The requester then opens and reads an object. 15 . it is straightforward to find other objects. in which security is required. This can be accessed just like any file on an OOD. based on the contents of the directory. The requester repeats the process until the desired data is located. Security requirements may demand both protecting data while in flight (using encryption) and validating requests against security criteria at the OODs before servicing. From this. A requester must first go to the file server for permission to perform a set of I/O operations. All high-availability NAS elements collaborate to enforce the security of the system.
why would you choose high-availability NAS. they are quite different. especially in terms of the payloads associated with each command (see Figure 1. all requesters can open the shared database objects and are ready to update them.Chapter 1 Though the sequence of operations seems quite similar to the first case. If you are owners and operators of small to medium-sized businesses. the permission information must be added to the command parameters. Virtual asynchronous device–compliant host interfaces will even make it possible for applications to directly establish integrity control. both commands and data may be encrypted. Figure 1. Attribute bits can be used to indicate the appropriate granularity of control. In the secure case. 16 . When the cluster starts up. An attribute can be set by a requester to establish that it intends to update certain data. This approach should greatly reduce the inter-system traffic database servers generate to maintain data consistency. with the preceding in mind. The attribute is reset after completion of the writes. Data Sharing and Concurrent Update High-availability NAS would solve the data-sharing problem by moving to an optimistic control scheme in which requesters can act as though there is no conflict unless there is actually simultaneous attempts to access the same records by multiple requesters.7: Read object sequence using the file server. In addition.7). They learn this from the OODs themselves when attempting to commit updates. Only if another requester attempts to update data for which the attribute is set is there a need to resolve a conflict. So. do you really need NAS? Let’s take a look.
including those of the current system storage providers. The implementation of NetFORCE helped Simple Technology by increasing the productivity of design engineers. A reliable storage system is also needed to meet the increasingly short product lead time demanded by its customers. there are unique challenges and concerns that you address on an everyday basis. while significantly decreasing costs associated with storage. high-tech business advantage that should only be of concern to Fortune 1000 companies. must be safely stored and easily accessible at all times. Simple Technology selected Procom’s NetFORCE 1500 product to expand its storage capabilities and address certain issues that were not being appropriately handled by Simple Technology’s current solution. inventory log. consumer electronics. lower power consumption.”) Research and Development Simple Technology is a small company that designs. you probably have a hand in everything from client service to human resources to accounting. Every document ever created or received by your staff. yet it is still the one that average businesspeople know the least about. and connectivity products used in high-performance computing. NetFORCE offered the best performance-to-cost storage system and enabled the company to manage all data with relative ease and minimal administration and maintenance. But its importance to small and medium-sized businesses cannot be overstated. (For an example of how a small business benefited from a high-availability NAS solution. What would the impact be on overall productivity? Or imagine losing that data entirely. manufactures. and industrial applications. as time-to-market and time-to-volume dynamics are becoming more critical factors for its customers’ product adoption and success. These are traditional business functions that most of us are familiar with. The importance of implementing a network infrastructure that supports your business 24×7 becomes increasingly clear. NetFORCE’s scalable and flexible architecture not only enabled the company to easily and quickly access the exact information it required. In addition to being in charge of daily operations. or client correspondence. storage. After a deliberate process of evaluating available technologies and products. but also allowed the company to minimize the network traffic over its WAN by having smaller high-availability NAS solutions per separate buildings and locations instead of one large central NAS solution. whether it be an office memo. and markets a comprehensive line of more than 3600 memory.Chapter 1 Choosing a High-Availability NAS Solution If you are an owner or operator of a small to medium-sized business. The NetFORCE 1500 also enabled Simple Technology to aggregate design data and graphics from multiple disparate sources and provide its engineers with immediate data access 24×7. networking and communications. 17 . and various Internet devices. expensive. right? But what about IT? IT has grown tremendously in importance as a business function over the past decade. Designing such products requires the creation of thousands of digitized images and complex graphics and necessitates a tremendous amount of storage space. PDAs. the company requires a fault-tolerant storage system that provides quick access to its design data and complex graphics 24×7. The company is also expanding its presence in the new and emerging high-growth memory and FLASH storage products for applications such as digital cameras. IT is often touted as an enterpriselevel concept—a sophisticated. and higher speeds at lower cost. With increased product demand for higher density with smaller form factors. so executing them shouldn’t pose too great of a challenge. see the sidebar “Research and Development. customer database. MP3 digital audio players. Imagine not having access to your data.
effectively separating file sharing from application serving. The result is that applications are processed more quickly and efficiently. seconds tick by like hours.Chapter 1 So you’re smart enough to know that data. A system with RAID capability can protect and provide immediate access to data. frustration. Smaller companies also cannot afford the luxury of outsourcing the task to an IT specialist. lower your productivity. providing full drive integrity. and lost productivity and profitability that result from insufficient data storage. RAID 0 doesn’t offer any protection). or draft a memo. and your staff has fast and reliable access to data—both to the benefit of your bottom line. In addition to accessibility. and enable your staff to share files quickly and reliably for maximum levels of productivity. RAID 5 distributes data and parity across all drives and is capable of tolerating the loss of one drive. making them the best solution for improving the speed and functionality of your network. In the business world. and that you’ve experienced slowdowns with them as well. a high-availability NAS solution will keep your mission-critical data safe. As a businessperson. run a software application. and cost-effective way to manage their data? A high-availability NAS system is the answer. NAS relocates the storage onto its own independent platform. As your business grows. Almost all high-availability NAS systems incorporate a feature called RAID. 18 . But for those of you who don’t have a technical background or specialized training. Data storage is probably the most ubiquitous concept in the world of technology. and as a result. reliable. data is striped across all physical drives to improve access times (however. you are directly or indirectly dealing with data storage everyday—when you access a file. is critical to the success of your business. and time is money. so does the amount of data you generate. With RAID 0. By installing a high-availability NAS system. despite a single disk failure or concurrent disk failures. you can drastically increase the speed of your network so that you no longer experience the downtime. Chances are that you’ve experienced the frustration that occurs while waiting for a file to open. So what is the solution for small to medium-sized businesses that require a simple. Different levels of RAID offer different levels of protection. It’s also likely that you run a variety of software applications as part of your business. Because applications and storage are no longer running on the same system file server bandwidth is freed and overhead is reduced on existing application servers. a high-availability NAS solution offers high levels of reliability. If you don’t have enough storage capacity to handle that data. To understand the value of a high-availability NAS system. email a colleague. These problems are probably occurring for two reasons: You have a lot of data being shared from workstation to workstation and there is a lack of storage space on your server. you will inevitably slow down your network. it is first important to understand what it’s designed to address: data storage. and the successful management of that data. High-availability NAS systems are completely dedicated to storage. the task of building and maintaining a network infrastructure can seem rather daunting. the second set of drives duplicates the information from the first set for maximum data protection. With RAID 1. Whether you have 10 or 100 employees.
a high-availability NAS system can appear like a native file server to each of its different clients. So you don’t have to worry about converting your entire office to one single platform or losing your initial investment in your desktops and servers. installation does not require high levels of technical skill or a background in computer science. The good news is that with a high-availability NAS system. which have neither the budget nor the daily need for an IT manager. sharing data across these different platforms can be both challenging and expensive. Today’s high-availability NAS systems are out of the box PnP. Intuitive software programs guide you in managing your network and getting the most out of your high-availability NAS system.8: Two ways to install a simple high-availability NAS solution. they are designed with simplicity in mind. Your current infrastructure. can create networked storage within 5 minutes and two mouse clicks with minimal effort. but they are also easy to use. 19 . UNIX. Apple Macintosh. may contain a mix of Windows. and Linux platforms. in their native file formats. Windows NT. That means that files are saved on the high-availability NAS system. Figure 1. regardless of experience level. On the network. Novell NetWare. which is great news for today’s small to medium-sized businesses. like those of many businesses. as well as retrieved from the NAS system. Another key benefit of NAS lies in its simplicity. Technological enhancements to your network should not be difficult or require significant time or effort from your staff. In addition. They are up and running in minutes—about the same time it takes to program a VCR. Traditionally.8). Any user. cross-platform file sharing is also an area of importance to you. Not only are high-availability NAS systems easy to set up. High-availability NAS systems are incredibly easy to install (see Figure 1. cross-platform sharing becomes quite simple. Again.Chapter 1 As a small to medium-sized business owner.
reliability. Expanding your servers is not a cost-effective way to increase storage capacity—implementing a high-availability NAS system is. fast. high-availability NAS systems are simply the best way for you to safeguard. For a few thousand dollars. The preceding factors present a strong case to small to medium-sized businesses that are looking at a simple and cost-effective way to experience what today’s global enterprises are benefiting from: sophisticated technology. 20 . The proposed benefits of implementing a new technology must be carefully evaluated to determine whether the investment will justify itself in the long run. The result is improved data access times for network clients. is simply the smartest investment for ensuring the integrity. and accessibility of your data. Powered by an OS optimized for file I/O activity. manage. No matter how you look at it. by virtue of being a single repository completely dedicated to storage.Chapter 1 A high-availability NAS solution is also an attractive option for small to medium-sized businesses due to its cost. and leverage the information that is the foundation of your business. file serving performance is greater than that of a general purpose server. A file server serving a specific high-availability NAS OS is a fraction of the size and runs much faster and more efficiently. A modern multi-tasking OS can have 7 million lines of code to provide multiple general-purpose functions. Benefiting from a High-Availability NAS Solution The answer to the preceding questions is a resounding Yes! Large businesses realize the following benefits from high-availability NAS: • • • • • • • Streamlined architecture Reduced server I/O bottlenecks. what are the benefits of a high-availability NAS solution for large businesses? Are they the same as for small to medium-sized businesses? Let’s take a look. In any business. A high-availability NAS solution. But. reliability. Increased reliability and data availability Efficient allocation and use of resources Simplicity Increased productivity Lower TCO Streamlining Architecture High-availability NAS appliances have a streamlined architecture designed for one function: to serve data files to clients in heterogeneous network environments.000 or more for. reliable network access. it is important that dollars spent result in dollars earned. which is designed to perform a multitude of functions. productivity increases. and feature sets that enterprises pay $10. and the peace of mind that comes with knowing that your mission-critical data is safe. today’s high-availability NAS systems offer the same performance.
Network downtime resulting from server failure costs organizations thousands of dollars per hour. are tightly integrated to perform that single function.Chapter 1 Reducing Server I/O Bottlenecks The largest source of network and application server degradation is file service. Separating storage from the server reduces the file serving activity and I/O bottlenecks and increases server bandwidth. whether it’s for planned maintenance or due to unexpected crashes or outages. FTP. Separating storage resources from the server decreases both the number of components and the amount of file I/O activity. As I mentioned earlier. a high-availability NAS solution enables you to locate storage where it’s needed on the network and provide clients with direct. CPU cycles can then be dedicated to handling application requests. CIFS. In addition. NFS. resulting in improved client response time. server independent communication to storage resources. a high-availability NAS appliance (such as Tricord’s Lunar Flare NAS) connects directly to your existing LAN and transfers data over standard network access protocols (such as TCP/IP or IPX) using standard file-sharing protocols (such as SMB. regardless of their file system or OS. files remain available in the event of network server downtime. This percentage increases as simultaneous requests increase. According to Gartner Dataquest. Increasing Reliability and Data Availability The architecture of a thin server appliance is designed around a specific function. or HTTP). All components. both hardware and firmware. reducing the probability of server downtime and increasing the reliability of the network and application servers. Most networks experience server downtime at some point. This “closed box” architecture provides for extremely high reliability. No additional software or client licenses are required for clients to access storage. A more reliable and efficient network saves your organization time and money. Because high-availability NAS servers operate independent of network servers and communicate directly with the client. so you can implement a storage solution and leverage your existing network investments. more than 60 percent of server failures are caused by storage-related problems. This ability enables you to efficiently allocate storage and alleviates the problem of one server running out of storage while another server might have more than needed. Allocating Efficient Use of Resources A high-availability NAS solution provides a common pool of storage that can be shared by multiple servers and clients. NCP. 21 . Carnegie Mellon University studies show that the server processor spends on the average 25 percent of its time serving file I/O requests. Localizing file I/O traffic provides for a more efficient use of network resources.
22 . with its many benefits. In addition. There is no server re-configuration and no network downtime. They also benefit from reduced data access times and improved application server response times. network clients can still access work files. A high-availability NAS solution enables you to add storage anywhere on your network in minutes simply by plugging in a network cable. A high-availability NAS solution. the average company spends roughly $3. Lowering TCO Although disk drive costs have dropped drastically. Increasing Productivity High-availability NAS appliances provide increased productivity for your whole organization.Chapter 1 Simplifying Using a High-Availability NAS Solution The traditional methods of adding storage are too cumbersome for today’s network environments. and configuring a few settings. maintaining their productivity. Product enhancements and problem fixes are performed with a simple 3-minute flash upgrade. Management of high-availability NAS appliances can be performed from anywhere on your network or over the Internet using a standard Web browser or alternative management tools. you can do all of this during normal working hours. Network clients benefit from the ability to share storage resources with clients from another network. in the unlikely event of network server downtime. applying power. features a lower TCO than other methods of adding storage to your network. And. Network administrators enjoy the luxury of simple installation and management and fewer storage-related problems. A thin-server appliance is so simple there is no need to understand or learn a complex OS.50 per megabyte each year in administrative and lost productivity costs to manage its current storage. and anyone can administer one.
1: High-availability NAS appliances versus general purpose servers. all hardware and software components are for specific function (data I/O). In addition.9 and the sidebar “Defining Filer”). unlimited users—no license required Low General Purpose Server OS and hardware platform designed for serving applications and multiple general-purpose functions.10). Both provide optimal consolidation. higher reliability. Their differences? High-availability NAS and SAN represent different storage technologies. connecting all storage and all servers. client licenses required Reliability and Data Availability Administration Connectivity Maintenance Costs TCO High Table 1. A SAN is its own network. easier installation. Also.1 shows. high overhead A greater number of non-embedded components and complex. multiprotocol client support Low Streamlined costs. and they attach to your network in very different places (see Table 1. each lends itself to supporting the storage needs of different areas of your business. The technologies also share a number of common attributes. they can work quite well in tandem. and separate storage from the application server. Comparing High-Availability NAS with SAN Some people confuse high-availability NAS with SAN. general purpose software OS means a higher chance of failure and downtime High administration overhead of complex NOS system Network OS dependent. both can provide high data availability and can ensure integrity with redundant components and RAID. Some view high-availability NAS as competitive to SAN. For these reasons. and efficient file access. centralized data storage.Chapter 1 Comparing High-Availability NAS Appliances with General Purpose Servers A high-availability NAS appliance is characterized by a streamlined architecture designed and optimized for performing one function—data delivery.2). client must meet the server’s interface and protocol requirements High Unnecessary costs—more than the needed components for file services. after all NAS is SAN spelled backwards. This “closed box” approach results in more efficient performance. and lower TCO compared with a general-purpose server. NAS is a defined product that sits between your application server and your file system (see Figure 1. as Table 1. 23 . Consideration Performance NAS Appliance OS and hardware platform designed and optimized to perform a specific function very efficiently. simpler management and use. support multiple OSs at the same time. However. SAN is a defined architecture that sits between your file system and your underlying physical storage (see Figure 1. both allow you to share storage among a number of hosts. low overhead Streamlined architecture with specialized OS results in high reliability and data availability Simple administration of specialized OS Network OS independent.
NCP. and servers and software to link them all Based on newer immature technologies Technology Based on industry-standard technologies Table 1. 24 . CIFS. NFS.10: A typical SAN configuration. and HTTP) The file system is located at the storage True data sharing between heterogeneous clients because file system is at the storage side and data is transferred to client using industry-standard filesharing protocols Workgroup to enterprise PnP into existing network SAN Fibre Channel Protocols Raw data requests directly to disk drive The file system is located at the application server Software required on all nodes on SAN for heterogeneous nodes to share files File system Data sharing Environment Installation Enterprise Difficult and expensive. routers to interconnect data devices. FDDI.2: High-availability NAS vs. Consideration Network wires NAS TCP/IP or IPX over Ethernet. Figure 1. AFP. Token Ring. and ATM Industry-standard file-sharing protocols (SMB. Fast Ethernet.9: A basic configuration for a high-availability NAS filer on a LAN. SAN. Fibre Channel based hubs and switches to channel traffic.Chapter 1 Figure 1.
analysts predict that enterprise storage will account for 75 percent of all computer hardware expenditures. performance. One of the chief benefits of filers is that they relieve your more expensive general-purpose servers of many file-management operations. These two technology shifts have produced three mutually coexistent methods for connecting storage to computing platforms: Direct Attached Storage (DAS). and thus can’t handle filemanagement tasks as efficiently as filers. As integrated storage devices. there are two major technology shifts IT professionals must consider when developing an enterprise storage strategy. So what’s the best way of connecting the storage within your computer systems? The answer to this question used to be simple. so you have the freedom to place them close to where their storage services are needed.11 illustrates. but new technologies have created solutions that are more complex but can be managed more easily. reliability. as Figure1. Defining Filer High-availability NAS devices known as filers focus all their processing power solely on file service and file storage. High-availability NAS filers can be located anywhere on a network.Chapter 1 SANs offer many benefits in the enterprise. 25 . and manageability. High-availability NAS is the preferred implementation for serving filers for any organization currently using or planning on deploying general-purpose file servers. including having a more easily scalable backup and recovery architecture. filers are optimized for use as dedicated file servers. They are attached directly to a network. the impact of networking technology on storage architecture and content management. availability. Analysts at International Data Corporation (IDC) recommend high-availability NAS to help IT managers handle storage capacity demand. significantly lower operational costs. to provide file-level access to data. Such expansion makes it increasingly important for IT professionals to develop comprehensive strategies designed to optimize network infrastructure with storage solutions that will enable scalability. affordability. the impact of parallel processing on the design of storage products. how important is an effective storage strategy? Strategizing Your Storage Solutions With network content expected to continue expanding at explosive rates over the next 5 years. Network standards are strong standards that are driven by system considerations. Filers help you keep administrative costs down because they are easy to set up and manage. Compounding the challenge of explosive content demands. usually to a LAN. and SAN. and improved client/user satisfaction typically result from installing and using specialized high-availability NAS appliance platforms. Users report that better performance. And second. Storage standards are weak standards that are driven by component considerations. High-availability NAS filers not only improve file-serving performance but also leave your general-purpose servers with more bandwidth to handle critical business operations. high-availability NAS. Generalpurpose servers often get bogged down with CPU-intensive activities. First. which the analysts expect will increase more than 10 times by 2003. Therefore. and they are platformindependent.
26 . or DAS. DAS evolved from the server industry in which server vendors have traditionally sold storage as an add-on. disk arrays.12: DAS topology. server attached storage. Fibre Channel.Chapter 1 Figure 1. and certain computer-intensive and high-performance online transaction processing (OLTP) database applications. Trying to Standardize DAS More than 95 percent of all computer storage devices such as disk drives. DAS is an appropriate choice for very low-end PC applications.11: DAS. NAS. and SAN topologies. as Figure 1. This type of storage is alternatively called captive storage. very high-end highperformance mainframe applications. and RAID systems are directly attached to a client computer through various adapters with standardized software protocols such as SCSI. Figure 1. and others.12 shows.
CIFS is the standard for all flavors of the Windows OS. There are two true network standards for accessing remote data.13: High-availability NAS topology. the problem with storage standards is that there seems to be so many of them. Also. are weak standards that are driven by component considerations. As a result of weak storage standards. therefore. This can often lead to long lists of supported OSs for SCSI or Fibre Channel interconnects to different hosts. and complicated installation procedures. network standards are strong standards that are driven by system considerations. For example. the transfer rate for leading-edge DAS interconnects has increased fivefold from 20MB per second for F/W SCSI-2 to 100MB per second for Fibre Channel. third-party DAS vendors. however. need to re-qualify their products with each revision of a server’s OS. the transfer rate for leading-edge networking interconnects has increased tenfold from 12. which together account for the vast majority of all computers sold (see Figure 1. This is because storage was local to a specific server when these standards were defined. there are seven variations of SCSI. and these standards have been broadly implemented by virtually all UNIX and NT system vendors. and most UNIX vendors implement Fibre Channel differently. Each interconnect often requires special host software.5MB per second for 100baseT Ethernet to 128MB per second for Gigabit Ethernet. Standardizing High-Availability NAS In contrast. special firmware. Storage standards. NFS is the de-facto standard for UNIX. Speeding Networks During the past few years. In other words. storage devices that serve data directly over a network (called high-availability NAS devices) are far easier to connect and manage than DAS devices. and server vendors implemented variations that were not compatible.Chapter 1 The committees that established these standards. such as EMC Software and Compaq. As a result of these broadly accepted standards for network data access. allowed such wide flexibility in interoperability that there are many variations of SCSI and Fibre Channel for the many available UNIX and NT systems. 27 . Figure 1. Developed by IBM and Microsoft.13). however. Developed and put into the public domain by Sun Microsystems. Over this same period. high-availability NAS devices support true file sharing between NFS and CIFS computers.
SCSI. but have surpassed DAS. both Gartner Dataquest and IDC recently began projecting explosive growth for high-availability NAS and SAN products as a percentage of the total storage market. NT. As DAS vendors were involved in the never-ending task of supporting all flavors of UNIX. from $5 billion in 2002 to $9 billion by 2006. These projections are based on four key factors: 1. Faster networks are increasing deployment of high-availability NAS. Trends to recentralize storage to reduce management costs. Increased network speed can equalize the performance gap that used to exist between high-availability NAS and DAS for many applications. Shifting Storage Analysts predict a major shift from DAS to SAN and high-availability NAS. and Fibre Channel for their storage products. Gartner Dataquest has predicted that the commanding DAS 95 percent storage market share of today will be eclipsed by high-availability NAS over the next 5 years. 3. General-purpose DAS vendors have followed the same strategy. 4. network data rates have not only caught up.Chapter 1 In other words. True data sharing between heterogeneous clients is possible with high-availability NAS and not with DAS. and IDC projects that specifically designed NAS products will grow fivefold. general-purpose server vendors and general-purpose storage vendors have developed their own proprietary visions of network storage. Not wanting to support high-availability NAS. 2. Confusing High-Availability NAS and SAN Server vendors have implemented a variety of specialized hardware and software schemes to encourage the sale of storage with their processors. Strong standards for high-availability NAS result in simpler installation and lower management cost. These visions are alternatively called Storage Networks (SNs) or SANs. This has shifted the bottleneck from the network to the server and its direct attached storage. where it would be easier for competitors to make inroads due to the clear NFS/CIFS standards. and are no longer two times slower as they were 5 years ago. 28 .
14: SAN topology is still largely a vision. Storage resource pooling/sharing. there are pitfalls to its deployment. The SAN initiative is a loose configuration of vendors attempting to promulgate the weak standards of the past while talking about bringing the benefits of networking to storage architecture. Easy storage resource management. • • • • Although SAN is currently a hot topic. The following benefits are available with high-availability NAS and are considered the future for SAN as well: • LAN and server-free backup.14 shows). Instead of putting the storage directly on the network.Chapter 1 The vendors developed these proprietary visions to bring the benefits of high-availability NAS to their users without losing control of the storage and networking sale to high-availability NAS vendors. Data sharing. the emerging SAN concept puts a network between the storage subsystems and the server as Figure 1. This means that SAN actually adds network latency to the DAS storage model. However. 29 . many NAS boxes may mean more libraries— whereas it is easier to share libraries and drives dynamically in a SAN and still never have to send backup data over the LAN. and leading storage vendors have announced proprietary SANs that are still largely visions. Interoperability of heterogeneous servers and storage. SAN standards are in formative stages and may not be established for years. Figure 1.
