A

I

PUSAT PERBUKUA
Departemen PendJdlkan Nasional

P1elnllglaruh P'ra,da,[b,aJn Aw',_11 aay'a ,a:kal-unii:a terhadat Peradaban ~~-~
:1._

Si::rN 1\, ,~Mn]!lll,!l·:m. C(llil1l!:lwjJp,sik
.I:sj,

!'IX~,

Fos:;e,s, mi

d!8m1,'1D 'e~tfo:M lfI;t~Yl1di!";"~lod~~u nit :1. ~i~ a :m [Eml,U m. enghubm'lg= t"~lin, IIJl:t,'~ [I ];I!! ~:k Im'~ II!iIl,gl1'l, 'b1imd6~ti!l! :8 '~:$~!~l~ H ~!:Nlbil'lb" ,~I (M:lg~(!:n. dln Indi,~ ~i!:nf:,a~, p !fllGm 'e.;~'_lUn,;Ii;yuUl! I!I;W d ,di K~'1mhfUml.:[ndoo~D~.

fr..as:rio-to 'M de.y\~, f

3, Si5W"I. :m lIiD.\iP~ :m i!Dt1!:tkJ,i.];Ii!.i .., In!~l,pil::[~dilb ,awai :m,i!I~M:i!k:t!!t; dl! m
dtlDi,m;.

4l..'S~~ eJ:IiJt ,MJ.1L:pu:m,le~,:p eri,Q,du~ !£!I"~,!!:'k b 8n'G;;~~ bllJdQY'rll :I 0 G~m p a'dJi ~'m. :m.~!!y:H,d,!BiI: fbW':d :~':ll.dcijli!:·!'ifjL

:l" ,mi:~.ir,1ilJ III
,~.

e;__Ql$lef.l~'l~h ,klenl:;~Ju':PQMlj 'Ul1/tnk

~~

!~nd.e*ripnk8lt

:1P_[o_Ii:~:S :mi:IJ:18$1!, f8JS' f:rm{f!
pi~fkcmb~,
'b~tb]rl!

U:rr:l¥l ~mD I!.utn, :ifv[',e~:~:ke Ind~M~'a" ,~~::S;W'iI!l, :IJlWPl!ll]::I~,!f:h. k~m!Wplum '~ ;mugbutn.mgkw
D!D3~OmH~omJb~ir:Lb:Dong5O:n,. dlm Ili'J,w,~, ~!~~, ..
r;,!!puJ!W!lIl h~dD"nif!I'hl>

piH'kl!m.tumgan :~,iIISfm:~a~: ,~ll

~

:3~

:~~~¥;I

m,'~rn,:p,eNIi;l~,i!ib,k!em,_;~,:pYM

'!im"lik
unWli:

,m.'~~dte:sbi:p~iI~Jw,pi&!!!JdJJ,'b,g, ~m, m,'!i!~,~'~t
Wi i.lWU~:1

mi. ~,a_ 4. ;5.f~M,1 m ~m;!pe.roleh. :k~m.IDl~
p~IIDBDHli~ ••

e:riCNiii,15:IS ~ ef,'t'Illl\ bl:ill~. bucle.y!

8!t ;~~

,~':~.eIJi~,.

Kom,ep

e

D.

g

,1BI.:t:~."

:p i!!! r'll: i!.m 'lmi I,ll, 8, ~ n
b~d~y'll '1;I!lilt:littg~ i :H il-itimM...D ~ii:lf}j, idM b~1 dang;Ml :p to :d:t. ~,m"'!!ul,:P' n' g(~ :m;.BlSJ·I\f:a'tti' H,d Ci In:&muil,

mrL,ll5J'Md::,~'t'
~'Il

Irh.

sel.a_~. I'Ma1\~ .As]:I:I, ke huib](oe,!:l;idl. S e'&ritar tmutll 1-5OI~1 S.U:; mereka :t~dl~sak: an .cQ.~;ii, d .:kemudi,atl. :pill.dab ke 'I{am.pr"c~ea.dan, :me]UiJ ulkm :p,e:qiaffilma ke, S,el'Ufii;anj'llD( Mal DB 5Iemimt~~ itl1. 'b:mgs.a,yan:i"l ai~ya .• aSld~· Ie '~lJi[-~~lp~l;msebeleh ~~atan ,A~,;,1·~f![~~bltl.!t~ k di y~ ·Austrn.n~-s.i.a {~,r~$'l1~O oob:ay:,a; ~~al\~ ~_t${JS ;rinry~ p1!i:aul:6:an'G~a. Y~I' me.odi:@Ioi daertm ~lls:tIDilefi a,diSleb'ij'tball£!8,A'tl~tnlne!i:~" alle'S,a,All:~b)im:D,esi amlfld&_ iEIJ~erahSiIl,g:at B :1i!mlaS'~, :meJiputi :~:nj,a~ ..ip'lj,]lau yang'met11b.tan)!!;, dJ;ari tJhtdil,as~;a[' (seb e!b4~, bar.at) ~~~'ai Puru'a~,

• ....t.. ..... 'li'iIi"iIO t.. 'i.. i)!~J~aw-an..'S.e.,.u.~~ 'IM"- '-l AI V"'~ neule: fil.emrul~t~an.iik. .... 'k -_ ~1;cuiW:aJ S'~I_ . 1Wl:~.. ('i'M'I ,.-li .;.; ~"_ .Li'~_n ~ap. deng.Q1"J. Z:al~la, ·NeDi~~.tikm.n !iall,l:PRIl, Idl91aJ]J, t:abiWl, 500 S:U ]I'~e b H!.~aiD d.mg"m .z am,M :p:~runG,p, m6DJgWlidab g;e'[I]mbil1g p~l]'Jiniaball :p. 6-llduduk: dmi .A51eJ.1m 'PW(ruI'":llJild seb el D, f!i!

a~

:'i!l~kab.(sl~!'beb.hJ.'b!ml1ml~) ,dao.'f'ai.WD. (~\~b 'Utar~)s:am,:p aii. S,~[:aodi~~ 6eh eUm,.sdat~). · eld. liiI'U

fi"'-'IJ~,,,,,., rl~,b1~~J?-"~~

-v: """'" .. 'Hej'Oa,'I.. . liI:UllIl ~,:__

'Y'~LILU~.,~

n",,"'.:i,"''''i;,ini

'b e.ru,p a, lblla1iij;[i;!'b atl1 Jm"JJ~E b~m emlb1k,p'ers~\!iJli SUln:atra J ~a. Kmnumtau IdJan, ISiuJ,'Iwe!i di 'b agj;m ~arat. Beli~Il;' ~ep'mi im ju:g,a 'liH1Jl!Y.ak ditemaikaD m A~~, YRIY, eli :Mall~m~j ,Bim~la '(,M~:anDtat). Vi.e,tQ;am,. :({aoo:~ilu;'ffilea.,,flaIl 'b~fut~;a: Iii d,aeran, Y~ln~'(~;a«ab,C~ll,i7IJ ,S~latafJj.)" t
j

.J\:n""""ll J1"ii"liD\.;j;n rnl41F ...... ...",,,,,,,," 'J!~u'p-~ I1J~~_b[11aU.

~.r~..:I.JJJlJj,~9JUj,

'naJ!'ilI~jl'I~'

n~ ...,,'ia-'loj;i'i; I " r,'!;I.-ii!U. - -iI::II.4!.,: 'm-: J~-~i~lIJ,g.
iO

_;0",,,:,,,",

''il'i-'-'''!!''''' ~IW,IUI!mJ

,zan'Jr,a;p eml1!eliU. :Pe_lJ~ndl:mBn ini :mem,1mlaw~,keb~d~:aa,:p'~I1L~!EllI' sep em. k,iapg,:sep im dan ~l1e'k.a, al~iU,gmdtrmg' j"illg 'b,eraai dm diie.r.ah, DOOISOI1\, 15:elriUliia W S~hll.l,i k'eb~d,~aill :Dgn:gsod~P~~iluku~g'ke'bu ~aJ'~ Dgn1gs;~le,,~~a1lIa!b, 1~t:gn,lg:~fJf~g AM*o~eria y~g' ~ri!gla1W, :p'l/;1Iru,au~p~l Iii, :B,eou'a ,Asia, dlm ,A~stnllj a 'N~nJek ,mo)'ane~ b amB!l:~Indl~ne~i:aJmenillJgg:a1ka, an ~eefiab, T~ilU, di lSle:1citar hu~,u.:S,u.mJgm SaI,ween do !nJDil1l~' :Mel(OnIY',aJ~K 'laahay,s, ,sui'bl~' :sMinll~,mm'k~,:p adm, bJ~rc(Hcok tmam", b,ed ~,gr. itfm '~,~d,.m:g',

'Plerprund6an.,endu,duk~p'ada:plgmlb,:m:l:keld1l;arted

ad] ~e'ti't;ar5,010SM"lerSAATh;a,;Mfld~n;gam,

Dl~l~n :pc:t.t;efJl:bao,g,fm, ,~l~hmju";!fa,~f~ ~I~ ~ b
:(fn_dlCU:1t

$l;~,k,emJl1u!lia,m,e:mbmb.lk~k:o.umta!l1 s~dtrni~:slenmri, :!il~lMng!~m ~e~a:ltltmld~la't !),~b~,d.M, 'te:r.selJldiri. M:ere..'k;irlat;anll, m, N'usanth,m,e;tlgpnuan, dat'tfan~ ona'!. ,aim p e,ru'u 1D ercad~k :M~,eIk:~,'b mayiii' se ~;~a,~'~lke'b:am,pok tglJl ~un,tl~'[gle:RaI, tu~t (hur'~ ~hm,jU'lllYa,m ~llffn\Pi!if'i rasa 'b,e~bagai\, k)~wQ~, W,JNJus~tm.&, H~~L_ :m,em:pe~le1asb aw~~lilenek:mayae:'b mJJg~;aiJm;d,ti![H::~i:a, adalJ.ab.:pe[:w~pe1mt,~ll1l]ni ,Mgmemcilikijiwak',elauti11Yalle:knat :U ere;kamenuliki kepan daia, dalJimY b ed;~ar~ ,n.,1 ~,a$i $1~rtiilltlu.:flerblDtmlgm'YgJg !Plen,WI. ,S;e] ~nim~ 'm~rrre:k:i:m6~mDi'ijikM :mo [!t" ,-I eIlru:lilli,'b ---ef.'caiik.'-:anc-- [ilejjl!1(~kan -:-Ierahru.:kuat (l:im:marn -illmatnlmlaeJ1a-:- i,~.erumn,ba[],'-- ,Sima, a ----- -:l<P'--------J- -~-- - -,p------F-.- ---------iP- p ~- --------~,- -I'
r-

b ml~~yallg m,tn'm~, 'Wil ~D,

--.~',I!-"-

seb Sl;gaiciri 1m3! kapl~, b algu, In~-oD,e~ilt

:nodl®tU:~t ~ :M,er.,~ka100g ma$K ke di~tet:ah,,Ac'eh m~iadi ~ AClm" ,',ang:m,~lk: ke d~&t~, :K:a1imanta li~eb~t ,~ :Da)"" y:mg k~ ,j,awa, B,Mat di,S~~iIJ,'~mktt Sucll,dl, )f,me·~ asUk ,~le, g:ud;iwesi dis~1!IiU.lsub :B'USli!ii' dan, 'Tam;m Toraj'~ dam, ,mer.'eik:9JJB!i masuk k& rdJaerm Jim~bi dis€;,~U't Kn'biU, (l,!,'b~v).
J~,

Or.~lg,· mrm~g,,A\li~Dn,e~si "ane: m,9Dlmki, mlray* N~salara ~~, ke;n1'l;ui,an men,et~ di ill N'Il~ifJ:tala, 'terseb~t, m"enCj;:ap t sa'oo,lu,l&l;mg~a, M,el:ayu ,A'I!W:shllm\l1~,siiiiitaa b Bgsla :M'lelayu, a

:B ~g$ia,:M~]iayu i~a,p~,d~bed;u::an,md~i:a_dlidBj~'Y~
,L Bangsa !\'f,e!arfiDl.1"ulIJ (PFli ~ 'i\lIeL'1:Ju)

b.~I,~a, M~121;~1t],'To~ datLM,w,ayu, M~da

:B;an_'e;sa, M:e1,~ TiU~~ad~;]}6 Of.~~:'-i@i~,~ ,AtI'~i]ine,~ ~ d~ ,Aria rraan) y:.g:~ ~rt~[]iJI,a k;mH ,ke Nu:~m~ara J.l.1;;uht·,~elQtiM S,O is M. :M-e~leks 1. I1IJ d=:d8ll,1' NUB~Jtn'mel."mu~ d~~al,a. ke i a, J.ihm 'bar:al; dari, 'YWl,aJl (CinIB, Sel:al.m) mle~alui, 'Sela~: :Mm,ab;a, (lM[elBySii,a)t m,SJsuk: ~ SUtn;Ltt~ '~'~]rasuk e JgjW~ 'M'~e'k;a memb ~aw'~ k :id;,d;'b~rnlJli, kilp. :!lef~e:gj,. b. .J m:~utar,a (bm,~1i_r)~mi'Too,an, :rl1em'~llii,FfimTh'~'S~ (T-ai~~) llnMulldlc:\e :Filip~nJB;,~OO);u(ij,u, ke SuJ:awle:u k',e_llllldi.an ,m,asWf:~e' lri,atl" M,i~eka,:fDe'm:bawa alat 1taj;um lonjl'!!HIB, B_g!ia"Mel~'Th ai,ni:m e~ ke:1bilJ,dJarMJl,'b alu lieb. 'Si,at· a1tamJate.rb~at dm Il'am, y;mg:~d,u, m~~! ';UtU lUl(h~h,druhaluHiW." b eru~dl;i, l~ellll~' 'ma1'a.u~ia:p~rba YWI' idatll;"i m,as;H~, k~sar dm se ded'l'MaJ'.' :(ia!iJl 'b1l]Jdaya, m,erlek~ d:i:kenal. cl,efiGi~l k;ap ak: ,P efse~i 'y;m'g, b:myak di~eM~:im di, '[ad o:llJe~i, seperti ~Su;m;at17,~aw~ E,8l~ dat), K:a1im8ll,~._ ,Ad,~p'un J kiip ilt llOD~1 '1IJ inJu' di~.ll.im :m,;erekii 1iWig :mle18l,ui j ahm uter~ Jf,akni. ~.h.]ill,iW,e&li. d:u ~nl;
1

Jli~., Me~umt ,:pt~eliti~]"Vi~lil, H:e:ekem di :K~llntp,ag,m. ,S~l~e~i UI~aJ -btlah, t~ij,ad.i

p,e;r(tadu8JmJ an~u:,~ I;adi~i .i~~ptik pl~r5:,e~. d~ 'ka,IB ~,D~jOllte,]Um,l: di 1iJ1.;!W'8 rn:;am;R,Au st-r.~tll,ersi:1 y:aUir d.at'inl d,m. arM 'lJltUi mdon~m;a:M,e:lil'ui ,F'O_J~!NS:a{Tmw~ rlli.l!I(ioi\, d. Sw iWe;si~ 1~ Bn_jl~ I\II~fUl . ud~ (D mtero ,
(r."'-[8j.

:'!lJu)
~_

:B;;Il;I~:a,M:el;IY~~'M'u da,J:mgli,sebutjul·iJ
,v·m ,S:e',m- -I).' lI aD
!l;ii;'i.]t '; _~-.I;!! ~ _.

Bmg:r,a M,e1;,lftl. M~d~,b e_rin.aru m,md e.su: 111miberCal,II1~' d~flgM bM;e~a, :PrO~~1M el,aru. B al~i Del1~~,!~1 U'el Slyu, t'namk' m,ern T!~'l~'~'"fQ~n (Yij;O;at'rJ.) :kte 'Vi,e.blam-, l,tiu b allilbli Slml~l1J.anJIWlG;Mal.~ t~~:s .k~:S~lm;a~l l!ig, akhtm,ya :rn1~~;'I!;]k-k~awa~ ,J B;{Ul'g:sa. D'eltlittfo :M ~].~:m;emiljki k~jbu~;a.J:aanyangJe;b~h m;aj'~, dibru:u:liogk~oo.d~)g •.
rn.,i!i;!i;ro n,,_!liIlliu

'D:eu,'~er.o M'~]ar~.d'Sitiill; Idlad damm 'Y~:nM, 5~rn0 :S-M'" :M:eli!:;I"a.'mam_.-k :N'' e Nbs;mtM~·''- '1i2'i,...!llm. Ji!iUan rim Mat 'l£'~~;3;. ~: i-, ~ ~_ ~ _ . ~1-,--- --_ --.. -iB-m __ __~ ~

,~1lIli,!m.~1'. r~_. ~J,~

:'!iI~ 1;II;'l~fi'I'

'ii."

.a.. JII;1.,... 'il"~'5 ,,;iI, •• :,, . ~1!i.,!Eli alldil.h~!U

.Ji!!in~'

IIlllolJ'"t1I-1ii

_,

.lll.lL'!ir.:LI,;I;

&n/i;b~il'~i!iiiiI.. '
!w~I~-',

U ~jlmilB

~

....~ m;='~,~i"~Ii!'f'·.1I·~
+1Jj ~"D.IJJIJ~

lJi~_,1L ~~ lfs;j"'jl!l!f_U6~I:iII'IIJi

Ii'iI ,...... iIi"",lI'Jlimfli

,.:II\~i"'li..1 iII~,

u'....

!l.J

lioraJ\l

I

l

'M.

·,1

~"":1 g:Z.l7JJ

budarfa~'a'Ymlg mken;al, aiI,sluJtlapu: c:~:r.ons B.5I6pii_1l1~dan 9!ek;ata Seru:mn,:keblld;ay,8miJj, ..kap lO:lml bMI~a Df.U~ero :M~[~~_yu,-juga, Dl~lml~~ubdgkml. k;e'bt~!dV;!1Ifm, .~~Ire'gali~bll\ y,,~w k,eb1tlJd.~tila. ',:aIll)J: m.e.np~sjll(~. :m~;m yaog ·t,em!llat dan ~~h.l bessr, R,8il.-bruil b kJeb~day:aa. M:,ee·ei'tilrnnl~.Mi~.:y'·am!'Mil! ~~gI. b ~). dj(.]m,el1l (m.I~j b,atu). s ar:ko:~.g. a (ki~wd'!UtliW;~)I! mbm'b~. (lan,pl.Ul,d~n.b ~mn!~ak:,SUb'b,aftg,:s;l~luiQue~ aJjdg ~fn1'l;~k' 1 k,etlUmlaJl 'Mil:ayu, Mud, a; (DerUbem. M eru·~,) ;ad:ala11 suD.. alVa, M elayu, 111M,.l~iUgi s. J
1

Sr:belJ~arm b]IDmJlnkJ]·Uig~;a.:U:cl:ayu.m.em.MUki:)lllDJsmlW~ sf:benlIDJ]y.a~:el;m ad.akd·(ltm.lllok::~f!f] o,m.:plliK l,D:anusl;i :Jang 1ebih ,hlb~l;~ 'tinl~.al di .vrila,sb ~e~s:eb1J.ltM ereka tenD:a,..,s:u~.b.anls:a, l : :prin:ci:ti·r dm~g'U b~darJmya -:If.g· .m,aJ~:fb. ~§1l!g~t :s:edeii;iIlli~M',~~a Y,@ltg 't~r.ma~;Ij;d~t b:mg;~a, '~.ri·Qjdi.f'M-;al:ah. sc"a~ai b'e1'i~t _, .P --: -'- - -- --- - -.. ~,-- - ----.

:t.. 'U:,mlsi';a, :P1eisto.rin UM1floo~)

~,* m.asih
iC'i' •

.:ICe-lli dlup:m fil,MJU$1l,a, p~f.~ ~ ini sebl1su b e:rpindab,. at: IdmgD, :k em;m'tp 1,] .y:ap.g 00, SM.91at'tj~r.batu. :Oawkf e..,u) a :kie'~lnnlay m:mya setinll.a Clll\~. ,eru,du,p. an,m.iIn~ si a.pU'r.b~i ~ k im~'l'i d,ip'ai, diikub. k~mJb ali, :l\;;et~ali DI~be,ripI;M,P ek :saj it Mismoy, 'mknola gj~\;~I'a:y tg U
'S,atlpt, s'tdJe:rb;ana:

t~.,

(~egolo!gip,~·eoli.~ikJ.
"~I-

.2. Suk;U W'lednild]
~~S;JI,-,rt:S'iIlSUJji;.u··,·'eu,~llilu . s_pm,
.~t_,.

W

~.:I ".J

Kuf6Jlu m:p er.'bala:nm~,Jw'bti, b:all'rJ.utu) du 1]~~;bud;~aiU. ~

au; Palembirllli ..:Mle.ce'klmd~p

Si~A;aragm,'MllillJ au;~ m~,Si'lll!nJa :5~Li; iJ.:mall. i.d~~ll,~:s;erti3J
(lI" ...

''t.:..:II"

_111

.

.,,'1 .....

iCi _'I'.~ ".::II"

'1...

.

dad

m'elattlU (;m1e;1l,~~wku,

dietl;g;an.:masyarak;at
.3- Suku 'iNl'egr,o~d

m.ooem

s;e,derbil'li~.M ereka juga s~ht:'~eJkm :ltlen;r~~;t~~ikGll diD

Di .md'iDlnf:ri a ,md .• 'tid u.:lierdap atl agi. siJ'~a,~·iitt salkehl.~npllm.~. N'egroid __ lt.m telttapi. A di 'p e,dalantD 'M:'i!~ri,a. dan, :Filipinai kerurunu, mitl1, Nei1~,i d Duuilbi, ad~a. Siul\tu 'y\Mg 't~rm~uk·ras:'N~Jl~~~,4., ;mi,swnya, 'mb S:~,~ug ,di:S_emmuiiun;~ ;U:aj,q:5i:a ,lim $lm.N e:grib~: Ii flli,~lina- .M.erela '~ria, 'rer<Lesu: ;~;[ n 1m:~mg~of.DB.M.eJ,~u e 'Mi~.d.ems~~,11Ul]~'hmy(a m,e:n~ •. , ati dji~;r6 .pI1ed,d;1n&. te.ri,so~ir.
_' -i _' ._. ~

;"'i.~iII..=o.~.'~~.

