You are on page 1of 4

“The Device” of the Transport Layer

V.Bharath Kumar, Deepak Subramanian

Velammal Engineering College
“Velammal Nagar”, Ambattur-Red Hills Road,
Chennai - 600 066 Tamil Nadu

Abstract-The aim of this project is to develop a device that is able

to simplify a Wide Area Network (WAN), by connecting all
routers present in the WAN to this single device. The device will
contain several Data Communication Equipment (DCE) ports THE NORMAL LAYOUT
and synchronize the transmission of data between the routers,
even having different encapsulations. The device will also
maintain a routing table and will be able to find the shortest path
to each host. For security purpose, this device might also
implement the Virtual-WAN (VWAN) concept, which is found in Router
switches. Motivation behind this project is to connect routers
from various vendors even when they maintain their proprietary
encapsulation technology. This is because while proprietary
technologies are advantageous between devices of the same
vendor other vendor devices cannot be connected unless the
technology used is a generalized one. Switch

This report describes the design of a device which helps in
interconnection of routers of different encapsulation protocols Router Router
and which also reduces the complexity of the network.

A. Project overview
The purpose of this project is to connect routers of different
vendors with their own proprietary encapsulation protocol,
using a device which can also solve the complexity of a WAN
having a large number of routers and large number of Switch Switch
interconnections between them.
This device can therefore solve heterogeneity of each router in
terms of their protocol and also the scale of a network. Simply KEY:
stated, the problem of heterogeneity is that a WAN containing
large number of various vendor supplied router should be able --------------------- :FAST
to connect with each other and at the same time be able to ETHERNET
bring down the scale and complexity of the network.
To get over both the problems simultaneously the device can
interconnect each router in the WAN through it i.e. each router
in the network will connect to the device’s serial port. The
---------- :SERIAL
device on receiving a packet of data will de-encapsulates the
data and using the routing table finds the router for sending the
data and again re-encapsulates the data to the protocol of the
receiving router and the data is sent.

Fig. 1 The Normal Layout

Since all the routers in the WAN are connected to the device
the number of chains in the network are also reduced and THE LAYOUT AFTER DEVICE
hence the complexity of the network is reduced. IMPLEMENTATION
1. The device thus can have a main objective as connecting
routers of different vendors in a WAN, even when they work
in their own proprietary encapsulation protocol.
2. The next objective of the device is to reduce the number of
chains in the network and hence reduce the complexity of
network interconnections. THE DEVICE
3. The third objective of the data is faster data transfer. The
device can have a routing table which is automatically updated
for a particular time interval, and due to direct connection
between all the routers in the WAN and the device data
transmission is faster. Router
4. If the device could support V-WAN it ensures that data
between particular networks are restricted and hence improves
individuality and security of the whole network. The port Router Switch
access control for every router need not be monitored Router
individually, as this is implemented collectively at the device
and can be configured in the device itself.
The device has to eventually maintain a routing table whose
size is dependent on the size of the WAN and the device has to
ensure that the overall security of the network is maintained. Switch
This can be implemented by making the device support V-
WAN. By supporting V-WAN the device can also work on the
security function of a switch, with regard to each router and KEY:
the network below each router.
--------------------- :FAST
The scenario of this project looks at areas which should be
considered during the development stage of this device.
A. Routing table updating ---------- :SERIAL LINES
The device should be able to update the routing table
automatically. This means that it should maintain a database
of the routers connected to it. This should be update for a at a
particular time interval. This ensures that it is well aware of Fig. 2. The Layout after Device implementation
the networks connected to it and indirectly the hosts present in
each network. Any change in the encapsulation type of any router under the
The device therefore for each specified time interval can device can be intimated to the device when it communicates
communicate with each of the router connected under it by with each router .When the encapsulation of the source and
implementing three-way handshake. Each router will be destination router is the same or Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
maintaining their own routing table which has the list of host the device just directs the data packet to its destination.
connected to it.
C. Bandwidth Requirements
B. Encapsulation overview The device will contain only the DCE ports and the routers
The device’s main objective is to connect routers of different will contain only the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)
vendors in a WAN, even when they work in their own connectors. Hence ensuring that all synchronizations can be
proprietary encapsulation protocol. For achieving this the controlled at the Device itself. The bandwidth will match the
device on receiving the encapsulated packets of data de- maximum supported by the serial port of the router.
encapsulates it, and again re-encapsulates the data to the
receiving router’s encapsulation and sends it to the router.
D. V-WAN overview
The device can support V-WAN also. Hence we can achieve
The routing table can also hold a record of the encapsulation
several WANs from the single available WAN by using V-
type each router is working on and therefore convert
WAN. The V-WAN will thereby improve the efficiency and
encapsulation of each data packet accordingly.
security of the network. This implementation could reduce the
overhead of the administrator as the need of monitoring
several network devices can be reduced by a great degree. THE V-WAN IMPLEMENTATION


A. Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)
Also called a "VLAN," it is a logical subgroup within a local
area network that is created via software rather than manually THE DEVICE
moving cables in the wiring closet. It combines user stations
and network devices into a single unit regardless of the
physical LAN segment they are attached to and allows traffic
to flow more efficiently within populations of mutual interest.
VLANs are implemented in port switching hubs and LAN
switches and generally offer proprietary solutions. VLANs
reduce the time it takes to implement moves, adds and Router Router
changes. Router
VLANs function at layer 2. Since their purpose is to isolate
traffic within the VLAN, in order to bridge from one VLAN to
another, a router is required. The router works at the higher
layer-3 network protocol, which requires that network layer
segments are identified and coordinated with the VLANs. This
is a complicated job, and VLANs tend to break down as
networks expand and more routers are encountered. The
industry is working towards "virtual routing" solutions, which
allows the network manager to view the entire network as a
single routed entity.

B. Advantages of VLAN
• Reduces the broadcast domain, which in turn reduces
network traffic and increases network security (both : V-WAN 1
of which are hampered in case of single large
broadcast domain)
• Reduces management effort to create subnetworks
• Reduces hardware requirement, as networks can be : V-WAN 2
logically instead of physically separated
• Increases control over multiple traffic types
• Increases network security : V-WAN 3

Fig. 3. The V-WAN Implementation


Though our model depends upon the techniques mentioned

above, the V-
WAN clearly outplays the VLAN as it uses a much greater
bandwidth and also influences the network in a much larger
While VLAN works in the layer 2 of the OSI model, V-WAN
works in the layer 4, which gives it as much(in many ways
larger) responsibility in error detection and correction. The
very fact that there are almost no devices specialized at
working in layer 4 (this layer is as of now a software
dominated layer) makes the need for this proposed device
greater to increase reliability and efficiency of the entire


The project hence arrives at the following conclusions:

Objectives of the project:

1. Connecting routers of different vendors in a WAN, even
Source: Computer Desktop Encyclopedia
when they work in their own proprietary encapsulation
Fig. 4. The present V-LAN Layout
2. Reduce the number of chains in the network
3. Faster data transfer.
C. Forwarding methods (used in a switch) 4. Increased privacy by implementation of V-WAN.
There are four forwarding methods a switch can use:
By maintaining a dynamically updated routing table database,
the device ensures that data is transmitted properly according
• Store and forward - the switch buffers and typically, to the privacy settings to the destination host overcoming the
performs a checksum on each frame before forwarding it problems faced due to encapsulation in a much faster and
on. efficient manner.
• Cut through - the switch only reads up to the frame's
hardware address before starting to forward it. There is no REFERENCES
error checking with this method.
• Fragments free - A method, which attempts to retain the [1] Wendell Odom, “CCNA® Self-Study CCNA INTRO Exam

benefits of both Store and Forward and Cut-through. Certification Guide”, Pearson Education, pp. 88, 91, 263-264, 268-
Fragment Free checks the first 64 bytes of the frame, 272, 407-420.
[2] Wendell Odom, “CCNA® Self-Study CCNA ICND Exam
where addressing information is stored. This way the P P

Certification Guide”, Pearson Education, pp. 150-173, 204-208,

frame will always reach its intended destination. Error 310, 437,439-442.
checking of the actual data in the packet is left for the end [3] G.R.McClain, “Hand Book of Networking and Connectivity,” AP
device in Layer 3 or Layer 4. Professional, Boston, MA, 1994.
[4] Chan Wai Kok, M. Salim Beg, “Simple IP Subnet VLAN
• Adaptive switching - a method automatically switching

Implementation”, 1531-2216/0
between the other three modes. © 2001 IEEE.
[5] Dr. V. Rajaravivarma, “Virtual Local Area Network Technology
and Applications”, 0-8186-7873-9/97, © 1997 IEEE.
Note that "cut through" switches have to fall back to "store
and forward" if the outgoing port is busy at the time the packet
arrives. Note that these forwarding methods are not controlled
by the user and are configured only by the switch itself.

Source: Switching and Routing