Chapter 1 EMC recently announced a proprietary Enterprise Storage Network (ESN). and Compaq has recently announced a proprietary Enterprise Network Storage Architecture (ENSA). The solutions presented in this chapter focus on integrating the two elements into a high-availability NAS solution with no single point of failure. it was difficult to provide the level of availability required by customers with mission-critical e-commerce sites. workflow applications and others. Designing Storage Subsystems with Parallel Processing Equal in importance to the impact of networking technology on storage architecture and management is the shift to parallel-processing architectures in storage subsystem design. This may create major roadblocks to successful integration and data sharing between heterogeneous platforms. online communities. SAN is likely to become a variety of similar architectures that are not based on strong standards.net/) improve the speed and reliability of its Web hosting services. With that in mind. because of the complexity arising from the many varieties of SCSI. In a recent ITCentrix survey of UNIX and NT sites that employee more than 5000 employees. To counteract this situation.000 professional sites hosted. As with UNIX and SCSI. 30 . Finally. However. UNIX. With more than 20. In the past. continuous data access to a high-availability NAS solution involves two main elements: a redundant and fault-tolerant network infrastructure and a highly available storage solution with built-in data protection features. It has also resulted in zero downtime since it was installed. and proprietary SANs. Both high-availability NAS and SAN are valid technologies and serve important roles with different objectives. a small percentage of storage today is actually connected to SANs. The storage server helped Internet Fr offer consistently higher and faster response time than its competitors. Experts have noted the semiconductor industry finds it increasingly difficult to achieve faster processing speeds. let’s now focus on a case study in which high-availability NAS helped a European company deliver fast and reliable Web hosting. using server-attached storage. only 7 percent of enterprises have actually implemented SAN in production compared with about 48 percent that have implemented high-availability NAS. storage subsystem providers are taking advantage of parallel processing designs in two ways: Designing computer nodes with multiple CPUs and linking multiple nodes together to act as one system. which helps increase the company’s availability levels as well. It has helped the company deliver a new higher-level service package dedicated to the hosting of critical applications such as e-commerce sites. the company is the leader in the Web hosting business in France. Case Study The implementation of high-availability NAS servers has helped Internet Fr (http://www. The switch to highavailability NAS provides dramatic performance improvements because dedicated processors provide separation and optimization of functions that allow parallel processing of both network and storage tasks.internet-fr.
The company offers ten e-commerce solutions and has prestigious customers such as Century 21. and trained technicians respond immediately to each alarm. Kenzo. In the development of this new service level. The server-attached storage that the company has used in the past was sufficient for some applications. After examining a number of different high-availability NAS alternatives. 31 . the company has its own backbone and multiple peering agreements that provide direct connections with leading French Internet service providers. It has also opened subsidiaries in Italy and Spain. Tenor integrates a range of sophisticated services including load balancing. The key reasons for selecting the Auspex units were the fact that their ultimate storage capacity is higher than competitors. Each storage server has two 2GB NICs. security. Internet Fr technical managers began investigating the high-availability NAS approach. The first is used for communications with the various UNIX and NT servers operating at the site. redundant failover. Internet Fr managers selected two Auspex 4Front NetServer 2000 data servers—each with one processing node. 1GHz of data cache RAM. backup. The company provides a full range of reporting services that include weekly or monthly traffic and service-level reporting. the performance and reliability of the system is thoroughly tested. causing a reduced quality of service and longer response times. and 512GB of storage capacity that can easily be scaled to 9TB. and they support both UNIX and NT file systems. Internet Fr advises its customers on the choice of hardware and software architecture for their Web sites. application maintenance and others. Prior to bringing the system online. The company recently announced that its sales have reached $5 million. and guarantees that each application will be hosted on a dedicated server. Servers are monitored on a 24×7 basis. They found that high-availability NAS servers typically offer higher reliability and performance than general-purpose servers because they are optimized to move file data as efficiently as possible from disk to network and vice versa. and Matra Aerospace. The second provides intelligent and protected replication between the two storage servers using TurboCopy software and backup data to a Quantum ATL P1000 robotic tape drive changer. Hosting Service at a Higher Level Recently.Chapter 1 With its host center located in Paris. designed to provide the ultimate performance for critical e-business applications. the company made the decision to introduce its Tenors level of service. but couldn’t meet the requirements of the most demanding companies that Internet Fr was hoping to attract to its Tenors service. Tati. Internet Fr technical management recognized that the company needed to improve its storage systems. The problem was that the storage-server workload conflicted with the application load.
The Auspex NS2000 is designed to provide continuous availability in mission-critical. provide the user with an easy-to-manage system that can be readily integrated into his or her existing operating environment. Batch clients can update multiple file servers simultaneously to maintain synchronization of data. eliminating the need to use an NT server. The network processor processes network protocols and manages associated caches. The file and storage processor is dedicated to managing the file systems and associated storage hardware. NeTservices has demonstrated the industry’s fastest ZD NetBench 5. Redundant copies of data are maintained on the file servers that employ RAID 5. Improving Response Time and Availability Since Internet Fr installed the storage servers. and component failures to provide accurate problem determination data to the Auspex personnel for serviceability. which are both used by various Internet Fr clients. Furthermore.997 percent availability guarantee to its customers. Benchmarks consistently show that Internet Fr is delivering page downloads several times faster than its main competitors and significantly better than it was able to achieve in the past with server-attached storage. The database server load is balanced dynamically across the file servers and mounts can be moved dynamically between servers. An important requirement of this application was support for the NT and UNIX OSs. NeTservices optimizes the CIFS protocol for NT to give users the same speed of access and reliability as UNIX clients. which can detect host. Many of Internet Fr’s potential customers are familiar with the Auspex system. along with an Auspex Control Point browser-based management tool and industry-standard SNMP and Management Information Bases (MIBs). The NS2000 incorporates a call home monitoring system. Redirection can be run from the command line. the NS2000 provides Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) support that allows leading. The result is a dramatic improvement in reliability and performance compared with general-purpose servers. hardware-assisted RAID is incorporated into the system design. 32 . It supports a full Solaris management environment which. scripts. The test result was more than double the fastest NetBench test result posted by any other high-availability NAS vendor. the company has experienced a dramatic improvement in response time and availability. or with Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) traps without affecting users connected to the Web clients. for automated backup and recovery. I/O node. NeTservices allows Auspex NS2000 to act as a primary or backup domain controller in NT. NDMP-compliant data-management tools to execute backup and restore operations via a remote console. The zero-downtime performance provided by the storage system has also helped the company to deliver a 99. It also controls access to files and directories and lets a user manage NT or UNIX data from the same console. Each node contains a dual-Intel processor motherboard that has different and logically separate processing functions. Flexible. This feature also allows for rolling upgrades without service interruptions. which has helped the customers build confidence in Internet Fr’s hosting capabilities. Auspex’s NeTservices software provides seamless file sharing between NFS and NT clients. data-intensive settings. third-party.Chapter 1 Tasking the Storage Server Architecture The I/O node is the fundamental building block of Auspex’s architecture. Installing the storage servers has helped Internet Fr marketing efforts as well.01 performance at 58MB per second throughput.
the chapter brought the pieces together in a conclusion and case study designed to help CIOs and network administrators identify the best total solution for their specific enterprise storage needs. Summary Chapter 1 has identified trends in computing that affect high-availability NAS strategy decisions. It is already generating a significant proportion of its revenue. has a proven history of providing innovative enterprise storage systems and solutions. The chapter also discussed the benefits of implementing a parallel hardware and software design in an enterprise storage strategy. and support. technologies. Have a good read and enjoy! 33 . Internet Fr’s ability to quickly and reliably deliver information from these servers has helped the new Tenors service succeed beyond the company’s expectations. this system provides the power and flexibility Internet Fr needs to meet the expectations of its blue chip clients. In addition. introduced the main storage architecture options. we compared the subsystem architecture used by several major enterprise storage vendors. and who provides value-added service. I provided guidelines on the best use for each storage architecture. Redundant configuration eliminates worry about storage system failures while allowing the company to scale storage capacity when it needs to in order to accommodate growth. In Chapter 1. The Auspex NS2000 has proven to be the ideal platform to support Internet Fr’s growth. and applications. The net result is that Internet Fr is able to deliver higher levels of performance than its competitors—probably at higher levels than any other French hosting site. In the next five chapters.Chapter 1 All in all. Finally. You can’t overestimate the importance of data storage to a Web hosting company. we will thoroughly discuss the topics introduced in this chapter and much more. and identified issues involved in selecting an appropriate enterprise storage solution. The chapter also defined the different types of storage architecture. consulting. The best total solution goes beyond selecting just the right storage architecture and product—it includes determining which vendor offers the most advanced technology. comparing benefits.
manageable storage solutions that meet these user expectations. NFS. networked storage infrastructures for e-businesses. manageable pool with almost no administration—and in small. For example. Gigabit Ethernet. See Case Study 1 later in the chapter for more detailed information about Lunar Flare and Illumina. and global access to information from anywhere at anytime. By leveraging well-understood technologies (such as IP. Based on these integrated architectures. Distributed storage over secure WAN—Collaboration among distributed sites with centralized administration and disaster recovery. and CIFS). 34 . Business applications in the data center—Superior data availability and recoverability for enterprise business applications within a data center. high-performance. a discussion of how two network design configurations were tested and evaluated is presented.Chapter 2 Chapter 2: Designing High-Availability NAS Solutions As data requirements increase at a rapid pace. Enabled by Tricord’s Illumina software. This storage solution lets users add appliances into a single. high-availability NAS enables a flexible. High-availability NAS is the common storage system behind the Citrix MetaFrame for Windows application server farm. end users demand reliable. managed as a single resource. multiple Lunar Flare high-availability NAS appliances aggregate to create a cluster. affordable increments as needed. Clusters of up to 16 Lunar Flare NAS units provide seamless scalability from 129GBs to 2TBs. With the preceding in mind. The configurations presented in this chapter are based on the requirements for a typical large enterprise. The test results validate combined configurations for deploying highly available NAS solutions. IT managers constantly seek more affordable. robust storage solution that is easily managed and scaled and contributes to a scalable and reliable network and storage infrastructure. This chapter also discusses the deployment of highly available NAS infrastructures for campustype environments. Tricord Systems’ Lunar Flare high-availability NAS (clustered server appliance) product provides a manageable data storage solution for companies and organizations that require scalability to support rapid growth. Workgroup collaboration—High-performance data sharing across heterogeneous OS environments. the solutions discussed in this chapter address the customer requirements for high-availability NAS in several dynamic application areas: • • • • Internet e-business applications—High-performance data sharing and scalable. which I discuss in Case Study 2. High-availability NAS has led the way for the mainstream deployment of storage solutions that facilitate data consolidation and sharing.
This kind of topology may be useful for connecting two machines that are physically separated by some distance. Today. a high-availability NAS should been designed with the following considerations in mind: • • • • • • Start by building small highly available NAS islands. Design your high-availability NAS solution to be scaleable. the idea of building a high-availability NAS solution across numerous sites (each interconnected and backing up terabyte’s of data every night) will not work. Furthermore. there are several arguments against this topology—one being restricted communication between two nodes. as NAS technology is still maturing and has not evolved enough to justify the massive expenditure involved. Fibre-Channel switches are available that can form fabrics with thousands of nodes.Chapter 2 Nevertheless. constant access to 100Mbps is usually not needed 35 . the devices have access to the full bandwidth of the link. The simplest topology is simply a point-to-point connection between two nodes. These topologies can be combined to fit any needed configuration. and effort by observing these simple rules. Consult an expert if you’re unsure about your requirements. You will save money. Fibre Channel Topologies Fibre Channel offers three design topologies for high-availability NAS solutions. In addition. key design features must be observed to design highly available NAS solutions. However. Plan your high-availability NAS carefully. Design your high-availability NAS solution specifically for your requirements. Finally. Point-to-Point Topology Point-to-point is the first and most simple Fibre Channel topology. be it two host machines. Now. It connects to nodes. The benefits of this setup include no need for arbitration and no addressing problems— the package you receive must come from the other side. Don’t go overboard with the technology—buy technology that is flexible. or one host and a switch. However. let’s look at Fibre Channel topologies. This configuration allows as many as 126 devices to share one loop. The main reason for using Fibre Channel is to be able to share highavailability NAS storage devices among several computers. one host machine and one high-availability NAS storage device. A more advanced topology is available by using an arbitrated loop. . time.
data paths between computing nodes may change dynamically to support multiple simultaneous data transfers.Chapter 2 Arbitrated Loops The arbitrated loop topology was actually added to the original Fibre-Channel specifications. only one port can be sending frames. all nodes on the loop act as repeaters for all the frames running around the loop. Designers use the term fabric to represent this architecture because you can connect any node to any other node through data paths that resemble the interwoven threads in cloth. Switched Fabric A switched-fabric I/O architecture eliminates many of the problems associated with a multidropbus scheme. they may agree to set up such a connection. 36 . The arbitrated loop combines some of the features from point-to-point with some of the features from the fabric. all nodes connect their outgoing connector to the incoming connector of the downstream node. One of the main arguments against the pure fabric is that the price per fabric port is too high if each fabric port is connected to only one node. who thereafter owns the loop. A typical switched-fabric architecture uses multiple stages of switches to route transactions between a source and a target. fully utilizing the connection in both directions. A major benefit of switched fabric is that each connection is a direct point-to-point data path. There is one exception: if both of the ports that want to communicate support full duplex. Although this setup offers each device full connection to the fabric. allowing higher frequencies and bandwidth than bus architectures. In the arbitrated loop topology. A loop that contains 127 active ports is likely to operate with less-than-preferable performance. performance will degenerate as more nodes are added. The loop can contain as many as 126 ports and one fabric port with all the nodes arbitrating for usage of the loop. An arbitration procedure selects the loop master. This setup yields better electrical characteristics. This way. Arbitrated loop offers (as the name suggests) a loop topology. With the switched-fabric architecture. most nodes do not constantly need the full bandwidth of Fibre Channel. Because any of the nodes on the loop must win an arbitration before being allowed to use the loop. At any given time. A sophisticated switched-fabric system can also increase system availability by routing around defective paths or nodes. It was realized that there would be a need for a topology between the point-to-point and the switched topologies.
1: Switched fabric replaces the traditional shared-bus system and supports multiple data streams and tolerates path failures. The six nodes designated as A through F are connected to each other through 3 × 3-port crossbar switches. 37 . creating an aggregate bandwidth that is three times larger than the bandwidth of any single path. designers can create complex switched-fabric interconnects that can support large systems that are scalable and fault tolerant. By increasing the crossbar size. Because a switch requires more processing power (memory and microcode at each port to properly route frames). adding more switches.Chapter 2 Figure 2. although the maximum aggregate data rate will suffer. a Fibre Channel switch port may be configured to support a single node or a shared segment of multiple nodes (a loop). Any path through a crossbar switch may support serial or parallel data on a copper or an optical medium. Figure 2.1 represents a simple system based on switched-fabric interconnects. If a crossbar switch fails. and installing multiple stages. A Fibre Channel switch typically provides 8 to 16 ports. with full gigabit speeds available at each port (see the sidebar “Innovative Switch”). Following the model previously established by Ethernet switches. As many as three data streams may be active at the same time. you can route data around the failure. depending on the physical device. You can route data from any node to any other node over several possible paths. switch per-port costs are usually less than six times Arbitrated Loop hub per-port costs.
for others. For Fibre Channel vendors. high-performance Fibre Channel SANs. easy-tomanage. you’re not entirely wrong. which translates to improved system performance by as much as threefold. By connecting several switches. scaleable storage capacity of more than 250TB. emerging technologies such as iSCSI and InfiniBand. large numbers of nodes will be connected. On a single application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip. connect only one node to the port. which is essentially a daisy-chain that limits the performance and diagnostics of the storage array. well. meaning they cannot be part of the same fabric. Switches come with different numbers of ports (8 and 16 ports are common). all nodes have to share the bandwidth of one Fibre-Channel switching hub. For some switches. the porttype must be changed by swapping daughter-boards inside the switch. a JBOD connects to the SAN through a Fibre Channel arbitrated loop. With an impressive. where SAN and high-availability NAS models interact seamlessly. New SAN deployments can utilize InSpeed technology as the core fabric of an entry-level SAN installation. 38 . For customers. InSpeed technology also gives the system the ability to detect each disk drive’s error rate and traffic congestion symptoms. fortunately for the Fibre Channel industry. InSpeed. but also major high-availability NAS vendors such as Blue Arc and Network Appliance. InSpeed delivers what is essentially a 12-port Fibre Channel switch featuring both 1Gbps and 2Gbps full Fibre Channel connectivity and fabric service transparency. Case in point: a new family of switches from Vixel based on a technology with a promising name. according to Vixel. For a switch to be generally usable. Perhaps even more intriguing is InSpeed’s ability to extend switching capabilities to collective storage devices such as RAID and Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD) disk arrays and even tape libraries. As InSpeed and technologies like it begin to penetrate the high-availability NAS market. Adding InSpeed will have a major impact for both BlueArc and its customers. it could finally fulfill the promise of more affordable.Chapter 2 Innovative Switch If you think Fibre Channel SANs are so costly and complex that they will eventually lose out to alternative technologies such as iSCSI and Infiniband. Switches will be the logical choice when a larger highavailability NAS solution is to be constructed. or connect to another switch. The best example of this convergence is already upon us in the form of BlueArc’s SiliconServer. which plan to include InSpeed technology in their products. Several vendors offer Fibre-Channel switching hubs. which joins high-availability Ethernet NAS technology with Fibre Channel SAN technology in a working marriage that yields an enormous degree of simplicity for users. less-traditional Fibre Channel vendors such as Vixel and BlueArc are bringing much-needed simplicity to Fibre Channel SANs. The range of features associated with InSpeed has not only captured the attention and interest of manufacturers of disk and tape devices such as Quantum. Be aware that switches from different vendors may not be able to communicate. But. giving limited performance when more than a few nodes are connected. InSpeed could represent much-needed relief from the threat of simpler. By contrast. fostering even greater simplicity for storage administrators. Typically. Fibre Channel SANs do present a steep degree of difficulty. all the ports are G_Ports. Fibre Channel Switching Hub Fibre-Channel switches allow for large Fibre-Channel topologies. SiliconServer is a 72-inch tall model of the future of storage networks. the convergence of SAN and NAS will likely be accelerated. Each of these ports can then connect to an arbitrated loop (connecting as many as 126 nodes to this port). an InSpeed embedded switch installed on the JBOD can independently address and monitor each disk device in the loop. one has to make sure that all the ports are G_Ports. With hubs.
Fibre Channel delivers the same type of functions as SCSI and legacy networks. I’ll describe these products. IRIX. Fibre optic cable connector—The SC connector is the standard connector for FibreChannel fiber optic cables. Fibre-Channel drivers support multiple protocols (typically SCSI and IP). including straight and at different angles. these disks have a capacity of 9GB and support redundant Fibre-Channel loop interfaces. Virtually any topology that an IT organization requires is possible. an extender will provide a single-mode cable distance of 30Km or 18 miles. easier. You will find it quite familiar and interesting. Switches and hubs are stackable. providing gigabit communications for as far as 100 or 200 meters. Typically. Typically. the circuit automatically closes the loop. and switched scaled bandwidth. Most optical interfaces are multimode cable. Drivers—If software drivers for the host bus adapter (HBA) vendor are not resident in your server or workstation.5 or 50 microns. Multimode cable—Multimode cable is dominant for short distances of 2Km or less. At each disk location in the back plane loop is a port bypass circuit that permits hot swapping of disks. In the following list. When a disk is inserted. • • Copper cables—Four types of copper cables are defined in the Fibre-Channel standard. Most popular OSs are supported (including Windows NT and Windows XP. loop shared bandwidth. only Fiber Channel is faster. It is a push-pull connector and is favored over the ST connector. The most popular implementations are twin-ax using DB-9 or HSSD connectors. If a disk is not present. they are installed into the OS using standard procedures for the OS. Disk enclosures—Fibre-Channel disk enclosures utilize a back plane with a built-in Fibre-Channel loop. Multimode has an inner diameter of 62. Extenders convert the multimode interface to single mode and boost the power on the laser. more scalable. AIX. Take a look at what goes into a highavailability NAS product. Solaris. High-availability NAS brings new levels of capability and performance. 39 • • • • • . Extenders—Extenders are used to provide longer cable distances. Fibre Channel products expand the flexibility of IT organizations with the products’ inherent ability to run SCSI and IP protocols on the same high-availability NAS solution. the loop is opened to accommodate the disk. If the cable is pulled.5 micron FDDI cable is usually rated at 100 or 200MHz per kilometer. The many light beams tend to lose shape as they move down the cable. This loss of shape is called dispersion and limits the distance for multimode cable. and much more reliable. A Fibre Channel high availability NAS solution is built from products that are very familiar to IT professionals. Cable quality is measured by bandwidth and distance. Existing 62. the tip of the cable in the connector does not move out. Fibre-Channel disks—Fibre-Channel disks have the highest capacity and transfer capability available. Fibre Channel products are built without restrictions.Chapter 2 Customer Selection of Fibre Channel Products Customers quickly discover that Fibre-Channel products are built upon the concepts and protocols they know well. which would result in loss of signal quality. and HPUX). allowing light to enter the cable in multiple modes. The basic building blocks are point-to-point dedicated bandwidth.
Gigabit Interface Converters (GBICs)—Distances in a data center are supported with twin-ax copper circuits and. SNA gateways—SNA gateways interface Fibre Channel to SNA. Specific frame headers can be monitored and captured for analysis. gigabit backbone. HIO. disks. GBICs use an HSSD connector for the copper interface and media interface converters use the DB-9 copper interface. Fibre-Channel HBAs are available for copper and optical media. • • • • • • • • • 40 . SCSI-based peripherals appear to the server or workstation as if they were connected directly on Fibre Channel. GLMs include the Serializer/Deserializer (SERDES) and have a mediaindependent parallel interface to the HBA. with single-mode cables there is no dispersion. The benefit is a low-cost copper link and optics for longer distance when required. is half length. and many HBAs come standard with a copper interface. HBAs—Fibre-Channel HBAs are similar to SCSI HBAs and network interface cards (NICs). These are layer 2 (L2) and/or L3 devices that use Fibre Channel for a reliable. Connector—Fibre Channel has recently adopted a new connector. MCA. GBICs and media interface converters plug into the copper interface and convert it to an optical interface. SCSI bridges—Fibre Channel provides the ability to link existing SCSI-based storage and peripherals using a SCSI bridge. Typically. and Compact PCI. therefore. a hub will detect this condition and bypass the node.Chapter 2 • Single-mode cable—Single-mode cable is used for long distance cable runs. and utilizes a highly-integrated Fibre-Channel application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for processing the Fibre-Channel protocol and managing the I/O with the host. Therefore. Adapters are also available for SBus. Gigabit Link Modules—GLMs are pluggable modules providing either a copper or fiber optic interface. hubs. GIO. It reduces the size of the connector by 50 percent. Link analyzers—Fibre-Channel link analyzers capture cause and effect of data errors. Hubs—Fibre-Channel hubs are used to connect nodes in a loop. EISA. a hub has 7 to 10 ports and can be stacked to the maximum loop size of 127 ports. Fibre-Channel HBAs are integrated into standard products such as the Novell SAA and Microsoft SNA gateways. If an attached node is not operational. Routers/LAN Switches—Routers/LAN switches interface Fibre Channel with legacy LANs. Hubs support hot insertion and removal from the loop. the hub is similar to a Token Ring hub with “ring in” and “ring out. PCI. Users can easily change the media interface from copper to fiber optics. Its distance is limited by the power of the laser at the transmitter and by the sensitivity of the receiver. PMC. doubling the connector density for hubs and switches. A typical FibreChannel PCI HBA. Logically. Single-mode cable has an inner diameter of 7 or 9 microns and allows only a single ray of light to enter the cable.” Each port on a hub contains a Port Bypass Circuit (PBC) to automatically open and close the loop.