¥~III_,~

fY ,......... 'I. ~:aIl'1i. ~I'.~. 'I,f- ~* :q . .JierJ!I!lLl:II.11, J.1.)'~.LY.Y't .. l\_l.eilill#':4

liJ

nn~t\~ GdI~ ~rli:k"gp___q:'~~ll~u b~~~'M'hm,MiI.'~ 'f~~-lI!&mb i'lI;taq, mtlllui:dol B~llDmJh~. du ~_ d!li I tTemmb~ ~'~. 'TUa (Pmm 'M!iLe~1 :t SOO SM: 'melilUi chi ff.~ '13m" me&lw Y;UlilrD, l\l~, lVOOa~IJ,= S'~b1 =' J\a~! d~t:pPI, ~1lJ~w,g, bp'k, ~~Ij~ .J,I~jQ,lllE...@ 1UlI,~t~.ti 'YUPlUlJ, = "~~,q!U\ J.epang '_'.MpiM _,SJW!,lW Ii 'Ubim - f~J) Me:t:~. dm_ Dp_U mnju.,_ '~la~ (Dei~tem: l:br~ '00 S\M,m~m~ ~~'-'IB~~;,~'1j~nb~ [[ ~'Wmj~,~L M

1'1,.
[i'.

B. p~~ Iu,

erkift1Iban

mg;m.

anB'udaya :B3rC;!j:tID-HoabitdJ DougSODJ dao l.kmJ.bangan ,MasJ t A\y, di KepUlaum,
,I

~~=
vI
'r,,--

dlOlI . ~,

L K_ebud~y:nilll :R::U!son- H 00 bm-b

. ,- - a1!!J't_~~~,_Iek -- . Vi uh d ;1 i.\., ~. ~ scsen dJ d" ~~atl ~"PrD,'WtlSl :HQ'~_i_ .~ :-ai Han[!Ji,~ ~~,e.amnl ~ '_ o"e;~tp"me'i,~h M:adellMne ColaW.m,temJ.lKml. Sf)tlmilu,llesM ~,atyagkej]uu1i;m, drktnm1i!eugml'kfe"buld:ay,i\aI, B aJC80111··,Ho'ibirib.Jenis 'al at seru,,!a~ ii~te.1],~kanm 'nailm1Jd~ S~leu81l!j 001 Me']avo. d"d UI,i Sum,~~ra :~~Jl~U~·g'1le:rnmggatan di, Slm1f)j,~tra,bm.u"a'~ruki:,t,~&uki,tke~at~l:y:gn~,d]n,~ak"g, kj()l,lmfim,oolJi'H~!,-J· (s am]]I'all d:lJrur) :'_8 :nh,ema.t).j 81li6: ldar:i, S~ iiLtr~l Uitm~ sa'pI~,,ACieh~
'Pepm;wng,.16
-

Ciri, dan, :ke'fru~ayl~j~Ul e,aCiSOD;~ H,'WI!a~l~ilib:8i1hll:&l. :l'H~DJerpihan )~Ha, :s;~lll atml dUal, ,51,si p,ermukaa, bam, k'ah :!MI ~"e;mkuru s;a:t~ a1lM, d,an bagian t~plrnt.y,asans;at tail am, Ha.Ml ke[j p my'erpibg(mJa,m,e~ul~iukikan,'~ne;rb a:gai bcelt\Uk :sle,p,ettj,l~nj IHg~ ,5 egi I~mlpatda ~ula Y~l;iI,' @ bmmlm.,,~ el1l~fi,ggan~;b DiMJib.y,ah. m~anesi,~ ,~.a~;mat:'b<iltb;l~eb~d:~aoo, B:acmD:~Hoa,bjoo, ditef:i~uk;m di ,P~fU~, SumaltIeJ. Sui a\iVe;il, dJ an NUSiiaJ, Ten;lgar,EiI, 'P'e.1DJ"e'ibaran, k!ebmd,ray:aM e ~_~.s~~ul,~:Uio 'b ~r~:ilnaiU:lQmgg, ;!U:plud:uatl, 1M: p.lIpt~-a:M~mgts~UlildJ ]ndl~ne~iJI, :a'biM ke m,d ~ij;l j ~ an, b:ar31 ([&1 j ,alan ~mWf ~'i!Wtoc.al MIe'lJekal dM~e ,d'~NUSbt~ de.~g.p er;m~ .. berc8_dlilr, d,.aJ], ~D.'Ie:a1 dli p mtlai tim!1iIlrSUmfatr."ia, ilia J':&W8" ll.antUll, r:nlMek~a;te:rde:s ole~ ,r,as 'M::eJ,a,u',ug datgg.k~m'u:i>ml.,Akhimy~ :ln~~'kaulmy~~d£irk.~'''Mhijr;i11 :~dlDlu.~m,a,!-imw. d·m :cl.iken-al seb:aig~f,~s Fa,f[i~,:'atrug,(l,adJa,m:asa ltru"sedang ~dlM!g's]1i~e'buday~ :M,e-~oli'tiitui'll, se~lla,:p'(!nd~~lle: bud,B:y8, h![e!3]o~i:tiillm ~dalah,'Papua M.: tme"!loid_ Ras p,apuai~ hi duo' e ~;ill tinlg,al di Ina;~~lln\ ,(ablis sot'S' 'iOC'he) du, ,memnggdkl:ll '~'Uki~~I'tndcit, :ke:~mg ,alillJ

*

'HJl]lo,seml~Sam itlJJl :kle:~d'aoo h-J[lli ki'~a, m'~D, :t~ak: dih1J;mi ,se~i~ge:a m,mj; am 'tlem!p:al, y'IO,I: ,nY',iI,-uan,'b:agj :ke:hi d!upill MianU:i~'i.
!:Nl\~;
I

t~n:p~. d~tw,

' nm Qt/itlJ,h,'Pr). :R~:i',Pa:-Pu;~:M~]ge~~l~~'S~Plai d~,Nu~~u~n!J, ' ~~d;a,

Pelljlie'ti !ili1i:m, lijoJrJMn7tu,dibnglr di],M~;itl, lllll1eb, :Or'. Pi.V', 'Van, Stmn. CaU ea£e:l s tahU!l 1,_2:5. "Jtl!g~'balJ;yu~di-tlmtllkD"kaplak:lmJlganj_'Y.allgl_l;Wdim, diW,at11a1tml;ap ilk. $:unUiw"a_ tHbu~ dati bam krui yatlg ldii.he_b&. :~ sci ll!lMnya ticl,u;' 'dli~~:Il,slifU;. dml :s:i s..] li~ ~fly,a diketjUa,l :Sle:s:nm IdJefiJialll, 'k)epmu241", Jenis [ai~, ,adlalah k:ip,ak: p·end;e'k !f/mcchQ: ,o!um~ br-nifubya :S~~~Jl~;ah h.~1p;~ b:ggid ~aJiaillrny',~p:;d,a SJ:m h~~iP:g~ D,rut~. :~ulab ~tu, p,en~~~~g,(p~,~~an)s_eh~g!li p,e:negi1:ifiJe,muMJr;i1U], atw,'cm;H'ru,e;r.aJn. '~jMg,m,:atap;im,~,~h·~,. : chm, :kiap ak ITotm NeQ]i'li~ku.1l1,
•• _' • ;. ~ .. 10 • ,-'_ •

:R:1IlS PR'rtl~, :eliBi'eSDi d, bi;1~Up ~1,~ih M s,eten;e:ab, m,ellet~p~ b efi'bURl.. d~l bB~ 0 ~Dk t atl am, ~ed,emM'a. M USa! lu,dJ~p ,dli p a d911

~da 'yanl d~ brulci sam,p,m :M;m,ru,~iayang' t
k~8ie:ruan, ~e[]erti lukisa,mirip bibi -te'l~ak

:hid~

m ,2affi,b bmd,~,~, e'sl~H~l(,1Wm:wd,D ,M

,11.19gelltil

:hlil~~'Y~J~, ~,'l~,u'k~ L~l~Ql~l:~ 'k~<anl' ~S!iill!l:Nesi,)_, :l.nki:SM.ilt{f!l[;~ebut.cm~at !g~1Jlb~

I'(;~~,
'taEl;i,8El
-

'bm,atang d,.
,"~.11.!1~J.i

C,Q

;o~~_.._

J.e., _

_

"_H

ao'.!'~~""
""__" L_

~,~:s,..~,:~mik'~~\;'~!!ll,~~li;~L
-.:0-;-'.

~

bag; a,,m,~aE. 1[iii,O] ~:s~,den:gao, ,~at :ill,«ab~:~ en![u :ad,abib,'W~~ d,m-,ah~ I Lauda, bidlJ.il'_ Mar!ai eli ale:si, W~,I merah dj,enIM, mmnlld, aim:' da;p at mian'e:em,bal~ :ke1Mldll,,'a.nn~"1 S1~~D6ea d:~ at '~:rel,dliom,~,g.K:~~'u;ii 'h~tu~, 'iKill i~g,a di't~mHL~k:D, ~,s;a~',sl~'~ 'tW,am'g-I~Mlgigj =gj:li biD:~hm;g. ~e<P'erti eaj'. 'b~~*., b eru:M,g.. d,g, :rus 3_ '~Iaw.,.,Se[;~D, :meni~l'll~uEkall bUmra~~,o'kerlt~e~ m,erekiJ ,~Um'll,:mem1brum, bina.~u;e,·b.illla~an 'b esar, g

:M ayat, dJJk~ibur dal:mn, !Il1,aJ ,~ta:u. bukii :k~~g ld!m(!J;~, sik~p.] o iI;Gko'k.., b ~,b ~r,~-p~,

,13 $(lfi-',~o,abiM ac

:D,~ ds!elr.an S\lm,:a~'a ':a.1.:a~,~il.:ilt. b atll j enis k e,blu:!l,a:yao 'B,alc S!mIDI-,HIG!abi:nb dH:em'u;k,ill a di Llt~'kse~lnawe~oo M,~d'g. i Pul.~1j;]~~w,~, at,k~b~d~~m YUI ~~~m:sIIr~b~da1~·~ D w 1
mtfID~(k:ml

p'fIl,elg,~,u, :6J~1. m&\i[lJ,!~,8,~.um::ha. P'er~a~~l, 1,9111di:t~l}kM, liti,'biIiJ.tit d!l!llglm, !tara y,an6 ~eder-balli' belum di Stal1lib. belnm diann., Ala!Uers!'&ruit,,~i, ~lrkirak;~ di:p ef1p~~m,ol~~ da j mi s P~tl~'nthrnI!lHJ el~ch.adi Triml JiW';a, Timu£,
:2~ Kebuda,:JanJlongmn

m, daenm, sekli.tar B,tPlg:a,wm

~S,ol ',.,y~, 0

b ers Ml,al-M, ~,

K~'bud:ayam, DOD:~sou'Irb,amj~lilJ..d;ari ~'m. ,iI;aJn.~ ~~:efah di "filliknmn_ Keb1!;]I~~aD ,sabJ p,enMJJi~p ldi Asi ~ 'TfifLg_e"ara biasa dimmn,aku, ,keJbludaJ'~an, DOn1],fgSlO(IL Di daenih im ditelnt~k;m 'berm,flJc8m,·mac;iIJ), ;a1,al 'JMS dlibu,at dad pemn,ig'l. 'Oli, [5i~,p,illl: :i~1J iugal dit~m\'uk~M.:gekM;;!l mb'bmiO,- B~j-aDa,,~mg;s~pa.d~gg,y:;n~; ~ d~'l~N1k!lm,w :K,m!lci dg,
'IlL.!!'... ..:I".>i"'i!i '~UIIY"'"

J''''\Ii,l~,IO!#L

;'"!J,~~Q~!t'I!

,.:I:,j;_;-~'l",_

UU"'JlJiJiIUlitmi :~~l S:!EW,'II.'Ii-";;

.::I,~ _ ~'"

'!!ii

,.:I-~ ..'I'~,iII; -~:i., ~k"iII":b. -~l..1'&,'ud:'!!'I'U - '5'\ \iii W, I~a,..;r,mu, 'T' _ '_:11i~:"" 11~11!~,ijJ!Il·!t'[ "II;iI:WUIllIIJ, ..... :IJIII.II;_ ",~ja!lil.il,

r'.......

'1i'iI6n,,!i\'iI,Ii!I11i!m'li ':I!,\[!l!.iii!1!ll:~'... ' '. ~~

'-b..... iiit!a:i:U~ _,~ ...'I

PengfilaluiiJ!iJ l~lgtlnl met'iJ'ilinjuk:k., t2lf;~f ke~it4l1'ian, 'y;an~: :SH~'m,diom,aju. ,s~d.mt :a.aa p. ml,b.a~gi,u,:kajj SJ '~'ane ~ ai~ :In.8IJ'~akam,ya, :mdah, 'tm8rmr~ Takmik "eI,eb~rml, 1'0 B/9!U

m,-~niP3,D' '~k,m'k clll~gj. Ylnig

:K~Jl,;da.D;I«sifl:lb.ut m,~~luwj,wman,:k~,:p;~dgj'k:i:tame~I~~a] ~d;m,r;ahub~lllliiUl ~ilt:;~jt~'!1 Ind,filillJesi,a deag~, 'ioMcin. -,;aitu k,ebiUd:~m hD1m .]:u401],eli,a, ~e_~rumk: k:elmn,])i,Nlk kielJrll~-ay;aan I,ag~ di A~ !iy:anll:b~plU:a1~i .DOlll\So~. :Dari, I~al~rabim~ limmllmeb~um,~,aa lo'g,lln, sil3Jc'ilf.lb UI~];el,Qm:b,an'~1:[:e,wat j aJl~f.'ln~fll\~, M:;id'iY~WI. PI,e;o!iU1w,1lil,:k~budi~Y'liltim Yfliitu

m

m

aJda],ab. b:MllS:a, AuS'tli~ne~r:~ jluga p'fmu:hiwl\I: kapa' pe{se:mt.D~, ,m'nd,likllle:ri:~ ,p,mg!gutiuaa,

lo,g;IOl, 'tela, lilLaknkilll'l ~eju 'btlbe:r,q1,iIj abld ~~belu;lll, Mjis,ehL 'y&i:mp:ada taM, ,SO~I'SM: beruiJI,;t hi!Si~:~'mulgiu ~ an, pe:rm,a.sm P"~~glU [,edml;p,~" ad at i;m besi ~Ierq,p m,ata IB, k~ ak ,Ilsta :tPi~au, m,aia p edanrg. d,~, ~;m:~~ID.,:Gam,ag, mmllU, Ii Irido-neg,a, ,111~' EJI k)ebudayaa p ernlldJ,~1imlil. Pera.n:an pe:runrggu -dan besi san,Bat b essr 're.rllt~ a d,m 8fil

p'eli~I)g1J!~ag, 'ke'hi dUphiLl. ~'i~,

Bud:~;a Dllll;e,I~IO S,aJlj~a'tl.~ ~!Htrp'enl.mWn,a tm ad ap park.e:m~rmlle'~fll.dlaJaplemn,~. tii >Nu,!S.tar.~ Neliara:p tml\g\P:YMI~·tjelM, lQ1b1Jat~d.i: KeJrlll all an, ImJd,one~,i!l:siep Sum ab'ia;, J~w,a.> d;m, M;~l1iku,Se;latru:l ~ebatai s:alah s:am, 'bukti :p e1Jgantb. 1:-1 :kl;Jiil!t d,ari.'bU,~aJ:i DI~nls.I~:iL e~~~,mfkiD,'"ml di'b~m,Dkaj],Idj, :rndllQll,esiral me_m,plllJJ.~l'iU.:mt~ :Be'b y.g p entm:g mi s;abt~"a,1m :u ak~ inlaID, deitst:SuD;~la{i eci s-~, m:a~alambarm,eRyleru~ ai pu:ai,m, ,(;inJa:djari dillUti' 'H:g) du FJj~k~i I~m 'K,~pu1'B!lml KI~i. 'Nhd,ub O;~ri,m:ltia~n, l.ajm memd'atw b.erliWbarkW~1 ~E!l)'- :e er.d;i1is,~u,:~e!ii:mp~·m]·lf~~lM1i.ad~,kem,un,g,kin;m. d~ernil-:t~erah.'iN, 'tidu membuamya fSendin ••. et:ai._ 1rm e:rssal dlli Cill'81 k ~'a :a:da,BaJa, :1ll,aJun :model

em

j

n,eg'lriOilli. ,A,daprun ;1ll~kariYml'gdi~emul~mdi Idae:rab, SIIl,g,~g l~kalSumib'itW;1~J,eh,Hmllllll, a'eL~em JDJ1illgldn. b erfasru dan :f.·l1natl.

~M~riiii~

t

l. B,1IdW1,lmldlhlarl ~Mlli :li8!t;. mlldel. ~bw' 'DLU~dhpili ul,,:;m~:Bl\mitlh luutl ~ -- -- ~ -- -- .~~ - - -~~Ilt~ell:~ -- di I:Uiim- . p,e~,----- -~
., 1fD~1 )'mill. 'h'1!.L1 ,dil~IP~.ilii1n t<&Dftll~t

bmltdi.a__lil

~wmkWi kgi.~~e, '~ng:wit,

:3_ :!lda!r]B-. m:q~fi '~tm:~mBIHk ~hI"l;lIII :b~, :t.iJlm nIe:t:!n. ~dull[ ,el:tlb1m~ i
4· lli,ntWm)'UIg i:~'~,~.mn;H:~!.t~ ~f.liiEg~ ~truhjde!n di:ogmbiD.

S. ,SeiteJ_ahm):sm 'el:u m!H!k~, pCl~
WIl '~,

ht ~

'Dl-e;g;~~ti ft',ie,~

Dm&l
.

E!piI-

115,. 'Clbibn teil'ah,
1I(lllW!.I~c ~.

~jflll.
-

:lRe~mO!$lD,

•w ..BoII

fJIMlPi!Jl'

~_5:01:Li1P_~~(pi!!.I'bD\~JQ'm'il,

Ped"fiJD'~lanl~,an. '~u,day:a, 10 g.iUU d~.,]'n1du1i'[f€:!ii:a dap:at dlk:,€i~uru. del1;g;an. i~d.a~' :a8,any:a p en.~~Mtih.:bu.daya, ,DIOim:l~;$.ILjl:n."y,_g m,ooy,eb at ke :s elurnh Nu s-ao'ttav.8 ,Ad;a b e!ber.~I,a dJ,aer'ah. .. :P'eI1ttll,g dll'o, :p'~k,em,b"allg'i!11oll)llll, tlli 'Nu:sa~.a.
0.,

Budlu'a logm11 awal iii Jm
JkulblUf'

,11

,DJj, :Ptd au J:awa'te:rd.~,~t ',e,WD,~gi1 p

h atu, C:iadro rn~u.s)di daersh GlJjJ1Un~ :Kldtd~1"'0 gy*,~ta_ lu~km bbum- :V,Me: '~erulpa,:Il,er.,il:atm. darl,b esi,

am ~O!~mI,'pa~ci 'tM,ap, 9iwat b~rad·1m, ~idam. ~ ~Ii
D.i:p'um~M, '~reb ~,g~

b; Blulo,J'(t

1'tJ-g,ml~att'al, ,1SllI,umm, Oi P~5ejn,~ Sumatra, :Sara\, ,terd:a~a~:n'bwr b iN ·,~S dib ek~i :luamk:-nu!lrik ka[;,a, tian, .S\~j'l:lm,ab.'~Imda,~,o IratD.bwp:a; ~Dmbilk b eli daD, :II'U'b emas.

e: ,Bl~~:a logilJu' ml t11 111 lUldJ~ NztJD. ,~ ·u.ggam S
:D~,Su:mb:i, 'N1U!iS:EW, TeJ1lllira;, 'ter,~'apat traifisi : :~m!gU,~'bll_lD,(lm'gml:'~lmlb~wa,b ~kal:'kubuf y,mg 'h~p ~lo,e;am'l{an:~ '~~le:t~all {Ii ~ekat p:e:n:~ mati. N:amu~ di ,~ua jUI~ ~n~d,m ttiteml~kan p er,abltan :NltlU, t~m'gga; s:e:"t:di b~j ;i1~a' d,~Cil!ll ~~m'bikar kt eil 'y3iil~ tettbuat (I,ari 10,~mt1d.
,1111~~'I1.

,fbgmJJ mnal di BsJj'

'n(t*.h6iJ[e.~:de.ngafi, d~embl~~ di B,mi kita, telUJ.miz bmdi,:hDgen1 sebagfi be'k~ kublllr.

d;a,pid1ci,taiketa1t~i bahwa b~d~alloganlte_myata,md,ahb e~ke~lb DS di N'~santara E'~11~::ki,t~ tem1idt~l 'be:k;:a1 ,k;ubut~etDluatd:m :t1~'latU..imli, 'btnrti m~reka m'tllgb,O'mHlU :rob,
,J ad'll

p,eneK

'.oy:a.nl~'·~ '~;Ml'g:s~d:m, ,Mati d,mg;m 'barart,g: :aIl6: 1berhi3!!e~t };.J'aanlill. ,mta iu;e~ y
a1a_t;:keil~ ~u.pan'y;ml'ter'mlIll~e.tdarlllD,e,atll di 'te:ns1m :m,asyar.,aal:p adJJimaa::a ],llJu"
.