Switch options provide high-availability features. and 3) or only connectionless service (Classes 2 and 3). 41 . The number of addresses available is 224 or more than 16 million. also called link switches. Today. Because Fibre Channel may be faster than a single ATM or STM interface. • • Designing High-Availability NAS There are a number of high-availability NAS backup design considerations that affect the initial selection of products and their deployment: • • • • • • • • LAN-free backups Serverless backups Clustering High availability Centralizing storage Video editing Disaster recovery Backup All the preceding factors are interrelated and should be balanced for optimum use and cost savings. a Fibre-Channel switch provides connection and connectionless service (Classes 1.Chapter 2 • Static switches—Static switches. dynamic switching capability inherent in the Fibre-Channel protocol. They offer a low-cost option for applications not requiring the fast. designed specifically by the computer industry to remove the barriers of performance with legacy channels and networks. The secret is in the Fibre-Channel protocol. provide point-to-point connections and are externally controlled. multiple WAN channels can be used for full Fibre-Channel bandwidth. Expansion ports on switches are linked using either ATM or STM services. 2. Switches—Fibre-Channel switches are among the highest performing switches available for high-bandwidth and low-latency communications. Switches are stackable to meet the most demanding application requirements. Switch WAN extender—Fibre-Channel switches can be connected over WANs using an Interworking Unit (IWU). Typical connection setup or frame-switching time is less than 1 microsecond.
There is little point backing up to high-speed drives over a low-speed network. The backup software instructs the RAID system to move a block of data directly from disk to tape via the Fibre-Channel switch with a built-in “data mover. LTO Ultrium. Serverless backups no longer deal in file-by-file backups but in data blocks. Because the many-to-many connectivity of Fibre Channel allows a tape library to be shared by multiple servers. speed is often limited by network bandwidth. Serverless backup makes use of special software installed on the Fibre-Channel switch to move data between disc and tape and extract the catalogue information.Chapter 2 LAN-Free Backups Traditional backup software transfers data from application and file servers over the LAN to a backup server and from there to tape. Why doesn’t the data go straight from the disc to the tape drive? That would be serverless backup. For high-availability–NAS–based storage. there is scope for backup speeds to increase. there is often no quiet time. So why send all the data via a server? Why not send it straight to the tape drive from the disc? This option is a possibility using SCSI extended copy commands. In addition. avoiding saturating the client-server LAN with backup traffic and allowing normal LAN operation to continue. Using high-availability NAS for LAN-free backup greatly improves the data transfer rate. Each server holding data is effectively a mini backup server attached to the tape device via highavailability NAS. again via high-availability NAS. Removing backup traffic from the LAN also increases performance by reducing the backup window. With the advent of new backup technologies such as Mammoth 2. Each link of a highavailability NAS runs at 200MBps and moves data more efficiently than similar speed Ethernet. controlling the backup schedules and maintaining the backup catalogues and databases.” This data mover interprets the blocks of data and moves the data to the correct location. A main backup server still exists. however. you need to record the files backed up somewhere and you need a method for restoring individual files. For 24 × 7 operations. because tape resources can be dynamically allocated to backup sessions on each server. making it much more affordable for mid-range UNIX or NT servers to have direct access to a library. data is transferred to a server via the high-availability NAS solution. 42 . This catalogue data is transferred via the LAN to the backup server with only a very small impact on the LAN. backups are scheduled overnight when the network is quiet. There are four benefits of LAN-free backup. Serverless Backups Serverless backups are a great move forward from LAN-based backups. and Super DLT. so backups degrade performance or another solution is needed. It also minimizes disruption by removing backup traffic from the production LAN and onto the high-availability NAS solution. LAN-free backups take the backup traffic off the LAN and put it onto a high-availability NAS solution. because data is backed up and restored via a 2Gbps Fibre Channel–based highavailability NAS solution rather than across a 10/100Mbps Ethernet network. then to the tape device. LAN-free backup amortizes the cost of that resource over multiple servers. Discs and tape drives are both on the high-availability NAS solution. Thus. but for a useful backup. Backups can only go as fast as data can be transferred to the backup server. intelligent scheduling can optimize the use of shared drives.
For instance. Instead of just redundant components. the server OS or clustering application will be ready to failover to another server in the event of a server failure. so the application is always available. a low-overhead high-availability NAS switching environment is required. bringing new price and performance to the market. you can build a high-performance server cluster. Many backup software vendors will be releasing software in 2003 that provides serverless backup capabilities. 43 . a high-availability NAS solution is employed. To build high-performance storage to connect to the high-performance cluster. there are two high-availability NAS switches. It is important to purchase high-availability NAS hardware that includes the correct serverless backup agents. a high-availability NAS provides multiple high-performance paths for storage. a high-availability NAS solution can provide performance benefits by providing the servers with multiple paths to multiple storage devices to reduce the storage bottleneck. or performance. The differences between a cluster built for performance and a cluster built for availability are significant. scalability. This capability usually means a more expensive configuration than that of a high-availability NAS configuration. High Availability Certain applications require high availability. Serverless backup allows for true. For performance. High-availability NAS can be used to improve data availability by providing alternative resilient paths.Chapter 2 The main performance advantage of serverless backups is the virtual elimination of the backup server. you need both the correct hardware and software. The high-availability NAS cluster provides redundancy of all key components and data paths. parallelism creates higher aggregate bandwidth by combining the capacity of multiple pathways. For serverless backup to work. there are several parallel components to create multiple parallel pathways to reduce data performance constraints. Additionally. These pathways in a high-availability NAS solution are provided with Fibre-Channel links of 100MBps through a high-availability NAS switch. It is now possible to build high-performance clusters with low-cost Windows-based software and Intel processors. which involves the duplication of all key components within the NAS solution. By combining a number of servers with the right network and software components. so in the event of failure. Clustering Clustering is a concept that lets an aggregation of servers achieve a specific goal. the data is always available via an alternative path to the servers. windowless backups. The external storage also has dual pathways to allow access to the data. effectively imposing backup window limitations. high-speed. Usually. a non-blocking or unconstrained pathway for the data is necessary. With all other backup methods. To provide the appropriate storage infrastructure. either a dedicated server is used or time has to be set aside on application servers. Just as a high-performance cluster uses multiple paths to increase performance. which is usually protected against disk drive failure either through mirroring or a RAID-5 protection mechanism. Because mechanical storage devices are so much slower than the electronics in the server. such as availability.
servers do not need to be changed as often. Today. The distance can be extended to more than 100Km by using special GBICs or repeaters. Other vendor high-availability NAS file servers use captive. storage is an afterthought to the entire environment. audio. collaboration. Each high-availability NAS component can access any storage Logical Unit Number (LUN) from any device on the SAN as easily as any host. Backups Centralizing backups through an automated tape library has helped ensure greater data availability while freeing up IT staff to focus on more strategic management activities. and multitasking. or additional processors. SAN benefits are now extended to the high-availability NAS framework. Failover and redundancy are provided between the high-availability NAS units. processors have far more processing power than many applications currently require. which all requires scheduled server downtime. To replace a server. a server would need to be replaced as a result of older processors or lack of storage expandability. For example. These servers took up valuable space and periodically needed to be upgraded or replaced. Legacy or existing storage can be accessed from the SAN similar to a host computer. If an overnight backup was not successful. therefore. storage has been purchased along with the server. SAN/NAS Server Component Redundancy The high-availability NAS components are configured to be physically replicated to separate locations. This ability provides faster recovery and an additional level of protection. These systems demand highperformance out of the switching subsystem to allow creators to focus on content. 44 . This process takes time and can sometimes cause problems when the new server is brought back online. worse yet. Broadcasters. which then would need to be restored to the new server. upgrading involves adding new hard disks. and other rich media providers depend upon switches as the high-availability NAS interconnect for the world’s most advanced digital video and film editing systems. not their storage system. Video Editing Current video. Disaster Recovery A key feature of high-availability NAS is the ability to easily set up a disaster recovery site. an additional backup can be performed during operational hours because the data is not being backed up across the corporate IP network. film editors. vendor-supplied closed-system storage or. High-availability NAS is a further extension of the environment into NAS applications. and graphics editing systems are geared to increasing productivity through speed.Chapter 2 Centralizing Storage Traditionally. memory. you needed a full backup to be performed. effects professionals. Every 2 to 3 years.
Solaris and so on). Any LUN within the SAN can be allocated to any host for storageattached applications or assigned to high-availability NAS file serving. NT. All disk and storage management is performed at the SAN level.2: The ANY-to-ANY framework. Administrators need only decide to which storage they want each host to have access. Figure 2. Finally. Each high-availability NAS component can access any storage LUN within the SAN as a host computer can.Chapter 2 In Figure 2. high-availability NAS servers are configured with redundant access to LUNs on disparate storage devices. each circle designates a disk LUN. the need to serve nonvolatile data to millions of clients worldwide continues to drive the design and deployment of high-availability NAS. let’s take a look at a couple of design options. this configuration is laid out as in the preceding text and images. and each color is an OS (UNIX. Next. Physically. Administrators now have unprecedented storage allocation and resource flexibility. each oval designates a disk storage subsystem.2. 45 . As Figure 2.2 shows. Administrators can allocate any LUN of storage within the SAN to any host of high-availability NAS at any time (at their discretion). High-availability NAS can use all of SAN’s ANY-to-ANY dynamic allocation of storage LUNs at anytime.
from Win2K or Windows XP and UNIX clients could be utilized to determine the average failover and recovery times. Tests cover the failures of filer cluster units. When recovery time issues are concerned with clusters. An NFS file copy can also be used to test data access continuity during each failure and recovery scenario. The distribution and access/server aggregation layers are connected with Gigabit Ethernet. Recovery time is measured when the failed element is later reinserted into the test network. The test results should show how the high-availability NAS designs react to various network link and device failures and should validate the interoperability of highavailability NAS solutions. For example. 46 . The two tested configurations are referred to as: • • Distributed server aggregation layer (network design option 1) Redundant server aggregation layer (network design option 2) Distributed Server Aggregation Layer The design that Figure 2. A network ping test. Failover time is measured for each test scenario that involves removing an element from the test network. and series switches. the Event Log is of much more value.3 shows uses a highly redundant switch in the distribution layer and redundant switches in the access/server aggregation layer. These two approaches include a network design with multiple distributed switches and another configuration with redundant hardware in a single switch.Chapter 2 High-Availability NAS Design Options The integration and testing of the high-availability NAS solutions requires that failure scenarios of each of the redundant network and storage building-block elements be validated. Each topology applies to a different user scenario and addresses different levels of high-availability NAS requirements. network links. two design approaches to building a highly available NAS infrastructure were recently tested by Cisco Systems. as when services go offline and come back online. You can get quite a bit of help from applicationrelated events combined with the use of SNMP than by simply using ping.
Each dual-homed clustered filer is connected to the two switches at the access/server aggregation layer. and the UpLinkFast feature enabled for the uplink ports connecting to the switches. one of the switches is configured with Spanning-Tree Root [Primary] and Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP) [Active]. both switches have the Spanning-Tree Protocol and BackBoneFast feature enabled. (For more information about the architecture’s layers. Both switches are configured with Cisco’s Spanning-Tree Protocol enabled.”) 47 .3: High-availability NAS network design option 1. Also. see the sidebar “High-Availability NAS Architecture Layers. the PortFast feature enabled for the ports connecting to filers. To overlap Layers 2 and 3 for fast and predictable network convergence.Chapter 2 Figure 2.
In the event of a failure in the distribution layer. IP source/destination address. EtherChannel technology also allows the load balancing of traffic based on media access control (MAC) address. an aggregate bandwidth of as much as 8Gbps can be scaled while connecting to servers and highavailability NAS filers. with the client continuously pinging both filer cluster partners at 1second intervals. the standby interface takes over the active role with minimum network interruption. providing increased redundancy to the application servers at the network edge. In this configuration.Chapter 2 High-Availability NAS Architecture Layers The access/server aggregation layer has two functions: end-user connectivity (such as workstation and printer access) and connectivity for servers and high-availability NAS (server aggregation). terminates VLANs and subnets. Using Inter Switch Link (ISL) or Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE) 802. Using Cisco’s EtherChannel technology. It acts as an access point for intranet connectivity and aggregates traffic from multiple distribution layers. the Cisco SpanningTree Protocol implementations (Per VLAN Spanning Tree—PVST—and PVST+) allow redundant Layer-2 network paths between the server aggregation layer and the distribution layer. During all test scenarios. 48 . the overall convergence time can be minimized by overlaying Layer 2 (Spanning-Tree Root [Primary]) and Layer 3 (HSRP [Primary]) on the same distribution switch. Scalability can be achieved at this layer with Virtual LAN (VLAN) technology. This spanning allows dual-homed servers to be connected to the server aggregation layer in a more homogenous way. In the event that an active interface/link fails. The dualhomed filer configuration has been tested and validated with both Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet connectivity. Cisco’s EtherChannel technology allows network bandwidth to grow incrementally. multiple VLANs can be carried over a single network path. a series of NFS file-copy operations was performed to validate that continuous data access was maintained during failure and recovery phases. The filer’s software monitors the active link and handles the failover. Different failure scenarios were simulated.1Q VLAN trunking protocols. Test Results For Network Design Option 1 The results indicate the time the network takes to converge after a failure and to recover after reinserting the failed link or device. The distribution layer provides the mechanism for first-hop redundancy to the clients/servers by configuring HSRP. only one interface is active and the second is in standby mode. and directs traffic as needed to the core. Typically. It permits effective control of the broadcast domains. and Layer-4 port numbers. The Network Appliance dual-homing method makes use of Layer-2 connectivity. Additionally. A VLAN can be spanned within the server aggregation layer. The network convergence time is measured from the Win2K or Windows XP client. The distribution layer aggregates Layer-2 traffic from multiple access layer switches. Network design option 1 passed all failure and recovery tests. The network can quickly converge in the event of a connectivity failure to the core layer and allow reconvergence of Layer 3 due to bringing up failed distribution switches. HSRP optional features such as interface tracking and preempt delay ensure increased availability. VLAN technology provides good segmentation and management techniques for addressing. Scalable routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) can be fine-tuned to achieve the best possible convergence time and to optimize load balancing between the distribution and core layers. failing one element or segment during each test. For example. the core layer is a Layer-3 high-speed backbone for the campus network with low latency and high packet throughput.
Chapter 2 Table 2.1 details the 17 test scenarios. which correspond to the physical locations depicted in Figure 2. HSRP EtherChannel 0 to 1 EtherChannel 49 . The table indexes 1a through 8b. The tabular results apply to the test configurations only. Variations in equipment and configurations will have an effect on the failover times. Location Type of Failure and Recovery Fail the forwarding uplink between access and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch Restore the failed uplink between access and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch 1b Fail the blocking uplink between access and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed uplink between access and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 2a Fail the active supervisor on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 root) switch Restore the failed supervisor on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 root) switch 2b Fail the router on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 root) switch Restore the failed router on the distribution (Layer 2 root) switch 2c Fail the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 root) switch Restore the failed distribution switch 3a Fail one of the links in EtherChannel between distribution switch Restore the failed link in EtherChannel between distribution switch Convergence Time (in seconds) 3 Feature Responsible for Convergence Spanning Tree. UpLinkFast 1a 0 Spanning Tree 0 Spanning Tree 0 Spanning Tree 1 HSRP 0 Supervisor HA Protocol 1 HSRP 1 HSRP 1 8 0 to 1 HSRP Spanning Tree.3.
UpLinkFast 0 Spanning Tree 5b Fail the blocking uplink between server aggregation and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed uplink between server aggregation and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 0 Spanning Tree 0 Spanning Tree 6 Fail the server aggregation switch Restore the failed server aggregation switch 3 0 Layer 2 [Single-Mode VIF] Spanning Tree. HSRP 5a Fail the forwarding uplink between server aggregation and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch Restore the failed uplink between server aggregation and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch 3 Spanning Tree. HSRP Spanning Tree.Chapter 2 Location Type of Failure and Recovery Fail both links in EtherChannel between distribution switch Restore both the failed links in EtherChannel between distribution switch Convergence Time (in seconds) 4 Feature Responsible for Convergence Spanning Tree. BackBoneFast 3b 0 Spanning Tree 4a Fail the active supervisor on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed supervisor on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 0 Supervisor HA Protocol 0 Supervisor HA Protocol 4b Fail the router on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed router on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 0 HSRP 0 HSRP 4c Fail the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 0 0 Spanning Tree. PortFast 50 .
Chapter 2 Location Type of Failure and Recovery Disconnect the standby link between filer and server aggregation switch Restore the disconnected link between filer and server aggregation switch Convergence Time (in seconds) 0 Feature Responsible for Convergence Layer 2 Protocol [Single -Mode VIF] Spanning Tree. PortFast Cisco Cluster Monitor Cisco Cluster Monitor Cisco Cluster Monitor Cisco Cluster Monitor 7a 0 7b Disconnect the active link between filer and server aggregation switch Restore the disconnected link between filer and server aggregation switch 1 to 2 0 8a Fail the filer head [switch off the filer] Restore the filer head [switch on the filer] 45 75 120-180 0 8b Disconnect the link between filer and disk array Reconnect the link between filer and disk array Table 2. 51 . PortFast Layer 2 Protocol [Single -Mode VIF] Spanning Tree.1: Option 1 test scenarios.
To overlap Layers 2 and 3 for fast and predictable network convergence. 52 . with redundant switches in the access layer. which provides fast Layer-2 convergence due to indirect failure. and the ports connecting to filers are configured with the PortFast option enabled for fast convergence in the event of a link failure.4: High-availability NAS network design option 2. The Gigabit Ethernet ports connecting to the filers are bundled across separate blades using EtherChannel. providing physical redundancy and load balancing. the filer cluster connects to highly redundant switches with dual supervisor (highavailability option enabled) through Cisco’s Gigabit EtherChannel. The distribution and access/server aggregation layers are connected with Gigabit Ethernet. one of the switches in the distribution layer is configured with Spanning-Tree Root [Primary] and HSRP [Active]. To take advantage of redundancy and load balancing. Figure 2. For example.4 makes use of highly redundant switches in the distribution and server aggregation layers. The switches in the distribution layer are configured with the BackBoneFast feature. all switches have Spanning-Tree Protocol enabled. The uplink ports connecting to the switches in the distribution layer are configured with the UpLinkFast feature enabled.Chapter 2 Redundant Server Aggregation Layer The design shown in Figure 2.
Location Type of Failure and Recovery Fail the forwarding uplink between access and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch Restore the failed uplink between access and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch 1b Fail the blocking uplink between access and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed uplink between access and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 2a Fail the active supervisor on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 root) switch Restore the failed supervisor on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 root) switch 2b Fail the router on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch Restore the failed router on the distribution (Layer 2 active) switch 2c Fail the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch Restore the failed distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch 53 Convergence Time (in seconds) 3 Feature Responsible for Convergence Spanning Tree. The tabular results apply to the test configurations only. Variations in equipment and configurations will have an effect on the failover times. Table 2. a series of NFS file-copy operations was performed to validate that continuous data access was maintained during failure and recovery phases.Chapter 2 Test Results for Network Design Option 2 The results indicate the time taken for the network to converge after a failure and for recovery after the failed link or device is reinserted. with the client continuously pinging both filer cluster partners at 1-second intervals.2 details the 17 test scenarios. Different failure scenarios were simulated. The network convergence time is measured from the Win2K or Windows XP client. Network design option 2 passed all failure and recovery tests. HSRP . failing one element or segment during each test. which correspond to the physical locations depicted in Figure 2.4. The table indexes 1a through 8b. UpLinkFast 1a 0 Spanning Tree 0 Spanning Tree 0 Spanning Tree 1 HSRP 0 Supervisor HA Protocol 1 HSRP 1 HSRP 1 8 HSRP Spanning Tree. During all test scenarios.
BackBoneFast Spanning Tree 0 4a Fail the active supervisor on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed supervisor on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 0 Supervisor HA Protocol 0 Supervisor HA Protocol 4b Fail the router on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed router on the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 0 HSRP 0 HSRP 4c Fail the distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 0 0 Spanning Tree. HSRP Spanning Tree. UpLinkFast 0 Spanning Tree 5b Fail the blocking uplink between server aggregation and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch Restore the failed uplink between server aggregation and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 standby) switch 0 Spanning Tree 0 Spanning Tree 54 .Chapter 2 Location Type of Failure and Recovery Fail one of the links in EtherChannel between distribution switch Restore the failed link in EtherChannel between distribution switch Convergence Time (in seconds) 0 to 1 Feature Responsible for Convergence EtherChannel 3a 0 to 1 EtherChannel 3b Fail both links in EtherChannel between distribution switch Restore both the failed links in EtherChannel between distribution switch 4 Spanning Tree. HSRP 5a Fail the forwarding uplink between server aggregation and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch Restore the failed uplink between server aggregation and distribution (Layers 2 and 3 active) switch 3 Spanning Tree.
These devices. As previously explained. high-availability NAS uses shared storage on the network. as you know. They provide high-speed data access while freeing up the application servers for more CPU-intensive tasks. but not when it puts even less crucial data at risk. For example. the customers go elsewhere. Next. what are the high-availability NAS cost justifications and considerations? Cost Justification and Considerations Another way organizations can cut their costs is by making the switch from direct-attached to high-availability NAS. are called filers.Chapter 2 Location Type of Failure and Recovery Fail the active supervisor on the server aggregation switch Restore the failed supervisor on the server aggregation switch Convergence Time (in seconds) 2 to 3 Feature Responsible for Convergence Supervisor HA Protocol 6 0 Supervisor HA Protocol 7 Fail one of the links in EtherChannel between filer and server aggregation switch Restore the failed link in EtherChannel between filer and server aggregation switch 0 to 4 EtherChannel 0 EtherChannel 8a Fail the filer head [switch off the filer] Restore the filer head [switch “on” the filer] 45 75 120 to 180 0 Cisco Cluster Monitor Cisco Cluster Monitor Cisco Cluster Monitor Cisco Cluster Monitor 8b Disconnect the link between filer and disk array Reconnect the link between filer and disk array Table 2. tallying the number of passengers on each flight as well as competitors’ schedules and prices. 55 .2: Option 2 test scenarios. let’s look at why lowering high-availability NAS costs is good. typically through dedicated. If the data goes down. high-performance servers specifically designed for file storage. cargo. containing the schedules for the airline’s more than 3000 daily flights. The division maintains a set of 12 Oracle databases. and passenger revenue management and pricing division took this approach when it upgraded its high-availability NAS systems. In other words. Continental Airlines’ Houston-based scheduling.
Thus. this idea is just another flavor of the traditional Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) concept. restore. To enhance reliability. let’s very briefly look at high-availability NAS standards design issues. Even tape storage is quickly returning to vogue as a component of a not-so-new idea called high-availability hierarchical NAS management. 56 . Lower High-Availability Hierarchical NAS Management Costs One thing everyone can agree on regarding hard times: They make you appreciate what you have. infrequently used data is taken off the pricey system and dropped onto less expensive storage disk arrays. companies are now taking on the air of conservationists concerned about their storage resources and determined to make the most of them. the hidden danger of high-availability hierarchical NAS management. if an enterprise is already thinking of consolidating data sites to reduce costs (see the sidebar “Lower High-Availability Hierarchical NAS Management Costs”). 10TB of storage came at a cost of $300. highavailability NAS should be considered to further leverage those efforts and provide additional savings. there are also the bottom-line gains. the data is right there on the disk—only its access time is a little slow. Although these reliability features are enough to make some firms switch to high-availability NAS. Unlike the every-byte-is-sacred mantra that closed a slew of high-dollar storage array sales during the past few years. backups could only be done once a week on Saturdays because the process took 6 hours to complete. or data-mirroring policies. with the final snapshot being backed up on tape every night. Nevertheless. Furthermore. Under the old system. As far as the user is concerned. This setup works like traditional HSM in which the file name of a migrated file remains on the magnetic storage with a pointer referencing the true location of the data. Fears that some legal audit trail may lead to archived data that may have been degraded on a 4-year-old tape cartridge takes us back to the idea of high-availability hierarchical NAS management with renewed emphasis on the basic question: What data within an organization can ever again be considered “less important”? Inexpensively archived data can be corrupted by as much as 20 percent during a long period. fast online replication and point-in-time copies. when the easiest way to solve a storage problem was to simply throw more capacity at it. If you’re being sued for malpractice.” How is a storage buyer supposed to know he or she has the option of cheaper storage systems next to the expensive ones if his or her sales representative never reveals this information? Times may be getting tougher for storage managers. Now. In Continental’s case. the filers include built-in RAID 4. Gone is the expansionist mentality of years past. With high-availability hierarchical NAS management. Finally. and the expected fallout from the recent document-shredder scandals. Instead. Quotes for a comparable amount of direct-attached storage ran as high as $2 million. the true physical location of the data is transparent to the user. Data that is rarely touched is stored on tape. Why briefly. you ask? Because there are no standards. The filers also take a snapshot of each data volume seven times a day. thanks to the march of legal regulations. and you retrieve an old file of an X-ray and suddenly there’s a dark spot on the lung. high-availability hierarchical NAS management operates under the assumption that not all stored data needs to reside on a tier-one storage system. daily backups are done in 5 minutes per volume. such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. that’s big trouble. But alas. high-availability hierarchical NAS management does not change a company’s backup. the key word in the term “storage business” is still “business.Chapter 2 Continental went with two Network Appliance F840 filers that are connected through a gigabit Ethernet switch to two Sun Microsystems 10000 Enterprise servers running eight applications in separate domains. but simply melts away a residual dot-com era belief that throwing money at a storage problem is a sure fix. Furthermore.000. Next.
Cloudbreak. The trouble is. 57 . and resource management in one platform. device management. let’s discuss how high-availability NAS has brought networking technology to the data storage environment. by Sun’s own admission. In other words. crossing vendor borders (as WideSky. Without open standards governing the interoperability of the various hardware and software layers in high-availability NAS systems. while singlevendor solutions such as EMC’s Symmetrix. a lack of connectivity standards continues to leave vendors free to implement overlapping and mostly self-centered solutions. arguably one of the first storage operating systems to tie storage virtualization. even multiplatform high-availability NAS management solutions remain essentially proprietary. EMC’s management effort. First up is AutoIS. network management. The fundamental technical problem confronting all three of these options is significant. Theoretically free from platform bias. So. the high-availability NAS management software platform was born! The concept of high-availability NAS management heterogeneity is gaining traction in the vendor community courtesy of companies such as EMC. it becomes clear that the unfinished business is a real commitment to standards. and behold. But some unfinished business remains that threatens to trap you in more dark proprietary corners. TrueSAN recently revealed it had celestial inspiration launching Cloudbreak. Now. and you can only manage IBM and StorageTek tape drives. which includes a set of middleware applications called WideSky that are designed to manage both EMC and competing storage hardware. For an application to access data on high-availability multiplatform NAS. although Fujitsu is curiously not included. which is trying to push its StorEdge suite. and Storage ONE attempt to do) means entering uncharted territory. and Sun Microsystems. these solutions are optimized for the Solaris platform and servers.Chapter 2 Lack of NAS Standards Storage managers cried out for interoperability. Consequently. part of the storage Open Net Environment (ONE) architecture as a solution for managing high-availability multiplatform NAS environments. XIOtech’s MAGNITUDE. Next. and Compaq’s (now HP’s) StorageWorks offer a good set of proprietary high-availability NAS management solutions. Then there’s Sun Microsystems. WideSky supports an impressive list of OSs and storage hardware. If you survey the current crop of high-availability NAS management software platforms. It’s time for a real multivendor initiative that does not attempt to sell one vendor’s proprietary dream. In other words. let’s take a look at how high-availability NAS provides better availability and reliability. each from a different vendor with its own proprietary and generally uncooperative management interface. but more on that in a moment. changing how data is accessed or how highavailability NAS performs normally requires configuring each layer separately— more than an annoyance for vendors trying to automate high-availability NAS management. and more configuration flexibility. performance. TrueSAN. it must cross several software and hardware layers.
58 • • . it keeps in mind that this emerging technology may blur the network-centric distinction between NAS and SAN. the decreasing specialization of SAN protocols promises SAN-like devices on Ethernet network hardware.Chapter 2 Architectural Design Considerations The growing market for high-availability NAS is a result of the exploding demand for storage capacity in the increasingly Internet-dependent world and its tight labor market. Load balancing can be carried out between different redundant devices and paths. including a file system in a storage subsystem differentiates NAS. Software features in both the network and storage layers provide for automatic failover and continuous data access. High-availability NAS is a proven approach to networking storage. The integrated solution enables reliable. Typical deployments include enterprise-wide sharing of data among numerous campus clients or local sharing between data center application servers and local storage appliances. it is increasingly worthwhile to investigate the high-availability NAS storage core and emerging architectural technologies. For users. Scalability—The modularity of the architecture allows for more accuracy in capacity planning at each layer. the increasing specialization of high-availability NAS systems may embed much of the file system into storage devices. Optional redundancy at each layer can be provided without breaking or disrupting the entire network. however. from SAN. The flexibility of the architecture allows the addition of storage appliances to the network infrastructure based on the solution or application that the storage will support. consolidated information across a medium to a large campus-type network. efficiently managing traffic and optimizing link utilization. This part of the chapter focuses on high-availability NAS architecture emerging technology. The failure of any single hardware device or network link will not prevent access to data storage. high-performance. universal access to shared. but also the number of users and storage utilization. In practice. Technically. For example. Alternatively. At the same time. High-Availability NAS Solution Architecture A high-availability NAS architecture consists of the following components: • • • • Availability—Filer cluster Scalability—Network storage Flexibility and manageability—Wide sharing and local sharing deployments System availability • Data availability A high-availability NAS solution incorporates a network-layered architecture with a highavailability NAS architecture. which doesn’t. permitting the enterprise to scale not only bandwidth. it is often high-availability NAS’s close association with the Ethernet network hardware and SAN with the Fibre-Channel network hardware that has a greater effect on a user’s purchasing decisions. Flexibility and manageability—Simple but deterministic Layer 2 and Layer 3 paths make it easier to manage the network and deploy storage. which has one. The combined architecture provides the following benefits: • Availability—Redundant hardware components in combination with multiple distributed devices contribute to a highly available NAS infrastructure and data storage solution. The solution is scalable at the different layers.
Clustered filers are connected through an interconnect adapter and cables and are configured so that both filers share access to the same set of Fibre Channel disks and networks. Each filer uses the cluster interconnect to continually monitor the availability of the partner filer. In filers.5: High-availability NAS solution architecture. and a separate Fibre Channel loop provides a connection to its partner’s disks (see Figure 2. NVRAM is used for logging incoming write data and requests. Figure 2. The interconnect is also used to mirror each filer’s nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) log data and to synchronize the time of the clustered partners. NVRAM is a type of computer memory that retains data in the event of a loss of power.Chapter 2 Availability: Filer Cluster Two filers can be configured as a cluster to provide increased protection against hardware failures.5). Fibre Channel loops connect each filer to its own disks. 59 .
additional disks can be added to one or multiple filers. Scalability: Network Storage High-availability NAS appliance storage provides a very flexible configuration for building a scalable storage network. quota management. fan. If a system failure occurs on one filer in a cluster. This ability lets you complete scheduled filer maintenance tasks without interrupting data services. In most cases. Multiple filers can be used to scale storage into very large storage farms. additional filer processor units can be added to the storage farm. they can be transparently added. a manual takeover can be forced at any time. The partner filer maintains its own network identity and its own primary functions but also assumes the network identity of the failed machine and handles the added functionality through a virtual filer. this storage can be added on the fly without disrupting applications. these failures do not trigger failovers. When more storage is needed. Redundant disk. Cisco Systems’ Data ONTAP software allows filer NICs to be configured in multihomed configurations with an active interface that fails over to a standby interface whenever a loss of network link occurs. the partner filer will perform a takeover of the failed filer functions and provide client access to the data on the failed filer’s disk arrays. In addition to an automatic takeover. The cluster architecture is an active/active configuration. In this configuration. and multiprotocol access are all handled by the storage appliance. When additional application servers are needed. During normal operation both filers are operating and serving data from their individual disk arrays. Clustered partners protect against a failure of a filer system unit. A storage farm architecture can be infinitely scaled for most applications and networks. If more file system operations and storage processing power is needed. A single filer can scale to multiple terabytes. Filers connect directly to the network and are accessed by using the industry-standard network file system protocols: NFS and CIFS. 60 . not a single network interface failure. By separating the data storage and file system operations from clients and application servers. Network connection problems are better handled at the interface level.Chapter 2 Each filer has primary responsibility for a subset of the disks and both can operate independently. RAID protection. all interfaces are active and the switch controls the link failover and load balancing. File system operations. There is no need to reconfigure application server hardware or pre-allocate storage for a specific client OS or file system type. Data is immediately available to all network clients and servers. Application servers and clients can devote their resources to running applications. filers let the high-availability NAS farm transparently scale in capacity and file system processing power. A filer provides a complete file store and handles all the necessary processing and management of data. Multiple interfaces can be bundled to form a compatible EtherChannel. or power supply failures are handled independently in the same manner as with a standalone filer.
The client desktop machines can be in the same building or on opposite sides of the world from the filer (see Figure 2.Chapter 2 Flexibility: Wide Sharing and Local Sharing Deployments The flexibility of a high-availability NAS allows for deployments in a variety of different applications and network configurations. provide near-continuous data access. sharing enables information stored on a filer to be accessible from numerous locations and clients. Although system availability is extremely important. this part of the chapter discusses both system and data availability. All filer to server communications are carried out by the application servers over the dedicated storage network. and incorporate procedures to correct problems with minimal business impact. Different types of clients and applications can all share data stored in home directories and project directories.5). This method means that data is unavailable during the recovery period—an unacceptable situation in today’s business environment. information is a critical business asset and customers today require continuous availability to data. Now. Enterprise storage solutions must furnish a high degree of protection for corporate data. such as • • • • • Data corruption occurring within an application A UNIX user simultaneously edits a file being read and/or written to by a Windows user. In a local sharing environment. The client machines communicate directly with the filer. let’s shift the discussion to system availability. email. this focus doesn’t address data availability emergencies. Clients accessing the application server use separate wide-sharing network connections to send their requests to the application server. the filer and application server are located in the same data center and communicate on a dedicated local server farm network. and Web servers. As you know. causing file corruption or a crashed Windows application Major software upgrades failing or corrupting data Critical files being accidentally deleted or incorrectly modified Natural or man-made disasters The normal recovery mechanism for such emergencies is to recover a previous instance of the data set by reloading from tape. Enterprise. or wide area. The high-reliability and data management features of filers make them suitable storage solutions for mission-critical server applications such as database. The dedicated network connections between the application servers and the filers provide high reliability and high performance. Thus. 61 . Most vendors today only focus on system availability.
9 percent availability requirement means 8. whereas a 99.6: Average system availability measured across a high-availability NAS appliance. For example.8 hours of downtime per year.Chapter 2 System Availability Availability is typically measured as a percentage of total uptime available over the course of a year. 62 . Availability Classification Continuous Processing Fault Tolerant Fault Resilient High Availability Normal Commercial Availability (single node) Level of Availability (%) 100 99.8 hours Table 2.6 to 43.3 shows. the high-availability NAS appliance enterprise storage architecture provides a fault-resilient level of system availability.5 Annual Downtime 0 minutes 5 minutes 53 minutes 8. Downtime includes planned maintenance and unscheduled outages. as Figure 2. as Table 2. By the preceding standards.99 percent. which is demonstrated with average system availability statistics as measured across the high-availability NAS appliance installed based of more than 10.3: System availability classifications.9 99 to 99.000 storage appliances (an average of 99.99 percent availability requirement translates into 53 minutes of downtime.8 hours 87.6 shows).99 99. Figure 2.999 99. a 99.
RAID is integrated into the WAFL file system to eliminate operator errors. This setup contrasts significantly with high-availability NAS appliance deployment options. patch level mismatches. The most common components to fail are disk drives followed by power supplies and fans. industry-standard hardware components. in order of frequency: • • • • • • Software defects/failures Planned administrative downtime Operator error Hardware outage/maintenance Building/site disaster Metropolitan disaster A high-availability NAS appliance effectively achieves fault-resilient system availability by excelling in each of the areas previously listed. A general purpose computer has many features and applications that make it impossible to test all possible usage patterns. This differentiation is clear when compared with conventional storage subsystems. tightly-coupled. In these examples. High-availability NAS appliances utilize redundant disks (RAID). This pre-tuned compact kernel minimizes complexity and improves reliability. For example. which help drive high hardware reliability. For example. High-availability NAS appliances can be tested much more thoroughly because they do only one thing. multi-tasking. real-time microkernel. WAFL and RAID were designed together to avoid the performance problems that most file systems experience with RAID and to ensure the highest level of reliability. The appliance approach improves reliability because it performs a single function very well. The high-availability NAS appliance approach also helps improve overall application availability. it is important to understand the major causes of system failures. the Data ONTAP kernel utilizes the robust Write Anywhere File Layout (WAFL) file system. Data ONTAP software is less than 2 percent the total size of general purpose operating systems. power supplies. the odds of application server downtime are increased as a result of the 100 percent dependency on the application server’s OS and file system software for all I/O operations.Chapter 2 To better understand how a high-availability NAS appliance achieves such high average system availability. The high-availability NAS appliance architecture is driven by a robust. 63 . such that the failure of any one of those application servers does not preclude the other application servers from accessing the data. in that file system operations that normally run on general purpose application file servers are no longer executed—thus improving the general application server availability. OS and application software release mismatches. IT managers indicate the major causes of system failure are. This benefit isn’t measured in high-availability NAS appliance fault-resilient availability. High-availability NAS appliances utilize proven high-volume. and so on. and fans for system units and shelves to protect customers against these common component failures. which allow for multiple application servers.
1 volume. RAID-5. 84 18GB disks.045. which is twice the number of disks. 3 volumes. In the event that any disk drive fails. RAID-4 provides the benefit of dynamic file system and RAID group expansion with just a single command. or the vendor wants to sell RAID 0+1 (striping + mirroring). Although it is true that a doubledisk failure within a single RAID group will cause data loss. a few media read errors on disk blocks over time is normal for a disk. four 7-drive RAID groups per volume F760.460 99.560 Number of Volumes 1 1 3 3 7 14 7 14 Table 2. Therefore. and RAID-S is unsafe due to the fact that a double-disk failure within a single RAID group will cause data loss. a few blocks on a disk will go bad. 84 18GB disks.460 99.Chapter 2 High-availability NAS appliances use RAID-4 parity protection for all data stored in the disk subsystem. 84 18GB disks.679 MTTDL in Years for Entire Storage Appliance 348. 3 volumes. the data on the failed drive is reconstructed to a global hot spare disk drive. 84 18GB disks. 64 . RAID protection means that the chance of a double-disk failure in which data might be lost is measured in terms of tens of thousands of years.460 99. Let’s examine four cases using 84 18GB disks (1.512TB raw capacity) connected to Network Appliance’s high-availability NAS high-end F760 storage appliance (see Table 2. twelve 7-drive RAID groups F760. two 14-drive RAID groups per volume Number of RAID Groups per Volume 12 6 4 2 Number of Disks per RAID Group Mean Time to Data Loss (MTTDL) in Years Per Volume 348.560 348. Some vendors claim that running RAID-4. While reconstruction occurs. 1 volume. requests for data from the failed disk are served by reconstructing the data on the fly with no interruption in file service.4): • • • • F760.378 298. six 14-drive RAID groups F760. one must look at the probability of such an event happening. Based on these results. After months or years of use. one can see that the odds of a double-disk failure are extremely rare.560 1. This claim is stated usually for one of two reasons: The vendor’s RAID-5 or RAID-S performance is significantly slower than high-availability NAS appliance RAID-4 performance.4: MTTDL for four high-availability NAS appliance setups.
which forces a read on every disk block. Planned downtime typically occurs at predetermined times. application/database upgrades. Although the measured availability on average is fault resilient. power supplies. Some files are not read for months at a time or are never re-read. With conventional file servers and storage subsystems. ONTAP will do the following: recalculate the data by reading other disks in the RAID group. and redundancy in failure-prone components such as main memory (ECC). When the storage appliance reboots following a power failure. for some reason. low meantime to repair. Even if a user never reads a given file. As files are read and re-read over time. a power failure were to occur. early on Sunday morning. If the read error persists. If a media error is encountered. message-passing kernel that has fewer failure modes than general purpose OSs. the bad block is recomputed and the data is rewritten to a spare block. and so on. and store the correct data in the remapped block. The storage appliance architecture minimizes. this would force an unclean shutdown. reap the bad block to another area of the disk. high-availability NAS appliances routinely verify all data stored in the file system using RAID scrubbing. If a media error is detected. disks (RAID). the block will be remapped. These features combine to demonstrate average system availability greater than 99. The file system can ignore any writes that were in progress when the storage appliance lost power because it knows the written blocks are unallocated in the last consistent image. NVRAM is special memory with batteries that allow it to store data even when system power is off.Chapter 2 For example. To eliminate a single point of failure. software maintenance. If. the filer ensures that it will be read by RAID scrubbing. By default. the need for planned downtime. Let’s walk through some causes of planned downtime and examine how the highavailability NAS appliance enterprise storage architecture addresses each. high-availability NAS appliances offer cluster failover as an option. In this case.99 percent. the storage appliance finds the current consistent state on the disks and replays the outstanding requests from the log. although you can be rescheduled or suppressed this behavior altogether. the storage appliance does not tolerate failures of main system components. Cluster failover provides hardware redundancy without adding complexity. this verification occurs once per week. such as once a month or quarter. 65 . To protect against this scenario. The WAFL file system uses NVRAM to keep a log of NFS requests it has processed since the last consistency point. During this process. which forces a read on every disk block. such as the system board. environmental monitoring. This behavior avoids the situation in which a disk block could go bad over a period of months or years and not be repaired. and almost completely eliminates. For example. hardware maintenance. it has a watchdog timer to detect certain software failures. ONTAP has a special feature. RAID scrubbing. Data availability is also affected by planned downtime. The high-availability NAS appliance hardware provides several features to enhance system and data availability. ONTAP will automatically reap blocks as necessary. time must be planned for activities that include backup. The robust Data ONTAP software is based on a simple. all data blocks are read in parallel. the areas of the disk in which these files exist may never be accessed. and fans. the data ONTAP kernel will retry reading a disk if there is a media error. OS upgrades.
Chapter 2 First. Data Availability The high-availability NAS appliance enterprise storage architecture is designed to provide a level of data availability never before seen in the industry. such as the spreading of data across spindles to get better performance. which is not satisfactory given today’s business environment. Second. No data management involvement. For those few administrative tasks. A simple reboot of the storage appliance is then scheduled at your preferred time. which often does not produce increased data availability. and productivity. consistent backup can be achieved from a snapshot copy of the file system with zero downtime (snapshots are discussed further later in the chapter). the average annual aggregate user productivity loss due to disk grooming (for the purpose of increasing file system size on server storage) is 3129 hours. 66 . Also. The high-availability NAS appliance addresses this requirement by allowing systems administrators to add disk storage and dynamically expand file systems and RAID groups with a single command and with zero downtime. need be done. RAID is built into the file system. For Windows administrators. data management tasks. logical partitions and shares within file systems can be dynamically expanded with zero downtime. Finally. User authentication is done via an NT Primary Domain Controller (PDC) or NIS server. in many cases. It can be thought of as a self-tuning automobile that requires minimal intervention. can be put in hot backup mode for a few seconds while the snapshot copy is taken to ensure 100 percent data availability. other than expanding file systems. Operator error often translates into unplanned downtime. data must be taken offline to ensure a safe. OS upgrades normally require hours of downtime. Specific applications. if any. With a high-availability NAS appliance. such as a RDBMS. upgrades are installed while the system is operational and serving data. organizations have paid significant premiums for hardware and software to obtain high system availability. the storage appliance takes advantage of NT User and Server Manager. which affects overall system performance while the backup is occurring. profit. For example. Conventional storage subsystems require complex reconfiguration or scheduled downtime to accomplish file system and RAID group expansion. so no setup or ongoing configuration is required. Historically. Many competitive offerings require that the data be replicated prior to being backed up. With a high-availability NAS appliance. and the reboot takes only about 90 seconds. which is more disruptive than planned downtime. Third. Most vendors focus only on system availability. The high-availability NAS appliance enterprise storage architecture greatly minimizes the chance of operator error given that there are simply few tasks that ever need to be done. a safe. consistent backup or a particular application must be put into hot backup mode. Increased data availability translates into higher revenue. an easy-to-use Web-based interface is provided. are automatically managed by the high-availability NAS appliance.
srinstitute.Chapter 2 The Snapshot Feature: Instantaneous File Recovery Accidental deletion of a critical file usually results in a user calling an IT Help Desk and requesting that a systems administrator restore the file from tape. The snapshot technology enables users to instantaneously recover accidentally deleted files without having to call an IT Help Desk (see Figure 2.7: Example of file recovery utilizing snapshot technology.7). 67 . and retrieving the file from tape. This situation is common. Figure 2.com/home. loading a tape. This process results in productivity loss for the user until the file is restored. This ability results in productivity gains for the user and less strain on already stressed IT staff.cfm) indicates that the average site restores files from tape 144 times per year. and it requires a systems administrator to spend valuable time going to the data center. A recent study by Strategic Research (http://www.
Some dire situations (the discovery of corruption in a database) may require the full restoration of a previously saved state leaving data unavailable for an extended period of time. Instantaneous file system recovery software eliminates this time-consuming option.8). Instantaneous file system recovery software enables the IT administrator to quickly revert the file system back to a previous state when the database was consistent. and productivity. The software allows a file system to revert to the state and contents of a previous snapshot. causing data corruption. According to Strategic Research. IT organizations now see an even greater benefit in utilizing high-availability NAS appliances. which could take a day or longer.8: How instantaneous file system recovery software works. Upon completing the upgrade.Chapter 2 Instantaneous File System Recovery Time to recovery has become an important measurement in many IT organizations. normal recovery mechanisms require restoring the damaged portion of the database from tape. Instantaneous file system recovery software lets a file system revert back to a previous point in time by providing a level of data availability never before seen. 68 . such as Network Appliance’s SnapRestore. With instantaneous file system recovery software. Time to recovery is now 3 minutes to revert the file system back plus the log replay time. An instantaneous file system recovery feature allows a file system to be frozen in time. For example. the previous environment can quickly be restored within 3 minutes without having to reinstall the previous release of software and data from tape. Many high-availability NAS appliance customers store application binaries on storage appliances so that upgrades and patch updates are done in one place as opposed to having the binaries installed on each individual application server requiring each to be upgraded and patched. if data corruption within a database is discovered. Figure 2. The log files are replayed and users are again accessing data (see Figure 2. let’s assume an IT organization is doing a major application software upgrade and something goes wrong. The systems administrator may select any of the up-to-twenty existing snapshot copies to revert the file system back to. Compare this time with the time required to reload the entire damaged portion of the database from tape. profit. This level of data availability translates into higher revenue. the data conversion does not work. the average site does two full file system restorations per year. For example. With high-availability NAS software.
because instantaneous file system recovery software leverages the WAFL file system design. and so on. as Figure 2.Chapter 2 Cost-Effective Automated File System Replication Most IT organizations have business continuance teams in place to help plan for disasters such as floods. First. Most IT organizations today archive data to tape and send the tapes to an offsite location. Instantaneous file system recovery software offers two key advantages over conventional replication products. Thus. a storage appliance can replicate one or more file systems to a partner storage appliance. This setup has significantly less overhead than offerings that must replicate an entire disk track because the solution doesn’t have any knowledge of the file system.9: Immediate write application acknowledgement. Second. The target of an instantaneous file system recovery replication scenario can be located almost any distance from the source—it can be in the same building as the source storage appliance or on the other side of the world. Write operations reaching the source appliance are acknowledged immediately providing sub-10ms response time to end users. keeping the target file system synchronized with snapshot copies that are created automatically on the source file system. fires.9 illustrates. However. there is no impact on performance. only changed 4KB blocks are sent from the source to the destination. time recovery in the case of disaster is days. Using instantaneous file system recovery technology. many companies are planning for and deploying real-time data replication technology. 69 .. Figure 2. Instantaneous file system recovery software from Cisco and Network Appliance leverages the WAFL snapshot capability to provide an automated file system replication facility. earthquakes. which is unacceptable in a world in which data must be accessed 7 × 24 × 365.