,m,e_n~uan
3~ K

wi: ~'~'~y.~c sa1l. ~tlimb. ~gLab" dilft,JI~'g. :pw ]
udaiyam:l] di~

m~n'Ia.r:tUl1i laut~llu.a~ .. Aiili i~mu 'bumi b an:ls~

S,~;.,ZDaIlIlIF:6ks,er~ ,

p;el1a~tlu ]Dd.on~.sia:d~k~ll~ ':S'ebirilill
YOll~l& bG~M'[,a

','d,aut

dj:m,:smggu,1 '

Claudius: Pt()i]'~ooeus'

m,en1e;hutkan'b~a,a"~a"s~bruUtpnlinl,btm,am~Zah:aiiu".y~rul;g:€lirn.Sud.8dl~.6,'yay.adr.p,i Sltau-rul,iU. ,~~a :at:;lJ. terkt'Jud d,e~Kgs:e,llu,tu, ~18u,:~~m1li...

M'munrt :Hlmifn,e[~~, ~~Du'·~IMahD 'p b e:rlcadlik:adalah mflld~k: khums: '~an~IJlt!l, m'ndo,oifl,ri it P,eran!l1A, bereadlik '~u,~;a, ~d.,aJi, :lam.a Sd.at~, akilbat: IP ~ ~leDD1imlh dati ,h'u;J,ooe:siaJ ,sebab Id:i S9:a, _, 't:ard:~at :nw:ku, 'Thmru- y,an;m 'b ennalap ene.Mian, '~1ldJl d~,a, :k~·l ~a d.~'iberd~a,E:an~'td,eIlga a
~~ I

:p,e(i,ag"CIII]i ,~dDme's~ a

Hub Wl.1Ill,d:iliaDll

Utlt3

hdonfis~

I,-

Z'dm;~, berttlkar :ke'buday~~aa., ~:eDlart1il!t a~:~-~, dian buda,a, rndli,a, ,mamJt: ke }4lu!S'mtara. H:onualgatl. d~",11e, 'ter~sreJ1:MJ!l,mern,u;a, fUltar '~.l't;ilIll:a 'leg ~mlilye;kODtak huJIDIl,e:.ti'l ,_, InLii.1 y:8IiiS: mm,ytbabkan 'Penyei!b ara b~diJ'i, ]':ndia, kl6 :rn,dlln.esi;a. N:am:oo, demilU:~ WlS. 'IIlao.neJi.a 'kuma ,tletap. blat tam,u: d:l)\ml;o~l, n1J;i:!i3Juy~ ,k.a~~a'lidiU ,ahw~~mg,Wl,b:aikdi, b~q
1

hldii, ~~m;ymaMel},Bn\b.ih k!e.m,amp·u,il\

'UIl'tuk

.lndQ~esj.a,b.abk;M, .~em};dem;q'6,'ti,~btk:~dJa H~$i~ s~, canmJ;ti Jll,dIDn,e~~[a;y,ag m,e!Jo~jl~l ,~fii~;a, m.ia!, hl!it!JouteSlJ.a:kullilJad,slat penlbJiWpa1Icam,·,cad~ b esat. Bukti 'p.eu.g;erub, '~iud,~,a. '~'~dia.Ii 'Jnl:Jen .. S:li8:,ebi\gai berikui. ei
SJ~ AdEyal,ml,:ei~d,clib,aJ,dari p'ero~gl}J

m :~lem:p ~ia{S:m,iw~si el~cill) seb ~Iaij,bukti t~tJ.UBj S b g,g;a:Ja am an~n~af:l., ~lay:3J hlJdli;aJ sd.a~m)~ s~em:s: j:Ug,i ditaDJukD, ru Jemb ~r flail arei
B~kit :Sljgnm1ltM:!t Sllmatra
l!

S,e[,atail.. ,Arc~ BU1~bil'a, l:~_Ja, JamlJg dit.em-:lika ~i Ki®:til B,a1\IU!~ K:u;tal lbmgaf,8 ,p:ndht1$~' mdie, U~ar,,~.

",ara,

b.

'Dit'~Mukwl.:prasi\tsri ~ilC,u'~ia;mK;~tai, an,'T'~m,anrelam:Jf~8l,'t,~ d b €f.b;ml~a, S:anstm1;a,{l~l bedtin-uf: P\aU~wa

eagiI'Uh,

:rndi ~ y,ii;m,

1:.

Ad:atl,"I b:angnntm,

,Ht~du

aM, :B~d.dlhiJl,

c,_,

dan m-eBy',iIlg ~\~ ~ll_e;mm

tt Ald~¥a :pfa.~~h Sri,wij ;a;;raJ ,,:;0,1; d~~mlisda1,am, bab,9SB :M~~J1l' ICunil] '~erlIWllf: P'aU~~ yang
sud all :mMjo!llji (lil lli'liU~'Ifidctl'i!~li,mJa. e, ,Atd;ittyab~kti aeol c,il di :lodanes1a bah.walh~Il.'la·, ruh :IDndia, a~~,;ialam ~rlui;gy"QjNu,~.~itiMit [ J):a1;am'~lrer'bag,ai, llal p ~D;Iil1lh, dli'a ilululih,at :[)i In ~ud,imJg :~Je.m.erinJtmlat1 :m\l~tClll lkeraj! aaa, da:lanJlJ, bid.ag 'k:eb~daylBJ81'l p,enl;aru;b, :m(]~ :me],ahiman, 8 'C'&lu:i :~!U~I,m 'Nj'u,su1afai. mi s:aJ'IlY~ ~aldi di ,:8 10 !flm! bu d,U:F. :Pr:aJl],h aasn, di 'b i~ an,g ,!l:iriil: si, ~ rilleil,amrkall ,iill:atall,·ik'at;au, Idesa de ikatal"J. f~an. d,taL

D,.b.n
:DiiKusikan, dlen;g,an,teM;I31l, ,AJITllida, iJl ,!k!:l:anf~, m,ene;~IJ,!l3. :m:all.u.:&i;a; p a~a, masa ltid'llBipb.e:rbu~ d.u, :men~gulnilWJkml~;n],mlimh Uimi,!pB:i." I

'I... :Pera~' ;ID,Lemba

mduS:lcb;nL,anbith G;m~

a. ,Pemilldlan LendJa], Indus

Pm::ada'b an, Lemh D hu!b~~'bef,a;~ii:!l d~':rndi;;; :,:id;~ 'm;i)~~, lslu d,im :!i~k~il; bf:{'a~ a 1[Ii ,kaW~atln!elara,P'alci ~t~_ :K:ebuJl1la,aan ,m.mll'S' (~~ll.dhuliIi,erl31F1I~~G:300 OI'S:M 11~00 S:M~ ''WUj Udlll)"BJ '~~nl,p:s, kQrt.i ,kwlo M~h.ifl'lj DUI~ Jdlan H;ar.ap]JlL :K:~rb~u:l~at.. 0 :rndl!l! ini olidu:kuWlg ol~, oramg:·IDMmg, l}tfiid:~ yan'G1'bcr.11id~n\l, lO~e~~k~'b~nmn~irttJ,u~, bitam a;cm, keIiti.ng. Ke:bU!c1,~~M m~du:; ':be:rhru~],'~~Hrti ,flti,el1 seoran~:m'~.e~o~,Q!g: ,hl!g~~'~~, ir $IIIlm, S M ~!hal~ ',anfi, dlib'eN :a1it11~rji ('Oitmg'Jndia)., D,Elri u~ ~~mu:mnya,~ap;a1,":Slim:Fwkan, S1e~ dii,a b
=,

b~knt 1) ROEll :MJ:o~e-JljlQl ,O~O d;m H:~'PI,i9J dib MlJW, be;n:b~jstik:eo pula :kota 'te:rellc:ama ,JaIlS m(Jd~ ,2) 'T,enlapat bangoo,M hesar ,$;e'&a~:aite:mp:mt ,prert;em.nan rakyat. J) Ruw;ih~nlmw, dil:ul'it Idmi 'b;im b ita.

4) Jat,m-j abm, djibuaU e;b M'-leh;Br_ 5) S:a1:tu:~, ail" ,dlibll!sl :f;'i!~Uai~lcr~l!iii.Qmlam:iJ, :~otii :
,mI~~(ftl,.

.'CQd_u:;'5~:LE,;a:Mti~~~~

~k:

~I'il'.l!

~

1_

B'
l_'

~). ~.'tem.uka. ~ekas p erm.arulh'm~ 1) Dibe.lll.ul~:an, ,'IHhi i5,m,k;llnn;g, Ie:m,its dan, ~Ile:nil:I'hias: del1;l;an ,p,elll1a'~a. 8) D.iteLlll'likm selj:lta,'Jam:g ~Ubll!it dan 'b~m,~m 'tePlbag:a .. "emltg~iabID,tetseJblul: 'lielllla~ (hi[,8lU .m:a~Ja:pr..~.~aJl~ .fiatntJul1ci.'m, 'temuiran ..i UI5:~
:i...• .'1 I lLiW'l ~all 'ii;.,=-'I!..'

U!:l,uerl.'Wltr. .i,im!Wi1ial ,ui!i:J,'U.m, '. e!l'~;~ara
·~I.

it!..

'L _'I

'b.

_'I.~

'$'~m~gl~' di,s~·bu.t·l~ikto:Ilf,U. '0 mtl'i ·ku;O.I~ :Jao!g !berdap ~t,!&.. :kotB' :M:l~b;wj DMCJ d~ll I~I l:i:~~p'p' 8Iliiar~ Iain, I) lem,p reD,g
't:iSIIlJ3h,

b~r-b~nt~k ~:H:le~i du. be~g:,am.b,~ :[ll hi'~alan~~, ,at. wltlb~hM;. ~epmi. :g~j.ru\ . h,arilllBu! s:a~i, b ,~d,ak~ d,81J, ~[dl 0111
:Olmmgru~~

(lle~'fil "ot,tQ) ,'a~'i

':0 'aianya temjlbtik~yall)ll[Ij)erb e:airumllr;:,,·f.ri.uk,
b~l.at~e~ chm, pele:e,·~eI,u~eJllaJ~-am, prirmJE d.iJl cDekir~ .3) am.at:1le:Fm~dW]b ~mp;i,kab.l__D~ ge~ 8l]!~ dm ikal·,illg,gim!1 d~ ;~,emb~g'~1 4) 'terd:a.pat l;aDl,b:ar .i:l{wa 'y;aag 'bertandult ,$m!g: d:~1Wilbo, ~dJeM. k,esu'ruroo;), O:atl p:atID1;e: .puj au: d eW'a, 'bllmW". d~W\1I:~ mtm:l dew,aJ b~lM. ~le,wa,air" sertl d.e:wa, ~i, : .M,m,~lta!CMari.amlya adalJ;m b6~O colc ten!8mi,. 'JOOlg di.b~k:tik{u d,m adanyQ cagkW kap ~ (i:,u
Ii

. ,p:eJlilllgau:,arn
. 'i
I'

]\u y ;;m·e diapgg:a~1 hrJn.'b;ane ,ke:SJUbW-,il1l,. :iti'a~ :p e_rtmimlDY'itll adJal ab. gMI~u_m 10180, k~'a~. Pa~aJ, :SiB.all. ~J.d;m ada ~aluraa •• - -- • --,- k- - -- -- .... IL ---'1U1 g;~:;~ ·l!;J;fllu~. mA~_~ ~.g.gw,_ ~J ~'F' s'ert a '~]i]]i~U~ c
l?-' at~n!~; 'Ch~'wi
~i~,

h-

-.~

I'

.-

: '_-.

1·~a,W8l1
,~ .
:.1, ...

iIOl

h ~a.w,lil_.
,.. • •

[, l.ya1_
I -' /"." '[,

u

_-.

--

I" 'D ._:aI-.am
I: :" I

.._

.P~1.d·. asu ,te:r.:tihat ad auya· :hu'Jfnll1~i2l\d ~m.im • :5JJmeriad~.'L~m'~ Euhl dWl "l.gri~ Y~l~ Idi,~Ie.d,~gggkw.ad,alib k~ami·k dim. M :
.peUDi~t!&

.K:e:p,ercv~mnrra·ada1J,ahme:mll,e:mb:iiiih 'b-~J* dewtll (P,o]i~e.i:me):!lerta s:eE]ta1,~.;iieSU~ 7lim;g, di,an:'i8ap' kesr.8111St C~"lito'hrt,y.. ad;.alah 'pIO'hO~,pi.p,a], d~ b mtt'lin 'yang ~.],eh'Wlla!, 1,utld'b;;t dianrg~:~ :ll tlihom ..~ci~ ~~;n~t~g ymlg d~p~ia,ilJlihd~ g~ u d;a. bU;JJa. ; T;;ja:k(lit~ ~:~IDit~., erta ]n~be:r.siban,dan s ~n:·!i:el1.atan. luru·~i pe:f.'enc:n{~~ k[JItml: d'idl] at dibuktilt8ll, dl~rl.i,ml,adlanya:
!) bampnM R1m.ah, dib~at'tit~ilj bel!duarki11 2) h:an~gonu,nlm:ah;di.'bija1. se:ragam, dJ~. b ~W bi!t, '"3) ib.iJl!~;n;m, ·tiJ~~· ada :Y3l1;1, mmj 1~D;foke k dle.1) am,. d:an 4) s;aiurm air' ,diiJD gull fSle~nm,dtog. ~ ~ad;· :kerseh.ltm.
'pelUDjl~kk!elu~na~~

I~ 88

>~~)fnl~t~

~~~"""""""I=._ifi'

.J!!Er iIlLI;U1l1 ~I~~.~~,

...,]·~~'11- ~'i-i'.li. ..moif" '!.I!',~~~",,"Q'
.r~i..-'lrma ,6

K!e'blildayaan, ]'nditu!mm!litno,pada,

tm1Lm 'l D'm 0 S:M.liseb.abk:2Il, olelt

i) adany8 'b e_DCm)8, b u].:~' dari, £hl!ng,ai, :mid'ns (S~dhH)~ ]) kiareIl8J d_~s:eran;- 'b ml51a -A1y-aJ.
b K€lirlAnjwml. Grulgga

ky~t :M "ek~ 'b ~ilJs,il am, :!5m:tar 'Lcmt :K:~~p~,aJJug d~laBl Jll~asu'iti lndii3J ,s~~,tar!®IO 'S,M:di ~,~grab, ]~dia, ~I Utar,l. A:kibat '~f.d,aJtMIJjlb .1l,~1 Ar:l~b :M:ESla o,.u.i ~8 te~desak dan :mm,ymgkir :k:eIn:di al S e}:i_ta. 'N amUD_'tib d

,Pel'ulukune:KtD u~ay,iaIl, Gan!~e,8J'2d,alu, or:,anfi:·~ID~g

* ~~p;atldlihind~ ad.atly.a~p,e(l;amp.an'bllldl;ay:a,.g ;ald1im:ya.
e,

1Il1e],OifkaIJ.milu1msm

,e 81~lsa~a.menjaii~ m~gk~budayramG,8Il(ge~,
dID, :m,enpasa:i dleral1. Sllbil!lif iii sellri~arSij,DI;ai, 0:11111,1, '0 ahkaTh smunW daerah di ~~kru,tarl.emij,M :rni!lu~"M'~~ka, : :menyrebliblya; !ie'bOilVal, d il!efah, ,A.17,a. 'W,ma, ,atau. d,3e£m Hhldu stu, art1n"aJ l811ail0tartl HBtdu. DISle.tUiliJY,:l1Ulilmpiuti
i

!znim;ii1" Sun)~~ G~gli~ L-mtbah 'yaftl~n~ serta Lembo.
:r.- ..:I, -', 'lUI" [~~U.~,:t _;
i-.i.,'l-r,- -, -,' 'iI.. ""';& o~ .ie:ttn!IJa'L.~'..ii" - .. ,,',"_ -, :allar.~,a,'lierGm'1,puau.l fc~. maaa " dj,cilltulMl,g, K ;ri~a B'e:RI k~wajjib en SQ.ttlr. (wimi~~ jm~t
c Ii'," ,-~
'C, _ -,

",'Ii

,-

.~n.'t~;asta:~M::lljl sahdi, a-di,

lii.kd.ti:~M,d kMla Otoo,~ ,J:Uy;a, b e:radJa,,p's~a :kastst br.ahm an~ ks,atri ~ dMe Siedilci't ,~Iad l~a!t:a,'wai,!),'aJ. :M'e1.ek;a],~,:y,ang: 8J nlelli~li~ '~ci,tii,Sl.H!1 '~ dllt W
SeSf;f]i,rM1'g'

~umw.i 'w*~,u,'a!ii~~,plllmbi.~mm:~,y,~t) ..:P~&~niil11 di

,s.,

~. S;J:'1:~, ~~,d.D:~1?~G,~~

~.;c

S-~IJi"i!'lI DiWlEr

tic:1I! 111.,,"1,

pe.rr,·eb:i1\b

m

l~ Pera d:.ban L ernh ~l1,SWlgoli
Ci!uu, II!Il'o!!Ii !f=J'~~_~611~1

unit} g (C'im=:t)
'IL. '!S'i\]" 1Il_: l~I~_
"Ii!ll_"""" I'!!il 'lil1 m~ldillai' ~,~ llLUU,J.' ~IWL~Jhlhei1J

~r l'I'!-iii'fi'I"ii'ii'ii'lll'1'!!i; 'l,n.·i'I;~,H i:r. g i'ml i;h,:s~babD:ya-mmg'~ a Iw,s~lnj':Sungai,K:~nin:g, :Paelitioill, Prof.
H'1. '0 :mu;e HIi'l.!l -,!!:Ii' iI'I
J

,i ~_Ag ,J i'l~tl!I;

,Davidsofi B.lack: tll,em a ~bkM, ,ke\biUii,ay-aoo bnJ~ Oi:na .:dii Lemb~ l Sua;~ai,Ho ug 80' y'M! P etlduDne,oYaJ dj,'[emulnm, m Gua. Chau K;ul~Ti,~ '}!!Wmri Q'lJ~fh:roJ?u~J'pelal'Wnsi:S"
,K,e'sim,tll1..a, dari. basil :p,e-Q!elib aDllyar.adm ab,

a. 'p,'e1flli,d'u:~aulg ,~e:~iu~,~,y;a:an, .~,e;.,b,iiilib H:'~M1tll!g-Ho ~d~La1l,
m,naHthropllr',~'k1-MJiSrS (in_uBi a kera d~ tC:i~a)~ b. ,d1:t~enluian'~ gl tef;n'~~kifb e,m[l~ ,~;~:lbiOO~iI'berilrMi ,P, e~Gil ~ :f.I~n~eam:bun g: '~enlD;~;g~. dan j am'ibamllJ,an 'bern,pal ahu (li)ro
$UC~~,
i"

...-...c.~""'~' __':',-_'Ii_, ,~_~: . ~~,~~~. d. dite[l1llkaLl mat pMat k~]liak:pe_miU~. dIan ·mi!ztuJ.an~ 'hlerup a j e~itan, ,[-am,bu,t, d'en j. a.rum~ fl. ;o-r:m!iJ' CiOil :f,~:~H,;me~l1,~I~l.aj~,Mb:m1(I!Ultti'i ~j~m.ngg;) unellJ[ :~m;a.n;gl~ g,~ m
~~~~;

c.' 1n.engellal, 'W[li:SaD, 'kuno :~ a, y;~g diitylfis;,

Cm~'y;~ '~uiH ~am~Iar.' lall'~Mig nUl.

~_

&J)L1ruJio

n.o_,_llu

~~,U'S,~'~G
..

.f'i,:':" ..

,[ ke-'iMC:ay;afmIJ,,~n~'~Y'em'b m,'b.I~D dew~ mi!a1IlJ~,de'w;a S;h~Eti adm,M, d,e'WB 1M,~l., deiWi buj an. dler\va,p,ameR eta drewaJtemnl'i1 :YUI d~WMUi :Kii lSia' Ci'll.I.

di'k en al: adany,a' aj Mcm 1"'allJl. Aj Mmt im di p,erkeuallt. ei~,~n ao T~e da1D, 'bmiku~~ya T,~~t., L Chl,~,g 000 In!li,s,e'hI1JI~: taaisme (:s;em,:U!iliil;t k,e'~d~.lafi k)eti~j'abteraQl1,YSl18] k:,e'kal). IG~ari,S ~mr 8j SEemlY,a adahh b ad'."i k'e'r;aj aM, ll11li~ tim YaJl\i;: ~neniidi ;r,~j II],JlI ad .~h:D~:HQ.Tl~~'QIl!l:m,~Dpa,$:m,,~~~~t,mau'llltn btlw.~,d.an m"ene)Mlgk~t kaissr Cio.~,s,e1baem, 'wml iJewi di d,lnM,a: b. Cio;~,ad'al,;h, k:~aj am, d'tim~ rnjl ~ d'mll a ~Ieh.~, 'w~, Hn T~,ea lla!!;a"H'o T:~;eR) ~,I::n'tcmlgua8~, (~ta!l y 15umi dan b«Ee_~ ir'Hu ml I: n, BearDg 'raj:&I,tiDe, h;arus m,tmi1i!ti, l:i l(tinJdJu:u '''1Mli t~~lat
i.

:Di uina

den l)'~f~lJbkea-di] n). ~

Alili fi~I'!ia£~~ Cln(JJ:Koog 'fp, 'T'~~,m~n.gaj ark~ :kongm~omlllu~. 'h~ achil:an ,S'eOlf~'lg ,abli
dan.:pe,g.ar.~wIifi,YDg:aj :ar.nY;fa-dal,ah pem!mll'tiba da ~el~qa,:M,ellJU\rU,mya. neElt'll,J,ang baik ,adwab, jika :r.~i~i adi 'Hfi Ii. ;m,mteri llHUlj aji m,enj
lP:etl:ber~.,

p ~tkif;, ~.

:aa:l,_ .m,t.nj a,dJi anak,

:M erek ah arru's

,m,leD,Jai1L8iIl.kall ,t1l.li gas ,m,:u~iIl1'e'·'m,:as~ Dill,S ehinglg,a, " . ~ ",_'I..... '~b, , ',,1, _, P em,ef!l.rnll.tliW.iRIl, M]-~1 ·b..-~:r. J"'!'~, 'pe~ !WIll.] iI"en, ,m,~uS"J!:a .. >w,;an, . i9J,it'i;.., LlL'!;.iB ",~,'I~,"

~n~

'~,:r~'~
Ii. :~

..wr.,~.

...

;]rg, '~~'''~~

di ~'e_dai.kebajikQ (le'~.a11Il.m.'emmbruJkau s]~]~unag iter.amr. (tJ);. .1l1:ai:k m,idrs;yaraXart :neg,.,a:mmllp'~ :aelaLtta.
'M' . "0 C'· ,.. ,eaumt - J' 'T' Olyn be e•. p,etnennl; ,,81], -_- Ii{,tmO .. , II' _. - .-];n8,,; dil11wm S)~j'.3Qi~IO;SM'!,~~ba(lal,ralii 'tmu81, ;~d'ahdl H:u~t']:~ :yae'~,ij'~·sma. Ke;be.s:aram, C]n;~terg~llmg 'p'irtaJ ,k)elnlml'll1~ m..if;i:miIMtma'tkm mng~, :HlIl Ho ~'[g dan S'Wlil_ai YBil,. Tse Kiml, :yag t:elClrin'ya, ~is\ebut
._ • • • J '.1 • . . J' I . .... [-.' I ,"

::;!l!I •

\.

:~n.ilgg
Ci~~

;~~~iI!

.ai:. ~mm.i:!hr,,~.
;gTl.~

~l~H"

i

'.

.'_

e:. ,Lii~:p'''~' Ill. ,P!!Pw,.:twm~, e. 'iI,~ ~eb~M.t~.Ji®~

e;,

f

,MWI:,n~,~ DI1!~I.S.i)Jl!!m, ~1dBb_tPl~'~.

:~[iPI_'~~j.~

1II~,~,~j!""\Pl,t:ml v.r.tu~. '_~ ..:Ii • 'ill..

(1M rl~-F."-~·I!~!go -_' ~""S~II'II(,\i!lID
n'......j

'I

'v,ailW :ii' - - - _.

I

..

'h,,~"I""'liFA t:iM.'rtmib1?A -c-,~~
-;~~,-~, - '-~-~ -

=~~ ~ I....", U:MJatR~,arL ,~e:Il,uaS'i:Ill,Itii..,CIe.fj:m,I(!(UDO.,
''''''''ll'IHII:I!' ~;"tl-~:Ljl~

1.Ji:~iilll~--e; l~d;l'ijJ. ma! 1~~,i!",~i'" llI;gr ,lWW,1nj

tI;!Jia:ll~ga:z;~an,,:[~ ~:yUlnr~ '~u1.:lent!' ,F.,y, ;\l.w" ~illen, '!IJ':-t~.-r': Hn'~"lia' ~l;L V'~i'fi ~'I_"u'l'I 'Y'1i1i1l U;'CI!Ii'&; .Il...!. ~l "r'~~ ,~;IIII~IIf~I-i1l.! tlJl~u!1;"'\I;liii"Ii:~, ..::I'~:II"i, 1'-U~1 J'.Ui.m dWI~D [II !- ~~11i I ,!L ~!IJ!':I ~1~-'IlIii:Wll ~,,,,,, Uu..I.m.
J

~,_.

~.'L·

'''!ii' ~,",.

'v
~!~

iC!\\. .. ~'b.;: !i::'!l~

liil

l~\:1~

l~l

di,p~e'riLltu,oleb lIiIli:D,a~~,~,din:~sli b miku:t
lI.

Dblasti Sfuu,'g' (1166,-1122' ..JMJ f

Q;inasb Sbmg ad:a],:m dl:O,alSh, 'ilBlrma, se:brag;al p,eUumlb1l;lh.mna;sb dim p~]et* d.ar IH!ta.~:aboo Ci:o,~ ~_D~DJasli :mam,p~ m:eJn'b[jdid~ak'm ~lhnTffilai'RJD 301,H:o i[!e~g~ KUn tang~! selugBia,f8y,B.t, Cillahid~p dengao. ~MUe~I~~,Bei. m'rh:;r,adJenlaD, mem,afrl[aat'[{aml ~ '~Wl.'g~ 'lm,S6'butRaq'a,t bidJU;p '~I~fCl~CDk tJWJi8lU, Idl'~,b ~i~mu', M,ereka SlldM, :m~ ge~ud k,,'-[;,ii'ofirio 'I....."''''''.,. 'P-;'I~"-t", ,.-..,,·Iill'v,_,jj ..:nl.. .,.~_w''''' J!; seb at u'''"''''';'l· o M·I'_",'lt-.",,!I"li'i;' ~.iii;m-~.'-b-· ·n,.... iD"J.U,mLU,b, ='Mb,U ,,,,Ji","" ~'k,""n'o: B.Il.I:1.: Ti_ ,Ml:er~lI, maM, m,9jg..en milmu ,ub:'!D:ncuni dan m,Mre'nbi.k~l p ellage:atan. .

,~m

I

.

..

L'_1ijJ_lLlll!lIZU.I,,~Il!Y;"-!F

"_:

wJ{

_.IlII,~.!r-L~

$"

'~~J

~uIl!OI!,

l[!lj

[Ill

~ -..

llai

J; JI~(~J

__

I

. ,~-

~~GhL~I,;''''''_:J:

~

..

'

.~

IuuW

u

,IJ. ,DiuMD ClmfJ (.1122

=

2,'SS SM7

,DJnJ3&b C~ou, didirikatt IOlle:h :PM1!e'r.,m\ 'W'u, W'.e, den,EM, ,p.u'S! t 11e:merin'~ahml 1m a PrOvtllsi 'Sb!&Jl!m. S ;ill'8jgai baJ;~ j as:~ ke ad~a,p,ara p en~a,s~8J d.iberi '~aall. sem.wgp, la11irtiih :ri st. ;Eeo Peristi W;aJ M~;mbnl ;jdalah, :mu]l!cuhrwy;a ;allJip tmikif~ se,J1erb lia1. ' P L.~ 'Tse'j'Ku~g ,Fu, Tae, M,eng '1"ze m1 an ebUlfWR Tze.
i

c~ Di1.lam Cld'l ,(lSS SM ~ 20S t~AtJ

It~jaytaan ywn ~,:ad _ a Chin.Sh~ll :Hu,Q1'[gTi. am 'Pad~:m~a:p~eI:iniUib;~,~ di_Da~1\i, ~fihMilIJ i.m,b .l'['!JA~ifJJ!gqa~aiI(.~m-Ij ~:M\ eltOtl" 'Wei.. daa Hall : , 'seb~lqgga ci[tl dw,Jlle[,Ba~~:k:a:D dJ'~ b a,w:all keJllRI,~~mm,a.,
J

Dinum CJttli. DleluerioJt&, Cina, mielU,~tai

J:asi)."j as,;my~ ad·a};~ ,~t'b;-;~~,~Imbll

l) Cm~'W'IH~:fsaIDkamI d.~l,w,p,mJltm, ~lm ~],~y.~
!,am, :mja
" -I ~1.O,~I_,1]·,te~'Ii.' ~J·lili,.U'!,·~l~ei'li , Jj!in!. U!-~ .'!Q.U:iJ'Wl ~ ~u.. IU ~/~tmu..
~~~~nl'~,k;f,g

~H':S.:U

Tl!n.tl~kiEJ·~'~C~,~!~m,

3) DjJb a_ngturt T~em,~1 :k' :8,e:s'ar C'io' a YMg o
~~.JI

'pd. ~lIdiJwi.C~
.",.~"
iI"'i&!i;t"/i'1I;.

O' :l,li;b'''''"'"u,'"II ~ ."''iI, 4,~, ~~'''''IDit'il;ii''I.V''"l; 'l 'oli ~~tii~r-u.,· un'mk :olenJl,ben dU~1 s:e:[;a.DI;a.n, ibIM,giSi, SiyiWlg 'N'11l.
n ..... ..;"""qRltIiU"'" _ ~~~:I'!IiIl "
':t. II'!! '? -1. U.- .·1Jl
~i''O'i/ '~I . ~.'

IDl.U~· [1:1.

liTh

'~Ujij

l[j~

QJ

• ~'III.~i11

,~~IU!..iU ur1 ,~.

oI"ilmt..,

''':'I,.."ti~

b lillii"'ii:!l.,·...,. i:J~
I ~Il
~~~~\II,

'4) WitiYU, Cirna fhigi :nl~j ;mi '3~ ]JlIl)vi'~sL
d. Du.ltISJj H~~ (292 J'1J'A_1J1
=

.)

~

m,e:dJl8i:1lAiill, '\iVlli,ayw,i

'!'

... 1~

,,~

,_'I. ~,~

iE'!i,le "

K" O,['1e,

,J) ~'m;m, :K\uD,g: Fti. TZle Idlij;adik;. '~iS ];Hn\~,mmu., ar 3) ,oo.e!lltiajuk~c:p erdag:aQ{g;atli 4) Q~meCjna S:1nda1r'l da,p'al :.~ml:Ml~ar,t: :~~nas: ari b1~~ d ka,u, y:U\Si: ~i"s'eb~·t ~f,lfln'.'d:iJ), t,\5',a of) '''ll'iJam ~,-p !Y,~IJJl'~~~l .*.-11"'; m "'l;C'iill,~!..iif'i';;ln"'l; ,-,
~_ ~l~f:' _

c.-gs;.Jl:~ '~;j.dm __
,!p!~:~~'dm~'~:eiW.

!t'ii,;j}JI'il~ ,i\aUII

"lli ~1,'i~,,!jI..j~I'"' 'in,", ,~~-~Wgl.

'__ rI!I!~J.#II5 V~~J!.g~

~: Dillasfi .8lli i(:S4J9 - 616'~tJl

pirumti. Sw :m.efJJ!c~:ai :k~3p:aM, ]H~da,~qa~a :~lmlerimt.Q,:S!ui, Vag T:i. 14e~:gM, ml~~nJrJ;ldCkmu:1iil;alsti, H 811!,ma,m:enak1~atl. S,yiltll;g:N'llj' j',ikni ~mlndi I~ariUt~a )",.1, u '5 ~hd'U:men!ggmg"gti. ci!\a.
- ~1' ~'R~~ '] -~" .. 'l.. ~, me:Jlt~a~ ~-;~lI;~I:.:mJ~c~ :1) ,m.e,m'll r.mg:llD i\stan a. ker:aj ~ 3) me:ag,a;dJuBD, 111ji~ p,ellyari:mSD b:agi p e;g,aw,al!, d •. 4) membiDp_ll SaJl;lilf"iQ k;ii~;~unhL* m;wl,p ~d:ilu:,n:p!th1j,agl1.'lJ.I,mt ,\

t§r(i'.al y,ill.

dllul.lkml, iJ;l~araltii~,

/: DUIRS, .~ T"{l"§ (61,1- gO' '.;t\1J

M,a~a 'pem,erintah a, di1l!9!Sb 'T·~g m em:piaka mass :~ enJbng bagi ,Pert'lU1t1ilbudt811 Ci.~iEtSaahnil ahmtd:~ :muncu.l '~L1:lanya,n:u;bul~g:an m~;m d :[ndonesi'a -Ma!i:~pem.@rin~aliM. yMl~g bes8r :~ul~.m p~ujh~cmasl oo Iii, Tai S;oo~~_. ~ha~lanny,a. ad:altih T :Keb ~). n;NjJ~!J.' iiIl '01.' ~ ~'-'''' l·'l'l.-:.ilicp·.oIio..t.; 'TI ·1Ifi:-t~·:'''''·'''''' ,§m iU" .... ':,,:'1... i!I'.~ ,Ji en 'ItI\~j'!~!I!I;. r~ J) 'k~sfnilil In ajl~l,:P atdeag·. 'tmlkaD\o Li Tai '~I. Ttl F~ r;] in W ~~tg'Weii,bssilnyiJ iadal all els ~ci~ b~lang~ d,m1 j ;~tlb.~lIigfi; S) sistem ,~~fm!e:l1iiilJt~.aE Idlese.Dbr,~i m ~ serta lii~ mlgll1!liiI,a:p ;ag!l'Jlda; 4) d~keluad~81lSya 'Wldui~;.. dmg J~I mJell'i,ltu:r m,8!Sal9h, 13 m'~agi:an ~Mah." e
1"
'Wi ~U!n

ii'i.;o;I.iI:h~i"i"'P'· O"!i~, ~'''iili;
.,~~_ ~ ,~.!.r

-J,!EIiIj.

ii"'!i'~I""!::I.

~~J"P~_1Iiij ~~

,

g l4

I~UA:W-"'.li'

,I.'1.UJI~~,

'~f!Rl:lll,t"U\illqg.I~

i'!:i_,"iIl~

1jJj!~

1.Ji-.l,iEI)jj

c. ,Diu
!)
'"

" . glu~R'f!U;O -1279' J.1(J1

'Dinili~. SWl~1 :m:,em,trintm Ci~a. dj, ba\V,alt ,kii.SD SWl~I. ai Tsu, Pad.s, m:8li8:p emeT
'ri~tabajl\ilmu p,~t~f:1:~tmlWwl m~'WJ. ~"~:~at.. U,~;ahai"l]~m.ya·~d~.a.
I" 'k k .ep,m~j" !!lJe~ .. 'I.a., . ,e:rm.a_ .' II'-··P· Afri·k db' ~ i!iip~:. .~-)' m.rag,e.s,pe.r .iP or,!le'-t"10... if ,1 Jill. 3) menSp111*ti 'h,1lli:su, :pi'ltto:lr.8f·~ engan, :g.amJ:Jlar lanIban,g '~ert~Mjtu.~ .4) !p,etll;~bahlan. :i!J~tfoD!llmid~"gUll;akmlutduk; :Mml,'I!.IlJukan\:ll~!nJa:~Ia1:mb~d.a.S:af.kD,
'.'-' ,. j )

!lDJt!O!Mrilg mUl!i~1.iIJll.~
I ".~', 'I'

."

'.

- -",'

-

J'

x
'.

I

l~

-

-

.

..

I

.

.

", •

,'-.'

_.

'-'II

I

H,

,,~,

.'

'hulan dD nl~t.ari~ . . .iI,' .. "'.t.Ii,~,M~~ I _t. .Du,n'Jsni.·Jlf'1.'OJ1lffJ. 11'1',jiij'fi ~ 1 ~..I.... ;.' I ,.t.:;'Ii! .l

:Qr,ag MJ: ®ngol b ern-:biss.l .m.elDle)ILWS!!fat CinaJ ai. b:awab I~ en:ghi ~ :KbiID YM,g k em u lIllJi atl meDlu~atkwibu keta di :kiiml'b ~.uk (,P,WD;g). Pd~;~Mllm. ~.~27;, l[leftgw.s :[{hoo. m;enille'lru di,garikml: 0 1,0 €lei y.'81].g:m.e)ll,p,edJ~aB w]llaY~ih ,,~ .._. ill ..l~ ..1: lb ~.~ 'U·iJ"Ii;. "i.. .-:t :[:\tl]l~l~ :";~\ng~,~ '~Oj,mlQ;d\ uW1l, .sf ,en,a.~: _' .::g'~L.'._.Ii!:l.'IiI.~qu,'Ii,itQ~~~~w~,l!i~l: ilaibl!M.Du.t'li;;.~~ G~ ~ T'mun .1260., .Kn.btai. [{h,an, mJf'nG r~'1ti.'kmt. ·keJm.ua~'iJJ,da.lTJ>mmrikiUl":~I~.Mmllt.atTYWg:k~lLdim di~e'1m'u,tdilt.ti Y\UUl. P,id's; .1na;Sial ,e:m,mn~.cmny~ ia :m.en:yunm, UiwnlWl, k~ ,SiII.'1 a'$,arri uu.1u,k· :m:e~l~i:m;t,a: ,e:a en~ktU00 !da~;i :1': .1Non. • .. p J:'U:IWI~S' Kiertmegar.a" teJ:api m1~to:~ ,AJ.ci.bam,a" pi ,ad'a,tmU_1l B" i21~'3C.1n,:cnJl!~fl\iI1)e!eJ1ika tJentatal :k!1 Sing.~m'Wl_k
1

li;,~,

'1'.'. -

.~n:aakJ'\I1~a,
~S~telab berbMit. mt~l~i!hd]_;_k~D (ijnri~i JiJhtqg:ol iii jC':itl~ CillJ.lY~lme, Ch:ane::'k,em)u~ml 'In,emmn,~a.dfDl·~l
i ]"

:p e~,s'dUM;'Cljl~ 'K···· .. J\'-'1,' .:I\"'1Ij. - _!I!..,""';" ...,..,.; 'UI'~. 'II. ; I .J;r. '. i.;J···.~~·k\' 'r"'~c -.~~. II~' . ..•.. '. ,_'11 .. _,: .'t!":., '" , em!!l!I'i~tl u1. IU3WiC'IiJiil: ,LI.,lll!ia'IiiII, ,1"'LWg. , ai, l1i.t:m:!!Ji !J.1,an,!iJ:I,HBEl~ _:an, !!i.IJ: c.u Pi!J.i!IL;Ie:rml,JE\ .'miJi,u" U:lli. Le. :P~d;;ulla~.~iml~,C'in;Ju~]jmg;ad;ai:ml;iJJubb:~)m d:aga!lg d,~tlGiiflt:M aj" aml S~nB.l~
l'll'e'I1YUi.O

sda b!\!l'l:iUiImlg~ yBlg. ·l\llaTIli.ai Mi.~M!iiil :k,edna n:eg~ tef.~e&rlltSemi ban;gun;m ~;an.gatm,~ ~ d!ngu, di,bans)'wl1~Y.8l .P~ioda~Pad:aJ mi3JS1\:Pelr[1~fintab8ll, '¥\W,IJ: Lcp d,atall,glah Fortu'gis

,keru,m'wban dis'e'~alJika'Fru, sel(mgm 'b ~ll11IS·i:M aJlcb.u eleh
yao~g:~~

,([ 5.,~cO~~a:r,mjg,']~,e~,a11d,'~ ,mgeri,s: 'ntW,mk ,~,~[l:~,a(blka, d,ltl h'U,'bUD:gaD per.~,9Ji:illrgM, :D~nast~Mio'i ftl,rel;lgilami

'b erkuasa ldi Cin:a_
,o'ir'O" ...... ,CI' ,,1 ...... "lK'II 11m' i;II',l '~\EIi ~dIlI.I;;GlLL!B,IIlJaJ!JI,

i ,DUlmitj: A:lt1ltcl","
,U,'UJ)!lWIU

n.::.......ht.;' ,JJlJI.Ii, iiIr- ,6;1",00;, -: ,.. :1 ,,:,! ~ M' ,'IllUt:Jiliu,JI,JI , •OI'i,i '....i'Ii ....~In.,.,:l 1!Ii!!!.;.JI, oS;!!U 11J;!EIII.III"

.rl-

1nelliPcittSial, IC~niaD~nuitl,ij}i, ruperin'tWl,ollehk)ai,sarY~.ili
'ku)]":~G·~lalJ!dlaj

s~;mnlga"me~glWllm k(l:sg;darall b gg~:~

Revo~~!ii, t:ioJal, :L 0 IOktm'b er :[9~, 1 yall1dlikenal denga :RJevDh~~i, Wucug: ~):,ay'. H'Lsil!'lY~~ tDgg;,a! 1. ,Jmumi I g'],:! Cini IGurI_S. [~ur siC',b :ag;ai,:m.f"gm:,at,epu'h]ik deng;m Pt!u.i;dJ~11SiVlltli,Y,Hi
I!ilmjUMg .-,
-

Cm:a ~tuk

b :a11!l~.'bMleSDj'a

l[lalm

,;I.i~.hr.t~,
./

Sel'D..
3. P'er'fil!~bim, Le:nb h ,sllfi;g;ll fEnfra: daD, Tigris (l\1~J:H)tamia,)

.. ,fA-i;;;~Ioi",,",""'_ ~1n'ii51'_ ), ~ ~df-"_-' ,iglimdm,dlirw1l!J,Niiw,

';p.i!ii......~ -111."""", ~iL"IlIiIJ,ijl.lIlIlnri
.... _'!o!'ir-"'!o!' --!l!!!

'E~"'~""';" . -·'l<IIin~~:

,.:I~... '''!r'~~ ... .jla""'<IiIi!il'l,,,"'1 .J"''''tf''"'i'ii - 'lfi;i"'i"io.JII"II'b"'''''' U"'lll, ILliEf'""a ~""J:J:;mu, n_Jg;[IL~IiilII~l, ,fl"'~',Gi!;hll : ~

M' e SIO,P lim!tami,~ 'y'aD,S is ek.an,1 ini k.aw:a s an M' ,~'sA_f!I iA!iED~:!',!j, b ~"Il'~,~,m;'1 .d1!!i~:, 1Ir.'M;a mle,Z'~,{" "'~A,V'9i, AQ~ .. ~"' 1!iI!!i'!.;!i,y;t
.".",~!l!II _!IH~

11. 16!liiUI
'Ii'!

'~':ru:.
lI'i!!rAi
_!;!!,Y,

~iff;nla;"'Ii~1 --~D!I;l!!I*,

,fo,tClm

an'trace dua ftMl~:m, 'E,tdral dmt 'ti'gri:s',aa,El; b ermnara di Te.hlk: Pe;ma~ Jiki d(i~ M ~~mll~ o~ml'1iimhuJ]buJl!gkm tCh~mtgD dil~~~b. 1em:b,ab, :SQgai 'Yord,ao" tettJdtiUildab, su,~tu taniiib bulan, sah~t: ),',anf!1fma'klnw:· alml mlsebut ,"uJ.,Fe,~',~ ~e.'Sc,~IU'~ O
iI

c:i~~ 'arti:Ol1'i

sun,~~wLM:eso,plo~Mli~ dh~rtik:M, Idlama, d~

:Uij;!tm penghll,lj ej am[l p,ada'btll mOktJDtJ «-,Attnl :se-hin,EBs, DU~;qjW 't'Ua&"'amJ~: mbm:, Pmd~gkebud:mraait:M es;op ~11ar£ria; ~g
'ttn]lu]!. :atas i]lalsa, B aru,.
'" . -_

51!men:~

.