10: Network Appliance’s Filer using the Setup Wizard for high-availability NAS services. Figure 2.Chapter 2 Because time to recovery has become such an important measurement. data measuring individual customer buying habits stored in a data warehouse for marketing research purposes would not result in millions of dollars of lost revenue per hour. many IT organizations are looking at different application data sets within their enterprise and determining the minimum time-to-recovery requirements for each data set. Many IT organizations are choosing to deploy the instantaneous file system recovery technology to automatically replicate their most critical data and keep it online. Lack of data access for online transactions could result in millions of dollars of lost revenue per hour. whereas the impact of an individual not being able to get to a non-critical file in his/her home directory would be minimal. lack of data access to ERP data at the end of a quarter could easily result in a revenue impact of $200.10 illustrates a data replication solution for mirroring the most critical data from one high-availability NAS appliance and replicating it online using instantaneous file system recovery software to a second storage appliance. Finally. Figure 2. in keeping with the theme of designing high-availability NAS solutions.000 or more per hour to a company. However. let’s look at a couple of product-specific case studies. 70 . Another example is an e-commerce site which ties company revenue to online transactions. For example.
The first case study is concerned with a multi-server load-balanced configuration, the MetaFrame for Windows application server from Citrix Systems. This application server provides a highly available and scalable program execution environment for Microsoft Windows-based applications under Windows NT, Terminal Server Edition (WTS) and Win2K and Windows XP OSs. This case study also presents Tricord Systems’ Lunar Flare NAS with patented Illumina clustering software as the common storage system behind a Citrix MetaFrame for Windows application server farm. A highly available and scalable storage system extends the high-availability features of the MetaFrame application server farm to the common storage repository for user data. Tricord’s Lunar Flare high-availability NAS solution features redundancy, high availability, scalability, load balancing, automatic client session failover, common administration, and low initial investment. The second case study is a brief look at Compaq’s (now part of Hewlett-Packard) StorageWorks NAS Executor E7000. This discussion provides best practices for deploying antivirus software packages on the NAS Executor E7000. In addition, it provides brief descriptions of four antivirus software packages qualified by Compaq for the StorageWorks high-availability NAS Executor E7000. Case Study 1 The emphasis of this case study is to demonstrate how Lunar Flare NAS with Illumina clustering software from Tricord Systems complements a load-balanced Citrix MetaFrame application server farm as the common storage system behind or beside the server farm. Description of Systems A brief description of a basic implementation of both MetaFrame and Lunar Flare NAS as well as a description of the combined product implementation is necessary to better understand the complementary features of each product and demonstrate how Lunar Flare NAS enhances the solution. As with any IT solution, there are numerous methods of implementation and this case study seeks only to provide an understanding of the basic concepts of the solution.
Citrix MetaFrame MetaFrame takes advantage of the multi-user kernel installed when WTS, Win2K, or Windows XP is configured for application server mode. Multiple users can simultaneously execute programs on the server or servers, and the user interface to the programs, using the Citrix ICA protocol, are presented on the user’s workstation or terminal as a familiar Windows application, which by all appearances could be executing locally rather than on the server. Each user is able to customize the program interface and operating characteristics to personal preference just as if the application were executing on the user’s personal workstation. These application settings are stored in the user’s profile and home directory and must be available when the user logs onto the system. If multiple load-balanced Citrix servers exist in an environment, which is the emphasis of this case study, those individual user application configurations must be available regardless of to which server the user connects. The user will be connected to the least busy server based on the configuration of the Citrix load-balancing software, so some type of storage for user profiles, home directories, and data must be available and common to all servers in the load-balanced server farm. User familiarity with the Windows interface and applications contributes to making the system useable. Citrix load-balancing software helps make the system available and scalable by connecting users to servers that are up as well as least busy. If additional program execution capacity is needed, additional servers can be added to the farm; user connections would then be spread to the additional servers. Using the many tools available from Citrix, the entire server farm can be administered as one system, and by consolidating the execution environment, efficiency can be gained in areas such as administrative overhead, the application update and upgrade process, reducing the amount of idle program execution resources (such as CPU cycles and memory), and enhancing system and data security. These computing resources can then be made available to users on internal LANs and WANs via dial-up connections and securely via the Internet using the Citrix Program Neighborhood client and/or the Citrix NFuse application portal. The key to retaining and seamlessly presenting the individual user environment each time a user connects to a multi-server application farm is the central, common data storage from which all servers can access each user’s application environment. This storage component of the system is vital to maintaining the integrity of the system and Lunar Flare high-availability NAS has the features necessary to play this vital role.
For more information about Citrix MetaFrame, see The Definitive Guide to Citrix MetaFrame (Realtimepublishers.com) at http://www.metaframebook.com.
Lunar Flare NAS Lunar Flare NAS is a unique storage solution in that individual storage appliances are combined to form an appliance cluster which functions as a single storage system. This configuration is made possible by Tricord’s Illumina software, which is a true distributed file system that distributes all data across all the appliances in the cluster to form a single pool of storage. Lunar Flare NAS uses two separate network interfaces (also known as channels)—the network channel, which connects each appliance in the cluster to the user or server network, and the back channel, which is the communications channel for Illumina (see Figure 2.11).
Figure 2.11: Lunar Flare NAS architecture.
Because each appliance added to the cluster includes its own processor, memory, network connections, storage, and so on, adding storage capacity does not add constraints to other components of the system. Instead, adding an appliance to the cluster adds to all of the cluster’s resource needs and actually allows performance to increase as capacity is added (see Figure 2.12).
Figure 2.12: Lunar Flare NAS cluster throughput.
Storage capacity is not the only thing scalable about this system. and can be scaled as needed by simply adding an appliance to the cluster. is how the two products complement each other to provide an integrated. with a current maximum cluster size of 3. which means storage capacity can be added without downtime. failover. In addition. or to the cluster’s NetBIOS name via WINS. and hot spare configuration. and adding the node to the cluster. connections to that appliance will be automatically and transparently moved to other nodes. The real value though. thus eliminating the network as a potential bottleneck in the system. including integration of cluster shares with Microsoft domain security. No remapping of drives is necessary simply because a connection is made to a different appliance because drive mappings and UNC paths can be made to the cluster instead of the individual nodes. when combined with Citrix MetaFrame. 74 . Adding storage capacity to the cluster is as simple as plugging in another appliance. All data will then automatically be redistributed evenly across all nodes using the back channel network. This redistribution is done on the fly and is transparent to users on the system. the system is administered through a standard Web browser executing a password-protected Java application. configuring an IP address. The Lunar Flare Admin Utility can be accessed by pointing the browser to any appliance in the cluster by IP address or by name. SNMP configuration. system event notification via email. and adds memory used to cache read and write operations to the file system. the network connection to the data can become saturated. UPS support. 135GB and 240GB.8TB. Files are striped across all appliances in the cluster and the inherent RAID characteristics of Illumina provide fault tolerance in the case of an appliance failure. and should a node fail. highly available and scalable system. to the cluster name as defined in DNS. the user sees the same view of data regardless of which node in the cluster they connect to. With most systems. The complete feature set is available in a 2-node cluster. making the system very user friendly. After initial appliance addressing and naming using the Windows-based Lunar Flare Configuration Utility. As mentioned earlier.Chapter 2 Because data is distributed across all appliances in the cluster. All cluster administrative operations are accessible via this interface. Lunar Flare NAS is a 1U rack mount or stackable system currently available in two capacities. as more storage capacity is added and more and more connections are made to that system. adding storage capacity also adds another network connection path for data flow to users and network nodes. the load-balancing and failover features of the Lunar Flare cluster insure that connections to the cluster are balanced and efficient. load balancing. With the Lunar Flare cluster. A hot spare appliance can also be configured as part of the system to replace any node that has failed. further enhancing the highavailability features of the system. adding appliances also adds CPU capacity to support the feature set of the system.
8 and MetaFrame Feature Release 1 (FR1) are connected to a 4node Lunar Flare NAS cluster (cluster name=TRCDLF) with three appliances active in the cluster and one designated as a hot spare. the integrated system takes on the features previously described but offers more than simply adding two lists of features together to make a larger feature set.13 shows an implementation that combines access for both external network/Internet users and internal network users and that mirrors the test environment used to formulate the conclusions drawn in this case study. User profile and home directories are mapped using UNC paths in the Win2K or Windows XP user properties to hidden shares on the Lunar Flare cluster using variables in the configuration for a template user. in the case of a user home directory.0. Figure 2. and scalability aspects of the requirements typically considered when implementing a MetaFrame application server farm. the user profile path would be \\trcdlf\profiles$\%username%. The features of Lunar Flare NAS extend the usability. For example. 75 . Extending these requirements beyond the application execution environment to the data storage system common to the server farm as well as the network connectivity to the storage system from the server farm results in a highly available and completely scalable system in which component failure is transparent or has negligible effect on the user environment. IIS 5. availability.Chapter 2 Integrated MetaFrame and Lunar Flare NAS System When Lunar Flare NAS is combined with a MetaFrame application server farm. Internal users could map drives to the Lunar Flare cluster from both their personal workstations and application sessions within MetaFrame. and.6 provides the application portal for Web-enabled Windows applications. Two load-balanced servers running Win2K or Windows XP Server with MetaFrame 1. The template user can then be copied for each additional user created in the system. the profile directory for that particular user would then be automatically created. a drive letter could be automatically mapped to the folder created under the share on the Lunar Flare NAS. and NFuse 1. A single server running Win2K or Windows XP Server.
addresses availability issues as follows. design. the data remains intact due to the RAID characteristics of the Illumina software and file system. The load-balanced MetaFrame application server farm. users reconnect to the system and their applications simply execute on one of the other servers. These benefits are weighted towards MetaFrame systems that are multi-server in nature. clustered solution. These benefits are detailed next and.13: Integrated MetaFrame and Lunar Flare NAS configuration. and continues to be available to users. specific examples from the test environment are used to more clearly illustrate those benefits. where applicable. and administer the system. Their individual application settings remain available because they were not stored on the failed server. First. 76 . Murphy’s Law dictates that the system will go down exactly at the same time as the president. not only for the users.Chapter 2 Figure 2. implement. a MetaFrame server and a Lunar Flare node were shut down at the same time and users were still able to access and execute applications and save their updated information. but also for those who propose. In the test environment. are expected to serve a growing number of users. If one of the servers in the MetaFrame farm fails. and which are expected to meet the other characteristics of a modern information system as previously described. There is no single point of failure in either of these subsystems. or other decision maker needs access to it most. Technical Benefits Lunar Flare NAS provides several technical benefits to the combined system—particularly in the area of availability and scalability. If one of the Lunar Flare NAS appliances fail. when combined with Lunar Flare NAS. this system is a load-balanced. CEO. High Availability The availability features of an information system are a cornerstone of its justification.
This functionality was illustrated in the test environment by connecting 10 users to the load-balanced MetaFrame server farm (both internal and external users were connected). in addition to the data integrity feature of the clustered solution. and will replace a failed node after a userdefinable time period. This functionality was tested three times and. as Figure 2.15.14 shows. The load-balancing feature of Illumina spread the connections across the three active nodes in the cluster. Finally. a user connection to a failed Lunar Flare appliance is automatically and transparently moved to one of the other appliances in the cluster. and all updated client documents were then saved. automatic reconnect to the user home directories via other nodes took about 10 to 15 seconds to complete after failing the Lunar Flare appliance—no loss of data occurred in any case. A cluster with a hot spare is shown in the Administration Utility status information as shown in Figure 2. Node LF2 was then failed by disconnecting the AC cable. another high-availability feature of the Lunar Flare NAS cluster is the hot spare capability. An appliance can be defined as a hot spare. 77 . Saving data in this manner was also successful and transparent. and connections to each Lunar Flare node were determined through the Lunar Flare Administration Utility statistics page for node LF2. Each user had both a Microsoft Word document and an Excel spreadsheet open.14: Lunar Flare Administration Utility’s connection information. and each was saving documents to the user’s individual home directories on the Lunar Flare cluster. Even with a complete loss of power to a Lunar Flare appliance. Figure 2. the system was fully functional with no impact to the user. The automatic connection failover feature was also tested by allowing for the time period required for the application’s auto-save feature to save the document after an appliance failure.Chapter 2 Second. including those attached to the failed node.
It is also an excellent system to store many other types of files and content directed towards all or a portion of the user base.Chapter 2 Figure 2.15: Lunar Flare Administration Utility showing the hot spare status. Lunar Flare NAS Scalable Storage Capacity Illumina makes Lunar Flare NAS extremely scalable. if an increasing number of users need to run a Microsoft Access application. The uses for the cluster are not limited to the MetaFrame functionality described thus far. Allowing an additional 500MB of space for user files makes the space needed per user approximately 1GB. relieving some load from the general application servers in the farm and dedicating resources to the specific need. In the test environment. When a new appliance is added to the cluster.8TB limit. depending on the needs of the organization and how the applications are used. For instance. all data is redistributed evenly across all appliances in the cluster. The number of servers in the farm is limited only by network addressing space. user profiles and the Windows component of the user home directory typically used between 350MB and 450MB of disk space. making the processing environment nearly infinitely scalable. Many combinations of applications and servers are available using the power of Citrix load-balancing and application publishing. The combination of availability features of a load-balanced MetaFrame server farm and Lunar Flare NAS makes this combined system one which should meet the availability requirements of almost any organization. Specific servers within the farms can be configured to serve several applications or be dedicated to executing a specific application. it can efficiently scale from a 2-node 135MB mirrored system to its current 3. as well as a perfect platform on which to back up servers in the farm or store server images used to build new servers when adding or replacing processing capacity. Application Processing Scalability The load-balancing features of MetaFrame provide a highly scalable application execution environment. An appliance can easily be added in about 5 minutes with no system downtime. simply by plugging in additional appliances on an as-needed basis. Thus. Lunar Flare NAS could scale to support thousands of users if needed. a server can be added to the farm and dedicated to that function. Because Lunar Flare NAS features a true distributed file system and a separate channel for inter-cluster communications. 78 .
This case study provides best practice guidelines to help administrators select and deploy an antivirus solution as a method to reduce the high risk of viruses. network connections are added with each appliance. and an increasingly saturated network connection in between. 79 . mission-critical applications. and the load-balancing features of Illumina help insure that the load is spread evenly across all the network connections to the storage nodes. and user-specific information. Bandwidth scalability means better performance and response times for users and improved system availability. which in turn increases the need for system storage. achieved through the fusion of high-availability NAS functionality and SAN infrastructure. and server and storage consolidation. Having no single point of failure when using the optional clustered configuration. Providing administrators with high-availability storage for application and user data. Because this solution is clustered. another important aspect of Lunar Flare NAS scalability is in the area of bandwidth available to access the data. each user represents a potential source of viruses and poses a threat of infection to all central fileserver users. Many organizations deploy the E7000 to share valuable data with users and business partners in an environment in which users have access to valuable company information. the E7000 is designed for Compaq SAN customers who want to leverage their existing or planned storage infrastructures to enable file serving and who want to avoid deploying multiple incompatible storage strategies. increased storage capacity on the other end. the E7000 enables universal network storage. the E7000 delivers high performance and reliability. In this shared-resource environment.Chapter 2 Scalable Bandwidth Between MetaFrame Servers and Lunar Flare NAS Finally. Lunar Flare NAS eliminates the typical scenario of a growing number of MetaFrame servers on one end of the network connection. companies must have a viable virus detection and eradication strategy. In other words. To help organizations meet the need for a complete E7000 antivirus solution. To protect shared data. The E7000 provides organizations with a solution that can be used for heterogeneous file serving. media and video streaming. Case Study 2 The StorageWorks NAS Executor E7000 can store and share large quantities of data among multiple users. These new servers have more than a single network connection to the storage system. Compaq tested four industry-leading antivirus software packages with the E7000: • • • • Computer Associates eTrust InoculateIT Network Associates NetShield Symantec Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition Trend Micro ServerProtect E7000 Overview The E7000 offers administrators the simplicity of a heterogeneous high-availability NAS device with the scalability and fault tolerance of a SAN. Adding servers to the MetaFrame farm typically means more users are being added as well. Any virus infection on the E7000 can have a devastating impact on an organization. creating additional paths to the data.
However. this configuration typically provides the lowest performance of the three typical antivirus configurations. 80 . the typical configuration involves installing and configuring the antivirus software on the clients only. Security and Performance as Equal Priorities When both security and performance are equally important. The server is completely dependent on the client machines to keep the environment clear of viruses. Typically. This configuration typically provides a good balance of security and performance for the E7000. As a result. this configuration provides the weakest security of the three typical antivirus configurations. Each environment has unique virus protection and system needs that often require tradeoffs in either security or performance. The server protects itself from any virus threats in the environment by scanning each file as it moves from a client to the server. Therefore. The administrator may also install the antivirus software on the client machines. this configuration minimizes any major security or performance tradeoffs. Because the software resides on the server. Optimal installation and configuration of the antivirus software can drastically improve both the security and performance of a server. the typical configuration involves installing the antivirus software on the E7000 and configuring the software to scan selected files only. In this scenario. all the E7000 resources are available for file serving. The server will be capable of protecting itself and maintaining performance. Resources used for virus scanning are not available for file serving. reducing software licensing fees and administration time. protection is centralized and the server is not dependent on the clients to maintain antivirus security. Three typical scenarios include: • • • Security as the highest priority Performance as the highest priority Security and performance as equally important components Security as the Highest Priority When security is the highest priority. This configuration typically results in the best file-serving performance. such as executable or batch files. the typical configuration involves installing the antivirus software on the E7000 and configuring the software to scan all files. The downside to this configuration is that it requires a great deal of server resources and overhead. Performance as the Highest Priority When high-availability NAS server performance is the highest priority. but the majority of the resources are still available for file serving. All connecting clients must install and maintain antivirus software for protection to be effective. This method is by far the easiest to deploy because clients connecting to the server do not have to install and maintain current antivirus software.Chapter 2 Best Practices Administrators must balance security and performance when deploying an antivirus solution. The antivirus software consumes some of the file server resources. the server will be unable to protect itself because the antivirus software is not installed directly on the server.
virus pattern updates. multiple scanning engine support. Compaq tested and qualified four industryleading antivirus software packages with the E7000. real-time detection with system cure. and terminal services support. real-time scanning. Each of the packages discussed in this part of the case study has been tested by Compaq and is supported for use with the E7000. Computer Associates eTrust InoculateIT The eTrust InoculateIT antivirus solution from Computer Associates is designed for Windows products. remote manageability. integrating industry-leading antivirus software with the E7000 produces a robust solution for protecting valuable data from corruption or data loss caused by viruses. To address this concern. and multi-tier active virus defense. ServerProtect is designed to safeguard file servers from virus infection and can be installed and managed from a single console. quick deployment and automatic virus protection through closed loop automation. NetShield includes the following features: terminal services support. three-tier remote management. centralized management. alert management. Norton AntiVirus provides centralized management from a single console that lets administrators configure and protect servers. ServerProtect includes the following features: centralized domain management. automated signature distribution. eTrust InoculateIT provides protection against the latest viruses and includes the following features: easy manageability. antivirus policy management across multiple platforms. and the NetworkTrap tool. Choosing and deploying an antivirus configuration that meets the performance and virus protection requirements of an organization is vital in maintaining optimal performance from the E7000 and in protecting vital organizational data and the computing environment from the threat of viruses. Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition includes the following features: single management console protection and monitoring. Symantec Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition is the Symantec enterprise antivirus solution for file servers. Technical Benefits Finally. 81 . The NetShield central management console lets users monitor and configure the protected server from any workstation. Network Associates NetShield NetShield is the antivirus solution from Network Associates for file servers. Trend Micro ServerProtect ServerProtect is the Trend Micro enterprise antivirus solution for file serving and storage. This part of the case study provides a brief description of each of the antivirus solutions tested and a table indicating the vendor and the product version used for testing. centralized event logging and alerting. Trojan system cleaner. and virus quarantine.Chapter 2 Supported Antivirus Software Packages Compaq recognizes that organizations with file-serving environments demand the highest levels of antivirus protection.
The testing outlined in this chapter focused on integrating the two elements into a high-availability NAS solution with no single point of failure. traditional data-management practices should be re-examined. they may no longer be necessary. The high-availability NAS appliance mission is to enable continuous data access throughout the enterprise. data availability (especially for disaster recovery or rapid return to an uncorrupted database condition) can be vastly enhanced by the use of high-availability NAS storage appliances within an enterprise.99 percent and unparalleled data availability and recoverability. It accomplishes this mission in two ways: system availability of greater than 99. The solutions integrate high-availability NAS designs for campus environments with NAS storage clusters. I’ve described how continuous data access to a high-availability storage solution involves two main elements: a redundant and fault-tolerant network infrastructure and a highly available NAS solution with built-in data protection features. The test results validate the effectiveness of a high-availability NAS data-access and storage solution. Finally. In many cases. 82 .Chapter 2 Summary In this chapter. Given the high-availability NAS appliance enterprise storage architecture.