Bab:iW GtW,-a_As,Stn,a_ Ia!an. ,B,abliillj,QIW,a,

- .-

.

_

..

-

, •-,

:5u~~J~~Wd,~\~,g
'~dih:!~

S,lS'~'~l~IGd:e!l le .• ~i1,o\pb.woil!id~,lilH b~.a,

a. Pern:tlttJ'tJl~' Sl~lT~
'Or.atlig,~o:r.2iljgS'u~n<~,ra:memlldirikM,k:,ekuas:am_tI1,a seJiiJar.

~iiD.
~J'Jj

hIii~~

.

:t~,

ta11'WIJJ .3100 S M: di d,U;SI.t~lt\nl;;i 'E~fnlt: b e.u ~at di Ufo ~l~g 'B e[~hik:p emeriatan:aDnya :ad';d,ab-ktraj amu. ,R.aj anyra ~lal,e1at
P$:~j~d,a,b'eiku~~am,u.tlU~ a:mer.angkap ,k!fp~,iiJj :lUIj '~g,am:~ kep,a!;i:l :m;il~ifi;,'dan, m'e:me,!,an;1 :ket].ruas e,en ,eko~om,j,llJegara;.

,M ~a, ,~'~(;U;M'i:anny,a b~r:c\Q ~D~" Bao:~sa, :S:tl~m,a eek ,n'iJ. ellpket. bl\!jb1l.me)rui d:~.e, .dell,'~;M, mll5!.l, ,Ak:ad~ I "~~ b
1

SH~UJ~ri:a]=~a':a, .1n~[;Sd'U~ T,el~k:P,er;&ia Idl~'IUpan~ai timur :LEtlJ;t, 'T'e~g,D.
Si:stem, k~p en:ay!8ao o[,ag,SllMeri,Q, a~ailJahHLtlem.\l"em'b ah 1~Qj'i,S..l.'1.!E3lW[MtJ.,:(i!!lqa,
d~Wi,,HU

J ;j:an d~Mg:'Mg,m'f'npU!billDgkmjjittlitfl[a,
s~bq~

Waa~a1!rmenp8Jmkan:kayU dan'~ am s;f,b 8J,gaiballaD. b9.llp.nan3 1J;tltUkmt9~,palMcarp ~nj~gallgmmbuatj al}mlkai~:m.",.lll,
_ • • ." J • "r"

.

d,ew,a l:lilgi~, d,ew;a, 'En1ili, :sebqai d,,~w:;,

'1~:~;dl~~l~,di'
[t'~~bb, U:r,. :~\_'IllIIfili.a~

,~, i 11llIIal}, tIIe'W:aJ '. ~. ..iIi , . ,'~ '~lUiL~!~i'

E'a ',' ~.. ' .j ~", . ~ell!l,~m,uewa

,"' atr. n...-, YI ian,.
oII,...... niI\¥'R

Sunllm:a mletlg:ma1 nUN:f :p,;ku, Jal terdiri dsmi 3 S 0 '~m\t1:a 'H:;iI!:ril ~arr;u,.ya ~,eru!]!Jia, 'Wi_1ac:m.'la;
,kejl,abJ.al!\I'\Mitm"Gjll'pml~~,M,H,ek~,,~~I,at:m,~.btlat fWiLlliJD dan'mmlenm ahllilliak nU.ngeo alaBIliom01l1i
• H,..h",~l~

,FliI~~'

'~

'1;;!.,Ui~!!iIiL'Ij;

','

tll!m!lErg'~llJ~g, Wdlt'i;,u,,~,~l~llg!M~
r'r',' .',

_

,.,..;!i.;;i:rl!i·,·,'

"."

~tp..~

I' ~

.

~'I' ':.' . ".,'

',' _' ,,: _ I'~!i ~:Ei!g@5:lj ,IDe'Jl:g:mw,

'~, 'i'.,J~ 1!;l!~,ieU'ii"

s'''''''*a ']',' " t,. . ',' ,,,," ;iIi'OD • _~;Ii,!!< __ , JD\~~iif~ .JI!IJ,

,g'e:~tuhD Sum~ri,;3J ,~,ekitar Umoo, ,~,500 S:M 'i:u::b:~m:k~ao er.wg:ao, ~Ianrg~~,~aoffii ~ ldi, ~ D man :Raj a S 2f1gcn_
b~ ,PemilalJem BttlllIJJUUIiH1l1ID ,B Ib(Ll~ma, ted e'~M, ldi lemhah Sm'lg~ ,El1.'&ai[ "an.ill lr~r&ri;semtar tanl1m, lOI®IO S'M dleJl{g.,.L'Ou,kotimra Ba~ilom;a;

dan berb .Wk: k~r;aj,~- :K,~ku,as;a~ I~
;;; ,,",i(J "'I5)a11,
fi

~

absolut, b aik.

&1..,

~-'ttr& ,i6.''''''1;'' iELII a u'!r. ~)IJOI;'l'II !liill,ilFn ~'Ii~I In ill i:!r~~~i

,dl~'" ~..l.iIip- ,~II ~I U.iiiW;~ tr5,,"" '~<!ilI/

~il!!~n,>Ij, ~~ t5Nittf·1Ii'li:n lI!!iidil"i-~~>a~ !I;lirc,QIIJUI,iCI ,~uay,lf" IU.cU ., .... lU 1[Ji[B,<Il1I,

~i~ab :iW, di t..em.~ ~!tk,a. i p.in:el:l~rj, m sn be:ru':lfl a,bat-illd 'YMg 'lirl{IKM,a J' m, Undug~'Undcm,gj"'.Il;mientu;ltbm1m, ,pida1fu~,b u:~:f~~. mas:D ~tsu'~ (h~!l~:m·ehU!llafm, p emb p 'C4:ni!:!d'5.l!7 ~&lf~ hutJllm,M seimb ~,f[, 'T~j at'I, ,KI,~(;jb HfJm m.,f_"J'~tHd :adaffi,o ~ l(~~~~'~if!it~~ '8.IS1'tidu: ~e_~I;aditind .• mw sew!e:Il~g·'wen~g par.a:'Ie] aba.t, :mI~, l1eg:Ma lltLmmmb iWgi:[l ar~ b gg~ iWW d~,p g,at. ~ro 'f'~D~,~I~, k,em.ili~e~an :$ud;m,~eQ~lp~~aaD.:ker.e~arp [\aftg~ e 'p,~lSnkan,:!lIOOen:~~1Jfi'~a h,ehll 'te.,'b aga" ,pasuk,g, p e~l1ggf,mlH.u: dil ~ng:k~lpi:[em,b.ing.. :k,ap,U;. IIM:P e d~ll!g. H uil hud,~y'a beru ;aI, 'Undanli,-'Un.dJao,g: :Hammu:rah~!,,m,etlg,aolil 'H~mm,omi~ meml9'al ~~~tro'~,~gj .,mlmgldi~fik~'SikCUllID,~~, d'm'tlJ,mbuJbm m.'~~guH~~,bil,m;rugan ,6.f) ~'ba~;~ s hitungan, IdJa5~. iltlite.muk:anny~ Ibai':ll;~f1n, b db e.Il'wk, :m.e1Li~ra (=l~t}l'1JI)i'serta 'ardan:ya rurS.t ','er.],aBj i'an yan~g tntalll,all__lji 'tran s,akli I!! reIDd,sgangm
, • '0; • • ._

kep,aLa, p,erekO[lOMim. [e'o:il,olllm 8 Kuno :miaD'i!:rapai..prU'1l],il!r kej ~l/Jn;lam,~p [f)Ji;;~~R~;~Hanlm)1im~1ID~j'dalll; l'll![lmo;cl.u ~~, a~a ,]Ij,ttdJ._ lmm »J'~'n"a.b1 s:ebalal '~J:ldao,6:.'unJdalg tertnlis 'ym,g . p mmllB" ,1~nJa 4. O~[Ij bseis mlen,em ai m asalo petlldli,wk~, lnasm,;';&, ,~ak m~]i:~,maCS;WM, k~'U;r~;~ nl~ ;I:ih ~~n~~~, ' l'n;jji:tm,g, ,p,erklwlllM. ,~an, :1:D.I$'alab., Utai1\g piUiiaDlI_

1.

'K.ep'~C;iJiWl,Yi ,adalD, m,eB},',ettlb.:dl b~I_lJ~: dewl, Dew" Mlld~k dian,iliip'

seb:3Iai. d~W;lt~rtm,~gi, ~D,rd.ewap'my~:bU'l1,m. <De,wa ~wl1i~], ,;;JJ :liri!llJ agai d,~wi,bwn-i du, w:tmuJ de:wa :ki.am.:~.tserta p e!ll,fll,uas~ ail:' ,ttn,~: b er.kedll,d,llkam, seb :a:g;~i dlewa :~I eme'lib:ar. a (WLstt'u) di 1mwab, ~ ewa~'MS![Iil'_ik ,.
C;

,PemdiJJ;,{lJI.AI'Siria

B a.ngs,il ASrBlri atiD'iJai di lemJliab Eufrat m,Stln I ris', b eribll :kota];flne,veb (9 ~0 ,SM~. ::e ~-t&5'~ ini temr~k: mk-g,bluk:,e'ffil.a Id~,w~eu~ seb a,~ai b m~ls'~. p'~I;lUJg~b a],~ ~f:n~*. ,B,~ir,s,a_, m,e~U1ci, '~if;lt ybg :ke~ dJ m suk:a ,m,em.brWl11lh. Ne,grara, Ymlig llid.irikd, amI b ~J:beLlimk' k,=raj"iM. di .IilM1~~ a b er~,:a.sa :m'U:' ,ak Bml'g~:a,~,m,mka, PerM:g, sehl.nllil, :r.aj

~~~~,'~=.,if" \';o~!fI;1I!I\mUlI

~'jnfli.m.oif"· .JitJilllJ.l:UII, ~1,f~.L~,

:~~'II.

'!.I!'-'-'~*

:'Q' .[',.emf :£ .

b IB"nik ,mu s'Ul~n,y8J. :RaJ a, "ailll~: te'f,k e;~,a~, :[td,:al,oo,
I· .• ..

A~hu:r\~'ini:1], ,':lIl!g, :llli1th; ~lhuu; a

,t] 5[]

tutll;guas;ai M i5it..'DlUh'Ik i"m'tah ban,g,sa, 'M:ied~,~ P:ef.S! a ,d. :Kha1,d,e:aJ 'llen;a\u ID:em~ga;J,~u, Assiri,a, t(1~1. 1'. S,M_), S emua:~*,a"di bul'lJiub,,kata,Njnev~ dibDaJr sel-lila baBhifhmk~~jfml;~1$Qci;il. A
:P~IDIlafliml,
{)i~,~.'g,

'S'M berh iSiI],

,As~~r.i~,'b~y'u: .rn~A~tJgh.mlt;~ e;atl~lJ~ .e)~;, ~~lll~r~ .:hw, ~lern.'~J~~ljli,:iliLige:ap1 ,r~d;ab.K;epC[·l!:qaa:o.n,~alllieny~n:'h.,bmy:ak: dem~ '])e\va, A;!;:SUf.:SI~"b;qm dJ~w~mQtDm adtllah, de:w~,y:ml:.. rti'n@i)gi, m d;m dilam'b a:nlgkm d!lelugmru, :['i[jl.~ .dJ,e-w,~, i~~ :SleJb~gal,
p!1i:ndU'fl\~; raj'a. M erle'kia, p e_resj"!! 'mb, or.,et :m.mmge'l1 'b-~Ii1Us~, ;*D llid,u,p terns te't.aJ [wj ;ag;i. walim,l:nnt ,j ulidb;)"i ~Irn,.mml~g:I:a1. Ob~~b" : ~:ar,e.D,i 1~~ liJf~lg' mati dib ~ri, akaiaill~ H,~il, ~ru,~af\~l",~l p btfsJ,fm h,~roi.sm:e yang :m€n,c~fminkam,

,k,ep Dl'N:mlm ,K.~m~]7mrt, ,m,elsDl!Hd (8&Ib"Qili~,gi) dimUi'ki ·~ian.e~aini du, 'kemeunpu-aIl :8iStWi®(I]])[w ~Ud~l tittlli-, yalmi m'e~gm;b!m;g; wakh, :sretab1lWJJ1,36 :s.y, 11an,
SUJ3!S,a!18

d.. ,PemiIiDw~ Bldfillndll BtlJ1J

'[8abilgm,a B,anru,·~all1.l],], I~; ~' S:M,~~e',Il,dukoolnya b ~I~'a; 1

,D,abil 1m i

~

8D,p]'l kemb a]i dan '~i]!n~~a e1]i~l,m, ~

·,[(.ha:l,dlea d~g,a,:r~~ ,ay.g '~er:k!fn~, a~,aJ,:.'N elbuk;ad]le.2,m". 'b y' ..1 d ~Ik ,.a I-.11ii.I~nyer JJ,,' ~n~s:i:II,em, ;M Inenlu OY'O!tg SemilUlj, Qr,an,g: 'Y;ahudi :sebagm bud,ak Babiloni~ :i. ymg ru sle'bu't: m,3s'a :p emJDnulD, :Ehmil v' '.-,-, "'.' ',', ' -,-, ",~,Uillnl~ 'I:i; " _..:1._111. ,n.,e,p,~jfc~,YeJ~ll Qlt'~L1IB, 'B;' '-b~'11I' -' ~,i3!rtl :Eh],,~,@U - .. - , - -',' 'b - - " .. , ' "'W' '", ',' c1 .... " - ' me"ll'y~m,8lb'"M,:Y:- ak- _', d :, "~ "e'-,~aJ se:p~rtl, \. leWii S·,iitU:r.,~.lI.U~.
1 1 1

d·ew',a :M~S~ d £,w,a, 'V'mm~,~da, P.t~t:o'"p·£tun,:IIJllbm,
budJaJml!ya ala],ah T.Mn;~1:8f®e:an~ng~, 'J ~l
JU~MIIi!

~",'11I~i"rili';U W!l.l!:Upu.,~ f!',a... ,s:_itiII ·Oil?"l!!i' lI~LiII Q'~i""'I!..~p'~ l~~lt.I I
'~~~ig.u;l I~

jaDljg

d o'!!i"'lil ,iC'-~'n,:!:Ii ·m'I •• ') ,_.~, 'D'.~'IL~;] QuM;a,! ..D'lMim~Mm~ LitlU . ~"'I;: [~~U.l: m,egaIDIDIal],:k~in1~ab:mkrJta seh ~gai m,~[c~ ~;ar b ;~i'me~~!d~I.~~d~
I~l 1'W1tt

't~l;lU,
I!R.IlJl~

m, Bt~~'
I

,s'w

y:an;g ,IllUJeIl'pll&U&lgkan, kl!llts Bah;.;1 d:el'lgell "f'S11l9Jl :SiMg:an;t-W1Jii.~ :M treks juga m (to . .tna!g9al. i1B~n alrtl:mak dB,Da.Dl~",nalUi:p~ ~~mi. Det. S'eJ~.-itu. lllule'kij:mem~lilci-.1~m!lii lnale.au:ik-a ~!trtlk:m:e])jlpi'~·e:l~elii~ngdml ~lIasliIlPatatl.·den,S,~,36 ~ sertili.tnigbi itmig· w,aktll satu ,_~gp ·ada,'1 bati~ saw, h~ :ad,aJ 24 j~, d.,:tiap i~iJ. Uta liD :menit B 8llgs,a B ibllJOw,a nm~, di~ebab'kan o~e'b S'MaI],gml bmll5i1 .M·~di d'8!t :P~"ia taboo, '5Sir 'S'M:; a
.
.
_

..:1 ' L' p~tlll:agaJitg' ~t~tl.~l;_ mM!fi~l~ ,NOU~

~

~ iII..!'..!

J' ~'uu" ~1;ii;W, 'b-'" ~,em : m~, '~I,· ~~;:~

prn!if:-rl'L'ibNnN'~~DI'
.

4.. PI n Ida cr:rdemb nh ,S; UD,grd,Nil 1(P1 "~ dab an Me.sir Kun.a)

:Ue;!lir adJalah, m,egara, :,uR (Hlalu~ Sun;E:ai, Nil y,me: benn,ata ,air Iii Dallum, Albert, di vrilaymu N'egan~ U IMid a. Ahti S1~jarm YLlltSn.i Hmodo~,u's :m,engcartakan, b uws M esi:r -dallabh--[ilabS - _'--_.~" f~1!m,~ i81i',_, __ ;_.___:_:ia'~l.;~_-__ 'Ii.iIlm.~~ N'jlil ,. _ ef;__ _ ,L~ p- -ad,-'rD--- M'- -' -'K-'-- - ,.c.ru,P' __ .:_;ii;I:_Ial.l_. -~~~r ,",:::~11;g ------I~---- ~i1im --rrdab- ~ ali tertn ,!!iii ;I~' gj])---'a_'i_ di'keraw. dm:i,pemtmJu~, bmw 'Ra:S'~tt~y:me:b,erll.w Imbrafa,m~,eh a1taJ·Prmtcig., 'Cl1lJ.m1plo[HiDlIl, ~mj
!I,
C,--c-"

~I ~_

Q,Ij,_,

p:adall B 1:2. 'T:ld.isa b_gs:aJ ,M,esir' ~:'lmoadJa],8bl1iero m1i,f:'(wru~.Sm.l !~,~b ~l'Tllmise. terJ~b~t: k:,m.u di;m ,dli:I',ed,efBamd~iilu :m.mj,.idj. m.uatik: dill, SkWw,ya m,.e_~ja~! d!elll.otik~. ,mellJ1~ili:s_f1ySl,I!i d,Bun, ,[p':a,piru:s: ~eD'i_'p ena. d,m .ierami. :

:P~rad,~ aB spin m;al 'b~~p:ap,~aikaDl~ m:aya1toeng,M, ~'afia,m,eDd-udukan mH),Yi31it dm;:un
bhur 'dl:8fi ib:~ (1'l'l'wm) :~I.~ d !l"~m temp utu~ :,(ro,ses ,di:scblllt, ~(J~k.e,,~hJmfi1~. o.rMig' :ini 'M:,e~ ~pe:r,c~JSi on.EIlS m:am. hidup ite;nlS i1~,WU?f:am,a:a j.a!adioy;a, hmus 'tet~ uluia stmO!ig,a j a~:adD:,a:iP'~rlu li~we(ka11 (luJwmLil d
!ij;:nU\aQ, ma~at.al.

:M'I~rir:~~'ba~:ai &rikp,t b

a R;~'31 (fir.auo)
Co ·K'aUlD, burub.

,(i;~

,k~lu,arg~3

'b. P,elL1a6:atlg Ip.engusm.8J

,dl.. :Pm'.aJ ~,~g$aw,~,n e. Pt'taWJ,
'[PMIJ

b~ui*

S emua 'budu, 1.~ai~.b me1aJ"aJll. ploD:ilmJ. d~,;8itiiSllya sehiog,ge s IOlg31.;m, end ental. 'U,sta pene mirilD, :p en dlilg.Uk :M,t:ii'f ,~a1~, b ~n;:~ 'tal;lam; :m~~gb,a!ii[km !e;mdJum, dap, k1P'a;s cek rertaJ ~erd,~mg. :Qr~~, ,Me,str JE,emJjf',emb,8b_ 'bmly. dew a, :D'ewr'a: RwRI!' ad~,al'l. d~Wia, matM;m de 'tlemn g,gi. :!ebq;:al. Bmb er 1~ -'f.;' ,.;I --', .did'.;.;.'L •.1f-A!e~.;!l!,I!J.u,- ,_'Q'\Vii!I,,:__o5Ul,s' a~'_~,(.yj eewa m. '[) - P:eI,ttd.ilan, di ma:rmb *~y~,g, ~ian~lgapd.e~, d,81~d.e,watmdt :Dews ~"ri.saj8l.ah. deW'S, :ifJllm ,phi, :mapr ma.wria, J'UC ,~\!!i'hl'L ~, ~WD, yng b Uf~iID tti S~['lg:ii 'NiL Of~!g I!ii;~ Te~~~,,~/i~,~ :p~. :~'a ,,..; ra"l'b~ 'M'~ k~~t· M: esir :p e.rcay~ "I:B~~a;'bi:l1~t:a.tle k.e[.;MJ],at liWuP'it-:m :~,,~, ~ 131' ~ ~~t,. s;ep'eiti bu:ml.l;g, :~~a,B seb &\gai ,Pell"eb!(lb1J,~R!g, 1G\~dii~ti~IIJC~~~ldi~:bw;~~ .: '~,nu~h~~BOO!COl\ah.ID1'gi:.' :~~jI, m;iDili\~il d.eD~lm,im',1 m.lt'lbm]. Lem'bu .mm'ili:lb!,ili~lQp~dfk.;~'~1:!ifm:'b~M· d~ang'lgap ~)e'bag:~.bin:a1;&lg p'e:~y;.rge~ '~'tr:bt" ~!Il~j,. Di d!:pg hm1jltbr ~ dlttof8J" HewM,~,:he,wan:y~:~ullop di suoe;8i r 1.m;p'Ihn, par.~ !;.ip~j :pl:m, :~::ij_~: S~II

mr

'Nil d.i ;g;sl aJ:1 m em b :i:iIw;a. ke su.'b u:ram. 'U' hik ~e;r~ • :~am._;M'sir b.:.,_"_:_:a$!~l'_,ll,~,a-_.~. lilten _'e 'edI .~~ , _~ 1"'U.,
1

'~~~~iHt;g~~~
,

__
I,

..

~lfug~

,Ftr~ml, '~i'le'~ M f:eh~n:gg;a. ita ld:il,mtb.~pa.n,

Sie'1ji,;ii 'raj a belmMkota ,k,le:mb.' 1(N'lem,t1ldti) i

I

S~dem.:kal],ender:M eiir:mno ada 12'b~hln~ anta.raJ'tMun.'bu'[ an ~an:mltDari. seb iS~hH~I[ a b;EUiM'e~if:mMl"erd~~;;m'gk;an IO;ianaum. k~nJ1lti~lt danl~ttf,:as.Pu,s~t:[~l~~3g.g,~ di. Thre'b.e. M:lempbis, da, ,AI ~t:ar:o.,i3l.
:R;aj:a. re~ir d~,M!iU!;,~, M I~egrt lal:t.~b '~'I~ya :Raj mya. ~ b erlel.~ F:!ra.l, dJg ibu ,klola :ke-;fi]j il)an~a]. d]. M.eJD,l~ri,S.

Fie:m~riDtaDb M~sirlmlu~li~'~gi :nrlltnJiail ~~~ d
,Kiu.u}' (J4'fjtJ
$;M-, ,21'6fJ N1'i1)

a.. Mesa

1i'~j;~,M·tsir Kuno: :ad.alah M:ene:~ y'oog' 'bem;a:$il , :ivl'1L en:y,amkan 111. esif dl.ari" ~e, slud;ata S';ehjn~ri3; M\e~ '~i:iIl;ii'" :rn.td.ewJ. ~;m"
l

IJ. Mesir PmellgrdtJ1J1 (2160 GAl - 1 . 8:8 lJ/t.1)

[bu.l;olta
1b e:IlUWll

S[e~trhri:l5':nl :~:i,'b erlll5U .m~p,~r5,lhJkM, M e;s~r'k;em;b;a1i dan. 'PI er.i~g sad:.,a Ia ber.:u'S:M\:iiIJ . .nl'empeduas Ml.~i. ke:Pi?J.e:sbn·~ d.all ,Sudm,L 'S.e~~hlll ditl~~ ruf61lellmlet Ill, :Kef;~a~, :M,esir
,Pert.i an. M:esr P',e:r.1jengaha.~ 'miJlail\d~r'kat"1eHJi ·sermgaft .HykD:S yang gtm:tar htl'p erug~
c; Muir B,rm~' (ljfJ() 8l1J-1Jt}t)
II;,!! P .. '

:ue:~r .~Hadla .~·a m

tW,

m neb e,•.r~ aJeJ

:s-em:aki:l). .•. arj u p erl:ani :;rnn)nl~.M: er-r.llka. .suJ~·a:b.

'... i',...l.,OIj;LIiIlll, t!~"""""I"i~I;I"i,~ ...... .... ,.a!II!II~!ilIU.lIl.1IlIr1l!M"B,~I&.IIJ:1U!'ii.,..ii::I[liau. m, d-~,a6i'il,-1 ~~1,u:llu !ilJ"":Lu I{EI! 'iR"";ilii'iI!a~iirn'iI'I'l:i"_" iii"_U~·"''''I. ~'i:,"'iI:_'I'i'OX!i; .

GMJ'
..... ~..Ac,c' ~u
...,\1;11 '...n..;_-'~_l~:r',.;~AI } :Ii,!!.l,'·~l~,n.io-.-,.~,~.a.~, ....
"...;1\" ...

D eD:p:.,OO:,~eD°·a1 cmlall S er.atl Q:J' :H:~.~)IZI d,ari..A'st:a;.~ an :!jj. I" D .rlky:at :U:esi.f,' saJclru-d,., 'b:M.gJd.t: dl~,bawm, :R'2ja

JUUll,llis: :~, an m,e1'lpil,'l" :H,kos tdJari M esir ,RWltUif b erm'cilelt Mejir :B'~ )1'&41.1 d nm, dan 'b~d,.g~!uwD.~: :sami'lai, 'tahw 1:100 SM'- Raky',a,t IIJ]"es;~r 'm!el;'l;r[ml[b~ih'D'ewa! kU'ilJ9;d.M. rnlleb,:R~,~'nru,tm.o:$is: rn: dli'~~~iU·WB. u dew~;lAm,~.I1 ~i..kotaJ\[m"1rak~d. Re • l.t1L]X,(U". S~rel. €Ii,!ia'l! nleh :R~fi.A.;m,eldm tep :~V! :r,akya"~ Me~ir :mJ1.d,ai, :.en:18DJut m,ttD!t'a'L~Uil:n,tJ y~, h'MJ~amm;Y'~b~ d~WitAnWln]rilO;lrdi g;ml:b:~kg, €l:bagici ~ulmD, s

"

,

,~,*

M ~Bhari m'M;mg~ 'll.lni.;ve~~Ia1;_

.. • K· 0lIl9 d"an,Aldo' .'_ alii·'
" . , I'.,

"'Iitai~
'I"

MaD,

'~DleDlW ,ulmmtlmi ~- '~q=nlI~ :ilw'U, .~traHliil

c.. Nle:"un,~. d, l'\i~~ ~mru.l~~ dg, :Ka1IUijt e' ,:Aiitnya •. Q\-eillillk dan pa:1rilrIg ~:. £: AM~YI mmrui pmI Jajil :Mc.1. ~,

me!jIit.'

JlfII' m~li~[)j,

K,emn:tutum, M.es&:r: m:!je,babk8ll, l~lreh fabLitr~f!ak.t!lli:r'~ ribt. e a $ ~~ialm btat1.e~:a,,At~;~ri.a, :p':a(k~i L.u~ ' ~;72:S,Nt b. :S,er'~I)arll~ari Per:sia..

c D,t~epml: :M:a~ed.Qlma: di b swa I~kDd.ar Zllakamam. ct J,a!1UJh.ke 'Iangaw R~tmmJri, di h_ah. O~tm.aDus. e, 'Dik,ultiai oleh :lng;grl,s.
:Kun.o (S,p'il rtl dan Athmt;fJ)

S.. 'pi ad~"!lB, Y~i

S eb el'Um"Mem,[l'.i~M,akarl]()ebu.d8J8u:Yu:mmi~s;~cara mn"a.~'kiti akml.:m,em'~i.~araka, k:,ebuj~~'a.g 'kI-~~~, u'g;~ Kf'tta :im: 'Du!lsib t~~k. ~ ,ras: ln~Jo~Mm,m. ornn.~'y:~g:

m,ell\y,el~di'ki k~bud,ay~ml:Kpet;a, :a,llabib. Dr- ,JUUlllF. Evaas_ I~,'b erkc:!1mpulu. 'b;ahwa:

iillii"'!.
, 11"

a ,ke;bud;~y8m, :Kfieta, 1D le.rlall{gflll~e Sl~~:ttar. .3IDllrn 11S:M; lJ. b iDlgliJJ Kr:e*i mel'nblJil'ifj; ,mBalm 'beWb. m'ruik' 'bum at;, e. terdQ:rt :~n,gla[,an 'b e~p a j anlJbao gaD, (v:as) Idacl, jm,aru, )!'m~;indah., bek~5:i5~anl'a d!i

,Ktto:sus~ (tim,Ltl'b.w1nth (~fm~lo.k b trkelok nnmk :(H~:i1i1ihMM.),

i{,ehudayaa Kt'eta, ~[[er.akhir s~b~"~ t~lUml, 12' S11S;M'. mCfe.ka, ~ef.ldes*: a, Uhimya, d
,m,e.nyeb a!. ke. :P,al~~ti!1,a~di:'Seh~lt, OJiima: AiLi'st.i:n), Seb:q;Bti,:~ ~1'1i!pasa, rQaru onl~,~: 'Y;w.uui~ ',ag m,~~j :9~gtal k~:b'l1,~~'~!if;l, :~ui, Em,pi!:[)atr:~ 'V~iUIj t~r.],~~~: biBgian ~'~t :SGUll'!I~:Jl..jUID!g B'wk~ Itti ~t~

m, :Kre'ta, ad~,D,

1W:l'1: ,fu,tr.J!jp.g

bmln~ari, Yuna1iJi
.j_~' ,

,pm,an~,tPlul,n, di :seki;tar ,Lmn E1.l]ru,ea"L,Bl!t Teno"., d.an limn: A,~ge,a :Oae'l~[' 'b agjsll !s~lat-M,be_riklim panu,clm slel~: w".u~m lifl\ih~.WilaJab,'~t~aib eriMim, ' • ..:al:....,· -i"i~\\.O'ic ..1 ,.. ,'L~ .!L_ ~., ..t.. w,ngm, uan. 'II!. ~',~II· AI: .mu~tm lw.wjg1n~ ,g,~~~iJ'~gj 'tdu:lWS 15~I!l,~g,~, pmi~Y,awYAliy~ 'Il.,:illlJ$l1 1~IW"S~jlU. ~ U m se C:iar,~, 'b,etknlow. s;e:m a4_u,m1l:atang, Idlari ~~tu. ,~er,m, ,k!e.da«M, l~D_, d

m
,~

j

Dam:m'lYunam, Ut.~ l~an:'Yiiflmti, T'~D.e;mhdiFtubqng~a ol.~hp e,gu.mrJ.tW;I,an., s~d;m,~,ka, Yu:ftai TellS* l~efJJ!~,an,YllmilJani M~,mb1Jb~nlka,d,lmlaD TDM Gell~in.:I;Cb.o.rmto. S'e~ 'N'~n,k mJ[J,y;ngb mil;s~fr;llJl~li I~as~ tlug~ ~,m;~o-~:J.~rm,g YI~g'mulai"m~l&,k.e YWa;M s:~l!titar1 ,m,OIISM" ~~)llgai, :p,end1ud,* ~1iay'~, adlll1!lab 'b.ae;s:aJ Yo,Qi~ E u:g~a 'Yu:oMtirerll e,r;:,m [UA~:Djali beta ~~ilirrp'ng,~'yBni ' a. p ag'~,a DOD~, dl'" di,.l11':az;i:rC, Pte'i'lmrp enesc ~ i~u ko~u,.a Sp ma;,
'~~gli

b.

y'om'a, di JuiiriiJ·Att],cad.mg~·ibu.'kot,~' Atb,en~ c. b:~g,s:~,,Ae G}H~ .d.i~, tH, 'YUfiamJ,'UtMla, Ch~1~~W;'i: bit~ a~y;mpiidJ. ti;an Delpi~,. i~u .

mmn

:M~:s;kI,:pun teIDdli;ri, iiilM, ~Iltm,~~
dap at ldii,iWIMsamka, o].eh~

~

bmgsa V,anl t~s'fb

aE;"

,fi;~tm,

b:me,s,~ Yu:~Di

a. :adMY,ike's~amMb.,as~y~ 'baba~a YUnaru,~ 'b. '$WlI~~,wn,a:.'~wujr~ Z~~15'Sif.lJ1:JIag,m ~lmir~~lliil\llW:"unam; ~i~,aJ l e, ,a,Jd'a1tya,'o'mimpi,mle (P ekml,m;:~hTPie,~)1 :tileU1ap Ie:mpat:t6.W), ~~'k;~b :n:mmk,filengbJllnnati Zelns;, .d.. !te'ti:ap o.it,2l! 'Y~,mi meniEtftm ~eri,tl k~tp ,ahrn ilWima, h8iil k:i1'Y,B,Hll:merD:S~ yalmJi, llla! dan a.(#i~e,tI~ • e'. lot . ~~es~an-llIUtt;ar:;a,nljlu:m y~ae k al_:,:_], 'Let~~eDr (I' Del p'hi ,__:,~_' l__.
c

:B:~g$a: YW~ ]{Utt~1~letilh:-:~;el~, ~,~mmdiarnl 'Q'ta-:kotarm~dcka.yangmel'niJiki t pem:wtUD, Si~IlJiri 't.m~de;ka). NC~~'aJko~a~m dilulilinei oi[eb.tmr'bfnk seib.ai,]Jlmah~if1. :PUs'at :Ih~.mn,tgao,,'ang Jp:aling b ~~k'emibJI,mi :M'al] g, :P'ollij; Spliwta Idu, AilMlla" Sell ~ pl~li:s;,.tempEJ ai ci~m'C~O' rseb:lgm, 'b eriw;t.

~. 'O~m! tMUm~}'aim memHiki :hukum ~~d'iri .. b ;Sw~~lem,b:adidJ(an'tar1ri)" yabi :mbmn di bi d:;'M:lg ,ekliiiitUlth.

c, ]( emerdekaa,p ®,li,tik.
P!!lllli'! :Slp ma

dii,:lm,!k;an, ol,eh LJCltH1P s [Slea:t.ar.' 91~IO arM y'an&, '~er.ri,ftat otoKrarti"i; mi]i't~~lisMe.Ebulm le~girdatiJIi~Jl ,dis~but ,E]cl,e:sia :MUY_Uit ~pma :rerdui a';~:

b. :~olQugm 'tmdat d~mm,asyaraikm ~law,a1l

3. 'IO~Omlll_ ];N~:[lpat . wp,elgug i

mLru, :Di!:lIDia~,

Slilli~, :L'a~oni ~ d~1 sub, M:asrin.ar dise,btU. Pe:ricik~, (P~11 mi[m,,~m,en~:rui~~D;~.l:lJm~ ,m1in1,a;llltr,e,ka) J'a,;d;L, n,,:e[~k:a:yag'~ et\liiam l\"JAm!e[~lin;!i !l~ku,Dori.a:, .'S:ismm,,~'~Metint~hD, : S':pa:t1a L11161l1~rut 'Lye-W:81J~ adalab

s. p.tl'Dl,!!ffiiLwla]! mpe:iMl8 0: ~Ib~, lilJif~;~~ b _ ,E]d esia (dew,an,r~atJ 'berm,e;es nlel~dNtb :p u,an,~~:m.!t;:ny~l'NjrD:i:r,enc~a, l1lin,dan'e;,~ 1.;lnG1Jml{e; dan m,emihh aggota :0 e,w;an[~h!llmi~i ,1:'" D,ewu, 'E:,lu::II[oi 'beraJllloltaklm,: :wma ID~an'i1,1111, ' bmll:I!l;,i1iis ,sebl.lm d!e,,'aD, ~i~'iiW'&!. ~11mg:i1uli~i d au m~[t(b.tu tfi1~~abraul ~ik~ ,f.~ allb~;rp~[o~m~ :ra,j;~ p
.Ji ~.... ~ iB"ii"ii'I"':'" \~U.1'~QIlJj. ........... ''''I!'\\. .. ii!.:1i.'li:~~';I'i, U'~_I; ~:';]l.Q "-r. 1 UQ:iII',~,U~J

m

"Ii' ser ~.Im=Il.

;ili'~h'Sifi~~'

:~'~11[I!!ISHl~

:rn (dir!'l "i,=='N,,;!jill' :~IUJ';Dti! ""'::iii ... ~

e' Raky:al; S,~I9rta,'~erb agi ,e_ta.s;[iUra .HO'~ 01lij:at\, y:a:ilo. b Dglla :Dori a ,!i,ebagm :k~ as: ,S.8tt~, dill

:ijoh~~g~ mir~,t,e:f' s~b:~;g,~~l(Jng~, i.f;ti~l~J~'Wa g :fJ\Dli:s I\;"tliwa, di:g~'~!tmeleh ~5 \[ 11 tiu\}lfg; 61~IO :s l\I]:.. I ~@ D ler::U.:Eat o~ig~ (I,emokrati,s' (p ~eliBilE~;m 'y:8Dllg di,pl~e:m~b mlgli&WU). Utlmkmetnhlllade.ob~., eli ~t~~s',m9a,,'ta;~

k:m ,rut em II0 straa st1'l ~t au ~:;~eM ~I~t.~, ~ne,ri'Uk~'yidltm, m jika rakyat m.mg1J,~m,pm'kan,p,e~ab:D, :~,ffiuk: liS J~M p 'Mldiu,(imalc '~lak;i~~~Jm'~ r.aj fa dinytuakSfL, 'mam, dat}, di,'blJ~ane, lIH~lllJ]tm'[ S~rnam;ilnm:it t.al"aun. Jika md~ d:alHlt :map'lbillb sikapnyit ia l~apat,mke111~alik.~seb:a~ai raj-<lJ di A~)a Di A'llie.l:la, b dlak ad,~k88ba,. ,S emus :l'akyM ,Sj ama haktlya Pad.a imun 5 9',4,SM :8ol en mnib oat: UUD 'Yang .i nnya:
1

i

m:bagi m:enjadi ,ampl: 'a Pit' (gOlIOD!8fl, ~k:~f\ ,~g,.kq~ 'b~ak t~d~umi d(WOO mi~kio);, br semua laki.~l.alci:'"mJ,g be~m,'Uf. da,'at :men1;adi 3I.l;gg(ht~, ,EMe~8!; c. 1 QIiMI1~iMl :p m'b'lu1.~. e'ks;piIlf,1~,dI!Jm~d~ pl~Ulb.~~iW, h~:ml ik 'loo,ib..
it

r~at

*~

!I:1i\ • i,... 'ik ~illsuttan,~ efJU]J,e:fiLt~i~

A~d 'iL. ~ ,,',,:)Jl'en:;Ji 'k' ,~u,aB;ai.'~benAiljt

a
r

,J( ep m,aJ.. p em,le:nlllltDM

di:se'but Qre'ho~ (raj a,

ada !Siembilan, o{rengJ. b :e ou1~ (b adaa ~'lirip, d~g,Iar.n, :p arl emen), tue:as,~;tya:m,etle19kM s,erIragw:enladJi arc,hon~ 1n e'lui il]!'ta, 't an,g'i.'ung 1:arwab tlJ'C'lJ.on" ~ all ,Olell;lltJuikuml, tira''D~ y:i1tg: barsm:ib" ~: B,t~Jd~:~ crafii m d~pegcmg o~,elflJ, eroFH:i~S" P..

':vans: m~il,e~~b 10Ie.rhu,atan

b erteli an d~n~g'M, p,eogkhl ematao, :Il6gil.f~ dawH8li a~'~, yao,g m,eogawh ~,er.kar.jjit p C!rdata ;djan, puihm:a. "'J:8!Dg .te1ah. d~:t/etlapkm,

yanl,

~11IiII.b1Lt,

oI.!\Il

;Il/ ...... u i'II il..u1l !tug

i1.~~~~

IQmjlu:S.D H~MJi!~,~~P
1m,~m~'~~~'~i~~rf,.1IWiIi, :~:a'~!iib

. :u.n:m

!~ti."""~J

:00

1

'Lo 'I....al ir!I"'-~'''' " /lo 'I.' ~ ....o :t:iIb.:l: t s.. ,lUe"nt~,J~pn~~, ,riawei1l0illll: ,.J~b il"':· ~'WDp:l)dt ,~IM::p:iJj~~ erltl!)a_s~· ou'-L e 'I.. w. ~U.\'ti't w:P 111 n D iiWS:: 'ueni ' AI jj,.g'

Ath.~)a. sfmakm. Inajju. dan. :mmJadi p ,en.F~ a ~e_ru:umb.Yu.nw, k,~otali d~~ •. 'S:p ma. ' I)lensall a~~,a Os~aC'~ k,ehidup,tm b eme:S)BllB, Slemakim, ~:iDs;e~! ke;s'atiar,anp emim:pin unmk, m:e;ol,~bd~kiUl in' semicill '~:~~U~dd iH!ikfl~!;t sma ~'i1i,mn p emb ~larmD~g,~a~ d in1: .. yuu~~ 1dulsJ14I[i'~, ,Affien, m.eneap,ai :k.ej~,~~ya, p~da masa Peci:u:Le,s Irti :JtUUl:aJ bmn",ir' s eluruh . 'Yu:nal di bawab. ,,"~:Iheoa. :Pe_mae!81lI:,m maiJu turejiputi, II)anJillIl>l, ale.ur~ mioy'ak Zaj:bm. , :k;~, 't~& ag)il ema'Sb, lita. p,~rak SM1J~a, H'l"eDjiaidi u~or' :nei;ma lCm1llaj ~-m1,lain ,i\dal[~,
.,

.

.

M"J.,P

3't;~~i d.idam se:~!ula1\ dJan.m'Umju:1.1hl;Yel:k~t~jtap,_ b.ah:,wal !Slebelum ,!wam"UDI~~g,~1l.li~dane

be.d;eb hsrus iti'boaS! dlhu!bJ"

.PD- '--, Yr~ = ._:m;. ohh'y1lDUll1

I :'

Pe;--ia '-- - ~.48 - ,I."H: JB U:2 ~

1G~ti!ke, Diliilm:' m.eDijaji; l1j~;,"Ilmla. ~,"p(d_ :

bUMriJ]_~~
B!lmi!lifaNi r-'1.

I\'fl~ A·.ma ,b9' :S~

j!!'nI

dibl_mu o1t:h l:lNliu.

IUJ~~~kik £~d',edclDli :~~.
Illl ..

RIir:.a

(Asilii. ,~~ mnnm :lOm!wuUf!l!LPI'tiDin p... ~d!.D. :l1\l.tu. U'~fQm!~ A

,IB.jBJmm, kr~lD.h

dmP.~.

~

pffli~,umlf.. i, SJil~., P~{iia d

&kBhI~'bme.mi'i"'J'n 'Ymwi -I11II:I,
M.:'og·bnli&M, raJ«UYI -

r"mill:
y~~

P,e~

b_

~i!eilM:~a~ ~. Pe~. c. ,~;tMJlI~1;r1i.!mm~;n~aJJl'1iIu kcep!!rIu:im.~MJI' Id!j, 'Y'~I t;l ~~~:cIJdmrpUiia .~~ k~t 'b~lMfIHLS~, . II!. itimbUIDn:p ~IUII: fi!mpm~ms~,'~ pnng SpUta Un A'Illna.
l

pml1s1 ifi. ~

'~P

A1:UbIm' :brmMlllliim &.m 'limbul. ~_ iri,:kUlitlib:mtl'mA~~M; au S,pam. Sp_mtl tlilu.t' i~~!Ji J\:Illil.m ft~'~j:Dlg~ :tempe.DO!" ~,]itM1Dii1.ya On: ~nJ!l:iili!; A:flle~DI.,[Jeq P-e,.:ne:SOj). EM!&m. pemq, 'h!iElEbut~, A.:!DM ~~.Un,i[kIllHi.Spam.. Y;J!~bn iImIll,')!!DIem'UdilllLdimlm:;le;tb!n : o.kh:O, ...• ...t-~~.P:~!!I.!I,'r,!l!;!!_ - ------ 'ililhd.: ......r; :'i!l8J:1-'" ?'~nii ~';!!il!i :s,".Ii',d~lljlI--·dllli,ille·I!L,Ji"NIr.!Ii~~I_":r·lJ.'irun:p' ... "'''tj.'''''___"Q ---- .~J!:!i, 'Q1....:i~-,-. ~'-F "'~,~~;dD:Di.tt-- -~-!DI,----~- ---- ~~ _ !if,!!. --~ --------~--~1ii

!P._

(Mumufe:~ ,ZWkHn!.!!ql.

Orang, 'Y"u;n;am m'e:lly,e:m!hab..'ban,y. d'ew~, ,rullara,lai_ it1 ewa ZIe\lS C:d~, ,tathie:Bji' beri!itn d,e;w,Gj :era)~ ,A:P.lon~ (de:waJ Seni, d,an i~m~ ,~Ie1l\l~ttMuan.), '~,~,iH' ,Ath,e~aJ, (dew,a H k~bij*5:atlaari)~.ke:s ,(d~w,~ ,P~aoll!, ~-p~nd':m~e I{dew,~i\":i&!1IJ d;an·:keC;mtik~l H:e~el$ Cd ewa peml,e,M!i!M). s~tla, Pl~m d:m H:a;DJe:s(~ew~b:mmiM''Y~g 'till'egM m,.D.ernk:a~ (tij aea, ~Hng C~eriJmur;).

M 8SJaE'~a~: Ymam
a,

'K)1iIUiIJ

h,.yak: m,erJ.lp:Eilkan, 'm\kJ~dlilmu ~',eL1lietah~im3

b.
c',
d"

t,

M,e_[\!]dJ!Jlu,s:~Dli ,s:e~'erC, 'YU_lll.m, 'ymg m. m~gungkap S~I H,m M,~,sirKwl'ian mel~:1;a1;I,kam4J:~~Ieb~~i~' Ham:ah. ,Sl.lDgai Nit '11TI:U!G.,~ides, i. s;ej~ Yue ,m,rm~~is: er,Mg Pelopon.e~il S ~I P :f7d1alllira~,diiIi llmu ,:asti den,I,B, ,dlaJilPytbq:~r.a·~: jllmWah kuadlrat1.;;:edu.a i5~oslsegjitil8J ~sib;~silm sam,a d'eD·CiaD ..]ru-~tlf,1t~,s~,d~lJ ~uld,~t·:i}ru~s1kuny~. . amJ, s Ard~!ede;$'. ,~i ihln.-u_,al,a.ttlyanilm.e:n@;~em:1mikDam.d;ali.~. M,chim,led.e;$: b ~a,'b,el"afb euda telie_PD:!lI1 '~RI d eligii11b md'i ,cair :Yin!g dj,pil1dDka~ Hi~,p~~mt~~, ,k'e~lcakt~m Jug :m~~lilli~' ah~i ki;~b .l.Piht]ru'm/~n' duo ,P.~'O~(}lSeyUJg .tn~'b,e:l1t.am nfJJ,lenl~rn~, 's:~babtim1buloyap etw.ydrirt.rntMicani.m~~plba1ihIJm:~ari~ •. ::n~m'tmdo'kt:er' Oko d,e ,e:tik :k,edoklie.['an:),
I'

1

f H!ctm.'~m:s~ Ij ~astrakun~,d]fIl:g... h,as'jl. k;UY,a!li m daJ.JtJdt'S'eCi, :In.~Qerimku k~u.,p M
~aky:at ~e&illibttm8an dlJ~latl ~I)aIll8J a!Sh\ dan ~D1ta)ytJt ,JUii. 611:a··[81 unani y~g ~t.kie:l1~ ~e·bai;ai,beD_to, Y

a,

a, S olc~ates (469 - :3199 SM), m~DI~: erlitM :iih;:ijEat lil~~i ·brerplikir"~reb:ilS'da, j'U;j~~, .s,eitl e ,kell~,as,;a;u, dhdlrJlsi dan 'tany'a j 'Iwaib. Ki~a, di:aBg~ m.J!t~t;:wll.;m*,fllJllula:. ia
.::1':,= 'W:J ,_II.. .,'1..;:; ,~LJ~
·ib.n!!;"'·~1 .u~ftU;li:U
e;.1i'II !*I:U, "

m· ~ a!a

iIo-it,nii'io ~'11!!i ""
I~CIiJlIIMH

:ii,....';' i<:I! ;

'~·M·'•

b. "la'lo (4 ",,;1~ 34i~'S M). .~J!lrid S'oCJ:aie~: ·yan!g' me.aonjorn. .Aj:~,8imya: '~~,e:a:timtg ~,i] u ide b UW8i dum:iy~anl; 'b u~iri s:t!D!dli·li, l~}eliuiukBlll1:Y1 I;eh~,inlgj a,i!ri t '4ui;a:yat:llu: k:e]m~t~l. ;a(,alltlJa 'ten.tang ne'eara riiwLim,a d8l81-Ubulru".pllblfca~

A,

n~ g)Ma ·y'RIlg 'b ,si'k ·i'~a),;a. oh'I'awki~ :~ ~d.bpan Yf;ro!g:.1 l ek ,~;thd.ab.·bIf~,_ e e, Ari,s~otfles (4l1'-,34,.15 S.:M). m.e~e~ .km fHS12~!.tlQ~k:1. ·Lo:gikar111emb mj, 'hnwtw)llil,

I.:.'.!.lc!!.ii'

.I'

~H~!4l·ReIql'l!~M~m.l.i!!:·II!!!!lIII'i!f·~~i1

malarn. :meJlgambil .t.e!Sinlputan me:]alul e,M;, '~erp~ ',M:g llJll1J.'mt. N',egMaJ ·ymg
'0 aik :adalah. r~ru,bHk

,A~.M·GiI~!,du.:PIB~"~

1d.abm'~,ah.~,.bi;p:H'~.

:kiD1tsbtu.lli. d~m~Ul.~' (tal,am, buikdf1Y·8J ,PrJ'~lltt~'.

B-r"_
~~~