4. you will need to determine your business requirements and plan for a high-availability NAS solution that meets those requirements. In addition. You should also answer thoughtprovoking questions. 83 . 2.Chapter 3 Chapter 3: Planning for High-Availability NAS Solutions After you’ve designed your high-availability NAS solution to meet your business challenges.1 shows a form that you can fill out to help you identify and define your requirements. Identify your business requirements—Learn how to determine which requirements you should target with your high-availability NAS solution. Determine your high-availability NAS components—Leverage the inventory template that you started in Step 2 to create a list of the new hardware and software components required for your high-availability NAS solution. which I’ll discuss later. you’ll need to move on to the planning phase. These requirements should ultimately drive your plan and component decisions. Inventory and analyze your environment—Use an inventory template and practical advice to determine whether the components in your existing infrastructure are suitable for redeployment in your high-availability NAS solution. get experienced guidance and view multimedia presentations. This step is the first and most important in planning for a high-availability NAS solution. this chapter shows you how to plan for your highavailability NAS solution by using the following four steps: 1. To help you plan your high-availability NAS solution. Determine Your Requirements Figure 3. to help you define your business requirements. or you can start from Step 1 and read through each step sequentially. Identify Your Business Requirements Clearly determine your business and IT requirements. This chapter discusses each of the preceding steps in the planning phase and provides an overview summary on the topic as well as a list of additional tools and information that you can browse for more in-depth information. Simply skip ahead to the step that interests you. 3. Develop your high-availability NAS plan—View pre-tested high-availability NAS plans that demonstrate real-world configurations. With the preceding in mind.
smaller-capacity storage devices could you consolidate into fewer. Management—Which management tasks are currently difficult due to lack of resources or skills? _____What will these be in one year? _____Would you prefer to integrate your storage management into your existing management infrastructure? _____5. Server and storage utilization—How much available but inaccessible storage could be utilized by your data-intensive applications if it were shared across your enterprise? _____Do you have physical environment restrictions in your data center? If so. assuming you could reclaim at least 30 percent of that under-utilized storage space? Figure 3. Performance—What are the peak performance needs of your key applications? _____4.Chapter 3 Business Requirement Questions Checklist Form Date: ______________ The following are questions to help you identify and define your business requirements (Check all questions answered and completed): _____1. supply chain. Disaster recovery—In an emergency. what applications do you need to quickly and efficiently failover to your alternative data center? _____Do you have an alternative data center? If so. Budget—How much more storage could you utilize from current capital expenditures (allowing you to postpone new expenditures).1: An example business requirement questions checklist form 84 . Availability—Which critical business applications do you need to safeguard against unplanned outages? ______What tasks do you need to perform (such as adding or redeploying storage resources) without disrupting your business operations? _____2. Scalability—How much faster are your storage requirements growing than your server requirements? _____What amount of storage capacity do you estimate needing in the upcoming year? _____What new applications (ERP. Data backup—By what percentage do you need to reduce your backup window? _____Do you need to relieve your LANs from backup congestion so that your applications can run faster? _____6. and so on) do you anticipate needing within the next year? _____3. how far away is it from your primary data center? _____Do you need to clone or snapshot mission-critical data at peak production times? _____7. what are they? _____Which older. CRM. larger-capacity devices for easier management and to reduce service contracts? _____8.
installing. The vendors you choose can play an important and helpful role in evaluating. you might be able to redeploy some of this existing infrastructure in your highavailability NAS solution. Inventory and Analyze Your Environment You likely already have a storage infrastructure in place that is not meeting your business needs. education. Fortunately. or to expand your initial high-availability NAS solution after you have a successful solution in production. software. a highavailability NAS solution can interconnect your existing components with new components. Alternatively. inventorying your physical environment will help you assess size limitations and cabling distance requirements even if your approach is to use all new components. You can use your results to demonstrate ROI and provide business justification for deploying more high-availability NAS solutions to address other important business requirements. Enlist the Help of High-Availability NAS Vendors If you haven’t already found high-availability NAS vendors you feel comfortable working with. cost-effectively. then focus on designing. To form a solution that meets your business requirements. and support Is familiar with the existing components you plan to use and is able to integrate them with new ones to form your high-availability NAS solution 85 .Chapter 3 Identify Your Top Priority Most successful high-availability NAS deployments begin by targeting a single requirement. designing. In addition. implementing. and deploying a solution that will address that requirement. This approach will help you deploy your high-availability NAS solution quickly. Take your list of business requirements and determine which is the most critical. Inventorying and analyzing your current environment will help you determine which existing components still meet your business needs and are capable of connecting to a high-availability NAS solution. now would be a good time to look. and managing your high-availability NAS solution. professional services. and easily. You should ensure that the high-availability NAS vendor you choose: • • • • • Understands your business requirements Understands high-availability NAS Has a proven high-availability NAS track record Has the ability to put together a total high-availability NAS solution including hardware. you might choose to simply buy all new components.
The following questions will help in your analysis: • • • • • Is the component Fibre Channel ready? How old is the equipment? Is your equipment nearing the end of its lifecycle or can it still meet your business requirements? If it’s a storage device. you might want to consider using one of several available software programs to help automate the inventory process. initial and projected storage requirements. see the sidebar “Gather Detailed Information About Each Component. does it meet your capacity needs now and in the future? Does it meet your availability and reliability requirements? 86 . number and type of Fibre-Channel interfaces. If you have a large number of existing components. number and type of Ethernet interfaces. and availability requirements. For each host: OS. servers. Analyze Your Inventory Information You should analyze each component in your inventory to determine whether it meets your business requirements and is capable of connecting to a high-availability NAS solution. You can record this analysis in your custom-made high-availability NAS components inventory worksheet. capacity (used or free). model. number of hosts it can serve.Chapter 3 Begin Your Inventory with a Broad List In your current storage infrastructure. For each storage device: make. You can use some sort of a custom-made highavailability NAS components inventory worksheet to help you record this information. bridges. Gather Detailed Information About Each Component You should fill in your custom-made high-availability NAS components inventory worksheets with specific information about each of the components. and so on Locations and geographical considerations such as size limitations and distances Applications—including their traffic patterns—performance. (For tips about creating this worksheet.”) You should create a list that includes: • • • • • Storage devices Hosts Subcomponents such as HBAs. type of connections supported (loop or fabric). and software. Details should include but not be limited to the following categories. ports and number of hosts per port. dimensions and weight. and firmware version. HBA count and drivers (include driver version level). type of connections supported (loop or fabric). you should start your inventory by creating a list of the existing storage devices. applications list. and dimensions and weight.
you should have an idea of which existing components you may want to use in your high-availability NAS solution and which physical environment requirements you will want to consider as you choose new components. hosts and storage devices from your existing storage infrastructure you would like to redeploy in your high-availability NAS solution and which physical environment requirements will affect your choice of new components. storage devices. bridges. if any. After you’ve done so. you can form your total high-availability NAS solution by: • • • Determining which new components are needed Validating compatibility across your new and existing components Calculating the number of switch ports needed to interconnect all hosts and devices To record your new component selections. you can use your high-availability NAS components inventory worksheet. Determine Your High-Availability NAS Components An inventory and analysis of your current environment will help you determine which. and GBICs. cabling.Chapter 3 • • • • • • Does it meet your performance requirements? Is this a proprietary attachment or does it meet current industry standards? Is this a legacy device (SCSI)? What are your space considerations? Can you fit this device as well as your other high-availability NAS components in the available space? Are the applications high-availability NAS aware? When this inventory and analysis is complete. 87 . Those components include Fibre-Channel switches. Select Your Components Your business requirements should drive your choice of components for your high-availability NAS solution. HBAs. You may have already started filling these worksheets out in the previous step. cable connectors.
Third-party vendors can use the API to integrate their products with your switch software and hardware. Standards involvement—Be certain that switches adhere to industry standards. Forward and backward compatibility—Switches should be forward and backward compatible with other switches in the product line so that you can migrate from 1Gbps to 2Gbps high-availability NAS environments and deploy a highly scalable core-to-edge storage networking infrastructure. or link them to form a network of larger port-count fabrics. Port count—Switch product lines should offer a wide range of port count choices from entry level (8 to 16 ports) to enterprise level (64 to 128 ports) to best meet changing business requirements. With a high-availability NAS solution. including monitoring tools to meet a variety of needs. The number of ports you need will depend on your choice of single or dual-attached hosts and storage devices. the switches should offer an API. • • • • • • • 88 . The manufacturer should also be actively involved in standards bodies to promote interoperability and provide customers with investment protection and flexibility to choose the best-in-class high-availability NAS components. Speed—Switches are available that support both 1Gbps and 2Gbps throughput per port. Management and monitoring software—Switches should offer a wide variety of easy-touse. Many offer auto-sensing and speed-matching capabilities for both existing and nextgeneration devices. Security and access control software—Switches should offer software that protects your high-availability NAS solution from security breaches. including software that enables secure sharing of storage resources across your high-availability NAS solution. hot-swappable power supply. Budget—Balance your budget realities with your needs. You can use switches alone.” so purchase the best features you can afford now and expand when your business demands it. including hot-swappable cooling fans to ensure optimal uptime. You should consider the following: • • Hardware redundancy—An option on switches is a dual. Web-based management. it’s important to select the right ones for your business requirements. you can easily “pay-as-you-grow. Integration with third-party applications—For your high-availability NAS solution to be able to tie into existing management infrastructures and high-availability NAS management toolsets.Chapter 3 Fibre-Channel Switches Because switches form the intelligent foundation of your high-availability NAS solution.
Storage Devices There are many types of disk and tape storage devices available that meet a wide variety of storage requirements. Make sure that the devices are Fibre Channel ready. Integrating a variety of devices into your high-availability NAS solution lets you allocate storage based upon cost, availability, and performance criteria. If critical application data is stored on a device, you’ll want to have that device dual-attached to your fabric to ensure high availability. Such a setup will require twice the number of Fibre-Channel connections on that device. Bridges In communications networks, bridges are devices that link or route signals from one ring or bus to another or from one network to another. Bridges are especially useful if you intend to use some existing SCSI devices such as libraries in your new high-availability NAS infrastructure. Bridges may also extend the distance span and capacity of a single LAN system, perform no modification to packets or messages, operate at the data-link layer of the OSI reference model (Layer 2), read packets, and pass only those with addresses on the same segment of the network as the originating user. HBAs The requirements of the applications that will run on your high-availability NAS solution should help drive what type of HBAs you need on your hosts. From the available 1Gbps, 2Gbps, and auto-sensing speeds, choose the speed needed to match your current and future data throughput requirements. If critical applications are running on a host, you’ll want to have that host dualattached to your fabric to ensure high availability. This setup requires twice the number of HBAs for that host. Cabling Copper and optical are the two primary types of media used for the physical cabling between the components of your high-availability NAS solution. Copper is less expensive, and optical provides a reliable signal over a longer distance. Copper has distance limitations such that it is typically only used within a rack. The type of connections made within your high-availability NAS solution will often be driven by your device connection needs. Table 3.1 shows your cabling options.
Cabling Type Copper (STP) Multimode Optical Single-mode Optical Multimode Optical Single-mode Optical
Cost $ $$ $$$ $$ $$$
Optimal Distance (meters) less than 25 2 to 500 2 to 10,000 2 to 300 2 to 5000
1Gbps high-availability NAS solution cabling options
2Gbps high-availability NAS solution cabling options
Table 3.1: Cabling options for high-availability NAS solutions.
Cable Connectors With optical cables, the SC connector is the most widely used; however, next-generation highdensity LC and MT-RJ connectors, Small Form-Factor Pluggable (SFP), are becoming more popular because their small size allows more connections in tight spaces. DB-9 is the standard copper connector, although many organizations are switching to HSSDC connectors because of their improved reliability and smaller size. GBICs Removable GBICs convert optical to electrical signals. Your distance requirements and speed will determine which type you need: 1Gbps—short-wave (500 meters) or long-wave (10,000 meters) and 2Gbps—short-wave (300 meters) or long wave (5,000 meters). Validate Compatibility An important step in finalizing your component choices is to validate compatibility of all components within your high-availability NAS solution. To do so, check compatibility lists provided by high-availability NAS vendors. In addition, update your high-availability NAS components inventory worksheets to reflect the compatibility status. Calculate Your Needed Port Count Total the number of Fibre-Channel network connections needed in your high-availability NAS solution to identify the number of switch ports you need. These include the number of HBAs on your hosts and the number of Fibre-Channel connections on your storage devices If you want dual-attached hosts and devices to ensure high-availability, you need to double your port count for those hosts and devices. Also, if you need the highest uptime possible, implementing dual fabrics is additionally recommended. (I’ll cover dual fabrics and availability in more detail in a moment.) In this step, you should also update your high-availability NAS components inventory worksheets to reflect any changes in port count.
Develop Your High-Availability NAS Design Plan
Just as your business requirements drive your choice of high-availability NAS components, so should they drive your high-availability NAS design plan. With regard to high-availability NAS planning, availability, scalability, and performance are the key requirements to think about. There are a variety of ways you can arrange and connect your high-availability NAS components. However, experience has shown that thinking strategically with an eye on the future, yet starting simple, yields greatest success. Keep Your Plan Simple to Start A high-availability NAS solution is extremely flexible, easy to scale, and provides great investment protection. As an organization’s needs grow, servers, storage devices, and switches can be easily added. This “pay-as-you-grow” technology makes it possible to keep your initial high-availability NAS design plan simple, then easily scale when business needs demand it. You will enjoy faster deployment and ROI by not trying to move your entire environment onto a high-availability NAS solution all at once. Core-to-Edge: The Ideal Fabric Design Plan Always think strategically regarding how your simple high-availability NAS design plan can evolve to meet your long-term requirements, even if you start with a simple design plan. The ideal design plan to build toward is core-to-edge, as you scale and add more switches. The coreto-edge design plan has proven to be the most flexible and effective solution for meeting the requirements of availability, scalability, and performance, although there are many possible fabric design plans. A core-to-edge fabric has two or more “core” switches in the center of the fabric, which interconnect several “edge” switches. Hosts, storage, and other devices connect to the free ports on the edge switches or connect directly to the core switch. Core-to-edge design plans have a number of advantages including: • • • • • • • • Easy to scale without downtime Able to grow from hundreds to thousands of ports High cost/performance ratio Simple and easy to understand Outstanding, flexible performance Good “resilience” with no single point of failure Works well with a wide variety of applications Proven and tested to be reliable
92 . and flexibility. let’s look at how to plan for customized high-availability NAS technical solutions. Planning High-Availability NAS Technical Solutions Customization As enterprises experience the widespread adoption of Internet business applications. has resulted in significant interest in moving from a direct-attached storage model to a more scalable and manageable high-availability NAS model. In other words. you can revisit your inventory worksheet of existing and new high-availability NAS components to ensure that your selections are final. One common technique is to replace the lower port-count switches in your core with higher port-count switches and redeploy the replaced switches as edge switches to protect your initial investment. proven. along with the escalating management costs associated with the storage infrastructure. providing automatic real-time rerouting of traffic in case a switch is accidentally disabled. software. Pre-Tested High-Availability NAS Design Plans There are many documented. You can then purchase those components from your trusted high-availability NAS vendor. This rapid growth. the core-to-edge fabrics are highly scalable.Chapter 3 The core-to-edge design plan includes redundant paths between switches. pre-tested high-availability NAS design plans available for you to learn from. and application configurations addressing the following needs: • • • • Backup and restore Business continuance High availability Server and storage consolidation Purchase Your High-availability NAS Solution After you’ve completed your design plan. Driving this growth is the increasing deployment of solutions such as ecommerce. customer care. performance. workforce automation. and direct-attached storage is expected to shrink from $12 billion in 2001 to approximately $7 billion in 2006. and e-learning. These design plans include many different heterogeneous hardware. IDC predicts that high-availability NAS is expected to grow from $8 billion (US) in 2001 to approximately $54 billion in 2006. and hosts to your high-availability NAS solution without having to disrupt service or do extensive cabling. Now. allowing you to easily add switches. There are several ways to do so. Core-to-edge design plans also let you increase performance as you grow. the explosion in data reflects the continual proliferation and dependence on data storage infrastructure. devices. how can emerging high-availability NAS technology solve perennial storage limitations in capacity. including adding Inter-Switch Links (ISLs) and taking advantage of more advanced performance features such as ISL trunking. This resilience ensures high availability. In addition.
high-availability NAS. IP multilayer switching. Any downtime results not just in productivity loss but also significant revenue impact. addressing the following needs: • • • • Improve data availability and integrity Scale. Gigabit Ethernet. high-availability NAS provides a flexible storage solution that is easily scaled and managed across large enterprise environments. and extensible storage infrastructure. 93 . and routing platforms from Cisco Systems. and deliver 24 × 7 availability. and Fibre-Channel SANs—into a single. this server-centric architecture has proven difficult to scale. To address escalating storage demands. Distributed storage over secure WAN—Collaboration among distributed sites with centralized administration and disaster recovery. and wide-area environments. Workgroup collaboration—High-performance data sharing across heterogeneous OS environments. This part of the chapter highlights key market drivers for IP-connected high-availability NAS and elaborates on some common deployment scenarios in customer environments. manage. the combined solutions leverage the already deployed and trusted IP infrastructure. scalable. most corporations store enterprise data captive in servers or within a storage subsystem that is directly attached to a server. The Need for Storage Networking Globalization of businesses as well as the nature of e-business initiatives demand around-theclock 24 × 7 operation. High-availability NAS has led the way for the mainstream deployment of IP-based storage consolidation and file sharing.Chapter 3 High-availability NAS enables companies to extend their storage networks beyond isolated islands in the data center to campus. well-managed. and deployment time. and optimize storage resources Simplify storage management Minimize TCO for storage The goal of a consolidated storage network is to provide a framework for uniting multiple storage architectures—including DAS. share. As the volume of storage data increases. This setup helps deliver an exceptionally low TCO by reducing associated operational costs. metropolitan. Using well-understood technologies. such as IP. Storage networking has emerged as an increasingly strategic component of the IT infrastructure. NFS. coupled with Gigabit Ethernet. and CIFS. High-availability NAS solutions address several customer requirements: • • • • Internet e-business applications—High-performance data sharing and scalable highavailability NAS infrastructure for e-businesses. Business applications in the data center—Superior data availability and recoverability for enterprise business applications within a data center. For example. complexity. Therefore. data availability has emerged as a critical corporate requirement for e-business IT infrastructure.
As workloads increase (both the frequency of transactions and the quantity of data to move and store). and managed over a networked infrastructure. Storage virtualization merges these storage pools in ways that best meet application requirements. each of which is managed and accessed separately. can be described as the software and hardware that enables storage to be consolidated. Solutions for these and other common storage problems are on the horizon in the form of emerging technologies. you should consider making room for one or more of them. you size your storage for the needs of the entire network. It must still identify storage locations with great specificity. shared. Or maybe the problem is finding the right way to protect the stored data. High-availability NAS is an implementation model of storage networking that delivers convergence of storage with IP-based networks. They may be too difficult to manage. accessed. not the needs of each class of application (see sidebar “High-Availability Virtual Storage Emerges. It also makes it easier to reallocate storage as needed. usually involving a combination of network ID and hierarchical path. high-availability NAS and an expensive SAN. even across multiple file servers or SANs. Each addresses specific weaknesses in current highavailability NAS solutions. Perhaps the systems don’t meet performance requirements. which is termed high-availability NAS. These technologies exist today but are not yet widely deployed by several NAS vendors. whether it’s implemented as a ring of trusty old file servers or as a speedy. High-availability NAS focuses on accelerating the convergence of storage and networks based on open architecture and industry standards. This network-centric model. High-Availability NAS on the Edge Every company uses network-shared storage. With storage virtualization. primarily storage virtualization—iSCSI.Chapter 3 High-availability NAS promises to reduce the cost and complexity associated with delivering highly available and scalable storage services. A company can have a vast quantity of storage on its network. but the storage is often split into discrete pools. IT managers are learning that their older storage systems have trouble keeping up.”) 94 . creating a bottleneck for applications. imposing excessive downtime for maintenance and upgrades. Storage Virtualization One of the limitations of current storage solutions is that software (OSs and applications) uses some very old rules to figure out where to store its data. which is encapsulated in IP and Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP). so when laying out long-range plans for your company’s shared storage.
For example. However. Following in the wake of EMC’s recently announced AutoIS enterprise storage-management strategy. Hitachi Data Systems (HDS) and Fujitsu have developed competing enterprise storage-management initiatives. Customers have been hitting the wall in terms of storage management. data management. As is AutoIS. or the customer to allow users to integrate solutions to be part of their open framework. TrueNorth and Eternus are wide-reaching efforts aimed at partnering with storage software developers and hardware companies. as well as initiatives from IBM and Veritas’ recent Powered storage virtualization program. Still trying to get traction in the industry. HDS’s HiCommand storage software will provide the management framework for TrueNorth. from a single console. Fujitsu says that there is an enormous opportunity for hardware-independent vendors to create comprehensive storage-management solutions. storage hardware. This base has put HDS in a situation in which it has many storage clients that now have management problems. They’ve had resident function. the Eternus storage framework will continue to expand the number of third-party systems it can control. and Oracle already on board. Hitachi has an install base through traditional Hitachi sales efforts.Chapter 3 High-Availability Virtual Storage Emerges Momentum is gathering in storage circles as vendors roll out new initiatives designed to alleviate critical enterprise concerns about storage management. unlike HDS. such as SRM and high-availability NAS monitoring. and more importantly. SRM. such as switch vendors. and HDS launched a new Lightning 9900a V-Series storage server to fortify the hardware component. are all good news for IT executives managing storage. The whole reason there is so much energy focused on storage management is because customers haven’t had very good policy-based tools and automation. 95 . hardware. TrueNorth. through Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Sun Microsystems. Key to the company’s strategy is the ability to collaborate with all its partners. Microsoft. Similar to TrueNorth and AutoIS. it would have been impossible for Hitachi to continue to exist as a viable vendor unless the company put in place a comprehensive storage-management strategy—customers were demanding TrueNorth. TrueNorth and Eternus announcements. The separate programs also offer a level of policy-based automation that finally permits storage administrators to manage multiple tasks. Fujitsu Softek’s storage software is one of only two storage-management suites that offer virtualization. Fujitsu is poised to take advantage of what experts see as a huge opportunity for hardware-independent storage-management software. intuitive management GUI. Eternus is armed with a suite of storage-management software from Fujitsu’s independent software company Fujitsu Softek. and aggressive collaboration with third-party storage vendors to create as open a storage framework as possible. Instead. Fujitsu recently launched its Eternus strategy. just one week after HDS launched its TrueNorth initiative. With partners such as Brocade. With EMC out there with AutoIS. independent hardware vendors (IHV). The third is a set of API trading partnerships set to be formed with a variety of storage component vendors to deliver the maximum amount of heterogeneous functionality to HDS high-availability NAS. and third-party product interoperability to solve the high-availability NAS management dilemmas. Eternus. Fujitsu does not face the challenge of supporting a large hardware install base while fending off advances from competitors such as EMC. but no framework. to deliver heterogeneous virtualization of storage resources. and highavailability NAS monitoring under a single. The AutoIS. and AutoIS seek to provide just such a storage-management framework using three components common to each: storage software. whether ISV. Fujitsu’s Eternus storage-management initiative leverages software.
An iSCSI host adapter turns a server’s SCSI commands and data into network packets and transmits them across the company’s IP network. NDMP is a voluntary standard. intends to get all high-availability NAS units and tape devices speaking the same language. Also. The SCSI parallel interface blasts data at very high speeds over short distances on behalf of a single server. a link to which is available at http://www. iSCSI solves SCSI’s accessibility and distance problems by leveraging existing TCP/IP infrastructures. But neither approach works over very long distances or extends access to systems that aren’t directly connected to the SCSI bus or switch. so total product coverage is unlikely. But each high-availability NAS unit is an island. iSCSI Performance is a critical consideration in storage design. the backup software orchestrates a network connection between an NDMP-equipped high-availability NAS appliance and an NDMP tape library or backup server. Of these three technologies. but it isn’t the only criterion.realtimepublishers. The appliance uses NDMP to stream its data to the backup device. but several vendors are shipping equipment designed against the working draft (a fairly typical order of events for a SCSI standard). 96 . led by Network Appliance and Legato Systems. yet storage virtualization is new to most IT leaders. In this model. is a challenge. allowing companies to deploy SANs using their existing Ethernet cabling. making efficient use of network resources. particularly performing bandwidth-intensive backups. Multigigabit Fibre-Channel SAN switches help address SCSI’s distance and single-server limitations while keeping performance high. The standards group. The benefits are clear. NDMP High-availability NAS appliances bring the convenience of plug-and-play (PnP) to networked storage. iSCSI is emerging as an alternative to Fibre Channel for SANs.com. The iSCSI’s transparency plus the quick adoption of Gigabit Ethernet will drive its prominence in the enterprise. NDMP is a cross-vendor standard for enterprise data backups. and vendors haven’t done a very good job of describing the technology’s benefits to prospective customers. Only a handful of products exist now. iSCSI has gained the most attention. but a critical mass of hardware and software does seem likely at this point. The advantage of iSCSI is that the OS doesn’t know a network is involved—iSCSI looks like a local storage device.Chapter 3 For more information about SRM. see The Definitive Guide to Storage Resource Management. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has not yet ratified the iSCSI standard. so managing several units.
Quality of Service (QoS). and access of storage over a highavailability NAS reduces IT infrastructure management costs. performance. Lower cost of ownership—Consolidation. NDMP is quite new and its advantages aren’t yet widely recognized. but technology can keep up. Using an IP network infrastructure to provide universal access and interconnections for high-availability NAS allows storage access. protection. Cisco and Network Appliance: An Integrated Approach Successful high-availability NAS deployments hinge upon the integration of storage appliances with a scalable and intelligent network infrastructure. but still insists on volume-level backup (depending on the version used). Improved business continuance and data protection—A redundant or clustered NAS architecture ensures high availability of data. the problem is more one of granularity. sharing. and support—Customers can leverage their existing IP network architectures and expertise instead of building separate highavailability NAS solutions based on technologies that need a separate administration and management framework. and scalability for the solution architectures. and NDMP to deliver advanced capabilities such as clustering and remote replication. and InfiniBand will bring about new approaches to high-availability NAS just as Fibre Channel. and security. including legacy standalone drives. High-availability NAS solutions provide high-performance data sharing and administration for workgroup. Bandwidth can be scaled while leveraging intelligent network services such as Layer-3 switching. and 64-bit PCI did. These solutions leverage open standards such as NFS. CIFS. In addition. The progress of storage technology is linked to advances in networks and I/O buses. Capacity. departmental. So its lack of recognition and use is not a compatibility issue. NDMP is just beginning to support object-level restores.Chapter 3 Some tape libraries with NDMP are already available. and backup over enterprise-wide networks and provide the following benefits to customers: • Scalable storage infrastructure—Ethernet switching in the LAN and routing across enterprise networks and storage appliances deliver a high-availability NAS architecture that is highly scalable not only within the data center but also across campus networks WANs. and enterprise environments. NDMP can be used to back up data to almost any tape library. this architecture allows storage and server farms to scale independently of each other. PCI-X. caching. and connectivity demands will always rise. enables global management and remote backup and restore and disaster recovery implementation for high-availability NAS environments. Many organizations don’t always want volume-level backup and are forced to organize NAS volumes based around backup strategy (so as not to waste media) instead of around organizational requirements. Consolidated network design. Gigabit Ethernet. With most backup applications that support NDMP. while using storage resources more efficiently. • • • • 97 . server load balancing. Intelligent IP services—Various intelligent services at the IP layer ensure continuous data availability. However. Rising technologies such as 10-Gigabit Ethernet. combined with software capabilities. administration. A consolidated storage network. replication.
2 illustrates is a typical Internet infrastructure deployment in an e-business environment. A business-to-business (B2B) application that connects suppliers and customers to an enterprise. for enhanced productivity. Examples include: • • • An Internet portal that delivers Web-based applications such as email. components. online calendar. including solution architecture. The solution architecture that Figure 3. such as workforce automation. It highlights the high-availability NAS components along with some of their associated design considerations. Intranet applications. and personalized multimedia content for a user community.Chapter 3 Deployment Scenarios This part of the chapter describes typical customer deployments for a combined high-availability NAS solution. and database tiers. application. Internet and E-Business Applications E-business applications require highly scalable and available NAS infrastructures that deliver exceptional performance for the Web. 98 . and design considerations: • • • • Internet and e-business applications Business applications in the data center Workgroup collaboration Distributed storage over secure WAN These deployment examples can be used as a baseline reference and can be tailored to suit specific customer environments.
the options to deploy storage at the Web tier include deployment of Web servers with either of the following: DAS to store all Web content and consolidated high-availability NAS connected to these Web servers. updating and managing content across these Web servers becomes unmanageable. In a tiered architecture.2: Internet e-business application example. In this case. the Web servers can leverage this shared resource and there is no need for data replication on the individual servers.Chapter 3 Figure 3. leading to efficiency bottlenecks. This approach to Web content storage is inefficient in terms of scalability of the Web server farm because customers must often upgrade servers to increase storage capacity. An alternative approach to the Web tier configuration is to consolidate multiple copies of content from Web servers onto filers. as shown in the diagram. This approach significantly reduces the content-management burden and makes the Web servers much easier to replace in case of failures or maintenance issues because all data is stored on filers. 99 . as content changes. In the DAS configuration. a redundant copy of the content is stored on each Web server. resulting in wasted storage resources. More importantly.
this part of the chapter focuses on the high-availability NAS applications and implementation.2 shows a highly available. Because the filer storage is deployed in a flexible switched fabric. For disaster recovery. The configuration in Figure 3. a clustered pair of filers provides a highly resilient storage platform for the Web content accessed by Microsoft Windows. Details for these other technologies. power supplies. the switches are configured with redundant network modules.2 shows is scalable both vertically and horizontally. In case of filer head failure. The Web servers are aggregated at this tier using switches and are connected through the Gigabit Ethernet ports on the switches. The storage capacity on the filers can scale vertically up to 12TB by adding disks or shelves of disks as needed without filer downtime or reconfiguration. and local or global load-balancing devices. UNIX. high-availability NAS plays an important role in meeting overall performance goals. For example. The network switches are configured to run Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP) between them. A typical Internet/e-business architecture involves other elements in the Web tier such as firewalls. To ensure that there is no single point of failure. If a switch breaks down. Downtime is not an option because potential revenue. the switches are configured with Cisco Systems’ PortFast feature on the ports that connect the filers and the UplinkFast feature to connect to the front-end switches. total storage capacity can be scaled indefinitely by adding more filers to the fabric (horizontal scaling). although important. fault-tolerant architecture. Faster online response for users is one of the key drivers for customer retention and loyalty in an e-business environment. are beyond the scope of this chapter. At the Web tier. Data storage requirements for Internet and e-business applications grow at a faster pace than for any other environment. is negatively impacted. 100 . This setup provides rapid convergence of the spanning tree if one of the network links goes down. The back-end filers. are also configured in a cluster. caching solutions. I’ll discuss this topic in more detail later in this chapter. Although performance is typically addressed at several levels in the infrastructure design. customers might not return to the Web site. As demand escalates. The architecture that Figure 3. a mirroring software feature called SnapMirror from Cisco System is used to replicate databases over a secure WAN connection to a remote location. the other switch takes over the load of the failed switch in a few seconds without any observable interruptions at the application layer. Highly resilient network connectivity for the application and database tiers is achieved using redundant switches through Gigabit Ethernet connections. data service is migrated rapidly and seamlessly to the second filer. the “8-second rule” states that if a Web page does not completely load within 8 seconds. However. and so forth. the high-availability NAS infrastructure must scale rapidly with no downtime. leading to lost revenue. as well as market perception. which store the application and database content.Chapter 3 E-business applications must be available 24 × 7. For example. or Linux-based Web servers through CIFS or NFS.
Business Applications in the Data Center Common enterprise business applications. deployment complexity is considerably reduced. the filers offload I/O activity from application servers. The content associated with such enterprise business applications represents a key enterprise asset. Because this architecture is based on IP-centric appliances. The primary focus of an ERP environment is high application data availability. network. Also. that are deployed in enterprise data centers require a highly available NAS infrastructure. customer relationship management (CRM).Chapter 3 A filer can deliver high performance over the network because it is dedicated to reading and writing data efficiently and does not have the overhead associated with a general-purpose OS. Because the RAID and Write Anywhere File Layout (WAFL) subsystems are tightly integrated. Snapshots are frozen images of production data. As businesses implement Internet strategies for enhanced productivity. to be equally applicable in an Internet-centric environment. The filers in this scenario can be remotely managed and monitored by using a systemsmanagement framework that supports a standard Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) MIB interface such as HP OpenView. the architecture in this scenario can be extended with other features such as firewall security. and deployment time. such as enterprise resource planning (ERP). the WAFL write-anywhere design allows scheduling of multiple writes to the same RAID stripe whenever possible. As a result. and so forth. This solution offers an exceptionally low TCO by significantly reducing operational costs. improving overall system performance. Moreover. then backed up to tape. Data backup from filers to a locally attached tape drive can be remotely administered using NDMP. and storage designs. Figure 3. and downtime for mission-critical applications results in significant negative business impact.3 shows a data center that deploys clustered filers and various servers in a Gigabit Ethernet network infrastructure to support an ERP application. for faster operation. and supply chain management (SCM). 101 . The desired high availability is achieved by building redundancy into the server. these applications evolve into Web-enabled solutions. Snapshots of live databases can be taken in seconds. filers eliminate the need for database administrators to perform common administrative tasks—such as disk layout tuning and retuning—allowing them to focus on valueadded tasks such as delivering additional features and fine-tuning applications. load balancing. complexity. snapshot technology can reduce the backup window of production databases dramatically from hours to minutes. enabling e-businesses to achieve faster time-to-market for their product and service offerings. For example.
The filer’s data ONTAP appliance OS monitors the active link and handles the failover. A clustered filer configuration provides a highly available NAS for the ERP application database. This setup provides full. Each server cluster node is connected to two switches through Gigabit Ethernet links to provide a redundant network path in case of link failure. Dual-homing (also known as virtual interfaces—VIFs) provides additional availability and scalability to the high-availability NAS design. To support application availability. 102 . activeactive. In standard dual-homing mode (single-mode VIF).Chapter 3 Figure 3.3: Business applications in the data center. are connected to two switches for network link redundancy. each application server cluster node is configured to take over the ERP application from its peer in case of server or network failure. Additional redundancy is built into the high-availability NAS architecture by using dual-homing for the filer cluster nodes. which is hosted on a second (database) server cluster. the interfaces are in active/standby configuration. as well as each of the servers. HSRP is configured on the two switches to provide automatic failover if one of the switches fails. The ERP application in this example is hosted on clustered application servers. This server access layer connects to the core/distribution layer that provides connectivity to the enterprise network infrastructure. The clustered pair of filers can take over each other’s data services in case the individual filer heads fail. application-level redundancy to the overall architecture. Similarly. The application is layered over a database. The filers. the database server cluster is configured so that any server can take over database services from its peers in case of server failures. If one of the links goes down. it triggers the standby interface to take over servicing network requests.
Snapshots of terabyte-sized volumes containing ERP database table spaces can be created in seconds and backed up to tape without interrupting the production database. In this scenario. These features dramatically improve application availability and data recoverability in the solution architecture. and the switch routes traffic intended for them to that subnet. Volumes can be moved between filers for load balancing. For a stable production environment. Periodically. To reduce administration overhead. 103 . Therefore. which allows faster convergence of the spanning tree and switch-over to alternative links for network traffic. If the test fails. Databases can be remotely replicated over a WAN for disaster recovery. scheduled snapshots can help recover from corruption as a result of application errors in a production database. as I’ll discuss later in this chapter. Gigabit EtherChannel trunking provides higher aggregate bandwidth to networked storage required by some ERP databases. Multiple snapshots of ERP data are available online and the entire ERP data can revert in minutes to a previous version. Snapshots dramatically reduce the backup window of databases from hours to minutes and increase application availability. testing is often required before database applications are introduced to the production environment. roughly 41 percent of the unplanned downtime is caused by corrupted data due to application errors. and production environments are hosted on separate volumes. This configuration eliminates downtime if one of the links or modules fails. and deployment processes dramatically. without reverting to tape archives. Another key benefit offered by this solution is that storage can be scaled independently of the database or application servers without any downtime to the application. Finally. complexity. For efficient use of network bandwidth. To accommodate growth. Snapshots can be used to test changes to the production database. the database can be restored to a “known good” state facility within minutes.Chapter 3 Multimode VIFs can be configured to use EtherChannel capabilities that are supported by switches. high-availability NAS can be scaled horizontally by deploying additional filers. According to a recent Gartner study. which lets all interfaces be active. this architecture. test. servers are connected to separate virtual LANs (VLANs) that are configured on the switch that limits traffic on the Ethernet subnets. reduces operational cost. This approach significantly reduces acquisition and maintenance costs. and therefore the TCO of the ERP application. The filers are in their own separate VLAN on the back end. The PortFast feature is enabled on the switches on the ports that connect the filers. This capability enables them to act as a single VIF (with combined bandwidth of multiple individual links now available). the ERP applications and databases can be structured so that development. Data represented in a business application must be easily and quickly recoverable. storage capacity can be effortlessly added to the volume supporting an ERP database while the database and filer are in operation. The switches can also be configured to join ports on two different modules into an EtherChannel configuration. The switch monitors the status of the links and handles link failures. snapshots of database table spaces can be taken and tests can be run. Shelves of disk space can be added as needed to a cluster to scale vertically to 12TB. which is based on high-availability NAS for ERP databases.
and tools for CAD. version control. In addition. which allows one switch to assume the load of a failed switch within seconds without any interruption to data connectivity at the higher layer. CAE. Various types of clients are aggregated at the client-access tier using redundantly configured switches through 10/100 Fast Ethernet ports. there is a critical need within an enterprise to consolidate multiple files from Windows NT user desktops onto a data-consolidation platform such as high-availability NAS appliances to enable data sharing among users (termed NT consolidation). these distribution layer switches are also deployed in a redundant configuration. Applications with these requirements include simulators and synthesis tools.4 effectively addresses the requirements in the workgroup collaboration environment.Chapter 3 Workgroup Collaboration Engineering environments such as software development or engineering design groups demand an infrastructure that enables data sharing over a high-performance LAN with low management overhead. and load balancing across these redundant switches. source code management. This setup creates a private dedicated high-availability NAS for connecting the application servers that run engineering applications to the filers. They are configured with HSRP. which also provides connectivity to the application servers in case the applications used by the workgroup require them at this tier. fast convergence in case of link failures. CAM. Redundant Gigabit Ethernet uplinks connecting to the distribution layer switches ensure no single point of failure by providing alternative paths. in the unlikely case of a filer head failure. To extend high availability. and so forth. The architecture in Figure 3. 104 . The filers are connected through Gigabit Ethernet ports on the switches at the distribution tier. The application servers—in the case of the engineering environment—are also connected to these switches to allow data sharing with other organizations. A clustered pair of filers ensures that data service is automatically migrated over to the second head. Figure 3.4: Workgroup collaboration.
The data is replicated in asynchronous mode with no performance penalty or WAN link hogs. Simplification of data management is key to smooth operation. data can be remotely replicated over a WAN. engineers would often revert to redesigning rather than requesting a restore of an old design to save face. Data corruption leads to rework.Chapter 3 Software code and engineering designs are the core assets of any engineering organization. Also. Because the RAID and WAFL subsystems are tightly integrated. In other words. This allows WAFL to automatically tune its performance for a given workload. Such multiprotocol OS support allows true data sharing in which a single copy of data can be shared between Windows and UNIX clients. Backups are performed from snapshots so that the production volume can remain online. Snapshots of terabyte volumes can be taken in seconds and provide as many as 31 read-only images of data online for immediate recovery. Data from filers can be backed up to a central tape library that supports NDMP over the IP network. On the network layer. the switched VLAN topology allows full-duplex 10/100 Ethernet bandwidth between the clients and the switch as well as a dedicated Gigabit Ethernet connection to the filers for storage access through the distribution tier. which avoids hours or days of data restoration from tape. 105 . The solution architecture described in this part of the chapter allows seamless data recoverability. if the application data is corrupted. Users (engineers) want to be able to revert designs back to older versions on their own. Periodic snapshots can be automatically scheduled at the desired frequency. Engineering environments tend to be complex to administer. restoration is allowed of complete volumes to a specific snapshot. the clients in this environment can be a combination of UNIX or NT machines running engineering applications that are connected through the network access layer. which negatively affects time-to-market. Therefore. the filers offload I/O activity from application servers. Core administrative requirements include: • • • • Ability to back up without impacting the production system Simple processes for system upgrades Ability to recover data effortlessly during a data corruption or data loss event Simplified disaster recovery implementation For backup and quick disaster recovery. The result was lost productivity. I’ll cover this topic in more detail later in this chapter. improving overall system performance. Snapshots help individual users restore personal data files in case these users need to go back to a previous version without resorting to help from their IT organization (a common scenario in engineering organizations). WAFL knows the current load and usage of every disk in the array. dramatically reducing the backup window. Before this type of implementation. Filers enable multiple OS platforms to share the storage resources. Filers deliver high performance over the network because they leverage an appliance architecture that is dedicated to reading and writing data efficiently and does not have the overhead associated with a general-purpose OS.
106 . The overall distributed storage environment can be managed centrally using a Web-based GUI. These remote sites are typically connected to each other and the central site through a hub and spoke topology and therefore require a secure WAN environment for data exchange across the links. Distributed Enterprise Storage with Secure WAN Connectivity Organizations that have geographically distributed sites. The network components and filers can also be integrated into major systems-management platforms with built-in SNMP support. The storage capacity on the filers can scale vertically up to 12TB as needed with no downtime or reconfiguration. The high-availability NAS solution must be designed for safe and efficient WAN bandwidth use.5 shows an example of how an enterprise can deploy distributed storage environments to address these requirements.Chapter 3 This solution provides scalability options including adding more clients at the network access layer through additional switches connecting to the distribution layer. demand distributed highavailability NAS for effective collaboration among geographically dispersed groups as well as disaster-recovery implementation.5: Distributed storage over secure WAN. This scenario extends the previous engineering workgroup scenario to include an offshore development group that needs to work collaboratively with the core engineering team at the headquarters site. The typical applications include sharing files with the local team as well as having read-only access to the central engineering folder. such as offshore development offices that are connected to a central headquarters or to regional offices. Figure 3. The architecture can also scale horizontally by adding filers to the network in a few minutes. Figure 3.
customers can easily add filers or disk storage to the existing infrastructure. and hardware-accelerated encryption for virtual private network (VPN) connectivity. For increased data protection. The WAN link must also be efficiently utilized for high ROI from the cost of the link. The network connectivity at the remote site is typically addressed using LAN switches. Similarly. This access must be achieved without compromising the data-sharing requirement within the offshore workgroup environment. Collaboration among geographically dispersed groups demands data sharing among different locations. As Figure 3. firewall security. enabling the user to avoid fork-lift upgrades at the network layer. Finally. More remote sites can easily be added for WAN and VPN connectivity to the routers. The engineering group at a central location in this example might need to locally access an offshore group’s design data. in keeping with the theme of planning for high-availability NAS solutions. As in other solutions described in this chapter. The solution architecture shown in the example provides seamless scalability. Similarly. To add more storage at the central site. This ability enables the solution architecture to provide much higher availability of storage resources. The filers can support as much as 12TB of storage and support clustered configurations. fast routing protocol convergence. and so forth) connecting to the WAN module of the central site infrastructure. Web-based GUI provides Web-based management for all filers in this architecture. SNMP support enables the highavailability NAS components and filers to be integrated into major management platforms. switches connect the server farm with back-end filer storage using Gigabit Ethernet connectivity at the central site. An alternative approach is to deploy secure VPN connectivity over the data links that are already in place. The WAN connectivity in this scenario can be achieved through a dedicated link (using WAN services such as Frame Relay.5 shows. and redundant switch modules. dedicated firewalls are deployed to offload the security functionality from firewall-enabled routers. routers in the figure provide various WAN modules. These security features ensure that the WAN link bandwidth is appropriately used by storage-related traffic and does not drain resources from other mission-critical application data. ATM. 107 . let’s look at a product specific case study. The modular switch platform allows various modules to be added to the same chassis.Chapter 3 The WAN link between an engineering site at a central location and remote offices must be secure before any sensitive data files are exchanged or copied across it. The switches are configured with features such as VLANs and EtherChannel and high-availability features including HSRP.
108 . Tests were performed by Tarantella engineers under controlled conditions at Sun Microsystems Performance Centre. The case study describes the testing methodologies. Tarantella Enterprise 3 software integrates and manages these diverse server environments and provides a framework for deploying highavailability NAS applications to users. and UNIX systems and highavailability NAS applications from client devices anywhere in the world. or UNIX servers. Linux. Tarantella Tarantella Enterprise 3 software leverages existing IT investment without the cost of reengineering. Tarantella Enterprise 3 provides fast. Figure 3. technological advancement. AS/400. Web-based.6 shows. The case study also very briefly covers Tricord’s value proposition for Tarantella server arrays and the benefits of Tricord’s approach for Tarantella resellers. secure access to Windows. In a server-based computing environment. analyses. It provides a non-intrusive solution that allows IS to regain control of their IT systems. These servers can be any combination of Windows. Java. mainframe. The tests were done with Sun SPARC hardware and Solaris 8 OS using Tarantella Enterprise 3 version 3. and expanding remote access needs.6: Tarantella Enterprise 3 server solutions. Linux. and sizing guidelines. and save costs.com) for high-availability NAS.Chapter 3 Case Study This case study contains information that will be found useful when capacity planning for Tarantella Enterprise 3 servers (http://www. AS/400. This proven Webbased solution’s centralized management reduces complexity and scales to accommodate rapid corporate change. mainframe. high-availability NAS application execution and data processing occur on centralized servers. As Figure 3.10 software.tarantella. results.
In general. These can be determined by answering the questions: What hardware is needed to support n users and how many users will a specific piece of hardware support? The results and analyses contained within this case study address these considerations. Sizing and capacity planning need to apply to all parts of the model. Although disk capacity is not critical. if one high-availability NAS application is being used while the other sits idle (as is more typical). However. then twice the processing requirement is needed. then the only processing requirement is for the active application. from the Tarantella server to the high-availability NAS application servers being used. applications used.2 indicates the typical number of user sessions that a Sun Enterprise 4500 can support (users were running StarOffice 5.2 show the server capacity requirements for Tarantella Enterprise 3 software and exclude the processor requirements of the OS.2: Server capacity. The company also recommends the use of fast hard drives to minimize any delays caused by swapping. Tarantella recommends selecting a large enough drive to handle the swap space needed (as determined by the amount of memory). network configuration. hard disk. If two high-availability NAS applications are being used and both are equally active. When running multiple applications. When running multiple high-availability NAS applications. although they should not be interpreted in isolation. the system swap space requirements may be higher. the only impact on disk requirements is that each active but idle application is likely to end up in swap space. The tests show that the Tarantella server CPU was around 70 percent idle with 850 users running StarOffice. 109 . which are minimal. There are many factors to consider in a complex. additional processing power may be needed.2 on Solaris). perhaps both generating reports. and user type (typing speed. Findings The number of users that a server configuration can support varies depending on criteria such as processor type. it is necessary to determine requirements for those servers. and so on). System Processor type Processor speed Processor(s) OS Max user sessions tested Recommended user sessions Table 3. a requirement of approximately 3MHz of CPU on a RISC system should be adequate for a user actively running a single application at a time. Table 3. Thus. application screen size. frequency. server-based computing model. The amount depends on the high-availability NAS applications being used.Chapter 3 To successfully deploy high-availability NAS applications. Sun Enterprise 4500 SPARC 400 MHz 12 Solaris 8 850 1600 to 2000 The recommendations outlined in Table 3. memory.
Chapter 3 Enough memory must be allocated for the OS as well as for the Tarantella Enterprise 3 software. As a general rule, memory requirements for Tarantella Enterprise 3 software are approximately 128MB base, plus 4MB per active user session. When running multiple application sessions more memory is required. However, some memory will be shared, and application usage patterns show that not all sessions are likely to be active at the same time. The biggest impact on memory usage is the high-availability NAS application display resolution. A Tarantella server array is a collection of connected Tarantella servers sharing a common set of configuration information, administered from a single point. An array acts as a single entity for administration and application deployment. The servers within an array can automatically distribute users across the array to balance the load using a variety of load-balancing algorithms. Adding more machines to a Tarantella server array will increase the number of users that can be supported. Arrays vs. Multiprocessor Machines There are two ways to increase the number of Tarantella Enterprise 3 users supported: by adding machines to an array and by adding processors. Both approaches have advantages, but the greatest factor when selecting the right combination is typically the cost of a machine with more processors versus the cost of more, simpler machines: • The use of multiprocessor machines can minimize the number of machines that must be purchased. Using fewer, large machines has several benefits, such as less administrative overhead and lower cost of software. The use of multi-machine arrays can result in less expensive, less complex hardware that is easier to replace, should failure occur. Tarantella server arrays have several benefits including automatic distribution of users across an array to balance the load and an added level of resilience should systems fail. Multiple machines can also offer better network capabilities as a result of the additional network interfaces. However, there will be a small amount of additional network traffic within the array. An array of multiprocessor machines is recommended to gain the benefits of the array while keeping the network traffic to a minimum.
Tricord Value Proposition for Tarantella Server Arrays Tricord Lunar Flare clusters provide the ability for a Tarantella array to maintain highavailability NAS application connectivity even during degraded conditions including a failure of a Tarantella array node, a communication interruption, a failure of the Web client box, and a failure of the Web server. Of course, this setup does not protect against an application server failure. The following is a value proposition summary for Tarantella server arrays: • • • Ease of use for Tarantella array application delivery—Preloaded Tarantella on Tricord nodes, no need for complex Beowulf clusters, successful installation out-of-box. Fault tolerance and high availability—Any Tricord node can fail, session continuance to the application server, some applications can run on Tricord (session proofing). Improved performance and scalability—Tarantella runs faster on Tricord clusters, can utilize Tricord for user application data, can add more nodes without system interruption and a failure of the Web Server.
So, why does a Tarantella array run faster on Tricord? The answer is that a Beowulf Cluster communicates with each box through the front channel NICs, as Figure 3.7 shows.
Figure 3.7: Tricord uses a “back-channel” for inter-node communication.
Finally, what are the benefits of Tricord’s approach for the Tarantella resellers? • High availability for both the Tarantella server array and for the common storage subsystem—Any individual appliance (node) can fail without a loss or interruption of data availability. High scalability (as many as 16 nodes per cluster)—To add a new node requires only four clicks of the mouse; new node installs automatically with no downtime. Simple management (lowers management costs)—Cluster is managed as one entity and automatic load balancing across the cluster.
Performing Additional Capacity Planning Tests The purpose of this case study has been to provide a good starting point from which to make Tarantella server decisions. It may be more effective to go straight into pilot mode, rather than spend large amounts of resources analyzing users’ work habits and capturing these actions into a simulated script.
Chapter 3 After a server configuration is chosen as a starting point (based on this case study’s findings), users can gradually be added to determine the maximum number that a system configuration can support. If more server resources are required, it is always possible to add a server to a Tarantella array. As an aid to understanding the various factors involved when deploying high-availability NAS applications using Tarantella Enterprise 3 software, the following should also be taken into consideration. • • • Determining application suitability Characterization of users Network utilization
Some high-availability NAS applications, such as those that make very extensive use of graphics or multimedia capabilities, may not be suited for running in a server-centric model. If the highavailability NAS application is suitable, it should preferably be run alone through the Tarantella server rather than starting an entire desktop session. This setup can save significant amounts of resources on the application server and reduce resource requirements on the Tarantella server, thus allowing more users to log on simultaneously. Usage patterns need to be considered as they can have a significant performance impact on the application server as well as on the Tarantella server. For example, all users logging on at the same time of day will have an impact on the overall system responsiveness. A Tarantella server can simply be added to an existing high-availability NAS solution to Webenable applications; however, an understanding of the high-availability NAS topology will always yield improvements in performance and scalability. Both network latency (the time it takes a packet to reach the other end of the network) and bandwidth (the amount of data that can travel over the network within a given period of time) are important factors. Because everything users see on their screens is server-based, both latency and bandwidth affect how the Tarantella server functions. Tarantella Enterprise 3 software makes use of the Adaptive Internet Protocol (AIP) to greatly reduce any problems that may be introduced by the network. AIP uses several methods to compress data and to remove redundant requests, which significantly help with low-bandwidth network connections. This feature makes the Tarantella server ideal for access from remote sites or for deployment of high-availability NAS applications over the Internet, perhaps by an application service provider (ASP). Connecting over a low-bandwidth connection has no significant impact on Tarantella server capacity or scaling. High latency or load problems in other areas of the network, however, can have a negative effect on the responsiveness of any network. There is no way of solving these types of problems, and although they do not occur too often, they are unfortunately still encountered on the Internet, especially from more remote locations. Although the Internet is an ideal and cost-effective network for B2B or remote site application deployment, Tarantella recommends that a dedicated network still be considered in situations in which the Internet causes too many latency or node stability problems.
performance. Therefore. These protocols may not be designed to work over low-bandwidth networks or may not automatically adapt to the various network conditions that may be encountered. Adding new machines can be done online. In addition. This ability allows for expansion at a rate controlled by the administrator and lessens the requirement to spend time and effort “up front” determining the size of machines. It is not necessary to also increase the network connections between the Tarantella server and the clients because AIP is quite capable of working over low-bandwidth connections. Also. Finally. Therefore. and security. availability. It also showed you how to determine whether the components in your existing infrastructure are suitable for redeployment in your high-availability NAS solution. simplified management. older machines don’t have to be discarded as new ones are added. placing the Tarantella servers in the same room as the high-availability NAS application servers they are connecting to is recommended.Chapter 3 When positioning Tarantella within a server environment. So. such as X11 and RDP. For example. High-availability NAS aims to deliver solutions to significantly mitigate these challenges. although it is good to plan ahead to allow for the addition of extra processors and memory to systems running Tarantella Enterprise 3 software. In addition. this chapter described how enterprises face considerable challenges brought by the rapid adoption of emerging Internet business applications and the associated high-availability NAS infrastructure requirements. while leveraging existing investments and expertise in IP networks and drastically reducing TCO. to help you plan your high-availability NAS solution. you should get experienced guidance and view multimedia presentations from various vendors. These solutions deliver key business benefits such as scalability. Future Expansion Finally. with no system downtime. Because AIP is designed to work over unknown and variable networks. native protocols that the high-availability NAS application servers use. Summary This chapter showed you how to determine which requirements you should target with your high-availability NAS. Tarantella Web-enabling software makes use of the standard. thus avoiding the necessity of purchasing new. physical machines can always be added to the Tarantella server array at any time. increasing the network from 10Mbps to 100Mbps between these servers can result in improved performance and scalability. 113 . large machines from day one. This can be a very cost-effective way to upgrade part of the network rather than upgrading both server and client connections all at once. some placement factors should be considered. the link from the Tarantella server to the clients should be the longest. while all connections between the Tarantella server and the high-availability NAS application servers are minimized. a faster network between the Tarantella server and the application servers can yield better capacity and scalability. as Tarantella server arrays may be built from a mix of system architectures. the chapter showed you how to create a list of the new hardware and software components required for your high-availability NAS solution.
Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Installing and Deploying High-Availability NAS Solutions Today’s computer systems must provide reliable and timely information and services to assist personnel in making informed decisions crucial to the daily operations of the modern enterprise. and a technical support checklist. detailed documentation. Each of the following sections explores these steps. 114 . both computer hardware and software are prone to numerous failure conditions. and increased support for both homogeneous and heterogeneous distributed client/server environments. lower cost of ownership. Transition and release to production—Orchestrate a smooth and successful high- availability NAS deployment by using an incremental deployment approach. providing an overview summary on the topic as well as a list of additional tools and information that you can browse for more in-depth information. In the installation and deployment phase. and deploying your solution to production. This part of the chapter will walk you through the steps of building a prototype. The concepts of data warehouses and replication services provide the mechanisms to ensure that the correct high-availability NAS information is always available to the appropriate personnel so that they can make important business decisions in time-critical situations. decreased support and maintenance expenses. This new form of information service must be constantly monitored and tuned to provide reliable and accurate information delivery. Enterprises today are demanding their new computer systems be “right-sized” for quicker installation and deployment. testing your high-availability NAS solution. Installation and Deployment Steps After you’ve determined the design and planning for your high-availability NAS implementation and have purchased the necessary components. Create a prototype and test your high-availability NAS solution—Build and test a working prototype of your high-availability NAS implementation to validate functionality and to ensure that your solution can recover gracefully from faults. you should perform the following three steps: 1. Employing methods to minimize exposure to as many failure conditions as possible will significantly increase the use of a company’s resources and become a direct indicator of successful business operations. Establish an implementation plan—Learn the key steps that are necessary to make the critical implementation phase of your high-availability NAS go smoothly. 3. Despite the rapid evolution in all aspects of computer technology. you are ready to install and deploy it. 2. Hardware failure of these central repositories could prove harmful in today’s competitive environment.
the naming convention should allow for significant growth across your enterprise so that you don’t need to change the name of every switch at a later date. You should include the following as part of your implementation plan: • • • Naming plan Prototype and testing plan Production deployment plan Naming Plan It is a good idea to give each switch a unique name and set the IP address and possibly the gateway and subnet mask before you begin cabling. the fabric re-establishes connectivity and reverts to normal routing. include storage and server vendors for this part of the implementation. to help ensure that testing goes quickly and give you direct access to an expert on detailed storage and server characteristics. and underscore characters but no spaces (for example. In addition. in order to ensure that comprehensive testing is performed. Core Switch 1. Fabric A.Chapter 4 Establish an Implementation Plan A comprehensive implementation plan helps you get started and guides you through successful testing and deployment of your high-availability NAS solution. 115 . To learn the best way to build a high-availability NAS implementation for your environment and use it for testing. Building 4. create a high-availability NAS prototype during the test phase. a testing plan is important—including high-availability NAS design validation and failure and failover scenarios. Consider incorporating meaningful naming elements that include: • • • • • • Organization or project ID Switch type (such as core or edge) Fabric name (if redundant fabrics are being used) Site or building location Floor and room location Rack location Prototype and Testing Plan It is recommended that you test and validate your high-availability NAS solution before transitioning that solution into production. MOAB_C1_A_B4_544_R1 = Project Moab. Thus. Also. Rack 1). Once the failure has been corrected. Also. digits. This approach makes it easier to identify and isolate problems as they arise. Switch names can be as long as 19 characters and can include letters. Room 544. An effective naming convention helps make it easy to identify components during testing and troubleshooting. failure and failover scenarios will test your high-availability NAS to ensure that the fabric successfully reroutes traffic.
you can feel comfortable that each is working correctly. 5.Chapter 4 Production Deployment Plan It is best to deploy a high-availability NAS solution incrementally. Add and validate your hosts incrementally. 3. Before rolling over the remaining servers or application platforms. while a logical diagram illustrates the relationships between highavailability NAS components. Validate that your hosts and storage devices can see one another. That way. Edge Devices Second. Create a Baseline Logical and Physical Diagram A helpful aid in testing and troubleshooting is a logical and physical diagram of your highavailability NAS. Build your fabric—Connect each switch one by one and validate that each can see the others. These diagrams will provide a reference baseline during connectivity testing. and help set expectations for testing results. Switches First. You can then run testing scenarios to ensure that the highavailability NAS responds and recovers as expected. followed by the hosts in an incremental and iterative manner. Storage devices are then added around the center of the high-availability NAS. Once you’ve connected and validated visibility between your fabric. a best practice is to deploy one or two servers of each OS type or one or two application platforms at a time. it’s a best practice to disable your unused ports. 116 . This approach will help you quickly locate and isolate problems. Hosts Last There are five key steps in building your prototype: 1. Incrementally add and validate your edge storage devices. 4. and hosts. Create a Prototype and Test Your High-Availability NAS Solution Starting with switches. before deploying the rest. 2. ensuring that each is visible to the switches. devices. the building of a high-availability NAS prototype is often done from the center out. ensuring that each is visible to the switches. such as zones. once your prototype is working. A physical diagram includes the physical components of the high-availability NAS and how they are wired.
OS manufacturers can provide recommendations for I/O generating tools. after failure scenario testing has been successfully completed. You could use an I/O generator to run a simulated load if you cannot use your planned application. until you feel comfortable that each is working correctly. Another option during I/O testing is to repeat your failure scenarios to determine how they affect performance. Using your planned application for load testing is optimal. 117 . and limits your scope to one server or application platform if a problem does arise. create failure scenarios such as power cycling and resetting devices. Also. re-establishes connectivity and reverts to normal routing. and storage devices. Transition and Release to Production To help you quickly release your high-availability NAS into production. Running an I/O Load You can test performance by running an I/O load and analyzing the outcome. The following should be tested: • • • • Failure scenarios Failover scenarios for dual fabrics Cable disconnect and reconnect scenarios Loss of inter-switch connectivity scenarios The fabric should be checked to ensure it reroutes traffic successfully after failures are injected. once the failure has been corrected. The most successful high-availability NAS rollouts are done incrementally. Once all testing has been completed successfully. doing so is often difficult if not impossible. hosts. The best practice is to move one application platform or one server OS onto a high-availability NAS at a time. the time is right to transition your high-availability NAS into production. Testing should include the fabric.Chapter 4 Testing Scenarios To help you discover marginal connections and malfunctioning equipment. use an incremental and iterative approach to deployment that involves documentation about your new high-availability NAS environment. Incremental deployment helps to quickly identify what action causes problems. and. however. all of which should recover gracefully from failures.
host and storage connections Firmware—A listing of each device and firmware. software. plus saved copies of each device’s firmware Switch information—Each switch’s configuration and other information Zoning and LUN information—Your zoning and LUN configurations Scripts—Scripts you created and use Change log—Details of any additions. With the preceding considerations in mind. Thus. In order to illustrate the logical relationships between high-availability NAS components and the physical wiring of the components. let’s look at three product-specific case studies. switch topology. This documentation subset should include your high-availability NAS topology with OS version and patch level. the groundwork has been laid for the installation and deployment of high-availability NAS. the goal of documentation is to provide enough information for someone else to recreate your high-availability NAS. and so on. customer information. a final logical and physical diagram of your high-availability NAS provides a baseline for testing. and support contract information will all help in troubleshooting and managing your high-availability NAS in production. storage types. Such documentation should include: • • • • • • Diagrams—Logical and physical high-availability NAS diagrams. changes. detailed documentation will facilitate a quick deployment and be valuable in managing your production high-availability NAS. 118 . and so on—basically everything you need to know before calling technical support. in keeping with the theme of installing and deploying high-availability NAS solutions.Chapter 4 Create Documentation About Your New High-Availability NAS After deployment. Neatly organized and labeled cables as well as easy access to product manuals. it is a good idea to create a subset of your documentation that can be sent to your technical support vendor. You should protect your company by removing sensitive information such as server names. Now. or deletions To aid in troubleshooting problems. HBA type and firmware/driver versions.
Print vendors are scrambling to find cost-effective ways to increase storage and backup capabilities yet stay competitive in a very close market. and the other two are reserved for network files and applications. 119 . 124MB of RAM. Businesses no longer need to inventory printed in-stock brochures now that they’ve discovered how easily customized tradeshow handouts. and online order processing. nor did they have backup systems in place to protect 24-hour online transaction data. bringing opportunities for new imaging techniques. MediaFlex chose a switched-fabric high-availability NAS to meet its needs. All four are active. access order confirmation. and view a proof copy in real-time. and place an order. and provides scalability without online interruptions. Case Study 1: Expanding Storage the High-Availability NAS Way The printing industry’s data storage needs have surged since the onset of Print-On-Demand (POD) order fulfillment. Web traffic is funneled to two servers. A user can now log on to his or her print vendor’s e-business Web site. These new functions. the vendor must employ a data storage methodology with 100 percent file availability. For example. customized documents specific to each ad campaign or promotion. To provide this level of ease for the customer. The following three case studies highlight organizations that are very happy with their completely distinct solutions to the same basic storage problem. connect to a Web page of his or her previously ordered print templates. Redundant hardware throughout the file delivery subsystem over a dual-switched. select a product. make changes to his or her company’s documents right on the screen. The original computer systems purchased to handle office applications were not intended to accommodate the huge imaging files that digital printing requires. The user can check price quotes. however. but a failure in one will prompt another to take over in approximately 15 seconds. scalability for a growing client base. large storage capacity (a single typical document template is 25MB to 50MB). multiple server-to-RAID storage channel provides automatic failover protection and fault isolation. menus. 24 × 7. The cost effectiveness of POD digital printing allows companies to do smaller runs of specific materials instead of ordering large amounts of generic brochures (50 percent of which lose relevancy before being used). and 9GB of hard disk space.Chapter 4 Case Studies The introduction of digital technology has propelled document printing from a mechanical to a computerized function. allows centralized backup functions with quick failover disaster recovery capabilities. Four existing enterprise servers were integrated with a new RAID device in a high-availability NAS Fibre Channel switching environment. the configuration assures network availability. and promotional pieces can be obtained. California. guaranteeing continual operation. The high-availability NAS contains four Sun Microsystems 400MHz E450 enterprise servers running version 7 of the Solaris OS. In that way. The introduction of digital printing technology brought the ability to quickly change and customize printed documents on demand. and complete security for online server data. provides the e-commerce infrastructure for a number of print vendors and their customers. take up vast amounts of storage space. Each server is equipped with two Fabric cards. MediaFlex of Campbell. permits file sharing between servers.
and their customers continue to benefit from the system’s speed (the high-availability NAS and RAID can read a 25MB file in 1 second). Blanks’ data storage capacity could not meet the company’s growing workload.800 DAT tapes. department stores. Designers waited 3 to 6 hours for that same data when it was stored on DAT. manages 150 DLT cartridges that replace the original 1. it was still relying on 2GB digital audio tape (DAT) and a 1. The cartridges provide ready availability to 7TB of recent and current images. and the library currently holds 4. and complete reliability (system downtime is virtually eliminated). also found its storage capacity inadequate for its expanding business. Each cartridge holds as much as 70GB of compressed data. the RAID automatically and transparently switches to the remaining controller. With the large. backed up by a Breece Hill automated tape library with four Quantum Digital Linear Tape (DLT) 7000 drives. The company operates 7 days a week to produce brochures. After researching other options. The company’s 100 nodes now reside on a 100MB Ethernet LAN. conserving online storage space by migrating rarely used files from the RAID through storage zoning and a continual automated backup process.2TB (1. Blanks expanded and diversified by combining prepress. too much time was used shuttling 100MB to 150MB high-resolution files over the 10MB Ethernet network. The controllers connect to each other and to the servers’ host bus adapter (HBA) Fabric cards via redundant Fibre Channel bus paths. 120 . Blanks resolved its system needs with the purchase of a Scitex Server System package. 50 are used to archive past jobs and image files. and large national printing companies. migrating them at predetermined intervals from the RAID device to the tape library. Founded in 1940 as a letterpress shop. the company attempted to save time by placing active files on a 2GB removable hard drive that was hand-carried as needed between imaging workstations—but that method proved very inefficient. image-based files generated by the current turnkey format. That archiving and backup software. In addition. linked with the Scitex Timna database. sheet-fed printing. which specializes in printing. Seventy-five DLT cartridges are reserved for RAID array backup. and advertisements (representing $6 million in business). a tape library allows near-online secondary storage. freeing up the servers’ hard disks for applications. and other marketing materials for direct mail businesses. If one controller fails. with 140GB of total usable file storage space is connected directly to the Sun servers through two Brocade Fiber Channel switches.024GB) of data in near-online storage. posters. The high-availability NAS storage solution was installed and running in 2 days. Mediaflex. Initially. advertising supplements. The RAID device is equipped with two controllers and 10 drives and is used for all storage needs. stateof-the-art online scalability. Legato NetWorker software electronically manages all files. enhanced file accessibility (client files must be available to several applications and both Web servers). To date. Second. the setup did not meet the company’s needs. The company had two-fold system needs. Case Study 2: A Packaged Solution Dallas-based Blanks Color Imaging. First. and digital photography services into a turnkey print delivery format. their print vendors. VERITAS Volume Manager software handles all storage management and backup tasks. The new server is a Scitex Ripro 5000 AIX with a 640GB RAID disk array.Chapter 4 A Hitachi 5846 full Fiber Channel RAID.2GB optical disk. layouts.
employees are able to track archived files. Banta’s existing LAN has been upgraded to Fast-Ethernet/ATM. complete data protection. one set is in the RAID device. eliminating the possibility that a CPU malfunction could result in system failure or downtime. This setup provides excellent protection for client files. and ample storage capacity. automatically offloading the overage to MO. In the case of extremely large customer files.Chapter 4 Twice-a-day incremental backups are implemented.6. The HSM software automatically. and so on). containing 10GB of RAM and running on Solaris 2. should a large disaster ever befall. increasing throughput by 30 percent to 40 percent and dramatically improving turnaround time to clients. while less frequently used files are migrated to a large-capacity. which are rotated continuously. The E6500 has 10 CPUs. As an added protection. and digital printing processes. The automation software. is performed weekly. which requires 8 to 9 hours. from which they’re able to manage their own documents’ entire creative design. At any one time. one is in the tape library. 121 . redundant hardware was installed throughout the file delivery subsystem (access paths. New and frequently used files are saved on a RAID device (online storage). The enterprise server chosen by Banta is a Sun Microsystems 336MHz E6500. Case Study 3: Using HSM Technology Banta Digital Group’s expertise involves customized digital imaging and content management services. Rarely used files are archived to a high-capacity 34TB DLT library. seamlessly. and one is offsite. no more than 6 hours of work can be lost. To ensure complete file availability. and files are safeguarded by storing tape copies both onsite and offsite. RAID space is conserved by saving only 40GB of the file on the RAID device. Banta chose to install an HSM data protection and availability system consisting of an enterprise server connected to three levels of storage. With the Legato and Scitex software. the HSM software package is configured to automatically mirror RAID data onto the MO library within minutes of being received. The company guarantees its customers 100 percent file availability. digital prepress. A second copy of the entire file is immediately saved with the archived files on tape. They maintain three sets of all files. More than 200 users can be logged on to the Banta network at any one time. The connections coming from external nodes into the network were upgraded from T1 and frame relay to higher-capacity DS3 lines. Customers’ desktops are connected directly to Banta’s WAN. and transparently manages the network’s three-level storage hierarchy. and DLT library system have improved efficiency. faster network. A full system backup. controllers. resulting in an enormous number of files being updated and saved continuously. near-online magneto-optical (MO) jukebox. The company needed a system tailored specifically for its unique and extremely high-volume data storage and availability requirements.
all of whom have benefited from the new HSM system. advertisers. Although these organizations deployed different NAS solutions. Banta has also been able to reduce staffing requirements by eight people. it’s scalable to 32 drives to accommodate future needs. but the RAID device is scalable to 120 drives for each of its two controllers. The jukebox contains 1. Though the rarely used files are now archived. The library has a total data capacity of 28TB. In contrast with typical tape archives. each company ended up with a solution that worked for their organizations and benefited their everyone involved. though not at all alike. and the prepress production cycle shortened from 3 days to 1 day. they’ve seen new product introduction time drop from 32 to 19 days. Summary As the case studies illustrated. if one fails. The final tier of storage in the hierarchy is a StorageTek 9710 tape library. Transparent to the clients. and data protection. This chapter explored installation and deployment of high-availability NAS with examples of how real-world companies are implementing NAS solutions. Banta is currently using 60 18GB drives. Banta uses 6 of the possible 10 DLT 7000 drives. Besides enjoying 100 percent guaranteed file access and the disaster recovery safety net provided by the backup hierarchy and redundant hardware. Offloading RAID online storage onto the near-online MO jukebox is a low-cost method of improving the performance and access speed of the RAID device while continuing to keep less frequently used files accessible. incorporate cutting-edge technology and stateof-the-art hardware and software as well as advanced file availability. the HSM system eliminates the need to search for and reload offline tapes. each company’s unique situation will dictate the storage solution that is best for the environment. The bulk of Banta Digital Group’s customers are catalogers. storage capacity. No one solution will work in all cases.Chapter 4 The first tier of online data storage is a StorageTek CBNT-CO1 Fibre Channel RAID device with a 1TB capacity and 100MBps access speed. These implementations can be used as inspiration for your organization. all data in the HSM-controlled tape library remain available to the user.000 platters (5TB of data storage) and 16 disc drives. Because each controller has its own Fibre Channel bus path. 122 . The three storage styles that this chapter explored. the other (failover) controller can take over automatically. giving them another advantage in a competitive industry. A SCSI-attached disk El050 read/write jukebox is the second storage tier. and creative designers.
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