,U·YDW
...· - .,
"'.l ... ~~l!! .

t....:h.,.,~-'_ .. ~., . ... iih"AI.., -- ~i·. w~:- .. Wf' 1m 11._bnd.!. EID:b·· ··/ft,·' Em"'·. ,Oi;~ .. .J[~!Dl. ~~.,;IC~ _. iOI--·,M;- __.~~.~ __ ,lWI \oi!'lirmft. T. __ ke~~ :~mi dt"-ii. :BnilDniI~l. ~\ U fe:ljs_dinp. Rf.ielliisme m'!mpaMn ustl1a p:qiII'.dUlll ~!b.~m Y'lilllW'!lJm,Ng)~~pu!. m,l,lu.l1' ·)'I.~,mpc~,pni lwrumi[ ,A1rm~.Dg.Ml·m~~wiDiiG.~ d!m ~·BJtjwlmD. puI 'I!(fi~~ ~. 1O(o.ptwil'li pdb"lldis ,~t:mia,. Aiibe.l~, .~~. p!·ma:w\MI
ll_l

''c~
~~!!,g

COml~
-

ae~nilmi!:. ,

:n.~!rI

o~

BI1~:t Idt;~,1!1l10~G.(RJns:

TIm. (~m. Sma IrKo. 'rUrti) M~~
I

'~h

:P\~dib n:Rs,meJm ·K·MDbeLi:'~m:bwgdi Imli,1 sekar,ru.ilg·dml1J_ :RilJ(ma s'e'b;~glai'~~Ii!'.k~tM,a ·])~ab.

ini 'te~le!udi fj.~mClllalliuJ:te Apl~'a. tanahn"aJ S1;lb1l.1lf b Rkat :~WI: b er~~. ·V;~n·w.u Str~ w.br~l.i. :i'~,
SUllla] ,an"J;l~ 'be·sar IB.dalJ:M. Tiber S~\g,ai. 'P,OI ,,;8111, m~n,ytl~r~;an 'Lm.

d:an Ellla

dam.

dli clici~aLl, o~,e!ru.R'~l!i~~Jtl,fl: :b:m,u1ius: ,'Iad,~a;had, ,8~ d,atl S:M..dli te~i Sw~;ai Tiib er. Banls~ llDm~. 'tJe'lah. m.e.mi1iki, :kentatnlM.l!an 8l!'si~ektur IdJaI,~:p e.mln,],a_ta:D,

:ue~umt> mlI,tQ:sl'

R9!ln~.

K'MI'" kl~ :iR!~ma t~,

mmatiuk tnt. an, mr b e~g,mmne) S1e_rti s~ajillmfi,&ll.p:mt:e-atM' (te~:tl:p,ato~ar\8g,aj !iertl Colo:~SieWl1wJ~ g],i~,it'Or'~ln;iIln!i:a,dW,ad1l,l je1'lpn.lil.!inslm'l). K:'ei:Sii"'ifu:l1iw,m~~:ma~dirik;a b,mlJn,31l,altg:liftd. y,m m, i(;ler~ja 1\11'15' : opb~!a,d!i 'Bumii'wu, (rw;ld) ]/ldl;I, 'i'I:nJ:9t eari b em, ,pu~,~ 't~t~ti S_df~a:11tdri, jJtuh ,k,!'!tag,91\, U,:unaml' 'bae;,o,at]. te_~sJ~b~til~j a~.aM: ~~jid,
,O!J 'tI',~ . ~ lftJ,g] I~

Qiimil.,:

~lW.in:ill

'5

'W:iayah ,R.~m,a~, di seb e'~,abbara_t~ diib atas_i ,L~:t Tin:em ~ ,g~~b,el,ab '~_ :dl~'lb8JttaJ!i Laut Jcmi:a, dao, Vau,t 1\!d]ri:~k~ $',~'b~',,a, l]~~ tilt bma~,~egara, ,ft'Wiss I~'ml, JJ,:;;~,~ d~, ~r~b~],. A selBttilt l~i,bMM~ ole'}], Plnhru, S~!ri]ia:[dJM, LmJ,t Te,ngab. Bao,e~,a'R~"nt~,hldu,'1 ,~ari, ]1~eccO'Gok: 1 'tBatn, mJel.l'6bi8l!i~k an iarJJJdu.m~ j a 11111 ,ane,gu;r~,,!f;8I'lwmi ,S:8JW"-,s'sruraal" sen'S, [~i:Dl b etell1.U & 'b~ri,,,'biri,.:~l~i~a ROlil!Jf,~me~ye.b i!!b, bmyak d~wil. 'N~ra~:Ilfini~, lijfavw,a &ii!!mJ;:pir ftfID a S
l

u.. en,Il;&l1 Ue.W~IUiJi,am~, mts;,it9.ny,~
,ji

111

'~

••

"",

... il'!:!".... ..j - 'iT"; U!ewa,zens ('11: .w.g~b ~• 'u'~Illl;m y,'!]_pru:l)ef',lI< [lillewfli V"es:t~iiew,a, .· "- :,\.Ji ..

lJ'eniu.~ !il!ew8 Yu:n€l (H era);, d:Zl deW'S ,ApnD dmtce, [(dig,8~liti V eans),

1~~s:.UPmwibll,:F~~ib1

.. (}:itl)a_m:ll~:(~

Sistel'il~ :p,eme:rintooan R'om~
8.

seb qm b e:rikut

i.tP tgang dtHlllfrane,killn:mi y.m,g dipiJibu1Jlmkmasaia~muit;tn duatUWl. b. :S'-e~'D,at mJ,,~mpajNU ho: wmmJblm, n:a;nbat k:ep ada, kl~\Ilrm" ~:, .J)~wan. :Raky:a,.t; (CQJ1fji~ QJj1.ttl.~)d, ,Po.1-:ItijtJi.killJ.1'm''UB .i a~ata, ,s;ej enis .kep a[ a, a;gam;a e. n1",b:Il,ni Ple:O,f.r~ :st~acam, d;e1f:v;m d:ae:rah:,
K:;e,p21apemJmfitmam,
1

:Peluerin,t_;an Ral !tl,iWli ;s~mlil:a! 'beib e~mk 'k:er~J:aM, (1S; 0 ,_ J 10 S:M). Pilda, m,a.s,i, K €f;~ :a:an,Rom:m~ ,5!elalll, ad;a :keribJarhm eli M!ta.r,a; :(',aky'at dan p enguasa Pa~a: zamm1 raj 'a 'lat~lIlit1u:s'.m,em.eliot. ,s;e:\3 e;ai- S:~~H:'aEl~ ~ ~lk.t~91or ~,a, dib e~Dnt* ,Bl,eh, 'Ymli,n s' :8ru~'~:o s:e'bing[ga Rom b ernb'ah 'lllenj:,H), ~e,lPldJ~ik51 0 -"11 SM). :PaJda, 1'UiaSJiJ .ep(!.b~i,k'~ ,wit ~ab, ( f imllmvl dipmua~:m~~ml,b entBn;g l~ari,Stp ~4y~4 liam,,1ai, ~.~~,tin~,~ erm~, ~ M',~mr. O],~t1, ,J kXMa.i1bl'lah. O:f.,an;B: R.Ol:T!L:at'ii :il1.,e_!l:m1iI1u:m. LI.l:utTeJl;ge, ad:aiMl:au,t ti:~~jii (AloJ~'N~S'lnlm). M"a~',ar.at RQma;l,;~, 'tero iii:~le~1j ~i Idua il~lo~lmt, a
1

iIi_

~IL 0 olenga palri',~Q: (_Sl~lro!l b ug'i~:rawan)!, tnmnegam,g. K:ekuu8iLl IOli :RJ~ma Blfib agaii, gall,

w,~~a,ptl1:uib,
i""!

'b.,

I.] _

'~[OI.ODlgaDpmtruC~'

II

.s., b~

t. "'t....~ -,j .... '\ '1... l~r,M.yat:f.,eliu;i.nh

'-l e;Cil.llJng~;

tW, •,Ow meJ],fillllA'QillbltJJ'i.l'!Iif}:w,fAS.'" S oJ. aJl!t elll
1[1

b

'I.,

..!,' • !I~

-

1.

.:1' =':I!.~

~.~ .. 'I

:fJatu ,kOilsllbl,ya b er,as:ai iliaci plebeCQ, ~lltul:· DiM!L\I)aw' ke:ll.tdu,p',a. belll,e;gil"a di SU:illl1l!. ~W!dJ:~·Gr~'Ilnd~g.'~e&ll~:s'y'~1g'pM~a., y~tJ;ri,Lej~;r.',lArJ(lecim Tat;umnlm .y;m,g b,~ru:p:~,
1, :1: h!fil:p[en.g:ao.

:te:wlJi ~~a.
V~;fnrtt~·
;"'ii~~='~= (."....~~ 'Ii- !Ei''Inf.li.. i7dr!Ji; .J!~JiIlLCY1lJ al;),~.L~, '!.Il'.J~*"" 'U

.I}.emiill ,~

hlQI :R••

_li

m.~!UI;,

Hr~,d~cR~
RiaIt'lltaM,

: da_n ~_.I,~I dPm~,H~d,
RnmlM,
I.
XI;.~~ll

Ptm~ :m.t~, 'r.~ ~b8bbDJ aleli pm~ ,l2k~ft, Utni d!.D,:nump;f!blltbi.n,'daemh:s(WIiI. ,..' :iI!:'Il!!I ,gtildwn. '..
~~im@jfll_iCf~~_Pg~

gl1;hb~lri,se~j~gl~,,~~f'e:~;6~,rn~~lll;~ roi!lfk

'bD't~,wide:.;((D :Km!g,o~, ~, ~p ,S1~ AfrfumUi

~RJG,nwibtmkiblf~
~lij,~WlftirJt

b~ bMly!tk piuhl' RtJ\ID~,wi~
d~:.

'dll~ :bm~M

c. b'mpk, pWllmw' ,Iii dle.h,,~

meiliwao. binilling)~ dam,Am,hiil!~ter jmp~ :~l~H!lD, .ndi~I' ( t.,!m~,-·--IP·-·-.~-gJ)pl!!!!!J, nu:;a;~ ygll,J~~ll.n@1lMW~ - _. " !:_ ,Ill ,IJ.W:-__:_..:M}@~ h'· 8 ,'iiJ.el ,•. ~~ . ' -:&,..1~' 'I."""""" .. - lim' " ~'k It. _. M' .. tehUltll:i ohi, Ro:m6 pnDh RitltI-.n pmudUl

~fi"

,memp(~~

11!lM tS~

m.c(n~WlIkD.

:p:~,

'ttmprd"~

:bum, ~plm~l'~: ,ctdld, ~ J~.Mrt~ :heit.iUHi!~,'UIli1H ,~~_ 'rik,y&1i';, :~'t,,[[f'ifi~wn,~mMJWli;). 'OQ;m,~r=rmi,\(~.t'~d1olJ,.,mn~
I~,

'LooTh.Jb~
~\~~!

t. -- --

O~q

"

-~ 'i. '~",iI\io~ ..... ~~l~ ,~~j

'

b- M --

f~ tinib~~ piRtUIE KG"""~

ya.q ~mukin; mbim DlIm Q<"fnmll(mya) ,dl1;,g :BlDIm, ,mil. (pk1:e],M)~

:M iUyEmti't l'tOnliM '~elilu, dilao, €la, p eritlig, 's'iu~.a, antsr,1 ~ml,itden I,an, Kilnn pnJil etar, ,Peran,e;, "t~ebu't ~ntya d&ID~O:~lgk. :kaum, '~~~ll~~aF'. :Pada, mg)~a f~ ublll RO]D,am, di,~,erinJtM o~,~'ll tig,t!lJ tak)O:h 1~g' (H~~hut Trj,u;m,vir;a,t (61~~--4o~ ~S:M:)~ ,ter.dtri, ,at8iS P\om,e,uit ar:i5mu:~"d,an.Ytd~u:~Cal;i~ar. :P'ef'anl; si1lmdeJifl m imih ~emi 'bm:~jut, P'ada, tmli.ul 55 SM~. C,!~ms :m~mngg:ru ~ehi'D~lla,~m'lml:p reF~\~l~:rib:gn;an,taf:~Pom,~,~s ~fml~' 'Yuili~s CSle,$:M_ P..erse'ruimiha i:m 'djim,mallpao, oleb. 'YwiIl!t 1C':a:es8f.'_la,'lJ ers emb~¥idfi: ~.f:. Plidi) Pl'Cl ~ (Iiy:a, dattm&, m e~ib~ say,a :men;m,.g), N :i!uW\ T:ri;~m,virat I i,agel seblb tenbrun'UlluYll 'Ydi~~ IC'~ar o~,ellS~e-n~tC"~$iu~ :Bmtus:I(~'4',S:MJ. Pad i'w;akru, I.'tu" raj mly~,TarIJIID:iml'~'~ : dH, - ..t,.." ~l~ ,.l~ 'b k- . .- .. . d. R~lat::~tm.rlru~ m.'~.:.,eJ};tu_,:Tri.umVlf:~t,~t ,ggg;gtan,;g): An!l~mu~ OCU~,tHitnu:s.l.:.an~,

:5_~

Lipid,J!ID:s~,:N',am~ T:ri~,Vif,~t U .i~g~ d~lu,~a"p,erse]isih'~ :Lipl'~"US ibe~'[W)rum dM, kedu'8J' tem,:ea.m;J8 mernbagi kekul!~iaLt. akttwumUli be!iw:U8 di Sie'iDlM, b.arat 'Sp MJ(li~ ,S!a:mJI:ei ~ Y~1Ii11iJ sed.pm Mtrnuu:5'bmfnlasa, di s~1JII~l:M.'bmUfAsia :Ke~i~,s'amp:m :M ,An~amiU;5 , esl:f., b.~- ,J; -. .- - - 0 - ---~ •• ;1"i!111,- - ~I~ M..eSl.iL,_,f,"'rw,iI/:i1:1!Iao,- ,S~l:U:~ iii ~,lID;~iI!I!:S~j~n.:Iil!"!1Ua,.-,~~ - !iil;1b;U~~~1II -.-' .. lIl'l,fI;i' - - _ -. t...:·· ..:i B'<&i!i,' ~'b;llI,1l!lI1I.Uam!I.'mC::~~'iiiI'wm.l, 'l..iII,eIiJlIJ~,'i1II,; Wu"" P
""ko, ~-=,

.",1:1 ~ ...

iI'- -, ~~;!i,

-

- ~ ...

i!i.n

lam r .B~"enj ~k'flk;ais;M;ql (27 S'M). "Kekaisaroo Rromawi dii:p erint~l ~l,eb, Okt~anu.s, :y:ang ad1r bergre[!~Augl1 s~mr.artiaJi YM,e, muHa.. Lm;e;n- :yang di'tlM1p~h, 'ldJal:ah
183 lllg;a,W'81,

admyra"s,e.ratl:E,U, Oktavllao!~S~p aiJa A17litomus. :KJirlelll't.t ditlan\~kapt .AstomiM1iSi bet;S1~;1 C],~o,~*a blllllMlb dJiri dj;m, :k~a~aIiJl 'ilkhimYia, j ~ }ire; 'hmgu Dkit,ivim~s (h~D, .oln.m R

b.

,fo~:9.t

c. :iitttu.em:p:aukan, t€ntar,a'[w, :~,ttb;ataiSaJ1l. tID@
d,. 'b:ajl~::~,a.lllltdib~~sihk.t

w,ea.i'~ te..ap,., di:p mn,fj,an p ~ Wlmya,

• ,.:I:

."....

r:L~ ;lIB;'

~.n,
I'

:kIMa' d,illn :Ro~i J..k&~~lf1~·&iltia.mt:w.ami~
dIh,IoW'I;'
• ~ ~ ~~J

P.drl ~'!I :pcml'rmJ~ Vii!~~~:~~,l~~,

1:••

'

D' 51,'fiumitn~, ~'WDU.iIio.=:'!i :i.~, _ al ~~li'j~dm~ :lilm!~ ,.:iiIl'iara
InicnlJj.ad&~~

'liB

Oil¢wimlU.~ ,ad,l1,g, l,~inlY"a.· ae,am.,~,:~.risle;1l di P'mtati'n.~ J~el:

dib 81WS, :Q~,e'L1. ,at :MSJsib, ,Y:aLl(g ;[;ahi~r m e etM. ehem. Isa

Ro,m,iM m,emamm '!llaS:i, kege'~8p 8[Il sa.~~:p,e:lll~d'fllM an 'K,~:s:ar ~N€®~I. ad'~:m :k~'~~y,~g :m,~m,~ili't~ :1l:a1'n!g~ am, l~ 'k)j~j 'bahikm't~ga:membllm.tlh'ibliJi~ya ,i mi. '!la!gtlfilil,~,d,ettti,kq;llu~S'M, ~E, citra,· l~BY'iJl. hllj U.EI :ltl;embauh, Iran i Y:mllmJ eli :Roma f Timu~' ,l\h~rt~.l, mlak~' lrid~p-hid~ d,sl~~bM m~s!i C~ (4. O.O~.o ODrallg)_ 'liemp,[t::itM ~,aludisebo;~.C\ata~on\be_,
.~,e'tehlih:K~,sar' :ICO~'M~t;mtia ,~d.~M m ibn knta d,~ :ROlma, k!e ~:~tmn~1(Ii~ ~~i.la11'tiltm}~ 'berkeIllb a~,6.aJllUn i :mubm,
Kri,sIJe:o ke Rom&wi- Fld,i!
Z:IID!D,

~~
l~a'S,,~'n{U~U~~1"

'Kri,S1,e~ dij :a.dik:an, ~eb :agmi :agam.aneg,am 1~:mel,®hagi l\om,awi :menj i3lWliua, ,Rom,~~.B m;at'
pUiSiamya di :R,UD:aJ :~M, ROln'l8WiTm:nNI ,1U,::nalt11Y',i Iii, 'eizaml:ti~m;. ,~JUUl tJetapi,.Rcm~, :6 arat .wm,ya, :l1tllmib (4:"6 hi) ~~TID m ~~rMl,~: Odl[)'U~r dan ]i{llLttm 'nm~r momn ~mtlUl, ab eleh - . ,C'.:Ii -n'. ,.!It iI ...Iti., ' l4J) MI!t'lare~a iialser~g OJ,~, Irnl[;an,e:'TU[~ U .. ~r~~;ant!l,_
;Iii'~

Km Sir 'Th eo dill seu$,.

iG;iIDl,a

~,

~K,tJlUltuh~ :R~roa~, :~[eb ~aTD1a

dise::b:abt;an o'hdl:

a. 'kai,~M' ~_(;km~, 'Ii dale tij1:D;:PiU '1n.em:b e~kM o~:llJt.oh :pim!pinan. Y~I~ ~:aik.. b" '1 eM,ahltY'8 '~Iertahan,a~ ,RO;.l8iW,~ k.!Bre~n:a ,m'lene:!B!nd,8U!~:8i~ teD,~~r8 :s;ewraa~

(fo,olIN,rcm! "'niCU~)!,(I,D [:~ ~,eCia1mya kekm saran RtUtl3\W, B:ata.t: d:i±UlTimwWa11au-tm-- dJtmi:lci,- ~ RTIm~, -- Jiu ~,- 'b:aI1~::~ak . - ... -p - ----- -~. ---. - ~~ -- y - lIlir:.mihe.ri- Sl.1Mhab ~D, t:e:r.had"'" p -- .. ~ -." -------- - -- - ---g -,- ., - .-~ ':I,er~ad'-JbD modem,. .y',D, seb ~~:mi,b,erHmt
-I

',eg c,~'Lru;pdiripUn, m,e:oJ ,adl co.ollimh, b. A!danya,;paham, ]'m,~'6;ri,lml:Pa.:m,al1JJum. '(ktma5ami :mllm~m)yanlg,m;~ojam, ,eg,l1tell. ' e 'F:~oor:p efldidi'k;~, y~!g lii:scl,enl~il!J)atakm dmi, :flm],dldNk~ dasaF ~mn.r&~ai ,M,en.eltgml 'rLen~eta bah,aS,i :laUn, (l~l 'V:lln:atri.. d. Achmya kmn.ijiutm, dllam, bidaDl b illgwla!\ 'yum !) Limes :rmlk~ an ~I:mguu:afl.blmt~Il~::
l:) ColID1:s:seuEi'iJ d~ l\mphitea~ 3) Pill, 'beon. mm,ah. ~rew8~ 4)"M'mi!I£,~j mbatuyug di baw,.ya;adi

a.. 01i$limi:mlii, oe:I,ar.a

!leftl ,kn~lit;er.M

j a],'iDj, :~ay~:

5)

7) CIooca in'aDm at ,',ai~,[l'eflibp~~;w. air :
,kJiJ'ta.
let.

e:El:g,m.ran.~ 0) Ger,ej,'8J Aya Si~:ph;i.i~
,t1.fUtlQ11'&t Smtlf1Mp

K:eluajUatl:p em.g,etmu _,
-. .-- -I' --. -.

,an

tara

i) Ga1,e~ ahIli tabib 1-1; 'mem,p e'I,~;a!i ple.r1eti;aran,d!stah~ '~)" 'POll'bl' 0 s· ,~ ~a1;a:ne Efat",'!!II'v~njl!Ji':m~,arhiffiS:~nl~:"!3'n -J"'"'- .-- .¥'"v.. >v __ , ;:s.~nlViaI:b~'b.,w'!!lj ~:M"w. ;~'~f]"~l:"ll'['! 1:N'!JIIiJ.,"!~ '!!!!J.!' _'!g,---"">Ye-- _. Q,I,L_ negm",1 iak:,_ m,fmlen~mUbi yag lSDJQ..
- -- -lD-~i1iJ!i;I~ L_--',l -- !i!! __

1.

~lu';'~~~,~;j"

~GurliiU'!5..DtGliilb~,mm,

.y!I,i'I!!!'ir!;

f 'K,~majuan.da1.~. S:~!l~~ .,,~ l) ;Sias:t~lirwt'dl.~e~ken)a18(taLah, V,e[lgiliu:sJ Y·MI.I~le.~!gar~i
,AiB.n.e;rs~

2)" Ov.irdftu~m:tng;~:g Metatl,,·t11,.h.QI~,~. (1~1. 5) yu.u.us C',aesar.· ·m.engaratl;e,; .EM' .B~li:J',(kIlbtiO y1m! imlenJ alii t'tmI~Mam. :n-li.emtmaj.ari ~IM;et~a, Latim. g.
B·a1'[liiit

itom;~i ~uhal;ih ;dt1i

buklinya~

m

1Jri ~anii' .a[~l'ltillistril£~~

.i) .m:efitililaJ.~i.~llem:k~tafH,ee;ar.~MmJ. d:M, .ltubm. .2) memiliJd s:l.S:i}~'m, 11:trtgan:i_:s,a~i, mili,ter d':an ,klediSljp~iD:~
.Ilhm.

3) ~j~:re'~:asa_p~sat dli ·t~\g:at'i :k~.~ay·, h. K!~lt'laj'uM .h:wmrl.];l.'i:~·Ji!tv.a lain, :m'M.~ul ab'Li ltumm, ·Yustil1.iRll!1l.iHSd.emla:m ,Cooe;x ,r;,snniaMlIJ' d~ Sle'~u'l,COJ~J.5i'
~ -; Ir,Hi_

Yu~1~_Ab]Ji .hu]rum, 1aimly~ ~[im,an Pompinianus. d,"il'\C]D.dlfi·seU,!\.

':B~C!ltl,ab :rmllgnmlim d m, b ~rn'ilml SUI.l1b cr (buku, m.aj;.ahw.1' l~.1i:pi'llg·,'iDt~md)·me:ll.g:m,ailima :p etad'ra1]qm'~eS~Jang~'le1:.lfbab;as ,~mn' materi iltL Unmkm ~m.eigkapruny,a.'lamb a1m:kM p~la, d oJ' 'Ii. 'I· d· 'nl l ~ ~il.~ , II -". ..... _ :p'elJ:aLJ:aUlmt .,,8111, . j, .!l,ua:r A euma 'Mway...ul, t·er.se 'i!:lult:. 'riI... ,["1i;l1leq:a~'1a !Ii.. '[._fL, d~]1'1_,0.11.. 'WlIIO,c.u u~. ,utli.lilUl secara

'Ilu~fk',e:lcm, ["k~K:u~m,p~U£Emhasilnya, p;ad.aJguru I

dayaan LogaJ.D .' "In.'

DB

K,ehQi!IW:ayaan :I'~!.!gam.'~~mri clan :k:·r/~!U,t1a;y·aan tlem.b-~g~ .k=budj:ay'a!81l, ,p,enuDlg;gu,. da,

;kebu,d:ayim ~~,~..
L

KE.tIluda)"aautm'l;ba'!ffi

:1C·~budaya. 10 liD Ii lofbll(llen.3J di.sebut!~i1an·lPlen]a@]g;l s:eb ab z;amantem1bag,a,'bldak .. •
diKeflai d:i InJdJOfh!~:a K~'b udq',&n] 0 emn eli Asil Tene1e
Diam,a:i~aend~li e

&u~o-cina'J8il~~ p~ui"~y:a~e~ye:~;~:k~

11.8. d1is e.but

DI~ne·SQ~ Nu~ant.era,:~,adata]]Wl, :5a~' :SM:.·

ke.buday'~

z, K' 'lli:l~y~31J!pm-u_nilr'm
l::leNll'ggu, Dl'~(l.;m p ~~ad~an.b Og 'l~bFili d.agiDtimu~ ' lC'QI,ij pal'bliil;atm :i(;d dim p,emn,B1p' a.d a i;1."~t
;BL Car.a,b~ml~l- mlakuk;an ddia. m.fUf,gtln*aJ;l ~fUlk·a'lam, yug'berdin atas: dl18, bUD b 8gllal:l;ti kMllrndl~ mjkat :lne~j,;adl.5:a_, lelehaa :iog.D} Idli~]']81l'ikal'a~(I,a Nns:p· mn:gla an . b ~b. S'eteW 'r®t~, tet~aIl, d,~,ai Id!ibllik:a. Al-at O. d:~plm:.d'iguU:lakim b £'rbl~r~la, ab. K~i

b. C,~aa CI. '"e pe~w~m C~,i Luag'. ~Hnll,ym.tu d~g~u,m e:M'bI1:;lm,m (n. del bead!1 (lari.li~iE\ ,alS] kem~diu, ~ilib1j,lfiPwS: dJ~:Oli,M,'~uah, ~i !Im ']);.111, atamya ~i'~tri ag kelT! uman it bib dib ika:r sehiDg,ga, lapis'a11 Jilin. m,eleleb ~:an.kelu,m-'m,ehdtU 'iilb ii1\g. Deri ~'agi~11ub:.g ·im.j'~e;a Idli:w:aD:p:m. Ielehsa hJ!e,aJIJ. mn;gg~,~)en.ul\_ S'ebelah 1~IM1:11et..ehnm,em.hekn moch:l tdlari ~UM, di:pe-e:allk;an, dJ.an basil oetakarJ. ~ar.i ,~olgurJJ.·'tinlli!t.am mrap~llfa]l, ]iiat,
1 l
J i

EJe::berap:a ilrat P'~~SIiU Y.altg pell,'liil\i~
a. Nekam

di!g:mtu:ll,gkan

N··ekara :Lll,enll~ HaD, ,iI.lIt 'b!lfl)ti~bullJ'iu yml1g:
sf::c ata.milJJ,eL'jJdl~ltw.

d 00 dl ptlhU d'~

at'8S. Ada. :nel~[ara yang uknm-iiiJruIlya ~:te,S ar•. ,clj,e:1l:'g8l}, ti:llggi 1 :8:15, em. ~hm,],eb:ir :I 61~1em, y~9kni N,~kara B~l:an 'Prej ene: ]tarl!fI tefd~'at di :5~ _'N'ekara, Y~G u:~ra.Imy8:k:e;eil.d_i $·ebuJt,.okl~~b:myak ditemtikan. di Alli Dr} 'N''D!et' '1" engl:ara. T:im'llt'. Orae nm. 'trem:~um, n~k;~a'Y~g,t iIli~ ada] U, Sum ~'il j ai~ :S~mb;~~ 'Rloti. Set~Y~i' dea K~ei_
b. Kopok
COI"O'l.lZ;

Gu.iib~:~~lIi'M~ ~:~b!~'Mldi J.b'tm A~ l\[~!!i,Tt.1R

:adai,a11 kap,a y,u.H:b~mlmi:ya,.en"enlp,:ai c;O[i!!iil}lR- Te[(bp at ],Uiban~~ di b~gi,@Ilatas d~ di dal~yaJ tliil~m:*.~l1lm~k m.e:.,amJkk:~ ,t~p~k~];lI3k,(l],el. kalren:a, iw, di.seb~Ditk:~~: 5',epaLu., mn~sinya, ,:i;lcbagai ,]{,ap. bias a Kap,* cci.iJing 1M,g p. IilB ,me di.:S\ebut ~ M.dJr,UI.. K:flIO: corm'll! lU'D.'tB: U,~~H31tara alii denlall berm,ace p,aD\ha d~hi hi.aiS.'K:'ifI~dr Of~ng b~wkuf,m besa![' dlit~mJU:kcm. ti Makas\Sar~. ·~o "" :S:gtmli. (p~.pu·aJ~ c T~bd.J~a ·lim.u;n:)." d;aJ:l J:~~;V'i!B:afat ( :
K:Q,ak
COfl!:iJllg Co

Arca l1enu~g~1:
b erm.ae~·dlt'i.a~;a:m~, ada y~g ~Ier'bentuk' mmUii,1 el. h.ew,an y,ILti: 'il eB~Jal Sedernmm" Patll]lJ],i
'a'eEII_~~

Preru,wIIU ke

doo ~~imJbangan,BID IrrDr)_ (
11., PernWsaJI.penrnggll

a~. i:t~mlukD Iii dgnm J:j,mgkir.um:u; fEW.au) d

,Antara lain, :~,ehm;~M.ci:~ dan 'barutu1 .kmlllt]Jrg :yan.g:

b lisa di'Leln'llkan ell! ~~lu~h N:U,S::81:1itm8"
e. B'ejaulJllnJllJggr&
Sem:~t~.p'

muk:y.!.M~I1l; di!tem~:iMl,Id:i. K·~riBci~ Smlatn~,

,Slete1.ab,:k;e'~u,da;y'a~, :p. !rnDIl'l:llll mw ..Mmtcull:ah k)!'IDrut1 a;yim 'b esi. ,8 erCi,8s,erkUl. p leDi~Li~,mtItlmu.s..i,\I,pnmk'nrra ID;eog'gufJj!u;al ibg,:b'em, :Berb f.!!;m :peral:a,tan:JiWl,~ 'tie;mllHlt dati. he s~ ,_ S'~ya :tUaEa k:;;p. p~sa1!. ~a:b:irc. an,ped;oo'G~ .D,a~a temu;nTf,a ..U~Tu,ban. d t .Pa!l:i~~ d.,u. ,Majioo, .$'elaio. i'tl\, mtemU:ke bl4cal ktlb\u: 10 E,IIll eli album' 'b:~lUWI[m,i!llgjD (J:awa ''f~IlID)i$oo B~'~1!l~ O',9jw;a LTim.ur),
r

\.;OI;I!.EJ!tI;~

~~~;=='I=.

ifO",,' ~~" .J!!Ii']~I;lUI.

,~ • .I',Ii.,.~,jf" '1r.I!'_'~~ .. "Q' ~') :11f~.~'Ii':I,in. .. 1I.. eiLIJII'l! .~

1. iF n-adlbm
d·!!\ btdiil
i!
i

CIi. :L em ~ dJl, .1~'1iu:dan.1. em lDIM. CJ,~~

'bre:di:~em~'mgm '!!ZliJ,adi; D!:ftJf.1I F!kifim.

Mm~'DDM~:..·a·M'QPIl di~G: t1,~,~:ti\LQI! .. m:~·DI~'vi~ :u'md~.!Buddih!r litlikem bi!m,gt•. oh!h iiJrI:t1ftfID[:~ A:ry\ft. tf:,w.Wilg Me;,um li.~l'~! :k·'!f,~.~,·~;m;.I~J:~!: p'eJ~VI. t\lmI4ili~c!r di ~Wlli d.im:iliti, ol,,;b, ~'!!1'I!j1!!11li; Ilmi'a (U'~g: T:i), r&)e~:in'Il,1. rihwn 'teihm, diL"U6f& 'Gh~ be(fb~fi~ ~ s.illh,'be;fltnti bi~m:IJkia. 'bCtfb!!:n~
i[1!,f~·

~.

pi i!~,ldlibJl1l, W,!m.'lmdt S,~i
!I!'

;I

].

P-I~ro_d~'bm ]tmboih

,S~GP .e,'u&lQlt ,dlIm T.;i~:;5' ~:em,o:hgfi~rJJ)

,D tk;~l~l~Il!t,q~:·Hi. 'b~.~.-.'billl~ 'Sk_ il:~ri,'t,:B'ihtilJ.oml!li;. den Ai~nl. ",~·t~!iib. m. !i1:fJiG~tfii1l. o1e·Q. !b !.r.b!lpl tebDh,. Y,ftDl,,~~ 'm,lj~. ,:t :P'.!ltlllbm, Ilmb6, ~m;,1iI'~, '
:1·1~~QdoW,m~J.t;B!it~:~"MuiF,m.di1J U l'rul!!diih. um~ H:iiL-S il::rk'l!ll~.~", S'ml~ejN~ S 'M!! ftf~. ~Dj.lrI.ili!:lgM,a ~ dm ~.Ii,e:.PII!l'a(la'bu:Ue!M Nd$ m~!j u,d!.nga.m I!:ilfi~~_d. , 'ilmiCil~.mi~ u ,ilb~tL!l'kt,\I~, 1dB, jjm;~ bM~_g i!lm )!tL11 "-1:1ih-

i.b.

J_ 'P&,alh'ban YmtW !lh'l1Th"gs:o. Yup~.

K:mJ-Gl!1
dlQlI~

m.:~P.lpU!!lP pe'l~lQ:
l~iIII,

ilmn~c,amil!&~'1 blpm,Id'lll

ljli!m;l~!brm.idt-M4D ldibl:~y,ft :slsh!(IQ.~·ilili.,'tJ~u e dewMl,:i'!l~,l1t, S:i~:l!m k:t:t8ltm:epl'lln ilepl Y'unuu

in:HYu,ilitjri o~.'~·h: bm&~'I,.bq~~. od~iln ~. [k;I-m:mim ·hui. m

!S- 'lCt·i!!l&biMJ.RatfIi."~~K;uq,g
in I~ro O:k1r,ildy~@:; b1mi~l:m rmju,di,,1'llfe:oalikm b~

l~,a:m.~i K~-(ij- M~er!'klil. t'el,m

IfII ti'.iJ6~~~d.

P em.:i.lihI1l.k:epdl:~ug:M'I.'ild!·l1'w ~·W'1k:U :t!!iy.I~~ 'bUkm sbtem i'elmrwl. dm'm.embI!LoNli:· ~~clgD:i!trc.:pobik:

lK,~'b~~:yP.9 :1 ~~:'S:llliIl-H,~b;,pJI :m~Id;m t1,~tlJ-y,.:y,.g ·ttIi.Juuk k~''IIUictar,B. ~I all¢~ i!'li-!!"lln. ~~hult d:ad, bltu. 8 ~K; e~u.dI:ytg D cnponj~"I;e, 11m ad; :Ii:,~. u~a!nt!fil 'y4Di 'buda'Yt! ]:~Imri , ;11 N e_nl!l::m o:yaq klj,t·i!j, 'mlcn:gt!~~ ti1M1 ntdm. ml~!mi~Mil pc~~~ggg~ 9 _ K:11!!~~m,'rn:Rdi~ ..Y'1R1gm.ttrt4:: Itt: Numttifl .m e:m 'wled,m pl!1le~uh :a,~~ H~du ILtIft l8J
J

i!i.&1!mJ I, :Su1!l!!fdlL

1(I_ :Allt lopm. (Jli!~'

dd:h.t- d.ngm dol,

C,!til, ·"dBi,

CEI if:n:Nl,ah"l lian,a ctr4 },UI'~dL~.

- (.lJuasi
Jawn.'J.nh.

]
d.E!I pn j leL"'i iS~

pll~bDy;!tall"pl' -.tlluya~:tn miklit.t b

:1. Jel R~a :kt:Mdt~pm:1iJ.:a:dl Ii:mls;a IIIe:xbw:u..1im ~1~gum,'ltdklm I ft1ux1liil:lm n ',J. Jelas'ka kw du~ mas'i.j~... l!rlsd:a masa :hi,du~t".b:9~o c~ii(: ... (timwl .... r .•

],- E·ag;edrn.aDJiil :ktp·"~ay:aan p;JJa 'aW;aJ mJ;iUltusia :puFb;i} im,'
,5. J'ei,ask~. lhud!i1y8"aD 'D'~ng5rtllll k ti. e,al!li~.il ~:llanby;.~ ... d~Fa1!~t,dan h]!~gam'" .. :B;ac!foll,~.H'(t8binhW

,4,. J'el'Mika 'tmt3l1,e; k:eb~daJa•.

NakahMda:a].M'memlhnJim_.np,,,ahah
11::0balab.

Dli'1~auil Andabi!llum •••
.~e,f~1 ~ain 'J-I

UI,aDlSimmn,p:ehgari, 'iii all 1m.

mu .M!mrtYiltB bDil

aSain'~'
t~kail,

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful