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Discover Reference Manual

Integrated GIS for the Geosciences Reference Manual

Encom Technology Pty Ltd Leaders in Exploration Software and Services

General Information
Discover 4.0 is developed and supported by Encom Technology Pty Ltd. Sydney Office Level 2, 118 Alfred St, Milsons Point, New South Wales 2061, Australia PO Box 422, Milsons Point, New South Wales 1565, Australia Tel +61 2 9957 4117 Fax +61 2 9922 6141 Perth Office Level 1, 43 Ventnor Ave, West Perth, Western Australia 6005, Australia PO Box 1572, West Perth, Western Australia 6872, Australia Tel +61 8 9321 1788 Fax +61 8 9321 1799

World Wide Web Email


Discover Release History

www.encom.com.au discover_support@encom.com.au
Version 1.0 Version 1.1 Version 1.2 Version 2.0 Version 2.1 Version 3.0 Patch 3.0.9 Version 4.0 December 1994 February 1995 September 1995 August 1996 November 1997 February 1999 October 2000 June 2001

Discover 4.0 requires MapInfo Professional 5.0 or later with Windows 95/98 or Windows NT/2000 Copyright 2001, Encom Technology Pty Ltd

Discover - Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Table of Contents 1 i Introduction 1 Introducing Discover 4.0 ........................................................................1 About this Manual ..................................................................................1 Conventions Used in this Manual.......................................................2 Obtaining Help .......................................................................................2 System Requirements .............................................................................3 Discover User Interface ..........................................................................3 Discover Installation...............................................................................5 Setup From CD-ROM Installation......................................................5 Discover Setup From the Web............................................................5 Installation of Discover ...........................................................................5 About Discover and AutoLoad...........................................................6 Configuring Discover.........................................................................7 Map Status Bar Display .....................................................................8 Workspace AutoSave.........................................................................8 Running Discover on a Network ........................................................8 Whats New in Discover 4.0 13 Discover General .............................................................................13 Map Making and Other Tools ..........................................................13 Surface Creation and Analysis .........................................................13 Table Utilities ..................................................................................14 Map Window Tools 17 Map Grid Display .................................................................................18 Drawing a Map Grid ........................................................................18 Projection ........................................................................................18 Grid Spacing....................................................................................19 Grid Style ........................................................................................19 Overlaying Grids and Saving Grids ..................................................20 Grid Table Name .............................................................................20 Select by Graphical Style......................................................................21 Auto-Shade...........................................................................................22 Saving a Thematic Map Setting in MapInfo .....................................22 Saving a Thematic Map Setting with Auto-Shade.............................23 Applying a Saved Shade Setting to a Map Window..........................23 Using Other Shade Files with Auto-Shade........................................24

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Using Auto-Shade with Other Discover Functions........................... 24 Standard Views.................................................................................... 25 Standard Projections ............................................................................ 26 Map Window Projection ...................................................................... 26 Set Default View for a Table................................................................ 27 Selecting All Map Objects from the Currently Editable Layer .............. 27 Make Selected Layer Editable.............................................................. 27 Fit Map Window to Selected Object..................................................... 27 Zoom to Extents of Selected Object ..................................................... 28 Save and Restore Map Window State................................................... 28 4 Map Making Tools 31 Scaled Output ...................................................................................... 32 User-Defined Scaled Output............................................................ 32 Map Scale and Map Extras.............................................................. 33 Frame Setup.................................................................................... 33 Positioning the Map ........................................................................ 33 Accept Map Position....................................................................... 34 Entering TitleBlock Details ............................................................. 34 ScaleBar Format ............................................................................. 36 Layout Window and Making Further Changes................................. 37 Using Standard Map Sheets............................................................. 38 Exiting Scaled Output ..................................................................... 39 Configuring Frame Settings ............................................................ 39 Hints............................................................................................... 40 Add Scaled Frame to Layout................................................................ 41 Opening a Custom Titleblock............................................................... 42 Styles Library ...................................................................................... 42 Applying Styles from the List ......................................................... 42 Maintaining the Styles Library (Editing/Adding/Deleting)............... 43 Automatic Legend Generation.............................................................. 44 How the Legend is Created ............................................................. 45 Legend Tables................................................................................. 45 Legend Style................................................................................... 46 Legend Order .................................................................................. 46 MapInfo Label Angles ......................................................................... 48 Text Labeling....................................................................................... 48 Constructing an Expression............................................................. 49 Label Style...................................................................................... 50 Reformatting Text Objects ................................................................... 50 Updating Text Labels........................................................................... 51 SeeThru Shading.................................................................................. 52 Defining a SeeThru Pattern ............................................................. 53

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Pattern Type ....................................................................................54 Pattern Density and Orientation .......................................................54 SeeThru Pattern Library...................................................................54 SeeThru Table Name .......................................................................55 Line Annotation....................................................................................56 5 Enhanced Layer Control 61 Enabling and Disabling the ELC ...........................................................61 Introducing the ELC .............................................................................63 ELC Options.........................................................................................64 Layer Controls ......................................................................................65 Layer Properties...............................................................................66 Layer Name Aliases .........................................................................67 Assigning Layers to Groups..................................................................68 Creating Groups and Adding Layers .....................................................70 Map Controls ...................................................................................71 Data Utilities 75 Document Display ................................................................................76 Displaying Different Types of Documents .......................................76 Displaying Images ...........................................................................77 Linking Documents to a Map Object................................................77 Text Search and Replace.......................................................................78 Select by Group ....................................................................................79 Update Coordinates ..............................................................................80 Update Mode ...................................................................................81 Coordinate Transformation ...................................................................82 What Coordinate Transformation Does ............................................82 Control Points and Transformation Parameters.................................83 Affine Transformation .....................................................................83 Plane Transformation.......................................................................84 Plane Transformation Scale Factor...................................................85 Using Stored Plane Transformations ................................................85 Local Grid Layout ................................................................................86 What Local Grid Layout Does..........................................................86 Describing the Local Grid................................................................86 Assign Values.......................................................................................87 Assigning from Points to Polygons ..................................................88 Assigning from Polygons to Points ..................................................89 Proximity Search ..................................................................................89 Data Normalizing .................................................................................91 Transform Options...........................................................................92 Digitizing Data Entry............................................................................92

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Using the DigData Option ............................................................... 92 Incrementing and Constant Fields ................................................... 93 EnterData ....................................................................................... 94 AutoData ........................................................................................ 95 Update with Line Direction.................................................................. 95 Polyline/Polygon Node Extraction ....................................................... 96 7 Importing Map Data from ASCII Files 101 Import ASCII Objects .........................................................................101 Introduction ...................................................................................101 Polylines Delimited by Row or Column .........................................102 Line on One Row...........................................................................103 XYZ Grid ......................................................................................103 Micromine Import...............................................................................104 Import Layered DXF...........................................................................104 Comparison of DXF Import MapInfo, Universal Translator or Discover ........................................................................................104 DXF Layers and MapInfo Attributes ..............................................105 Storing Elevation Values................................................................105 Object Editing Utilities 109 Drawing Objects from the Keyboard...................................................110 Nominating an Object to Draw.......................................................110 Entering Node Coordinates ............................................................111 Entering Nodes by Distance/Bearing/Elevation ..............................112 Entering Values for Points, Lines, Arcs, Ellipses and Rectangles ....112 Editing the Node Coordinates of an Existing Object .......................113 Offset Objects.....................................................................................113 Object Transform................................................................................114 Line Smoothing ..................................................................................115 Polyline Sub-Sampler .........................................................................115 Thinning by Node Number.............................................................115 Thinning by Node Position..................................................................116 Processing Inlying Polygons ...............................................................117 Overlapping and Inlying Polygons .................................................117 Removing the Overlaps..................................................................118 Polyline Clipping................................................................................118 Using PolyClip ..............................................................................119 Clipping Method ............................................................................119 Clipped Data Tables.......................................................................119 Line Cut .............................................................................................120 Change Direction ................................................................................121 Split Multiple Section Polylines and Regions ......................................121

Discover - Table of Contents

Manual Polygonize .............................................................................121 Auto Polygonize .................................................................................122 Polygonizing Description...............................................................122 Cleaning Linework ........................................................................123 Building Polygons .........................................................................124 Clean and Build .............................................................................125 9 Table Utilities 129 Multi-File Utility ................................................................................130 Multi-Open....................................................................................130 Multi-Append, Multi-Pack, Multi-Export.......................................130 Workspace Editor ...............................................................................131 Save Tables and Workspace................................................................131 Multiple Column Update ....................................................................132 Sort a Table ........................................................................................132 Alter Map Bounds ..............................................................................133 User Tables.........................................................................................134 User MBXs ........................................................................................135 User Workspaces ................................................................................135 Surface Creation and Analysis 139 Introduction........................................................................................139 What is a Surface Grid? ......................................................................140 Configuring Grid File Formats............................................................141 Band Interleaved by Line Grid Format ...........................................143 ER Mapper Grid Format ................................................................144 MapInfo Grid Format.....................................................................146 Importing a Grid Surface ....................................................................146 Creating a Surface ..............................................................................147 Gridding Parameters ...........................................................................149 Contouring Parameters .......................................................................151 Contouring a Grid File........................................................................153 Exporting Grids and Contours.............................................................153 Adding Labels to a Contour Plan ........................................................154 Surface Profile Over a Grid or Contour Plan .......................................154 Introduction to Surface Profile .......................................................155 Layers to Profile ............................................................................156 Draping Vector Layers...................................................................156 Display Options .............................................................................157 Profile Map Window......................................................................158 Profiles for Multiple Lines .............................................................158 Reporting Grid Cell Values .................................................................159 Assigning Grid Cell Values.................................................................159

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Grid Query..........................................................................................159 Points to Regions (Voronoi Polygons).................................................160 Merging Grids ....................................................................................162 Grid Clipping......................................................................................163 Grid Display Tools..............................................................................164 Registering Grid Files .........................................................................165 Grid File Manager...............................................................................167 11 Drillhole Display 171 Introduction ........................................................................................171 Steps to Displaying Drillhole Data ......................................................172 Data Formats and Data Sources...........................................................172 Selecting a Project to Use....................................................................176 Defining a Drillhole Project ................................................................177 Drillhole Info Tool..............................................................................179 Generating Sections and Plans ............................................................180 Displaying Downhole Data .................................................................185 Text Display ..................................................................................187 Linegraphs and Histograms ............................................................188 Trace Shade ...................................................................................189 Structure Ticks...............................................................................189 Data Display Settings.....................................................................190 Data Display Legend......................................................................190 Creating and Editing Colour Patterns ..................................................191 Viewing Sections in the Layout Window.............................................192 Digitizing Boundaries and Exporting to 3D DXF ................................193 Drillhole Log Display .........................................................................194 Defining the Log Display...............................................................195 Calculating Sectional Resources..........................................................196 Data Validation...................................................................................199 Data Compositing ...............................................................................201 Drillholes to be Composited...........................................................201 Compositing by Unique Attribute...................................................202 Compositing by Cut-off Grade .......................................................202 Compositing by Elevation and Downhole Depth ............................203 Calculate 3D Coordinates....................................................................203 Saving Display Settings ......................................................................204 Geological Data Processing 207 Graph Map .........................................................................................207 MapInfo Graphs and GraphMap.....................................................207 Introduction to GraphMap..............................................................208 Starting GraphMap ........................................................................209

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Graph Scaling ................................................................................210 Multiple Graphs from Unique Column Values ...............................211 Viewing Graph Selections in the Map Window ..............................211 Making a Ranged Thematic Map for GraphMap ............................212 Making an Individual Thematic Map for GraphMap ......................212 GraphMap Hints ............................................................................212 Standard Map Colouring.....................................................................213 Shading a Map with MapInfos Thematic Map Window.................214 Colouring Polygons with Discover .................................................214 Creating a Colour Table from an Existing Map ..............................215 Creating a Colour Table from a Thematic Map ..............................216 Editing the Colour Table................................................................217 Colouring Maps with the Selected Colour Table.............................218 Structural Data Map Window..............................................................219 Introduction to Structural Data Map Window.................................219 Structural Data Map Window Display Options...............................220 Symbol and Label Style .................................................................222 Displaying Structural Data Processed from a Table ........................223 Displaying Structural Data by Digitizing........................................223 Dip and Plunge Angles ..................................................................224 Structural Symbol Codes................................................................224 Tenement Searches .............................................................................226 Tenement Data ..............................................................................226 Licence Table and Licence Type....................................................227 Company Name .............................................................................228 Dates .............................................................................................228 Shading By Date............................................................................228 Display Parameters ........................................................................229 Multiple Searches ..........................................................................230 Australian Exploration Tenement Applications ...................................230 Graticular Exploration Licence Descriptions ..................................230 Setting Up......................................................................................231 Defining an Application Area by Pointing with the Mouse.............232 Defining an Application by Keying in the Description....................233 Defining an Application by Keying in the Description (NT only) ...234 Creating a Report...........................................................................234 WA Form 21 Attachments 1 and 2 .................................................235 13 Using Metadata to Manage and Explore MapInfo Databases 239 What is Metadata and Why do we Need it? .........................................239 How does MapInfo Deal with Metadata .........................................239 Metadata Management with Encoms Toolset ................................240 The Metadata Template .................................................................241

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Propagating the Template...............................................................242 Editing and Viewing the Template .................................................242 The Spatial Catalogue ....................................................................242 Using a Spatial Catalogue ..............................................................242 Running the Programs....................................................................243 Metadata Manager ..............................................................................243 Create New Metadata Template .....................................................243 Propagate Metadata Template To Tables ........................................246 View and Edit Metadata in a Table.................................................248 Updating Metadata..............................................................................248 Spatial Catalogue................................................................................249 Constructing the Spatial Catalogue.................................................249 Viewing and Querying the Spatial Catalogue..................................250 Create a New Spatial Catalogue .....................................................250 Updating a Spatial Catalogue .........................................................252 Viewing and Using the Spatial Catalogue Table .............................253 Tree View of Spatial Catalogue Table ............................................253 Different Views of Catalogue Maps ...............................................255 Open Tables for Selected Polygons ................................................257 Glossary of Terms...............................................................................257 A TitleBlock Customizing 261 Introduction ........................................................................................261 Usage of the TitleBlock ......................................................................261 Discover Program and Configuration Discover Structural Symbol Fonts Discover Geological Symbol Font Index 265 269 273 279

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Introduction
Introduction Discover User Interface Configuration Setup and Installation

Introduction

Introduction
Introducing Discover 4.0
Discover version 4.0 is developed for geoscientists by Encom Technology and is an extension application for MapInfo Professional. Discover 4.0 runs with MapInfo Professional version 4.0 or later on Windows 95/98 and Windows NT/2000 computer systems. Building on the many powerful Geographic Information System (GIS) features of MapInfo, Discover converts MapInfo into a sophisticated and easy-to-use tool for managing, manipulating and displaying exploration data sets. Discover gives users the ability to process and view data in ways that previously required a number of software packages. A geologist in the field, an exploration manager in head office or a draftsperson in a regional office can use Discover to track tenement activity, contour point data, view drill holes in plan and section, analyze geochemical data, facilitate map creation, easily produce scaled hard copy output, and more. Discover 4.0 provides new and improved functionality in a number of key areas and incorporates significant input from users.

About this Manual


This manual describes new and existing features in this version of Discover and supercedes earlier Discover Reference manuals. The manual is organized into chapters containing logically grouped functions that relate to the Discover menu structure. This manual applies to Discover 4.0 only. Encom Technology has taken care to ensure that the information presented here is accurate but reserves the right to make alterations to Discover at any time. This is not a MapInfo manual and knowledge of MapInfo Professional is required for Discover to be used to its best advantage. We recommend that you refer to the MapInfo Professional Reference and MapInfo Professional Users Guide for further information on using MapInfo. Users are also encouraged to refer to the on-line help for Discover, which is accessed from the MapInfo help menu and contains a full explanation of all functions in Discover.

Discover Reference Manual

Conventions Used in this Manual


Certain conventions are used throughout this manual. Keys on the keyboard appear in small capital letters. For example, the Ctrl key appears as CTRL in the text. Menu options and dialog items are in normal text but bolded. For example, choose File>Run MapBasic Program. Buttons to be clicked are bolded. For example, click the Remove Entry button. Text to be entered from the keyboard is shown in Letter Gothic. References to other sections in the documentation are italicized. For example, see the Data Utilities chapter.

Obtaining Help
If you need to contact product support for Discover please have the following details available: Licence Number (shown in the Discover>About Discover dialog eg. 4001121) MapInfo Version (shown in the Help>About MapInfo dialog eg. 5.50) A full description of the problem or query. This should include any system messages (from Discover, MapInfo or the operating system) and other pertinent information detailing the circumstances.

Select the Discover Technical Support item from the Help menu to generate a form that can be emailed or faxed to Encom Technology. Contact details are: Email World Wide Web: Telephone Fax discover_support@encom.com.au www.encom.com.au +61 3 9524 4915 +61 3 9533 0234

If you experience any problems with Discover, or have suggestions or comments, Encom Technology would be pleased to hear from you.

Introduction

System Requirements
Discover has no additional system requirements beyond that required to run MapInfo 5.0 or later. Discover 4.0 runs on Windows 95/98 and Windows NT/2000 but not on Windows 3.11, and is best used with a video resolution of 800 x 600 or better.

Discover User Interface


Discover adds a new menu and a new set of buttons to the MapInfo interface. As the mouse is placed over each menu option or button, a message is displayed in the Status Bar (at the bottom left corner of the MapInfo screen) with a short description of what that item does.

The Discover Menu with references to menu options in this manual

The Discover 4.0 interface includes a number of buttons contained on toolbars, each of which may be set to be displayed or hidden and positioned as floating or fixed button bars. The position of each button bar is remembered by Discover between sessions.

Discover Reference Manual

The button bars available are: Main Main functions of Discover such as Scaled Output Map Window Map window tools such as select by graphical style Map Making Map making tools such as text labels and see-through shades Object Editing Object editing functions such as line cut and smoothing These button bars are available at any time, and additionally there are module specific button bars for drillhole display, surface creation and analysis and graphmap that are displayed when those modules are run.

Discover button bars Main Map Window, Object Editing and Map Making

Discover button bars Drillhole Display, GraphMap and Surfaces

Each of the button bars can be shown or hidden using commands from the Discover menu, or from the MapInfo toolbar dialog (right-click on the button bar or select the MapInfo Options>Toolbar menu item). The positions of the button bars are automatically saved when you exit Discover. When you next load Discover, the button bars are correctly positioned.

Introduction

Discover Installation
Setup From CD-ROM Installation
Place the supplied Encom software CD in the CD-ROM drive and wait a few seconds. The CD-ROM should register with your computer automatically and present an installation menu list. To load the Discover software, click the Install Discover 4.0 button. Once selected, the menu automatically executes the SETUP.EXE file as described in Installation of Discover. Note In the event that the CD-ROM does not autoload, you may need to execute the program SETUP.EXE in the top level directory of the CD-ROM or double click on the SETUP.EXE file in the DISCOVER directory.

Discover Setup From the Web


Discover 4.0 can be provided in a condensed form from the Encom web site (www.encom.com.au). Due to storage considerations and for fast downloading, the web distribution of the software is not as complete as supplied on the CDROM. Some components such as documentation and tutorial files are reduced in content. To download the Discover 4.0 installation file, open the web site and access the Download item. A form is required to be filled in before the download can commence. Discover components are described prior download and their size is shown. Once the installation files are available you can install the software and its components by locating in Explorer and double clicking to initiate the installation procedure. Licensing procedures are identical for both a Web installation or CD-ROM installation (see Installation of Discover).

Installation of Discover
Before installing Discover 4.0, ensure that MapInfo Professional (version 4.2 or later) is installed on your system. Discover 4.0 does not work with older versions of MapInfo. To install MapInfo on your computer, follow the procedure detailed in the MapInfo manuals. As the installation program for Discover (SETUP.EXE) proceeds, a number of options are presented to you. Initially, acknowledgement and acceptance of the Encom Users Licence Agreement must be made. We recommend you read the

Discover Reference Manual

details of this Agreement since it limits your personal and corporate use of the software. Discover 4.0 requires an Encom licence to operate. Supplied with your software distribution should be a diskette containing a Discover 4.0 licence file or a licence file may have been issued to you by Encom Technology (via email etc). This file must be available for the installation to proceed further. After registering the licence file, other installation options are provided. Tutorials and sample data (totalling approximately 4.8 Mbytes). Metadata Manager for managing metadata. Metadata is information that relates to datasets and describes some characteristics of it (such as audit trails, projects or projection information). Spatial Catalogue for managing a database that contains an entry for each MapInfo table and which lists both geographic and table attributes (such as the coordinate system or the number of rows etc). Tenement data for information related to Exploration Applications. This data relates ONLY to Australian state tenement searches and applications. Adobe Acrobat Reader for displaying and reviewing documents (for example, the tutorials or Users Guide).

You can also specify configuration paths (refer to Configuring Discover) for the various options. Please call product support if you experience any problems installing Discover. Once you have installed Discover, you should read the file README.TXT for any late-breaking information that has not been included in this manual. Should you need to uninstall Discover, select Discover 4.0 from Add/Remove Programs item in the Windows Control Panel, or run the program UNWISE.EXE from the Discover installation directory.

About Discover and AutoLoad


Once Discover has been installed, it should automatically load each time that MapInfo is run. If you have exited Discover and need to re-run it, then choose the MapInfo File>Run MapBasic Program menu option, and select the file DISCOVER.MBX from the Discover installation directory. If you do not wish to have Discover loaded each time you run MapInfo, click the AutoLoad button from the Discover>About menu option.

Introduction

Choose the Discover>About Discover menu option to check that the licensing information is correct. The organization to which this copy of Discover is licensed is also displayed in the title bar of the MapInfo application window. Encom suggests that you leave AutoLoad Discover set on, so that it loads every time MapInfo is run. Autoloading Discover imposes little in the way of memory or performance overheads for running MapInfo and means that Discover is always instantly available.

Configuring Discover
At installation time you specify 3 main paths for Discover for the location of program files, configuration files and temporary files. See Appendix B for more information on the files installed by Discover. The Discover Program Files Directory is where DISCOVER.MBX and associated programs are run. Some MapInfo tables required by Discover are also stored here. This directory can be read-only. The Discover Configuration Directory stores tables and text files containing settings for various Discover functions. The files and tables in this directory are written to by Discover so the directory must not be read-only. For single-user installations of Discover, this directory can be the same as the Program Files Directory. The Discover Temporary Directory is used for storing temporary tables and must not be read-only. This can be the same as the Windows temporary directory, or may be a separate directory. You may view and edit the configuration settings at any time by selecting the Discover>Configuration menu option. Whilst Encom suggests that you follow the directory structure detailed in the installation notes, you can easily alter the installation directory structure after installation. The configuration screen (see below) also provides additional options. Previous versions of Discover stored this information in a file called ENCOM.CFG. This information is now stored in a file called DISCOVER.INI in the directory containing the main Discover application. You should not edit this file directly

Discover Reference Manual

Configuration option to assign directories and miscellaneous items

Map Status Bar Display


By default, MapInfo sets the status bar to display the map zoom width at the lower left corner of your screen. Discover provides the ability to override this default so that each time a Map Window is opened the status bar displays whichever Position, Zoom width or Scale you require. This override is only operative whilst Discover is running and you can still change the status bar display for each map window manually from the status bar or from the MapInfo Map>Options menu option.

Workspace AutoSave
Discover can automatically save a workspace every few minutes - you can set the interval to any number, or zero to disable this feature. This workspace is called DISCOVER.WOR and is saved to the Discover Configuration directory. The Discover workspace is useful for recovering from user or program errors. For example, if you have accidentally closed a complex layout before saving a workspace, use the Discover workspace to resurrect your work.

Running Discover on a Network


If you are running MapInfo and Discover on a network, the directories containing the MapInfo and Discover software may be read-only (that is, they may be write-protected to ensure there is no accidental data loss). In this

Introduction

instance, you need to set the Discover Temporary directory and Discover Configuration directory to ones that are not read-only. This allows Discover to write configuration and temporary files as required.

New Features in Discover


Discover Version 4.0 Features

New Features in Discover

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Whats New in Discover 4.0


Discover General
Improved installation procedure including support for Windows 2000. Discover compatibility with MapInfo Professional version 4.2 and later, including version 6.5 (released mid-2001). Updated tutorials included optionally with installation. Updated and redesigned on-line help. More program settings are saved between sessions. Implementation of a new feature, the Enhanced Layer Control, provides significantly faster and simpler control over layer selection, ordering and design.

Map Making and Other Tools


Long file names for map and layout lists. Text box placement option in the Layout Window as well as other aesthetic title block and legend changes. GraphMap displays stereogram cyclographic traces for large dip values. Display order control allows to permit back/forward operations in Scaled output of maps with a title block.

Surface Creation and Analysis


The gridding functions of Discover have been enhanced with the addition of new grid formats. The Surfaces subsystem now reads, writes, and displays four grid formats. These include BIL (Band InterLeaved), ER Mapper, Geosoft and MapInfo grids. Note full registration of ER Mapper grid files is supported utilising ERS header file information. Additional grid format support in Discover provides added grid representation using the MapInfo 3D surface rendering function. Vector, image and map drapes can be displayed. Any of the supported grid formats can be contoured. Grid arithmetic (add, subtract grids, calculate slope, aspect) for all supported grid formats has been enhanced.

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Point triangulation for surfaces has been improved to permit a wide distribution of control points including those located closely together. The point triangulation function now operates on large numbers of points. Grid registration of ChrisDBF generated ER Mapper files is supported.

Table Utilities
Append and export tables from a workspace using the Workspace Editor. Notification of permanent loss of data prior to proceeding with the Alter Map bounds utility.

Map Window Tools


Introduction Map Grid Displays Grid Styles Thematic Maps AutoShade Feature Map Display Utilities

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Map Window Tools

Discovers Map Window tools give you the ability to: interactively control map layers using the Enhanced Layer Control tool; draw a map grid on the map window, in any available coordinate system; autoshading of layers allows thematic shadings to be saved to a list and applied to different data; set the geographic view of a map window to a named view from a list, and save new views to the list; apply commonly used projections from a list; display the current coordinate system information for the map window; set the default map view for a table; select all map objects from the currently editable layer; and fit the map window to a selected object.

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Map Grid Display


Discover>Map Grid Draw a map grid in any projection to the front map window. This function is also available as part of the Scaled Output map making wizard (see Map Making).

Drawing a Map Grid


Accessed from the button bar or menu, the MapGrid function allows you to create a map grid in any projection over the current map window. The grid can be in one of a number of styles, and you can overlay one grid on another (for example a lat/lon grid on a UTM grid). The map grid is drawn into a table called AUTOGRID, unless you nominate a different table name.

The Map Grid dialog

Projection
By default (Auto option) the map window projection is automatically detected and used to construct the grid. To change the projection of the map window, use

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the Discover Standard Projection function (see Standard Projections, later in this section). If you wish to draw a map grid in a projection different to that of the map window, choose the Other option. A list of projections from the standard projection list is displayed. Select the projection that you wish to use. The map window projection is not changed, however the grid is drawn in the selected projection. You can also display local (non-earth) grids and real world grids together. To display local and real world grids together, you should define and store a grid transformation setting - see Grid Transformation in Data Utilities section (Discover>Data Utilities>Grid Transformation). With one or more grid transformation settings saved, choose the Transform option from the Projection control and select the appropriate transformation setting.

Grid Spacing
Discover suggests a rounded grid spacing based on the width of the map window. The grid spacing is in the coordinate units of the grid projection usually metres, but degrees for lat/lon coordinate systems. You can override Discover's suggested grid spacing by typing in your preferred value. For lat/lon grids, choose between grid spacing in decimal degrees or degrees, minutes, seconds by clicking the checkbox.

Grid Style
The grid is drawn in one of three basic styles: Lines Points Edge ticks

These basic styles may be altered by changing the line, symbol type and colour. Additionally, you may choose to have grid labels placed in a mask outside the map frame. For a grid drawn as lines, each grid line is a polyline with normally one node placed at each grid line intersection. Where the grid lines show substantial curvature (for example, when a lat/lon grid over a large area is displayed in a

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projected coordinate system) you may need additional nodes for each grid line. Set this value in the Label Options button. Grid line labels are, by default, drawn at the left and top margins of the map window. In a map window with metres labels, choose a small font size (9 or less) so that the labels do not appear too intrusive. The grid label font size is relative to the current map window scale. You can also draw grid labels to the bottom and right margins of the map window. You may wish to use this option when overlaying grids in different projections, for example so that labels for a UTM grid are drawn at top and left, whilst labels for a lat/lon grid are drawn at right and bottom. Other options available allow you to control the frequency of grid lines labels (choose from no labels, every line labelled or an intermediate setting), and what prefix or suffix to add to the coordinate label (for example, choose to label as E5000 or 5000 mE etc). When you choose to have the grid labels drawn in a mask around the edge of the map, Discover creates an extra table (called AUTOGRID_MASK) to hold the mask. The map window is enlarged slightly so that the visible area of the map window (inside the mask) remains the same.

Overlaying Grids and Saving Grids


If there is already an AutoGrid table in the front map window, Discover overwrites it, unless the Append to Existing AutoGrid option has been selected. If there is an AutoGrid table open, but not in the front map window, Discover prompts you for a name to save this table to. If you do not want to save the old grid click Cancel. If you know you are overlaying another grid, choose the Overlay another AutoGrid option. After drawing the first grid, Discover displays the map grid dialog again and you should choose different parameters (different projection and probably different grid style). When the OK button is clicked, Discover constructs the grid, and then displays it as a layer in the front map window.

Grid Table Name


Save the map grid to an explicit table name with the Save As button, otherwise the map grid is written to a table named AutoGrid in the Discover temporary

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directory. If you then wish to save the map grid for use later on, you need to use the Table>Maintenance>Rename Table menu option or the File>Save Copy As menu option to save AutoGrid with a new name. If you use the Save As button to specify a table name for the map grid, then MapGrid does not overwrite the existing map grid. Use this option when you need to save a map grid to disk for later use.

The three basic styles of map grid that can be generated by Discover

Select by Graphical Style


Discover>Map Window Utilities>Select by Graphical Style Select by Graphical Style allows you to select all objects from a table that have the same graphical style attributes as the selected object. The Select by Style dialog displays the style of the selected object and allows the selection criteria to be altered. By default, Discover selects all objects with exactly the same style from the same layer as the selected object. You can refine the selection criteria to request Discover to select, for example, symbols of the same colour but of any shape or size, or regions of a particular fill colour regardless of the fill pattern or line style.

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Select by Style dialog

Auto-Shade
Discover>Auto-Shade Use Discover to save thematic shade settings from a Map Window and re-apply the settings to any appropriate data set. Save and apply any type of thematic setting.

Saving a Thematic Map Setting in MapInfo


Discovers Auto-Shade has been designed to greatly enhance the portability of thematic maps. With MapInfo, when a thematic map has been created, the only way to save the thematic map is to save a workspace that includes the map window. However, if you then want to apply these thematic map settings to a different column in the same table, or to a completely different table, you must start again with the MapInfo>Create Thematic Map menu option, unless you wish to edit the workspace yourself. Discover can store these settings in a shade file (SHD). The shade files can then be made available to other users to allow standard thematic map settings to be maintained across a project.

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Saving a Thematic Map Setting with Auto-Shade


When you have created a new thematic map (or modified an existing one) and wish to save the settings with Auto-Shade, click the Add button from the main dialog. Discover asks you to select the thematic map layer to add (it is called LayerName(n) where n is the number of the thematic layer in the active map window), and select the shade file to add it to. If no shade files are currently stored, you should select New Shade File from the Add to Shade File list. Note shade files have the file extension .SHD.

AutoShade dialog for selection and storing of shade files

Applying a Saved Shade Setting to a Map Window


To apply a saved shade setting to a table, the table must be displayed as a layer in the front map window. Select the shade setting required (from the shade list and the shade file list), and select the table and column to apply it to. By default, Discover attempts to select the same column that was used to create the shade setting. If the data column chosen contains values that lie outside the range of the shade setting, then those objects are not shaded. If you are applying a pie or bar chart shade, then you must explicitly select the same number of columns that were used to make the pie or bar chart originally. The original columns used for this shade setting are displayed above a Choose New Columns button.

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If the data that you choose cannot be thematically shaded, Discover displays an information message.

Using Other Shade Files with Auto-Shade


Using Auto-Shade, you can save a thematic map setting and then later re-apply it to any data that you wish to. The thematic map settings are stored in shade files and Discover keeps a list of the various settings and shade files that you have saved. Although there is no real limit to the number of settings that you can save, you will find that it is useful to group your saved settings into separate shade files. Shade files may be transferred from one Discover installation to another. However, when this is done, you must copy the shade file into the new Discover configuration directory and then register the shade file by clicking on the Add button and entering the shade file name. If there is a thematic map displayed, after clicking the Add button you should click the Add Existing Shade File button. The shade files are stored in the configuration directory, and the list of shade files and shade settings is stored in the table AutoShad, also in the configuration directory. You do not need to explicitly open this table to run Auto-Shade.

Using Auto-Shade with Other Discover Functions


With the ColourMaps>Colour Map quick shade option, a Discover colour table can be quickly applied as a thematic map setting to a polygon table. You can then save this shade setting with Auto-Shade. When creating a polygon grid with Discovers Surface Creation and Analysis function, the best way to visualize the grid is to thematically shade it by ranges. With Auto-Shade, you can quickly apply a customized shade setting to a new grid or contours. Use standard shade settings in conjunction with Drillholes>Display Data for a flexible downhole drill data display. Create a thematic map for graphed data with GraphMap and apply it to the source data, then save the setting with Auto-Shade for later use.

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Standard Views
Discover>Map Window>Standard Views Select a pre-set geographic view from a list. Save new views to this list. Discover allows you to store any number of Standard Views in a list. You can quickly zoom to one of your stored views by selecting that view from the list. For example, you may have one view called "New South Wales", one called "Northern Region", and one called "Dog Hill Prospect". No matter what data you have displayed in the current map and what the coordinate system of the map window, choosing a Standard View takes you to the required area. To add a Standard View, or to choose one from the list, select the menu option, or click the Standard Views button.

The Standard Views dialog

To zoom to a Standard View, double click on its name, or highlight the name and click GoTo. To add a new Standard View, first pan and zoom in your current map window to frame the view as desired, then choose Standard Views. Click Add, and type in a name for the new view. The view is added to the list in alphabetical order. Click Done when finished. To delete a view from the list, highlight its name and click Delete.

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Note

The current map window is zoomed to this location irrespective of whether there is any data in that area. Standard Views does not record information about the size of the map window, only its centre and zoom width.

Standard Projections
Discover>Map Window>Standard Projections Select a map projection from a list and apply it to the current map window. Add map projections to the list from the MapInfo projection file. Discover provides a quick and easy way to access commonly used projections. This means you don't need to use the Map>Options>Projection sequence, and then wait while MapInfo loads the projection file. Instead, click the Projection button or select the Standard Projections menu option to bring up a list of commonly used projections. Double click on a projection in the list to apply that projection to the current map window. To modify the list of coordinate systems, use the Add and Delete buttons. The Add button reads in the MapInfo projection file and allows you to select additional projections to add to the list. The projection data is stored in the file DISCOVER.PRJ in the Discover Config directory, using a similar format to the normal MapInfo projection file. Experienced users may wish to edit this file with a text editor or word processor. This file is used in several of Discovers functions, where projection information is required.

Map Window Projection


Discover>Map Window>Map Projection The Map Window Projection option in Discover displays the full range of coordinate system information for the front map window. You can use the information presented in this window, together with Appendix F, MapInfo Professional Reference (v4.5 or before) or Appendix H, MapInfo Professional Users Guide (v5.0 or later) to understand more about how MapInfo uses coordinate systems and to create your own custom coordinate systems. It is possible for a table to be stored in a projection that is not defined in MapInfos projection file (MAPINFOW.PRJ). In this case, the coordinate

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system name is undefined and is referred to as a custom coordinate system. It is accompanied by a list of the projection parameters. You can use these parameters to add the new coordinates system to MapInfos projection file.

Set Default View for a Table


Discover>Map Window>Default View MapInfo stores a default view for each tables map. When a new map window is opened for the table, it is displayed in this default view. Use Discovers Default View option to change the default view. This feature is not applicable to raster tables.

Selecting All Map Objects from the Currently Editable Layer


Discover>Map Window>Select all from Editable Layer This menu choice is useful if the editable layer is not the top select layer.

Make Selected Layer Editable


Discover>Map Window Utilities>Make Selected Layer Editable Use this tool to edit the layer from which objects are currently selected. This is a shortcut to using the layer control dialog box and is especially useful where there are many layers in a map.

Fit Map Window to Selected Object


Discover>Map Window>Fit Map Window to Selected Object Use this option to resize the map window to the aspect ratio of the selected object, and to zoom and re-position the map window to display the minimum bounding rectangle of the selected object. This is useful when adding a frame of specific size to a layout - use the drawing tools or Discovers Object Editing>Key In Shapes to create a rectangle covering the area to print, and then use Discover to resize the Map Window to fit it.

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Alternatively, you may have selected a region or polyline object that is much larger than the current Map Window zoom level and you may want to zoom the map window to display all the object. In this case, remember that Discover also resizes the map window to the aspect ratio of the objects minimum bounding rectangle. Note For objects that have an aspect ratio (height/width) of less than 0.1 or greater than 10, the selected object does not completely fill the map window.

Zoom to Extents of Selected Object


Discover>Map Window Utilities>Zoom to extents of selected objects. Zoom the map window to show the entire minimum bounding rectangle of the selected object(s). Note The Enhanced Layer Control (ELC) of Discover provides for unlimited Previous Views of map windows. Not only does this feature operate on the window that has focus, you can select any of the available map windows from the ELC and Discover retains their individual previous zoom views. Refer to the Enhanced Layer Control for additional information.

Save and Restore Map Window State


Discover>Map Window Utilities>Save/Restore Map Window State Use the Save Map Window State tool to save the position, size, centre and zoom width of the top map window. After saving the Map Window state you can then restore it using the Restore Map Window State option. The Restore Map Window State option is useful when you want to restore a map window that is used in a layout window, after you have zoomed or panned across the map window.

Map Making Tools


Scaled Output Title Block Controls Styles Library Automatic Legend Generation Text Labeling See-Thru Shading Line Annotation

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Map Making Tools

Map Making menu list

Discover facilitates map production in MapInfo with an integrated set of tools. Discovers map making tools provide functions to: produce accurately scaled standardized hardcopy maps complete with titleblocks and scalebars; use standard styles when editing and creating data sets and maps; create a legend for multi-layer geological maps; create vector fill patterns for polygons; add geological annotation to linework; maintain and use standard map object styles; set MapInfo label angles for an entire layer; create text labels for map objects; reformat text objects for a specified map scale; and update text objects from column values and vice versa.

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Scaled Output
Discover>Scaled Output Insert a correctly sized and scaled frame of the front map window (with map grid) into a layout, optionally using a layout from an existing workspace. Alternatively use a mapsheet boundary to size and scale the frame. Additional frames for scalebar and titleblock are added to the layout. Discovers Scaled Output function gives you a wizard-style interface to simplify the creation of hard-copy output from a map window. Step 1 Select the output map scale and paper size required Step 2 Specify map grid parameters Step 3 Specify titleblock parameters Step 4 Save the map and exit

User-Defined Scaled Output


To produce an accurately scaled map using Discover, open a map window, add all the required layers and change layer settings as appropriate. Select Scaled Output from the Discover menu, or click the Scaled Output button on the Main Button bar. Discover displays the following dialog, from which you should specify the map scale and frame size required.

The Scaled Output dialog

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Map Scale and Map Extras


You can select from one of the pre-set scales, or choose a custom scale. If you choose a pre-set scale, the map size (for the currently selected frame setting see below) is displayed in the Actual Map Size box. If entering a custom scale, the Actual Map Size does not change. By default, the Draw Grid option is checked. If you wish to produce a map with no map grid, uncheck this option. When Discover draws a map grid, the grid is sized to fit the frame, and grid text labels are sized appropriate for the output scale. You should also choose a titleblock and scalebar style to use from the lists of those available. The list of titleblocks may be maintained using the Configure option, whilst the scalebar styles are pre-set in Discover and cannot be changed.

Frame Setup
By selecting a frame setup from the list, you are defining the size and position of the frame that Discover places into the layout window. This frame contains the map window, and the size (in centimetres) is shown in the Actual Map Size box. You should note that the frame size and orientation set here (for example, A3 Landscape) does not change the Printer Setup - you need to use the Printer Setup button on this dialog or select the MapInfo File>Print Setup menu option. When the Layout window is opened, you can quickly see if the Print Setup matches the selected frame size.

Positioning the Map


The position of the Scaled Output map rectangle can be accurately specified by entering coordinates for either the centre or one of the corners of the map. Use this option to ensure that the map is accurately positioned for consistent output. When the main dialog is dismissed, Discover draws a rectangle in the current map window. This rectangle (which is in a temporary table called MapSize) shows the area that is covered by the map, and is always drawn in the centre of the window. You can zoom and pan the map window as required, and drag the map size rectangle to the exact position required by selecting it. However, do not change the size of the MapSize rectangle.

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If you decide that the map should be produced at a different scale or with a different frame size, then choose Scaled Output>Respecify Parameters to display the main dialog again and change the settings.

Accept Map Position


When the MapSize rectangle covers the area you wish to print, choose Scaled Output>Accept Map Position. Discover now resizes the map window to the required area, and displays dialogs requesting input for grid generation and titleblock information. Note If you change the view (pan or zoom) in any of the map windows after accepting the map position, the map scale and the appearance of the map in the Layout window is altered. Whilst Scaled Output is still running you can use the Scaled Output>Restore Map Window menu option to restore the map window to the correct aspect ratio and scale. The map grid is constructed as described in Map Window Tools, with the important difference that the grid label font sizes are appropriate for the specified output scale. When the map grid is drawn, the labels often appear very small on the screen, but are correctly sized for hardcopy at the nominated scale. By default, grid labels are drawn on all four sides of the map window. You can draw multiple map grids by checking the Overlay Another AutoGrid option. If you want to use the map grid as part of a workspace later on, then use the Save As button to save the map grid to a specific table name.

Entering TitleBlock Details


Discover prompts you for details to insert into the titleblock, which is then displayed as a separate frame within the layout window. The titleblock is stored as a template in a non-earth cm based table and can be customized. The dialog displayed for data entry of titleblock details depends upon how the titleblock table is customized. See Appendix A for details on customizing the titleblock. The default titleblock shipped with Discover presents a dialog similar to that shown below. The five Title Lines are concatenated (and centre justified). The details (Author, Reference etc.) are placed in the appropriate positions within the titleblock. The font styles used are defined in the titleblock template table on disk.

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TitleBlock Position defines where in the layout window the titleblock frame is placed. The default is in the lower right corner of the main map frame. Normally, the titleblock is displayed in the layout as a frame on top of the map window frame. However, for customized titleblocks, you may wish to have the titleblock behind the map and you should check the Send TitleBlock to Back checkbox. When entering titleblock information, you can specify a scale for the titleblock. By default, if the map to be printed is more than 50 cm wide, the titleblock is displayed at a scale of 1:1, otherwise the display scale is 1:2. Use this control to enter the scale required for the titleblock. By default, the titleblock is saved in the Discover temp directory as TITLEBLK.TAB. However, if you are going to use this titleblock in future (as part of a workspace), you should use the Save As button to save the titleblock with other tables for this drawing (such as the map grid and any annotation layers).

Scaled Output titleblock details dialog

Open Layout Template from workspace allows you to have a workspace for a layout with a pre-defined format instead of opening a new empty layout. For example, the layout could contain extra annotation (such as north arrows, extra legends, fixed logos and legends) as well as other map windows such as an overview window for the state or country that the map is part of. A list of the various layer names of the source map can also be displayed at a selectable location. Note that by default this list is produced, but you can select the No List option if preferred.

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When creating a layout to be used in this way, be careful that only those tables and windows required for your layout are actually open when you save the workspace. You may also need different workspaces for each different map format (paper size, orientation etc) that you wish to produce.

ScaleBar Format
The titleblock shipped with Discover contains a scalebar within it. This can be drawn in one of the three selectable formats from the main Scaled Output dialog. Alternatively, you can create a scalebar in its own map window that can be moved in the layout independently of the titleblock. Refer to Appendix A for more information on customizing the titleblock. The three scalebar formats that can be selected from the main dialog are as follows: ScaleBar 1 Format

ScaleBar 2 Format

ScaleBar 3 Format

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A scaled map inserted into a Layout window by Discover

Layout Window and Making Further Changes


When titleblock details have been entered, click OK and the scalebar and titleblock are drawn. A layout window is opened and the map frame is inserted. The titleblock (and optionally scalebar) is created as an individual map window and added to the layout as a frame. This means you can switch to the titleblock map window and edit the details as required. Note Be careful not to zoom in or out or resize the titleblock map window - this could change the size of the scalebar drawn on the hard copy map. You can also change the positions of the titleblock and map window frames in the layout window. Use the MapInfo Select tool to select the frame, then drag the frame to a new position and use the Layout>Align menu command to realign the titleblock with the edge of the map frame. This is useful when the title obscures required details on the map. To obtain a hardcopy print once Discover has generated the Layout, choose File>Print from the MapInfo menu. If you wish to make additional maps of the same area, but using different data to that currently displayed in the map window, then add, remove or customize the layers in the map window. The changes to the map window are reflected in the layout. If you want to make another map for a different area or for a

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different scale without quitting Scaled Output, then choose the Scaled Output>ReSpecify Parameters menu option. The size and position of the frames in the layout are not changed, but the map window is zoomed to fit the new scale. Note If you alter the size, position or zoom width of the map window at any time, the scale of the map in the layout window changes. Whilst Scaled Output is running, you can use the Scaled Output>Restore Map Window menu option to reset the map window size, position and zoom level. You should always save a workspace to ensure the layout settings are saved.

Using Standard Map Sheets


Discover comes with MapInfo tables containing the 1:100,000 and 1:250,000 mapsheet boundaries over Australia. Each sheet is a discrete, attributed, transparent polygon. You can use these boundaries, or other standard sheet boundaries that you create yourself (such as with Discovers Object Offset function), to have Discover produce correctly scaled standard map sheets. Open the appropriate mapsheet table and display it in your map window with the data that you wish to print. Then select the mapsheet you wish to use, using any of MapInfos selection techniques, and run Scaled Output.

A standard 1:250,000 mapsheet ready to plot

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Discover displays the same dialog as that shown above for User-Defined Output, however Discover detects and estimates an output scale. Because the aspect ratio of the map is defined by the selected map boundary, you cannot change the frame height and width in the frame settings configuration, but you can alter the position of the frame on the page, and change the scale that you wish to print at. Ensure your printer setup has the correct paper size, and then click OK. Discover correctly scales the map, and insert both the map name and number, if available, into the titleblock. If you wish to create your own standard mapsheet layers, ensure that they have fields called Name and Number so that the mapsheet name and number is recognized by the titleblock. Check the tables Map100 and Map250 in the Discover Demodata directory for examples. The scale that Discover suggests for your selected polygon is based on the area that it covers. You should always check the scale to ensure that it is what is required.

Exiting Scaled Output


To quit Scaled Output, select the Scaled Output>Quit Scaled Output menu option. Discover then asks whether you would like to save the TitleBlock, ScaleBar and Map Grid (if these tables are open) and a workspace that includes the layout, for future use. The titleblock, scalebar and map grid tables need to be saved under new names, or Discover overwrites them the next time that Scaled Output is used.

Configuring Frame Settings


Discover is shipped with a list of frame settings for full page frames for all the common page sizes. You can view, edit and add to the list of page settings by choosing the Configure button on the Scaled Output dialog. When you want to add a frame setting to the list, or modify an existing frame setting, you need to configure Scaled Output. You can also add or remove titleblock tables to the titleblock list in this dialog. You generally need to adjust your frame size to account for non-printing margins (which is different on different printers) and different page layouts. Discover allows you to set up and maintain a list of Frame Settings that define where on a particular size of paper, or a particular printer, the map should appear.

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Using this function, you can define page settings for all your common page layouts. For example, you could have a page setting for printing maps in the top half of an A4 sheet of paper. The paper sizes that Discover uses are standard (for example A4 is 297 mm x 210 mm).

The Page Setup Configuration dialog

The Non-Printing Margins define the area around the page edge which your printer cannot use (refer to set-up information for your printer). In the layout window, these are the light grey margins. The Map Frame Position offsets define the position of the lower left corner of the map frame within the printing area. Choose Save Settings and give your new settings a name (for example, A4 Top), then choose OK to return to the Scaled Output dialog. When creating a new frame setting, select the page size on which you wish to base the frame and then alter the margins and frame positions. Discover allows you to base the frame on any page size in the groups A0-A5, B1-B5, C1-C5, and A-F. Note The Printer Setup is not stored with Discover's Page Setup list.

Hints
If any polygon is currently selected in the front map window when Scaled Output is run, the dimensions of this polygon are used to size the map window. The selected polygon does not need to be a regular shape like a map-sheet. You can use MapInfos Set Clip Region command with Scaled Output to quickly produce a plot of just that map data which lies within a given tenement.

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Use the Layout>Align menu option to re-align the scalebar/titleblock frames if you have moved them. When running Scaled Output on a data set that takes a long time to redraw the screen, use the ESC key to interrupt MapInfos redraw. Be careful not to cancel from dialogs for map grid and titleblock details. Alternatively, set complex or large layers to invisible until ready to print. Use the Page Settings dialog to define other frame sizes such as oversized A0 for large maps, or wide margin A4 and A3 for printing small maps on large format printers (with large non-printing margins). If you need to make changes to the map window after it has been inserted into a layout, then you must use the pan/zoom functions with great care, otherwise the positioning and scaling of the frame in the layout is not correct. You can use the Scaled Output>Restore Map Window command whilst Scaled Output is running. Otherwise the Map>Previous View menu option may restore the map window to its previous position and scale after you have zoomed to make some modifications. When printing out drillhole cross-sections, use the Drillholes>Add Section to Layout tool that provides much of the functionality of Scaled Output. Use the MapInfo Overview tool to quickly add an overview map to your layout. Add extra frames to the layout using Discovers Map Making>Add Scaled Frame to Layout tool. This allows you to add an accurately scaled frame to an open layout window, but does not provide map grid or titleblock options.

Add Scaled Frame to Layout


Discover>Map Making>Add Scaled Frame to Layout This tool allows a scaled frame to be added to the layout window for the front map window. The scaled frame is added to a newly created layout window if one is not currently opened.

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Adding a scaled frame to a layout

Use this tool in conjunction with Scaled Output to add additional frames, such as an overview or legend, to the layout, with the Add Titleblock to Layout function or on its own when a scalebar and titleblock are not required.

Opening a Custom Titleblock


Discover>Map Making>Make Custom TitleBlock Use the Make Custom TitleBlock tool to open a custom titleblock, add details to that titleblock, and optionally create a scalebar to add to the titleblock. The titleblock map window is sized to fit the extents of the titleblock so that it can be easily added to a layout window.

Styles Library
Discover>Map Making>Styles Library Maintain a library of standard map styles. Apply a map style to the currently selected objects, or set the current drawing style. The style can optionally be selected from a Discover Colour Table. Automatically insert a style code as an attribute for a digitized object.

Applying Styles from the List


When the styles library is called from the menu or button bar, the following dialog is displayed. All the styles that have been defined are shown in the list box. When an entry is highlighted, the appropriate style (symbol, line and/or fill style) is shown at the right of the dialog.

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Select the style that you want, and click the Apply button. The current style is reset to that chosen (in the case shown below, the polygon styles are set to Basalt) and a note to that effect is shown in the message window. If there is a map window open, and a layer is editable, then the appropriate drawing tool (in this case the region tool) is selected.

Map Styles dialog and selectable available options.

When the styles library is first called, the list is loaded into memory, making it available instantly for future calls. To use a Discover Colour Table to select a style from, choose the Colour Table option and nominate a valid format Discover Colour Table (see the section on Geological Data Processing for more details on colour tables). Note You cannot edit, delete or add a style for a colour table. Use the Colour Map function to do this. If you want the style name to be added as an attribute to the table that you are editing, select the table and column name. Whenever an object is created or edited, the style name is added as an attribute, as well as the style being set. To disable the current map style, click Cancel from the Map Styles dialog.

Maintaining the Styles Library (Editing/Adding/Deleting)


The styles library that ships with Discover includes styles for each of the 50 geological symbols added to the MapInfo symbol file, as well as a number of

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line and polygon styles. It is quite likely that you may want to extend and alter this list to incorporate your own styles. To edit an existing style, highlight the required style in the list box and click the Edit button. You are presented with another dialog that allows you to change the style and/or the style name. Note You cannot change the object type of the style you are editing. To add a new style, click on the Add button and you are presented with the same dialog displayed for editing. You should select an Object Type, appropriate styles and then enter a name. To delete an existing style, highlight the required style and click the Delete button. After each of these operations, the list is updated to incorporate the changes. Appendix C is a list of the styles library shipped with Discover. The list includes all symbols in the ET GeoExplore TrueType font shipped with Discover, as well as some polyline and polygon styles. The list shown was created using Discovers automatic legend generator.

Automatic Legend Generation


Discover >Map Making>Legend Create a customizable legend for up to 10 layers in a multi-layered map. The order of items within the legend may be altered. The legend is created in a Map Window for easy insertion into a layout. In order to create a legend, you must have a map window open. You are presented with a list of tables in the front map window and asked to select those to be used for creating a legend. Once selected the following dialog is displayed, showing the selected tables.

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Dialog for legend creation. The user has already selected 4 layers to incorporate into this legend.

How the Legend is Created


The column (or field) that you nominate for each table from the Legend Column 1 defines what objects are drawn on the legend. For example, if you nominate RockCode, Discover draws an object for each RockCode. If you nominate Age, it draws an object for each Age grouping. The data held in Legend Columns 2 and 3 is added as supplementary text. The legend tool only produces sensible results if the data is structured appropriately. That is, all records containing a specific value in Legend Column 1 should have the same graphic style. In the above example, all polygons having RockCode = Czc should have the same colour. If this is not the case, the legend may be misrepresentative as the legend style is obtained from the first record in the table that has this value. The legend is created into a non-earth Map Window in cm. This allows it to be easily edited and added to a layout using the Add Scaled Frame to Layout tool.

Legend Tables
The tables selected are displayed in map layer order. You must choose the primary column to be used for legend creation in Legend Column 1. If you wish to alter the order of the legend items, then check the Specify Order option. This is often necessary if you wish the legend to reflect a meaningful order (for example, geological age) rather than the record order within the table. You may optionally nominate two further columns containing text, to be displayed in the legend. If the text for columns 2 and 3 is to be obtained from a related lookup table, select Lookup Table from the column list and then

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nominate the table to look up in, the column to match with Legend Column 1 and the column containing the legend text.

Legend Style
By default, Discover generates the Legend in one column, with the title at the top, and a legend item every 2 cm below that. Discover provides the option of creating the Legend in 2 columns, with a selectable line spacing. However, you can easily edit the legend later to move items. The font style for each text column may be explicitly set by clicking the Style button. By default, only those legend items that lie within the map window are included. However, if you want to include all items from the mapped tables, then uncheck the Legend from objects within map window only option.

Legend Order
The order of individual items in the legend can be specified in one of the following ways: 1. No ordering - the items are placed into the legend in the same order that they are read from the table. 2. Custom ordering - you can alter the position of individual items in the legend by moving them up or down the list. 3. Alphabetic ordering - either ascending or descending. 4. Reference to a column - ordering in the same table. 5. Reference to a column ordering in a separate table For each layer that the Specify Order option has been checked, a dialog similar to that below is displayed. A list of the legend items for that layer is displayed and you can alter their order. With the Re-Order Mode set to Custom, you can use the Up, Down and Delete buttons to alter the list. You can alternatively set the Re-Order mode to Alphabetical, either ascending (A-Z) or descending (ZA). If you have chosen the re-ordering with reference to a look-up column you must select a column from either the same table or a different one. These options would be used, for example, to re-order by age where this is entered into a numeric column.

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Dialog for changing the order of legend items

If you do not change the order, the legend is created in the order that the codes are found within the table. Using this feature, you can easily change the order to reflect other groupings (such as age, lithology, geography etc.). You can also specify legend item positioning (width, height and spacing) with greater flexibility. Once the legend has been created you can easily edit it as it is created in centimetre space in a non-earth Map Window.

A map legend created by Discover

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MapInfo Label Angles


Discover>Map Making>MapInfo Label Angles This feature alters the label angle for a specified map layer. MapInfo Professional labels are drawn horizontally. There is no way to change the label angle for more than one label at once. Use the MapInfo Label Angle feature in Discover to set the label angle to a value other than zero for all objects in the layer. Discover uses the current label settings (such as label column, zoom layering and font) for the specified layer, but alters each label so that it displays at the required angle. If the labels for this layer are not already displayed, then Discover causes them to be displayed. If you wish to store the labels for later use, you must save a workspace for the map. Note You cannot use this Discover feature with query layers.

Text Labeling
Discover>Map Making>Text Labels Place text labels into a map window, with text size relative to a specified map scale. There are many occasions when you want to add text-style labels in MapInfo, rather than use MapInfos object labels. When you place text in MapInfo, the text size is normally relative to the current map window scale, and MapInfo provides no easy way of showing whether the text is a sensible size when printed. Discovers Text Labels option overcomes this problem. Using the text labeling feature of Discover you can label map objects over an entire layer, writing those labels out to a specific map layer. The text may be placed at any angle and at any location relative to the centroid of the object. The label may be a column value or a more complex expression. Choose Text Labels and the following dialog is displayed. Note that you should have a map window open and active when you run this option.

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Text labels dialog and layer specification controls.

Choose the table that you wish to label from the list of tables in the front Map Window. If you have already selected objects and wish to label just them, choose Selection from the list of tables. If no objects are currently selected, this is not available. To label by a column value, select that column name in the From column pulldown list.

Constructing an Expression
You can construct the text label from an expression using the same syntax required for the MapInfo Select and Update commands, for example str$(Zinc) + %Zn + str$(Lead) + %Pb. Select Expression from the bottom of the column pulldown list. An expression construction dialog box is displayed, similar to MapInfos. Build your expression by directly writing the syntax, or picking the columns, operators and functions required from the pulldown lists. If the expression has valid syntax, Discover builds a temporary column containing the calculated values. This temporary column remains available whilst the table is open, and appears in the browser window. It is not, however, saved. If your expression has invalid syntax, you should seek further help on the syntax of MapInfo queries by referring to your MapInfo documentation.

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Label Style
The Label Style may be customized for size, angle, position and font. The label Size defaults to 10 point at the current Map Window scale, but accepts any valid numeric input. Enter the required map scale. The label size is correct at this printed scale. The value suggested by Discover is based upon the map scale in the front map window. The text Angle defaults to 0, that is - left to right horizontal (normal text orientation). Note MapInfo text angles increase anti-clockwise from this direction so that 90 is vertically up and 270 is vertically down. The Offset East and Offset North values refer to the distance in millimetres at the specified map scale that the label should start from the object centroid. Check the Label Lines checkbox to display lines from the label to the object centroid. This is useful if the label is offset from the centre, or if you need to move labels to overcome overposting.

Reformatting Text Objects


Discover>Map Making>Format Text Set the current font size, or resize selected text, for a specified output scale. Use Format Text to set the text font size for a specified output scale. You can also resize any selected text objects to prepare a map for printing at a new scale. Often you want to change the font size of existing text to prepare it to be displayed at a different scale. With the standard MapInfo text tool, you must have the window at the correct scale in order to get the text size correct. Using the text formatting utility in Discover you can adjust the text size by entering the font size that you want and the map scale that this size refers to. Additionally you can change the angle at which the text is displayed. You should have a Map Window open and active. If you have selected text, it is altered to the style that you select. The following dialog is displayed.

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Specifying text size, style and angles

Enter the text size and angle and the map scale at which this size is correct. The map scale defaults to a rounded value of the current Map Window scale. The Font Size defaults to 10 point at the current Map Window scale, but accepts any valid numeric input. The Text angle defaults to 0, that is - left to right horizontal (normal text orientation). Note MapInfo text angles increase anti-clockwise from this direction so that 90 is vertically up and 270 is vertically down. Also, when you change the scale/zoom of the map window, you need to reset your text size using this menu option.

Updating Text Labels


Discover provides a range of functions for modifying text labels that are already on your map. Commonly text labels are stored in a table used just for map annotation purposes, and it does not contain data. Once the label has been created, the link between the data and the label is based on location only. You may wish to alter the text labels for a number of reasons, such as: Having adjusted the position of sample labels to avoid overposting, you want to change the label text from the Pb assay value to the Zn assay, but keep the new label positions. Sample numbers have been provided as labels in a DXF file with a corresponding spreadsheet with no coordinates. You need to be able to create a MapInfo table with sample values joined to the location of the samples.

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Colour code sample assay labels using the same colour patterns as in the drillhole display module.

Note

Note that these functions work with text objects and not MapInfo labels. If you need to convert MapInfo labels into text objects use the MapInfo LABELLER.MBX tool (MapInfo Professional 4.1 or later). Discover>Map Making>Update Text Labels from Table Use this option to update the text in text objects according to the values in a nominated column. This column can be in the same table or a different table. When updating with values from a different table, Discover joins the two tables simply by record number in the two tables. If the record order in the two tables is not appropriate then you need to join the two tables using SQL. Discover>Map Making>Update Table from Text Labels Updating the table from text labels provides a simple method of adding the text label string into a column in the browser window. This feature is especially useful when dealing with DXF files containing sample number labels. Discover>Map Making>Colour Text Labels from Pattern Use this option to recolour text labels with colour patterns defined in the drillhole display module. Discover allows you to use any colour pattern that has been defined in the drillhole display module, and to colour the text objects based on the text string or alternatively, based on the value in a column. If you want to colour the text objects using the colour definitions stored in a Discover colour table, then use the Colour Map tool (see Geological Data Processing).

SeeThru Shading
Discover>Map Making>SeeThru Shading Apply transparent shading, as lines or points, to selected polygons. Use SeeThru shading to apply a standard shade pattern to selected polygons. The shading is created as linework or points and (if the polygon has a

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transparent fill pattern) does not obscure underlying map layers such as rasters. The shading is created in a separate table.

SeeThru Pattern selection dialog

SeeThru Shading dialog with some example patterns

Defining a SeeThru Pattern


Discovers SeeThru patterns are composed of lines, stripes or points that fill a polygon at a nominated spacing. Once a seethru shade has been defined, it can be saved as a named Pattern.

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You can easily select an existing pattern from the list. You should specify a map scale to apply this pattern. This allows you to use the same pattern at a variety of display scales.

Pattern Type
Choose between a line pattern, a stripe pattern and a point pattern. A line, brush or point style can be selected from the normal MapInfo range of line, brush and point types and colours. You can select symbol styles from any of those available, including custom bitmaps. If you have used a custom bitmap to fill a region, then note that the bitmaps are placed as the bottom layer in the map and may be obscured by other non-transparent region fill styles. Stripe patterns are made up of equal width stripes in alternating brush styles. Choose the stripe brush styles from the full range of MapInfo brush colours and fill patterns.

Pattern Density and Orientation


For line and stripe patterns, choose an orientation between 0 and 180 degrees for the line to be drawn at (0 is vertical, 90 is horizontal). For point patterns, this option is unavailable. You should then choose a Pattern Density or Width. The value suggested by Discover depends upon the current scale level of the map window, and is specified in the distance units of the map window. The closer the spacing, the longer time the pattern takes to generate. You should also note that the pattern is suitable only for the current scale of the map. If you zoom in or out, the pattern spacing remains the same in map units, so that the pattern appearance changes (it becomes more dense as you zoom out, and vice versa).

SeeThru Pattern Library


You can easily store seethru pattern definitions in Discovers SeeThru Pattern Library. Click on the Add button from the main dialog to store a new pattern, or select an existing pattern to edit or delete. For added flexibility, you can combine line and point patterns to provide a polygon fill of complex appearance. Simply select a different pattern style and

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click the Add button. Note If you combine stripes with other pattern types, the appearance of the pattern is unpredictable as Discover cannot control the order in which MapInfo draws the different elements in the pattern. To display these patterns together, select 2 seethru pattern layers, the lower one containing stripes, and the upper containing the other pattern.

SeeThru Table Name


By default, Discover places the shading in a new layer called SEETHRU, stored in the Discover Temporary directory. When you run SeeThru Shading, the existing SEETHRU table is overwritten. If a table named SEETHRU is in the front map window, you may append the new shading to it. Use the Save As button to save the shading to a table that can be used later with a workspace.

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Line Annotation
Discover>Map Making>Line Annotation Discovers line annotation function is specifically for adding geological annotation to linework for map output. Annotation for a variety of styles is added at a user-specified spacing and size, for a specific output scale. Similar to Discovers text labeling function, the annotation appears at a different size if output at a different scale to that specified.

Line Annotation dialog

The Annotation Type can define text characters selected from a list of all available characters (ASCII codes 32 to 255) or can define a Non-Text type such as fault or unconformity. Special symbol fonts, such as ET Structural, can also be selected as a text annotation. See Appendix C and D of Discover Reference Manual.

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Unconformity Synform Uncertain Boundary Overturned Anticline Normal Fault Dextal Strike-Slip Thrust Fault Shear Antiform

A selection of line annotation types available

Enhanced Layer Control


Introduction Layer Controls Window Properties Options Available

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Enhanced Layer Control


Discover 4.0 provides you with a flexible and powerful way of working with Map Windows and layers. The Enhanced Layer Control (ELC) allows you to manage multiple Map Windows from a single control. Layers can be organized in natural groupings that can be independent of their display order and aliases can be used to provide a more natural and consistent naming of data. Multiple layers can be selected and operated on simultaneously. The ELC also provides complete control over the standard layer attributes such as editability, visibility and label display.

Enabling and Disabling the ELC


When you first load Discover, the ELC is displayed in a floating window that you can position and resize as required. If you want to remove it, click on the X in the top right hand corner of the window. To restore it, select the ELC button from the Discover toolbar. If you want to disable the ELC altogether you can do so by deselecting the Use Enhanced Layer Control option in the Discover>Configuration menu item. Refer to Configuring Discover for additional information. The figure below serves to demonstrate some of the key features of the ELC. Note that the ELC displays information as a two-level hierarchy. The top level describes the Map Windows and the second level describes the layers contained within them.

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Introducing the ELC


Visible Layer Name Pickable Zoom to Layer Editable Label

Map Window Layer

Apply Changes

Refresh Grouped View

ELC Options Zoom Previous

An ELC controlling 3 open Map Windows and their associated layers

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In a similar fashion to Windows Explorer, you can expand or contract the tree by clicking on the + or sign to the left of each Map Window. This has no effect on your data it is just for your convenience. If, for example, you are currently working with Area A Prospect 2 you may find it convenient to collapse Area A Prospect 1 and Area B thus:

Example of Enhanced Layer Control with compressed Map Window trees

ELC Options
You can control the general characteristics of the ELC. For example, you can indicate whether you want the ELC to appear automatically whenever Discover is activated. You can also indicate whether you want the ELC to display layer information for all open Map Windows or just the current Map Window. These general characteristics can be set either by clicking on the Options button at the bottom of the ELC or by selecting the Options item on the pop-up that appears when you right click on a Map Window name or layer name in the ELC. When you do this, the following dialog is displayed:

Enhanced Layer Control options dialog

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Apply changes immediately If this box is checked, then each time you check/uncheck the visibility box for a layer, move a layer or change its display characteristics, the corresponding Map Window is redrawn. If the box is unchecked, you can defer the redrawing of the Map Window until all changes have been made. This second mode of operation is convenient if you are making a number of changes at once. When you have made your changes, click on the Apply Changes button and your Map Window and ELC are updated reflecting all changes that you have made.

Show all windows in workspace If checked, all open Map Windows are displayed in the ELC. If unchecked, the ELC only displays the active window. Use layer name aliases If checked, the ELC displays layer name aliases (if they exist). If unchecked, the actual .TAB file names are displayed. Allow layer logical grouping If checked, the ELC tree can be displayed in Grouped view (see Creating Groups). Open branches for all windows If checked the ELC displays all layers and themes (or groups and layers in Grouped view) for all open Map Windows. If unchecked, only the current Map Window appears expanded. Open when Discover starts - Open the ELC on startup.

Metadata Keys The two entry fields at the base of the Layer Control Options dialog allow you to specify which .TAB file metadata keys are used to store layer aliases and group names. These default to the keys, Alias and Group. Normally you leave these alone unless you already have a convention in place for using different key names (see Layer Name Aliases and Assigning Layers to Groups).

Layer Controls
The ELC provides a set of visual controls for controlling layers. The visibility of each layer is controlled by the check box to the left of each layers name. Check a box by clicking in it and the layer is displayed, uncheck it and the layer disappears.

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Note

You can display or hide all layers (other than the Cosmetic layer) for a Map Window by checking/unchecking the visibility box on the Map Window title in the ELC. The visibility boxes for Cosmetic layers and Legend Windows are always checked you cannot uncheck them. Editability, selectability and auto-labels are controlled by clicking on the appropriate icons to the right of the layer name (these have the same appearance and the same functions as the equivalent controls in the standard MapInfo layer control). The icon on the far right of each layer allows you to zoom to the data extents of the particular layer. If you click on the cosmetic layer control (labeled All), it zooms to the extents of all layers. With the ELC, you can change the order of layers by dragging and dropping. Select a layer by clicking on it and then while holding down your mouse button, move to the place where you want to drop it and release the mouse button. You can even move layers between Map Windows using this method. You can select multiple layers by using your mouse cursor in conjunction with the CTRL and SHIFT keys.

Layer Properties
If you select a layer by clicking with the right mouse button, a pop-up menu appears that provides all the layer controls which are available from the standard MapInfo layer control:

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The options on this menu are: Style Override Change a layers line, pattern or symbol style. Zoom Layering Define a range of zoom limits for the selected layer. Modify Theme Modify a thematic layer. Unlike MapInfo, the Discover ELC displays thematic layers underneath the parent layer. Modify Hotlinks This allows you to control layer and object Hotlinks. For details refer to your MapInfo documentation. Modify Labels Modify label appearance and style. Select All Select all items on a layer. Add Group Create a layer group. Refer to Creating Groups for additional information. Add Layer Add an open table to the current Map Window. Remove Layer Remove one or more layers from the current Map Window. Options - Options of the Enhanced Layer Control (refer to ELC Options).

Layer Name Aliases


It is often convenient to refer to a layer with a name that differs from the name of its associated .TAB file. For example, you might have 3 .TAB files called: area2_Collars_all_exp.tab area2_lab1_assays_12-05-2001.tab area2_StreamSamps.tab Using the alias facility provided by the ELC you could associate more generic names with these such as Assays, Stream_Samples and Drill_Holes and if you name your Map Window, Area_A Prospect 2, then this:

Actual TAB file names displayed in the layers

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Is more clearly displayed as this:

The ELC with aliases used instead of the .TAB file names to better describe the layer content

Defining an alias for a layer is straightforward double click on the layer name in the ELC and type the alias. When you press the Enter key, Discover saves the alias in the metadata section of the .TAB file for this layer. At any stage you can decide whether you want the ELC to display aliases or .TAB file names by toggling the Use layer name aliases option on the Layer Control Options dialog. Note Since layer name aliases are stored as metadata in .TAB files, you can only use one alias for a particular file at any one time.

Assigning Layers to Groups


As described above, the ELC allows you to operate on all open Map Windows from a single control. It is a persistent control that remains visible as long as you want it to and provides easy access to all the standard MapInfo layer control functions. The ELC also allows you to organize and group your layers in a manner that is natural for your application and in a way that is independent of the drawing order of the layers. For example, Map Window 1 contains 16 layers as follows: Geochemical Samples Outcrop Samples Veins and Dykes Faults Towns Elevation Points

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Elevation Contours Drainage Roads Railways Mining Leases Exploration Areas National Parks Geological Units Magnetics Gravity Some of these layers contain points and labels, others contain polylines, and some contain filled polygons. Finally, there are images that are used as backdrops. The order of these layers in the standard MapInfo layer control (and in the ELC in its default mode) corresponds to the order in which the layers are displayed by MapInfo. Thus, the backdrop information (Gravity and Magnetics images and Geology) are at the bottom of the list (they must be displayed first so they dont obscure the other layers). Above them are the other polygonal layers (National Parks, Exploration Areas and Mining Leases). Then come the layers made up of linework (Railways, Roads, Drainage and Elevation Contours and Veins and Dykes) and finally the point layers (Towns, Geochemical Samples, Outcrop Samples and Elevation Points). If you didnt have to concern yourself with drawing order it would be more natural to think of the layers in a way that grouped related layers something like this: Samples Geochemical Samples Outcrop Samples Geology Veins and Dykes Faults Geological Units Geophysics Gravity Magnetics Topography Elevation Readings Elevation Contours

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Infrastructure Towns Railways Roads Drainage Leases Etc. Mining Leases Exploration Areas National Parks The ELC allows you to do this. The Grouped View button at the bottom of the ELC toggles between Standard layer view and Grouped view. In Grouped view, you can quickly show or hide groups of layers. For example, to turn off all Topographic, Geophysics and Infrastructure layers in the example above (8 layers) you only have to click 3 times in the check boxes to the left of the appropriate group headers. This really comes into its own as a powerful feature of the program when you have a large number of layers (say 20) where at any one time you only want to display 2 or 3 of them. Rather than uncheck currently displayed layers then check new ones, you can organize all of them in a single group and then, when you want to change from one set of layers to the next you uncheck the group and then check the new ones that you wish to display.

Creating Groups and Adding Layers


To create groups, ensure that Allow Layer Logical Grouping is enabled in the Options dialog. Select the Map Window containing the layer(s) that you wish to include in a group and right click. From the popup menu, select Add Group. A new group appears at the bottom and is assigned the default name, New Group. Modify this name to something more appropriate then drag and drop one or more layers into the group. If the layer was already a member of a group, it is removed from that group and included in the new one. Limitations of the Grouped View When you associate a Group Name with a layer, Discover includes the name as a metadata tag in the corresponding .TAB file. You can therefore think of Group naming as being a way of categorizing .TAB files.

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This restricts the way in which you use Groups as follows: 1. A layer can only belong to one group. 2. If a layer has been included in a group, then all layers (in all Map Windows) that are attached to the same .TAB file, exist within the same group. 3. You cannot control the order that groups are displayed in Grouped View. Discover displays them in alphabetical order.

Map Controls
The ELC allows you to control the Map Window name and zoom scale. Right click on the Map Window in the ELC to activate the pop-up menu then select Window Properties.

Window Properties From the Window Properties item of the Map Window pop-up menu you can update the Map Window title, its location and its status (maximised, minimised etc.)

Window Properties dialog

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Setting specific positions and sizes can be useful if you need to setup a workspace that someone else is going to use. Window height and width are also useful parameters to define for consistency in setting up map layouts. Sometimes when a workspace is moved between computers that have screens of differing resolutions, you might find problems in accessing minimized windows (which are positioned off screen on one resolution or the other). By selecting a Map Window in the ELC and then selecting Window Properties from the Map Control menu you can maximise the window and thereby regain control of it. Previous View The standard MapInfo Previous View function has been enhanced to allow multiple previous views of Map Windows. As you pan and zoom a Map Window, the ELC records its limits. If you click on the Previous View button at the bottom of the ELC the current Map Window is redrawn with its previous limits. Every time you click this button the Map Window is redrawn with the appropriate limits. If you have resized your window then Zoom Previous does not change its size back to what it was previously but centers the previous zoom and redisplays at the previous scale. Note A compatibility conflict may exist between the ELCs Previous View function and your Windows display settings. For this function to operate correctly, the Windows display property, Show window contents while dragging must be disabled. To verify this, right click on your desktop and select Properties from the popup menu. Click on the Effects tab. If Show window contents while dragging is checked, uncheck it.

Data Utilities
Document Display Text Search and Replace Updating Coordinates Local Grid Layout Assigning Values Proximity Searches Data Normalizing Digitizing Node Extraction

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Data Utilities

Discovers Data Utilities provides a variety of tools for manipulating and processing data in MapInfo tables. These allow you to: perform case-insensitive searches for a text string across multiple columns in a table, optionally replacing it with another string; select records by choosing the required values from a list of unique values in the nominated column; add point coordinates as attributes, or update point positions from attribute coordinates; transform map objects or coordinates as attributes from local to earth projection or vice-versa; create a table of local grid pegs and coordinates to assist in laying out; assign values from points to polygons or polygons to points; select objects meeting specific data and geographic conditions; automatically add attributes to map objects as they are created; update a column with the directions of line objects;

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update a column with the Z-transform of another columns values; and extract node coordinates from polylines or regions into a table of points.

Document Display
Quickly and easily display one or more documents that are linked to a selected map object. The documents may be scanned photos, reports, drawings etc. When you select a map object of any type and click on the Display Images button, Discover checks to see if there are any documents linked to the selected object. If there is one document linked to the selected object, then it is automatically opened. If more than one documents are linked to the selected object, a list box is displayed giving the user a choice of documents to open. The way the documents display depends upon what type of document they are. Document display is available from the button bar only. Use the Discover>Table Utilities>Display Documents/Link Documents menu item to toggle the behaviour of this button from displaying linked documents to allowing new documents to be linked to map objects.

Displaying Different Types of Documents


Raster files If the document to be displayed for the selected object is a recognized raster format (such as BMP or TIF), the image is automatically registered, if it is not already, and opened as a MapInfo image table. MapInfo table or workspace If the document is a MapInfo workspace or a MapInfo table, this is opened within the current instance of MapInfo. Text files Files with the extension .TXT are opened using Notepad. If the files are too big, they are opened in WordPad. Other documents These are opened if there is a recognized application registered with the operating system. Thus a .doc file is opened using Microsoft Word if this application is present on your system. If there is no application registered with Windows for the linked document, then Discover displays an error message. Note Each time you ask a document to be displayed, a new instance of the associated application is started.

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Displaying Images
If Discover is asked to display an image that isnt registered, it assumes that it is not geographically referenced and automatically registers the image in a nonearth projection, then displays it in a new map window. This feature can be used to, for example, display photos of mineralization, thin sections or field sketches by clicking on a prospect, tenement or mine site. You can have as many images as required linked to an object and display them all simultaneously. These can then be added to the layout window and printed out alongside the map objects to which they refer. If Discover is asked to display an image that is already registered, it checks to see where the image is registered. If the image is registered in an area that lies within the current map window, then the image is loaded into the map window. When this happens, the projection of the map window may change as MapInfo adjusts the map window to the base projection used by the image. MapInfo cannot warp an image to a different projection, as it does with vectors, so that when two or more images are displayed, the map window is forced into the projection of the image that occupies the largest proportion of the map window. If an image has already been registered, but does not fall within the map window (such as a location photo already registered into a non-earth projection), then it is opened in a new map window. Using Discover with registered images allows you to create a graphical imagery index. For example you may have the outlines of a series of remote sensing images saved as polygons. With each of these polygons you can associate the name of the image file that it represents. Then when a polygon is selected, the associated image can be displayed in the map window.

Linking Documents to a Map Object


Discover links a document with a map object by storing the full path of that document in a field of the map object record. In order to link documents with map objects, you should ensure that the Discover>Table Utilities>Link Documents menu item is set (if set to Display Documents, then simply select it to toggle to Link Documents). By default, Discover suggests that document links are entered into a column named DocumentLink. However, you can change this name, or select the name of an existing column. You should then select the document to link to the selected map object.

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Note

You can also manually enter document names into appropriate record fields. The only limit to the number of documents that can be linked to an object is the maximum number of columns that a MapInfo table can contain (240). The same document can be linked to any number of map objects.

Text Search and Replace


Discover>Data Utilities>Text Search and Replace Search one or more columns in a table for a particular text string, optionally replacing each occurrence with a new string. You may want to identify all sample numbers that contain the letters "SS", or all surveys that mention "Aeromagnetics". As Discovers text search is optionally not case-sensitive, and does not require that the whole word is entered, occurrences of the required string are easily and reliably found. To initiate a search, select the Data Utilities>Text Search and Replace option from the Discover menu, or click the text search button. After you choose which table to search, Discover asks you to pick the columns to search in, and to enter the piece of text you'd like to find.

Text Search dialog

In the previous example, Discover searches for all occurrences of the text "1234" in the SampNo field. It can also replace those sub-strings with a new string if desired. Although the above example is for a character column, you can

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also carry out a search in a numeric field and Discover looks for and optionally replaces the required number. When the search is completed, the records that fit the criteria are selected, and if you chose to browse the result, a browser window in opened. Discover creates a temporary table to hold the search result, and names it after the text you specified. In the above example, a temporary table called 1234 is created.

The result of a search for all towns that have the text "ville" in their name. Discover has selected the towns, and placed them in a table named Ville.

Text Search and Replace also allows you to replace text within a string. For example, if you wish to replace the string North with Nth, you now have the option to find all occurrences of this string, replace entire strings with the new string, or replace just the search text with the new text wherever it occurs in the nominated columns.

Select by Group
Discover>Data Utilities>Select by Group Search one or more columns in a table for a particular text string, optionally replacing each occurrence with a new string. Select by Group allows you to select all records with a specific value, from a nominated column in a table. Use this option to quickly see a list of the different values in a nominated column (similar to issuing a SQL Group By query) and

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then select all the records that have the selected value(s). For example, you may wish to select all drillhole collars of type Diamond, followed by all collars of type Percussion. Discover remembers the table and column selected from the previous use of this feature.

Dialog to select a group of layers within a table

Update Coordinates
Discover>Data Utilities>Update Coordinates Insert object coordinates into data columns, or update existing values. Alternatively, update positions of existing points using new coordinates from data columns. Discover provides an easy way for you to place the coordinate positions of map objects (for example, sample points) into data columns in the same MapInfo table. You can choose any projection in the Standard Projections list as a basis for the coordinates. Alternatively you can update the positions of selected objects with new coordinates from the data columns.

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The Update Coordinates dialog

Update Mode
To update the coordinates held in the table with the current object positions, choose Points>Data. You can choose to add the coordinates to existing numeric columns or to a new column. To update object positions with new coordinates held in the table, choose Data>Points and nominate the columns containing the coordinates. For either update mode, you can select the projection that the coordinates should use. As in the map grid module, you can leave the projection as Auto, which uses the map projection that the table is stored in. You can select a different projection by choosing Other. This option allows you to, for example, quickly add Lat/Lon coordinates to a table containing points and AMG coordinate values. Alternatively, if you receive new accurate positions for points, but in a different projection to the rest of your data, Discover moves the required points to the new positions. When processing a large table, Discover is able to update coordinates much more quickly if you do not have the table being processed displayed as a browser window. Note You can update the browser with the centroid coordinates of any type of object.

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Coordinate Transformation
Discover>Data Utilities>Coordinate Transformation Convert coordinates (as attributes) or map objects from one coordinate system to another based on transformation parameters. Discover provides a range of transformation methods that have different uses from the dialog displayed.

Coordinate Transformation dialog

What Coordinate Transformation Does


Discover provides two options for how data is transformed: 1. Transform coordinates stored in columns according to entered transformation parameters, or 2. Transform map objects (including complex regions and polylines) from one coordinate system to another according to entered transformation parameters. You can use Discovers Coordinate Transformation tool to perform the following transformations: Plane A simple transformation defined by a scaling factor and two pairs of common coordinates or one pair of coordinates and a bearing difference. The plane transformation can provide only rotation and shift. Affine The affine transformation provides for separate scaling, rotation and shift along the X and Y axes. This is an extremely useful

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transformation and can be used where you need to adjust from an unknown coordinate system to a known one. Projective, Conformal, 2nd order polynomial, 2nd order conformal polynomial and 3rd order polynomial These options provide for more advanced non-linear transformations that allow you to convert from one type of projection to another.

Control Points and Transformation Parameters


For all transformations other than the plane, you need to specify a table that contains control point coordinate pairs. The control point table must contain at least 3 records for control points with the old easting and northing in columns 1 and 2, and the new easting and northing in column 3 and 4. Of course you can have more than 3 control points, and the more that are provided, the more accurate the final transformations are. The control points are used by Discover to calculate the transformation parameters which differ in number for each transformation type. If you want to examine the transformation parameters, residuals and standard deviation then they can be displayed on the screen or alternatively a log file (MAPTRAN.LOG) is created in the temporary directory. On some occasions you may wish to just calculate the transformation parameters and not actually transform any data. In this case, Discover performs the calculation on the supplied control points and present the transformation parameters in MAPTRAN.LOG.

Affine Transformation
In addition to displaying the transformation parameters for the Affine transformation, Discover can produce a coordinate system description which can be used in MapInfo. MapInfo Professional (v4.12 and later) can display map objects in affine coordinate systems, allowing you to overlay (for example) local mine grid data and AMG data together. In order to do this, a custom coordinate system must be built and added to the MapInfow.prj file in the MapInfo program directory. Discover displays the appropriate custom coordinate system definition which you can cut and paste into the MapInfow.prj file. Refer to MapInfo documentation for more information on creating custom coordinate systems.

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Plane Transformation
The Plane Transformation option should not be used to convert to or from Latitude/Longitude coordinates. However, if you have data in a lat/lon projection, you can easily add coordinates in a system such as UTM or AMG with Discovers Update Coordinates option.

Transform Coordinates using a Plane conversion

After selecting a table and the plane transformation type, the above dialog is displayed. You specify the transformation parameters in the same manner whether transforming columns of coordinates or map objects. You should either select a grid transformation from the list, or specify a new one. For a new transformation, the data required depends upon whether you choose to specify the transform by Origin, Bearing or Two sets of coords. If transforming coordinates as attributes, you need to select the columns that hold the coordinates and the columns into which the transformed coordinates are written. The transformation between two grid systems is specified as the origin of the new system (in old system coordinates), plus the bearing (or angular offset) between the two systems. When specifying the transformation in this form, you should enter in the origin of the new system in old system coordinates. When specifying the transformation as the coordinates of two points in each system, the New coordinates refer to the system that you want to transform to and the Current coordinates refer to the system that you want to transform from.

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In addition to transforming coordinates from table columns or map objects, you can also enter single sets of coordinates for immediate transformation. The new coordinates are displayed in the dialog box.

Plane Transformation Scale Factor


If you define the plane transformation by a coordinate pair and a bearing offset, then you also need to enter a scale factor. The scale factor is used to correct for the difference between earth curvature and the map projection used. When you define the plane transformation by two pairs of coordinates, the scale factor is implicit (as is the bearing offset) and should not be entered. Using the scale factor, you can also convert between coordinate systems in different units. For example, converting imperial coordinates in feet to a metric coordinates system you would enter a scale factor of 0.3048.

Using Stored Plane Transformations


The plane transformations list is stored in a table called LGTRANS (in the Discover configuration directory) and should be maintained from within this function in Discover. Select Add New Transform from the list in the top left of the Transform Coordinates dialog. Choose the transformation type and coordinates (and bearing if appropriate). Click on the Add button and supply a transformation name to add this to the list. Note Grid transformation parameters saved here can be used with Discover>Map Grid to display a local (non-earth) grid and a map (projected real-world) grid at the same time. When you choose a previously stored transformation from the list in the top left of the Transform Coordinates dialog, the transformation parameters chosen are displayed, but cannot be altered. Click the OK button to proceed with a transformation by map objects or by columns, or select the Transform coords now option to transform one pair of coordinates.

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Local Grid Layout


Discover>Utilities>Local Grid Layout Generate a set of local grid points, storing both map and local coordinates with each point.

What Local Grid Layout Does


This routine is designed specifically to facilitate the laying out of a local grid. The end result is a regular grid with both local coordinates and map coordinates (for example, UTM) as attributes for each grid point. This routine is not designed to convert coordinates between coordinate systems. For this task you should use the Transform Coordinates option described elsewhere in this section.

Describing the Local Grid


In the Grid Definition controls, you need to enter the coordinates of a point in terms of both your new local grid and the map coordinate system (for example, UTM). Discover also needs to know the bearing of the local grid from the map coordinate system. For example, a value of 315 for the bearing means that local grid north is 45 west of map grid north. You must specify the projection on which the map coordinates are based. In the example below, we want to set out a grid with lines oriented at 035 with respect to AMG zone 52 grid North. As this is primarily an aid for setting out a grid, the user must specify the grid in terms of survey pegs to give the dimensions and position of the grid relative to the origin. You thus need to specify the Grid Direction whether the grid lines are created to the right of the origin, or to the left. In most cases, you should leave this option as Right.

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Local gridding entries for artificially creating survey locations

You then need to enter Line Parameters - values for peg and line spacing, and peg and line numbers. If you click the Line Length button, Discover shows how long the generated grid lines are (you should use this feature to check). Note You need to specify 11 grid lines at 100 m spacing to get a grid covering 1 km. Similarly, specify one more peg per line than the required line length divided by the peg spacing. Then, before clicking OK, you need to specify a table name to save the local grid to. The local grid creates as points in a mappable table (the table name is specified using the Save As button) that contains the local grid coordinates, corresponding map grid coordinates and peg/line numbers as attributes.

Assign Values
Discover>Data Utilities>Assign Values Use Discover to assign aggregate values from objects lying within polygons to the containing polygons, or assign values from the containing polygons to the contents. An example of the use of Assign Values is in assigning the median of Au rockchip sample values to geology polygons. The method of operation is chosen in the Assign Direction control - either assign from Contents to Container, or assign from Container to Contents.

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Assigning values from one table column to another with a selectable operator

Assigning from Points to Polygons


Discover provides an easy and flexible method of assigning aggregate attribute values from points (or any other objects) to the polygons that contain the points. You can assign an aggregate of an expression for the contents column, in which case you should enter a normal MapInfo expression. If the expression is valid, then a temporary column is added to the contents column containing the expression value. The aggregate operators that are available when assigning contents to container are: Frequency Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Median Weighted Mean (mean weighted by the value of another column in the contents table) Standard Deviation Mean weighted by area (multiplied by a scale factor from 106 to 10-6)

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Examples of the assignment from Contents to Container are calculating the mean assay value of stream sediment samples weighted by catchment area, or constructing a simple density map by assigning the number of mineralised samples within grid squares to the grid squares.

Assigning from Polygons to Points


Alternatively, you can use the Container to Contents method to assign a value such as catchment ID or lithology from polygons to the points that lie within the polygons. In this case Discover assigns the individual value from each polygon rather than an aggregate. You can also specify an expression to use. An example would be assigning the lithological code from geological polygons to the sample polygons that lie within them.

Proximity Search
Discover>Data Utilities>Proximity Search Select objects that fall a given distance from one or more selected objects. Optionally select only those that fit other specified criteria. The Discover Proximity Search allows you to quickly identify objects of interest within a given distance of other objects. For example, you may wish to identify those samples that fall within 2 km of an old mine site and have a gold grade of at least 2 ppm. The example below issues a search for all significant copper occurrences that fall with 5 km of a selected fault.

Issuing a proximity search for mineral occurrences around a selected fault

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Before choosing the Proximity Search menu option, you should first select the object(s) (for example, a fault in the example here) that you wish to search around. Note You can choose more than one object to perform the proximity search around. Choose the layer in your map that you wish to search (the mineral occurrence layer, in our example), and indicate the width of the search buffer to use. Discover only selects those objects that fall within this buffer. If you have chosen a number of adjoining objects, a search buffer is created that covers all those adjoining objects. You may nominate a Where condition, that tells Discover to only select those objects from within the buffer that meet the selection criteria (in the example, where the copper grade is greater than or equal to 1.0). You may choose to save the search result to a file, to browse the search result, and to add the search result to the Map Window. Normally, you choose the option to add the result to the Map Window. Discover allows you to specify the style with which the identified objects are displayed. The search buffer is placed in the cosmetic layer, and may be removed at any time. It is not erased by Discover when the Proximity Search is run again.

Copper occurrences selected because of their proximity to a series of selected faults, and their copper grade.

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In the example shown above, each fault is made up of 5 to 10 separate polylines. When they are all selected, a buffer is created around all adjoining lines. With Discovers Line Direction utility, you could insert the fault orientation as an attribute for each fault line, then select all fault lines with orientations between, say 40 and 60. Use Proximity Search to select samples lying close to only those faults with the nominated orientation.

Data Normalizing
Discover>Data Utilities>Data Normalizing Calculate the Z-values or percentile values for a column of data. This function provides a straightforward way to normalize a set of geochemical data. This offers an alternative method of visualizing the data distribution. Transformed values are written to a different column in the same table. The dialog for data normalizing is shown here:

Data Normalization dialog

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Transform Options
The following data transform options available: Z-transform by mean is (sample value - mean) / standard deviation Z-transform by median is (sample value - median) / standard deviation

Either of the Z-transforms may be performed on raw or log(10) transformed data. The Z-transform values are used to normalise data to a normal distribution. A Z-transform value of 0 is the arithmetic mean, +/- 1 is one standard deviation away from the mean and so on. The percentile transform value is calculated by ordering the raw values and calculating (position of this value)/(total number of values) * 100%. Use the percentile transform to remove the effect of outliers or where your data is not normally distributed, or to compare data measured with different analytical techniques. The transform may be carried out for all the records in the selected table, or alternatively the transform may be calculated separately for each attribute value for a nominated column (such as lithology). Using this latter option, you should choose the column with the attribute. This provides a good way to level soil or stream sediment data for lithology.

Digitizing Data Entry


Discover>Data Utilities>DigData Streamline the entry of attributes whilst digitizing map objects. Set up fields to be automatically incremented or have values inserted for each object that is added to the table.

Using the DigData Option


When digitizing point data (such as sample sites) from a field plan, you generally need to add values in one or more of the fields as each point is digitized. With MapInfo, you do this by entering data into the Browser window, or via the Info tool - an awkward method at best. With Discover, you can add incremented or constant values to the new record as it is digitized, or pop-up an easy to use data entry dialog box.

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From the pop-up data entry dialog, you can enter data or select values for this record from a look-up list (chosen at setup). Using a look-up list can greatly improve ease-of-use, speed and integrity of the attributing process. DigData also allows coordinates to be automatically added to a table as a map object is digitized. This feature is useful mainly for entry of point data. If the object is not a point, then the coordinates inserted by Discover are those of the object centroid. When you run DigData, an extra menu (called DigData) is added to the MapInfo menu bar, next to the Discover menu. Select the DigData>Data File menu option to select a table to digitize and enter data into, and then choose which columns from that table you want to use for data entry. A maximum of 10 columns can be used for data entry with DigData Note DigData can be used when digitizing any type of object (not just points) and works the same whether used with the digitizer or the mouse.

Incrementing and Constant Fields


Choose the DigData>SetUp Increments menu option to tell Discover which columns are to have increments, and which are to have constant values assigned to them. Automatic increments are useful for data such as sample numbers, which can serve as the primary identification field for an object. The fields to be incremented need not be numeric, but must have one or more numeric parts. Commonly, sample numbers begin with an alpha prefix and may have another alpha string in the middle (for example SS87RC-69435). Discover increments the last number it finds (to SS87RC-69436 in this case).

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Digitising increments using DigData

In the dialog shown, the sample number is incremented by one for each record added to the table, whilst the current style (see Map Styles in the Map Making section) is inserted into the Type field and the value A-1 into the Catchment field. The other fields do not have data entered into them. To use data values from a look-up list, you must have a table open which contains these values. Discover can only use a MapInfo table to build the lookup list. Check the look-up column, choose the table to use and select the appropriate column. DigData can be used in two ways - to provide a data entry screen for your input, or to automatically insert only the incremented and constant values specified above. In each case, digitize an object then proceed as follows.

EnterData
If you want to enter variable data (as well as any incrementing and constant values) for each object as it is digitized then you should check the DigData>EnterData menu option (this menu option is toggled on or off with successive picks). On digitizing an object, a data entry dialog box is automatically displayed for the columns selected, with the incremented and constant fields appropriately filled in. Other fields have the last values used. Enter the required data, click OK on the dialog and digitize the next object.

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AutoData
If you have set up the attribute columns with incrementing and constant values, you often do not need to add extra values for many records. In this case you should select the DigData>AutoData menu option, and the constant and incremented values are automatically written to the new record as it is digitized. At any time whilst you are running DigData, you can re-specify the increments and constant values, via the Set-Up Increments menu option. You can also combine usage of the EnterData and AutoData options. Check EnterData and enter new values for the next digitized record, then return to AutoData, where fields are incremented from the previous record values. This also allows any changes you make to the last record with the Info tool or in the Browser window to be utilised by DigData.

Update with Line Direction


Discover>Data Utilities>Line Direction Store the direction of selected lines as an attribute. This feature is useful when analyzing tables of lines - such as faults, fold axes, or creeks, where no directional attributes exist. Using Discover you can easily obtain the orientation of the selected line features (either lines or polylines) and add the direction as an attribute into a selected column.

Line Orientation dialog

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The Line Orientation Column is the column into which the direction is added. The direction itself is usually the average for each polyline, however, you can optionally extract the starting or ending orientation. Additionally, you can choose to only report angles in the range 0 - 180 if required. Use the Change Direction utility in Discovers Object Editing menu to reverse the direction of lines where this is necessary.

Polyline/Polygon Node Extraction


Discover>Data Utilities>Extract Nodes Extract the nodes from polylines or regions to a table of coordinates, optionally creating point objects for every extracted node, or lines for adjacent pairs of nodes. You can easily extract the nodes or lines from a polyline or polygon by using the Extract Nodes utility. With the nodes that you extract from a contour map, you could then re-process the 3 dimensional point data to create a new interpolation grid. When you have one or more polylines or polygons selected and run the extract nodes routine, the following dialog is displayed.

Node Extraction dialog.

If you don't wish to create a point object for each node, uncheck the Create point objects control. Otherwise select an appropriate symbol style. The points are created in a map of the same projection as the polyline/polygon table. You should then select a column that contains attributes to associate with each node

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(for example, the height of a contour). This column can be of numeric or character type. If you don't want to extract every point, then you should enter a number greater than 1 in the Extract every n nodes control. For example, entering 4 extracts every 4th node in the selected objects. Discover prompts you for the name of a table to store the nodes in. Because this procedure is designed to produce an X,Y coordinate pair with an associated elevation value (such as the value of a contour line), the selected objects cannot be from the cosmetic layer. They must be from a table with one or more data columns. When you have chosen the appropriate options, click OK. A new table is created containing three columns - X (containing the X coordinate), Y (containing the Y coordinate) and a column containing the required attribute (for example, height).

Importing Map Data from ASCII Files


Import ASCII Objects Micromine Import Importing DXFs

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Importing Map Data from ASCII Files


Importing graphic objects into MapInfo can be done with DXF or MID/MIF files, or using the Universal Translator in MapInfo Professional v4.5 or later. Discover provides extra functionality in creating map objects from ASCII format data as it allows you to: create polyline and region objects from line-by-line ASCII coordinates; import ASCII XYZ grid files; import Micromine survey and data files; and import multi-layer DXF files to one table, adding the DXF layer name as an attribute.

Import ASCII Objects


Discover>Data Utilities>ASCII Object Import Create MapInfo objects from object descriptions stored as ASCII coordinates in MapInfo tables or text files.

Introduction
If you have object descriptions other than points in a text file (in general a list of X,Y coordinate pairs) then the only way that MapInfo imports them is if you reformat them to the MapInfo Interchange Format (MIF) or the Drawing Exchange Format (DXF). In most cases this is an impractical course of action. Discover provides the ability to create objects from a variety of ASCII description types. In order to use your ASCII coordinate data with Discover, you should first open it as a table in MapInfo. For large files, save the ASCII coordinate table to a native MapInfo table for quicker processing. For all import formats you must know which coordinate system the ASCII coordinate data refers to. When importing polyline descriptions, there is the option to convert closed polylines to regions for appropriate formats. Regions are then created with the current pen and brush styles.

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ASCII Object Import options dialog

Polylines Delimited by Row or Column


Polyline descriptions must have a delimiter to tell Discover when the last node in the object has been read in. The delimiter may be either a line (blank or otherwise) between objects, a change in attribute (such as polygon code) or a value such as start or end, in another column. For these cases you should specify which columns contain the X and Y coordinate information. If the polylines are delimited by row then you should tell Discover whether to expect a blank line or a line with a different value in the X or Y coordinate column. Use the Row delimited Polylines to import objects in the Arc Line format, where the start delimiter line is a sequential record number and the end delimiter line is END. If the polylines are delimited by column, then you need to specify which column the delimiter occurs in and what form the delimiter takes. Choose the Unique Attribute option, if each node in a polyline is identified by the same attribute value. Use Start Keyword if the start of each polyline is identified by a word such as START, or use the Start and End Keywords if both the start and end of each polyline are identified. If using the start/end keyword options, you need to enter the appropriate keywords for Discover to search for. Discover provides the option of importing data either as normal X, Y coordinate pairs, or as distance, bearing, elevation triplets. For the latter, the distance is taken to be measured in the current coordinate system units, the bearing is between 0 and 359, and the angular elevation is between +90 (uphill) and

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90 (down). If angular elevations have not been measured then Discover assumes the traverse is flat.
EL877 EL877 EL877 EL1234 EL1234 EL1234 EL1234 EL1234 317822 317911 309400 309400 233410 236410 236410 233410 6994520 6999620 7001427 6994833 7665412 7665499 7668390 7668211

Example of polylines delimited by a unique identifier in column 1 317822 317911 309400 309400 233410 236410 236410 233410 6994520 6999620 7001427 6994833 7665412 7665499 7668390 7668211

Example of polylines without attributes delimited by a blank line

For both import options, Discover attempts to include any other values found on the first line of the object description as attributes in the MapInfo table.

Line on One Row


This import format should have line descriptions with the coordinates of the two endpoints of the line in one row of the import file/table, as X1, Y1, X2, Y2. For example,
805600, 8475240, 805600, 8475260

If there are any attributes in the ASCII file they are not carried across to the MapInfo table.

XYZ Grid
XYZ grids as generated by other gridding programs, such as Surfer, can be imported with Discover. The grid cell size is automatically detected from the X,Y coordinate pair spacing, and the grid is created as polygons centred on each X,Y point. The Z-value is added as an attribute to each object to generate a table similar to that produced by Discovers Grid/Contour module. The imported grid can then be thematically shaded.

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Note

This import option produces a grid of MapInfo polygons. Use Discovers Surfaces>Register Grid File>Import ASCII Grid File to import an ASCII grid into a raster BIL file.

Micromine Import
Discover>Data Utilities>Micromine Import Import Micromine data and string files into MapInfo tables. Micromine data files consist of a number of header records that describe the file structure, followed by the data records. Discover reads a Micromine file, creates an appropriately structured table and inserts the data. Use this option for importing Micromine data files containing sample and drillhole information (including survey and downhole data files) as well as Micromine string (polyline) files. For string files, you can automatically create regions by selecting the Convert closed Polylines to Regions checkbox.

Import Layered DXF


Discover>Data Utilities>DXFImport Import layered CAD data into one MapInfo table, writing the CAD layer name as an attribute for each object. Optionally store a Z-value (for example, elevation) as an attribute for a map object.

Comparison of DXF Import MapInfo, Universal Translator or Discover


The Discover DXF Import function, (Table>Import menu option), has a major advantage over the MapInfo DXF Import utility, or the Universal Translator (UT, available in MapInfo Professional v4.5 or later). The major differences between using MapInfo, the Universal Translator and Discover are: Discover assigns layer names as attributes to each object. With MapInfo or UT, you cannot retain layering information unless you write each layer out to a separate file, greatly increasing processing time.

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MapInfo is much quicker than Discover for DXF importing. MapInfo allows you to transform the coordinates from CAD to World coordinates if necessary. MapInfo can store DXF object attributes in the MapInfo table. Discover stores the elevation of all objects into a column. MapInfo stores elevations only for lines or points, not polylines (such as contours).

All three import functions have merit. Use the one that is most appropriate for your situation.

DXF Layers and MapInfo Attributes


In your CAD drawing, you should digitize each rock type (or other data type) into an appropriately named layer. For example, digitize all basalt polygons to a layer called "Basalt", all tenement boundaries to a layer called Tenement and all stream polylines to a layer called Streams. When Discover reads a DXF file created in your CAD package, all objects are inserted into the one table, but the DXF layer name is written as an attribute for each object. As an example, the end result is one table holding all geological units, each of which has an appropriate name as an attribute. You can then easily split out all objects of one type (such as basalts or tenements) and save them to a different table, or join them to related attribute tables.

Storing Elevation Values


If you choose to store elevation values from the DXF file, an extra column called Elevation is added to the new table. Note that for points, the elevation is unambiguous, but for multi-node objects (that is everything else), only one elevation is stored for an entire object. This elevation is the Z-value of the first node in the object. If a polyline defines a watershed or fenceline for example, the first elevation is likely to be unrepresentative of the average elevation of the object. Note MapInfos DXF import function allows you to store elevations of DXF lines, but not polylines. To store elevations of DXF polylines, you need to use Discover.

Object Editing Utilities


Drawing Objects from the Keyboard Transforming and Placing Objects Line Smoothing Node Position Operations Processing InLying Polygons Polyline Clipping Splitting Sections and Regions Polygonization

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Object Editing Utilities

Discovers Object Editing menu provides a comprehensive suite of tools to use in conjunction with MapInfos own object tools. Whereas most of MapInfos commands are for use with one object at once, many of Discovers tools are designed to be used on any number of map objects within a table. Key in Shapes - Create map objects with coordinates entered from the keyboard. Offset Object - Create a matrix of map objects at increments from the seed object. Transform Objects Apply shifting, scaling and rotation to one or more objects. Polyline Smoother Smooth polylines by applying a spline. Thin Nodes - Reduce the number of nodes in polylines or regions.

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Donut Polygons - Cut-out in-lying polygons for a whole table. PolyClip - Clip and save all data from multiple layers which lie within a selected object. Line Cut - Cut any line or region object with a crossing line. Change Direction - Reverse the direction of polylines and regions. Split Multi-Polys - Split multiple-section polylines and regions into single-section objects. Polygonize - Create regions from intersecting linework automatically or manually.

Drawing Objects from the Keyboard


Discover>Object Editing>Key in Shapes Create map objects by entering node coordinates from the keyboard. Edit the node coordinates of a selected object. Usually when creating map objects, you can draw them using a digitizer or mouse. However, in some cases you may have an object description in coordinates (such as a property or tenement boundary) or you may wish to create a polyline or region from a distance/bearing/elevation traverse. Using Discover, you can enter coordinates directly from the keyboard and build simple objects, such as ellipses, points or lines, or more complex multi-node polylines and polygons. You can also edit the shape of existing objects by altering the node coordinates. If you have lists of coordinates already in a file, then use Discovers Data Utilities>ASCII Object Import to create objects automatically from these coordinates. If the object that you have defined lies outside the Map Window extents, the map window is panned to show the object.

Nominating an Object to Draw


From the first displayed dialog , you should select which map layer you wish to use (choose from any layers in the map window or choose to create a new table). Discover then uses the projection of the current map window to draw the

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objects. You can easily change projection by selecting a projection with the Standard Projections option.

Drawing objects by coodinates dialog

You should then nominate the type of object to draw, the units to use and how to specify nodes for polylines and polygons. If the map window is in a lat/lon projection, the XYUnits control is set to Degrees and disabled. If you are entering coordinates in degrees, select between decimal degrees and degrees, minutes, seconds (DMS). DMS format is dd.mmss, for example 47 17 23.45 would be entered as 47.172345. The dialog for entering the coordinate information depends on what type of object you have nominated to draw.

Entering Node Coordinates


If you have selected Polyline or Region from the set-up dialog, you are prompted to enter a list of nodes as X,Y pairs. Use the Add button to add a coordinate pair to the list, and the Edit/Delete buttons to modify the Current Nodes list. When you have entered all the nodes for the object, click the Done button and the object is constructed in the appropriate map layer.

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The dialog for entry of metric polyline/polygon nodes

Select an object type and click Continue to create another object or click Done from the main dialog to finish this routine.

Entering Nodes by Distance/Bearing/Elevation


If you selected the Distance/Bearing/Elevation option from the Enter Nodes by control, the dialog is slightly different from that shown above. You should enter the coordinates of the start point, and the distance and bearing to the next point. Click the Add button, and the coordinates of the first two points are placed into the Current Nodes list. You should then enter the next distance/bearing/elevation value and click Add to place the coordinates of the next point in the list. If you do not have measured elevations, then leave these as zero. Otherwise, Discover uses negative elevations for down and positive elevations for up.

Entering Values for Points, Lines, Arcs, Ellipses and Rectangles


You are presented with a dialog that asks for the appropriate coordinate information. For an ellipse and a rectangle, this is diametrically opposed corner coordinates. For an arc you should enter the diametrically opposed corner coordinates of the ellipse, and a start and end angle for the arc of this ellipse.

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The dialog for entry of metric and degree line nodes

Editing the Node Coordinates of an Existing Object


If you have an object selected when you choose Key in Shapes, Discover allows you to edit the existing node coordinates with the same methods described above. When editing a polyline or polygon, the Add button allows you to add a node at any position within the object. You are asked where to place the new node, and the coordinates are then added to the node list. You cannot create or edit multi-section polylines or regions using this tool in Discover.

Offset Objects
Discover>Object Editing>Offset Objects Create multiple copies of a selected object at nominated offsets in the X and Y directions. The selected object can be of any type. Attributes can be copied from the seed object to the offset objects. Create up to 10,000 objects offset from the selected object by specific distances in the X and Y directions. Enter X and Y offsets (positive values are up and to the right, negative values are down and to the left) and the number of objects to create in the X and Y directions (up to 100 in each direction). Discover then creates a matrix of objects. Use this feature to quickly create a table of mapsheet boundaries. You can create the seed object by using Discovers Draw feature to enter exact coordinates for the object, then use Offset Objects to create a full coverage of mapsheets. The mapsheet boundaries can then be used in ScaledOutput to quickly produce a hardcopy map just for a specific mapsheet. Examine the MAP250K table in the Discover DEMODATA for an example mapsheet table (you should create the boundaries as regions rather than rectangles so they can be re-projected).

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Note

You can offset an object by degrees even if the base projection of the layer is in metres.

Object Transform
Discover>Object Editing>Transform Objects Transform one or more objects by applying shift, scale and/or rotation. Discovers object transform function provides a simple method to transform multiple objects. This could be used in circumstances such as rescaling map annotation for a different output scale or shifting and rotating all map annotation for a different map projection. Discover allows you to perform up to 3 transform procedures together for example rotation followed by a scale and a shift. Note Note that the order in which scaling and rotation operations are carried out may produce differing results. Rotation Specify the angle to rotate each object by, in degrees anticlockwise from North (use negative angles to rotate clockwise). You also need to specify the basepoint position for each object, about which the rotation is performed. Shifting Specify the distance in X and Y to move each object by. Similar to map units, positive values increase the easting and northings. Scaling Specify the scaling factor for each object. Choose equal scaling in X and Y to retain the object aspect ratio. You also need to specify the basepoint position for each object, where the scaling is anchored. The following points should be born in mind when using the Object Transformer: Transformation of each object is relative to a basepoint in each object. If you want to scale and rotate objects relative to one common point, then use the Coordinate Transformation module. Scaling of points is not meaningful.

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Line Smoothing
Discover>Data Utilities>Polyline Smoother Discovers Polyline Smoother is designed to improve the appearance of digitized linework by smoothing abrupt changes in direction. The line smoother works by interpolating a spline curve through the selected polylines and adding nodes where necessary. This is in contrast to MapInfos smoothing which is a running average type smoothing and operates on-the-fly. Discover stores extra nodes for a smoothed polyline. Poor results are obtained when a minimum number of nodes define a polyline. For example, if a polyline, in the shape of a rectangle, is defined by only four nodes, the line smoother modifies the fundamental shape and produces an elliptical shaped polyline. The polyline smoother can be used to overwrite a polyline with the smoothed line or write the smoothed line to a separate table. If the smoothed polyline is written to a different table, then data attributes are only carried across with the polyline if the structure of the two tables is identical. Discover does not smooth polygons, because of the danger of destroying topology relationships between adjacent polygons that share boundaries. In general, if such polygons are smoothed, then the resulting boundaries have small areas of gaps and overlap.

Polyline Sub-Sampler
Thinning by Node Number
Discover>Object Editing>Thin by Node Number Decrease the number of nodes in the selected polylines or regions by removing every nth node. You may wish to use the polyline sub-sampler where you are using detailed data at a much smaller scale than it was digitized at. For example, you may wish to make a less detailed copy of a complex piece of coastline.

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Node Thinning dialog

You should select the polylines or regions to thin (use any of the MapInfo selection methods) and then nominate a sub-sampling factor. Discover allows you to discard from 5% (1 in 20) to 95% (19 out of every 20) of the nodes in the selected objects. This method of thinning polylines and regions may not produce acceptable results on some data sets such as geological boundaries, and you may need to use the second thinning method described below. Discover allows you to calculate statistics on the selection of polylines before you nominate a sub-sampling factor. If you wish to retain the original, more detailed, data set be sure that you save the processed data under a different name. Use the MapInfo File>Save Copy As menu option. Note Do not thin regions that have adjoining regions as common boundaries do not necessarily remain the same.

Thinning by Node Position


Discover>Object Editing>Thin by Node Position Decrease the number of nodes in the selected polylines or regions by removing those nodes that lie within a tolerance angle of adjacent nodes. Use this method of thinning nodes in a polyline or region for most natural and geological map objects such as contours or geological boundary lines.

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Node thinning by scale or size

You define the sub-sampling to be carried out on the selected objects by specifying either a thinning width or a thinning scale. For a nominated thinning width, Discover examines the first 3 nodes in the object. If the second node lies within the thinning width of a line joining the first and third nodes, then it is discarded, otherwise it is kept and the second to fourth nodes are examined. For the thinning scale, the same process is carried out with a thinning width implied by the specified scale. The thinning width is calculated as 1 thousandth of the specified map scale, so that for a map scale of 1:10,000 a thinning width of 10 m (or whatever current units are in use) is implied. Use the Thin for scale option when you know what scale you are viewing your data at. Otherwise, use the Thinning width option if you know what size features and level of detail you need to retain.

Processing Inlying Polygons


Discover>Object Editing >Donut Polygons Where a polygon map contains overlapping, or in-lying polygons, cut out the smaller polygons from the larger ones.

Overlapping and Inlying Polygons


Geological maps commonly show geological units occurring within, or cutting across, other geological units. For example, a dolerite may cut across a sandstone unit, or a conglomerate may lie within a greywacke. In MapInfo, you must be careful that this situation is handled correctly.

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Imagine you digitize two geological boundaries into a layer, one within the other. The outer one is a Cainozoic unit, the inner one a granite. If you use the MapInfo Select Tool to click on the Cainozoic unit, you'll see that it includes the area of the granite. This inner boundary needs to be cut out of the outer boundary, so that the outer boundary appears like a donut. When this is achieved, and you ask MapInfo to report on all mineral occurrences within the Cainozoic unit, it correctly ignores those that fall within the in-lying granite.

Removing the Overlaps


Discover allows you to cut out all overlapping polygons for an entire polygon table in one step. All the attributes that have previously been associated with the polygons are preserved. The cutting is performed on the basis of polygon area with smaller polygons always being excised from larger polygons. All you need to specify are the names for the input and output files. As Discover processes the polygons, it may come across some cases that cannot be satisfactorily cut out. In this case a message is written to the file DONUT.ERR in the temporary files directory/folder. The processing may take quite some time to complete. The more polygons, and the larger the polygons, the longer the process takes. To decrease processing time, you should ensure that the table to be processed is not open in a map window (so that MapInfo does not spend extra time redrawing the window each time an object is modified). Note If the data being processed has not been accurately digitized (for example, polygons overlap many times along a common boundary) then Discover may take a lot longer than expected as it attempts to ensure that no overlapping polygons remain in the map.

Polyline Clipping
Discover>Object Editing>PolyClip Discard data that lie outside a selected region, clipping the retained data at the region boundary. The clipped data may be written to new tables in the same directory or to a new directory.

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Note

Note that the Polyline Clipping does not clip objects contained in the Cosmetic layer.

Using PolyClip
You can use PolyClip to create subsets of data from larger data sets. For example, you may wish to keep all data for a particular tenement in one directory. You can display all your data in a map window and select the required tenement boundary. Discover can then discard all data that doesnt lie within the tenement. This allows you to easily distribute the data for just that tenement or produce maps showing only the relevant data. Whilst this can be fairly straightforward to do in MapInfo with one layer, it is very time consuming to do for multi-layered data sets. Discover works with an unlimited number of layers, allowing unsupervised clipping to be performed with just a few mouse clicks.

Clipping Method
Choose between clipping outside and clipping inside the selected polygon. Clipping outside removes all data lying outside the polygon, whilst clipping inside removes data lying within the polygon. Discover uses a combination of techniques to discard the data that is to be clipped. For clipping outside, objects that lie totally outside the selected polygon are discarded. Similarly, objects that lie totally within the polygon are kept without editing. For lines, polylines and regions that lie across the boundary of the selected polygon, these objects are simply split. Other objects such as arcs, rectangles and ellipses are converted to polylines or regions and then split. For text objects, if the centroid of the text lies within the selected polygon, the text is retained, otherwise it is discarded (text objects cannot be split).

Clipped Data Tables


Discover lists all of the tables displayed in the map window that can be clipped. Raster images and thematic layers are ignored. If you wish to leave a table out of the clipping operation uncheck the checkbox to the right of the table name. The table name is greyed out to show that it is clipped. By default, Discover suggests that you do not edit your existing data, but copy the clipped data to new tables with similar names to the original tables, ending in CLIP (as in the dialog shown below).

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You can change these suggested names as required. Discover warns you if the name you nominate is already in use by another table.

Dialog to clip inside, outside or copy from a selected polygon

When you click OK, Discover asks which directory to save the new tables to (if operating on a copy of the data). When the clipping operation is carried out, all tables are packed and saved, and removed from the map window. Any thematic layers in the original map window are discarded, so you should ensure that you have a workspace saved prior to re-running PolyClip. You cannot undo a PolyClip operation, and for this reason we recommend that you operate on a copy of the original data.

Line Cut
Discover>Object Editing>Line Cut Cut any object (except points and text) with a line that crosses the object. Select the objects to cut, choose the menu option and select the cutting line to execute the cut. Using MapInfos Object>Split menu option, you can cut objects where they intersect a cutter region. In many cases this is cumbersome and requires that a region be specially constructed for the purpose from existing polylines. With Discover, you can use a line, polyline or arc as the cutter object to split polylines or regions. If the object that you want to split is not a polyline or a region, it is converted to one, then split. Thus splitting an arc results in two polylines. Discover cannot split text or point objects. When you have selected the objects to cut, choose the Object Editing>Line Cut menu option. Discover asks you to select the line to cut with. As soon as you have selected a line, Discover carries out the cutting operation.

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If Discover displays a message such as An error occurred overlaying nodes, the cutting operation is not completed and you should check the results.

Change Direction
Discover>Object Editing>Change Direction Quickly reverse the direction of selected polylines or regions. Use this feature to ensure that polyline coverages for drainage, roads etc. have a consistent line direction. This is important for providing indications of direction of flow, or when creating worm diagrams for stream sampling data.

Split Multiple Section Polylines and Regions


Discover>Object Editing>Split MultiPolys Easily split multiple section polylines and multiple polygon regions into a corresponding number of single section objects. Attributes from the multiple section object are retained in the single section objects. There is no straightforward way in MapInfo of disaggregating many multiple section objects. Such objects are created using MapInfos Objects>Combine menu option, and can be split one at a time using the Objects>Split menu option together with a suitable splitting object. To disaggregate any number of multiple section objects, select the objects and choose Object Editing>Split MultiPolys. Selected objects that do not require splitting, or are not polylines or regions, are unaffected. The attributes from the multiple section objects are retained in the newly-created single section objects. A region with a hole is stored by MapInfo as two polygons. If you split a region such as this, then there is a polygon in place of the hole and another polygon covering the entire area of the original region plus the hole.

Manual Polygonize
Discover>Object Editing>Manual Polygonize The Manual Polygonize option in Discover is designed to aid you when building polygons from linework.

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Select the lines from which you wish to build the polygon and click the Manual Polygonize button. The selected lines are copied to the editable layer, combined and made into a region. If the combined lines do not make a closed line, Discover places symbols at the open segments and notifies you of the coordinates. These symbols are placed into the cosmetic layer and can be easily cleared.

Auto Polygonize
Discover>Object Editing>Auto Polygonize Assemble polygons automatically from existing polylines. Discover cleans up the linework and closes open line ends onto neighbouring lines within a misclosure tolerance. Adjoining lines can then assembled together into regions. The polygonizer adds a separate menu item to the MapInfo menu bar to give access to the following functions: Cleaning Linework - specify a misclosure tolerance. If the misclosure is greater than the specified tolerance then the misclosure is noted with a symbol placed in the cosmetic layer and can be examined at the end of this process. Examining Misclosures - step through identified misclosures. As you step through and fix the misclosures, delete the symbol to keep track of progress. Building Polygons - optionally cutting out donuts and/or adding attributes from enclosed text items.

Polygonizing Description
Discovers polygonizer is designed to take linework from the digitizer or from existing line-only drawings (such as from CAD packages) and create polygons for enclosed regions. Performing this process manually using the MapInfo Objects menu options is possible only one polygon at a time and involves splitting lines at intersections, snapping open line ends on to neighbouring lines, duplicating shared boundaries and combining individual polylines before converting to a region. Discover performs all these tasks automatically and attempts to deal with all linework whether it is clean or not.

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Cleaning Linework
Polygonize>Clean Linework The first step to building polygons is to ensure that you have clean linework. In this case, clean means that the dataset is comprised of polylines each of which starts and ends at the start or end of another polyline, and that no polylines cross. However, digitized linework often does not meet the above criteria. Even if there are no misclosures where one line joins another, it is likely that lines join or cross not just at endpoints. To start the line cleaning process, you should have a Map Window open with the required lines selected. You need to nominate a name for the table to contain the clean linework, and set other options as below.

Polygonizing dialog with control options and tolerance

The closure tolerance determines whether open line ends are snapped onto neighbouring lines. If there are no lines neighbouring a specific line end within the closure tolerance, this line is tagged as unclosed or a dangle. As such it is discarded from the set of lines to be polygonized.

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If there are other lines within the closure tolerance, then the current line end is snapped to the closest line. When it is snapped onto the closest line, a new node is inserted into the neighbouring line at the snap point unless a node exists within the closure tolerance. Note If your linework does not contain any misclosures (that is, all line ends are snapped together) then leave the Closure Tolerance at 1m. Once the line cleaning process is complete, any identified misclosures are shown in the map window as symbols in a layer called Misclose. You can use the Check Misclosures menu item to step through misclosures. You need to manually fix each misclosure, and then run the Clean Linework command again. If the closure tolerance is too small, then some of your misclosures may not be automatically closed and you should carefully examine the results of the cleaning. Check line intersections that have not been automatically closed and find out how big the misclosure is, then run the line cleaning again. If your closure tolerance is far too large, then the results of the line cleaning may be unpredictable.

Building Polygons
Polygonize>Build Polygons You usually check the Cut out inlying polygons checkbox. This operation excises smaller polygons where they lie wholly within larger polygons, and is similar to the Object Editing>Donut Polygons menu option. If the original line map was from a CAD system, it may have text objects for the polygon code within many of the polygons. These text objects can be detected and automatically inserted as an attribute to a specified column in the polygon table. If there are more than one text objects within a polygon, only the first (determined by record number in the table) is used. Discover is not able to detect if polygon labels for small polygons are displaced into an adjoining polygon via a call-out line. In this case you should not use this option as polygons may be incorrectly attributed.

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Clean and Build


Polygonize>Clean and Build Use the combined clean and build function where you are certain that the linework is already clean and requires no intervention from the user. If any inconsistencies are identified during this stage, the unclean linework is ignored for the subsequent polygonizing. If Discover cannot complete the polygonization, it reports a problem and creates a table with the name that you nominated, but containing only the prepared linework. The lines at this stage have been node overlayed and split at intersections. Lines that would not close are discarded. However, the source data remains unedited, and by overlaying the prepared linework and source data you are able to see where the problem has occurred.

Table Utilities
Multi-File Utility Workspace Editor Multiple Column Updates Tables and Application Programs

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Table Utilities

Discovers Table Utilities allow you to: open and import multiple tables across directories; pack, export and append multiple tables; edit workspaces to check pathing and table usage; save open tables to a new directory and save a workspace; sort (permanently) a table, with one or two sort columns; adjust the map bounds for a mappable table; update multiple columns in one table from another table by joining on a common column; and open tables, workspaces and MapBasic programs selected from a list showing their aliases.

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Multi-File Utility
Multi-Open
Discover>Table Utilities>Multi-Open, Multi-Import Open or Import many tables at once across directories. The Multi-Open and Multi-Import utilities are extremely useful when working with many tables. For example you may want to open a number of tables from different directories and add them to a new map window. Rather than using the MapInfo File>Open Table menu option once for each different directory you are searching in, Discover allows you to choose all the tables from the one dialog. Choose the tables to open by clicking on them with the mouse. If all the tables to open are within the one directory, click Continue when all tables have been selected. Discover then carries out the operation on the tables you have selected. If some of the tables exist in other directories (or on another disk drive), change to the appropriate directory. As you change directories, Discover adds the previously selected files to the Selected Tables List. You can delete files from this list with the Remove Entry button, or erase it entirely by clicking Reset List. When all the files to be used are selected, click Continue. Similarly, if you have multiple MID and MIF files to import into MapInfo, you can have Discover import the ones you choose, one after the other. This saves you returning to the computer to start each procedure. The imported tables can be created in the same directory as the MID/MIF files, or in a different directory which is especially useful when importing files from CD-ROM.

Multi-Append, Multi-Pack, Multi-Export


Using Discovers Table Utilities, you can also Pack, Export and Append multiple tables. Discover presents a list of open tables, from which you should choose those required. Note With the Append option, all tables selected must have the same number of columns. If the tables have the same number of columns but do not have the same structure then data conversion errors (such as when character values are read into a numeric column) may occur during the appending process.

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Workspace Editor
Discover>Table Utilities>Workspace Editor Discovers Workspace Editor provides the following functionality to check and modify table references in workspaces: Check a workspace for non-existent tables If non-existent tables are located then you need to decide how to proceed. Either create (or copy) a table of the correct name, edit the workspace to modify references to the table. Check a workspace for tables that are opened but not used A useful way to tidy up the workspace, including checking for hidden tables. Set all table paths to be absolute or relative Absolute paths include the drive letter and full path, whereas relative paths show the location of the table relative to the workspace. Alter the path to individual tables When you know that the workspace references a table that has been moved. Turn off editable layers in all map windows. This is useful when a workspace is to be written to CD-ROM.

Save Tables and Workspace


Discover>Table Utilities>Save Tables and Workspace Use this function when you need to save a workspace with all open tables to a nominated directory. An important use of this function is when data, including a workspace, is to be written to CD-ROM or saved to a remote storage device such as a zip drive. Select the target directory, and all open tables are saved to this directory. A workspace is saved for the tables in the new location, retaining the current settings. The workspace references table names with no paths, so that the workspace should open with no problem when the data is transferred to a new location. You may also wish to use the Workspace Editor to check for unused tables and editable layers. Note As tables are saved to the new directory, they are saved in MapInfo format regardless of their original format (Excel, Access etc) with the exception of raster images.

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Multiple Column Update


Discover>Table Utilities>Multiple Column Join Update multiple columns in a table with values from another table by matching a field such as sample number. Updating columns in a master table with values derived from a table containing a subset of the records in the master table is awkward in MapInfo, but is a commonly required task. An example would be when new survey coordinates, or an incomplete list of assay results, have been received for some of the records. Use Discovers Multiple Column Join to easily update up to 10 columns matching records by one field (such as sample number).

Update Multiple Columns dialog

After specifying the join condition and the number of columns to update, click OK and choose which columns to update and which columns to get the values from.

Sort a Table
Discover>Table Utilities>Sort You can sort a table in MapInfo by including an Order By clause in an SQL Selection. Then you need to save the selection as a new table, close the old table and open the new table (optionally renaming it to the original table name). In Discover, you can sort by a primary and secondary column, easily re-ordering the base table with a few mouse clicks.

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Sort Table dialog

By default, the selected table is sorted by the first column, with no secondary sort column. The sort process takes slightly longer than a table pack operation, since it involves a selection followed by writing the selection to disk. Note This operation cannot be undone.

Alter Map Bounds


Discover>Table Utilities>Alter Map Bounds Use this function to adjust the map bounds of a mappable table. Discover prompts with bounds that encompass all of the map objects currently in the table. However, you may wish to alter these bounds in the following circumstances: You need to add new objects beyond the bounds of existing non-earth map tables. Map objects digitized from a raster layer and then saved may have bounds that are too narrow. When the bounds on a non-earth map table are large, a loss of precision may result. Restricting the bounds can help improve the precision. When using this option, data outside the specified boundary is deleted from the table file and cannot be recovered. Map objects lying outside of the bounds that you enter are not displayed.

Note

1. 2.

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User Tables
Discover>Table Utilities>User Tables Maintain a list of commonly used table names and aliases. Select one or more tables from the list to open immediately. The User Tables utility provides the capability to keep a list of aliases of commonly used tables. When you want to open one or more of these tables, select them from the list and the tables are opened.

Frequently used user-defined tables

When you choose the User Tables menu option, the above dialog is displayed showing the aliases of the tables currently in the list. To see the full path and table names, check the Show Locations of Tables checkbox. You can maintain the table list with the Add, Edit and Delete buttons. When you add a table to the list, you should enter a meaningful alias for it. If the nominated table cannot be found when you click OK, then you are asked to locate it. If it still cannot be found, then this table can be removed from the list.

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User MBXs
Discover>Table Utilities>User MBXs Maintain a list of commonly used MapBasic programs with aliases. Select a program from the list to run immediately. The User MBXs utility provides the capability to keep a list of aliases of commonly used MapBasic programs. When you want to run a program from this list, select it and Discover starts the program. This provides a simple method of keeping track of various custom and shareware MapBasic programs.

User Workspaces
Discover>Table Utilities>User Workspaces Discovers User Workspace utility allows you to maintain a list of workspaces together with descriptive text, and open workspaces directly from this list. User Workspaces is similar to User Tables and User MapBasics.

Surface Creation and Analysis


Introduction Configuring Grid File Formats Grid Handlers Importing a Grid Creating a Grid Gridding Parameters Contouring Parameters Surface Profiling Grid Query and Arithmetic Grid Clipping Grid File Manager

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Surface Creation and Analysis

Discover>Create and Analyze Surfaces Discovers Create and Analyze Surfaces module provides a rich and powerful suite of functions and tools for creating and analyzing gridded surfaces. The Create and Analyze Surfaces module has been designed to integrate seamlessly with gridded data created externally from MapInfo and also for uses of this data in other modules such as Drillhole Display. Four industry standard grid formats are supported by Discover (refer to Grid File Formats). These include: Band Interleaved by Line (BIL) ER Map Window (.ERS) Geosoft (.GRD) MapInfo (.MIG)

Introduction
Surface Creation and Analysis provides the following functionality: Create an interpolated grid from selected points by inverse distance weighting or by triangulation.

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Import ASCII grid files. Contour grid files. Export binary grids to ASCII files. Export contours to 3D DXF files. Place annotation labels on contour lines. Report grid cell values to the screen. Assign grid cell values to co-located objects. Report the volume between a gridded surface and a specified level. Return polygons for those areas of a grid meeting query criteria. Display a profile from one or more gridded surfaces draped with vector data. Create Regions from points (Voronoi Polygons), optionally bounded by a selected boundary. Merge two grids by adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing. Create a slope or aspect grid from an input grid. Adjust grid display with various colour schemes and stretching options. Apply sun-shading to a grid. Display a colour-value legend for a grid. Register binary BIL, ER Mapper or Geosoft grids. Move and rename grid files.

What is a Surface Grid?


A surface grid is a rectangular array of points, each of which has an interpolated Z or height value. The Z value in a grid may represent either real heights (such as topographic elevation, depth to weathering or coal seam thickness) or may represent a geochemical, geophysical or other value (such as gold concentration, radiometric total count or rainfall). The surface grid is generated from a set of input points each of which have a location and a Z value for that location. The regular surface grid is generated from the irregularly distributed input points by calculating interpolated values at regular positions.

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It is important to understand that the interpolated values are approximations only of the real values of the surface and that the interpolated values differ depending upon the interpolation method used. With some interpolation methods, it is possible that the interpolated value is slightly different to that of a data point at the same position.

Regular grid of interpolated points generated from irregularly distributed input points

Once a regular grid of interpolated values has been calculated and stored, it can be displayed in MapInfo. The grid can be displayed as a set of rectangular polygons, each one representing a grid cell. The advantage of this method of display is that MapInfos standard tools for thematic mapping and querying can be used with the grid. And although Discover does allow grids to be created in this format, the major disadvantage is that of file size and display speed. If the grid cells are stored in a simple binary format, then Discover can display them in MapInfo as a raster image. This method of display is significantly quicker than for polygon grids, and allows large grids to be handled efficiently. A third way in which a grid can be displayed is as contours. Contours are generated by tracing lines of equal Z value across the grid. The contour lines do not provide as much information as a grid, but do offer another visualization method. This is useful for displaying contours of one grid over a second grid (for example, soil geochem contours over a magnetics grid image).

Configuring Grid File Formats


When grid formats are created or imported into MapInfo, Discover can assist these operations by: creating surfaces in a format of your choice;

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exporting a preferred format; or internally using the preferred format to allow ease of use when MapInfo is used with third-party software packages (such as ER Viewer, ER Mapper or Oasis Montaj by Geosoft).

The preferred grid format can be specified from the Grid Configuration Discover menu item. Use the displayed dialog to nominate your preferred grid format.

Grid Format Selection for preferred operation

Once a grid format has been selected, grids created from this point use the specified format. You can alter the type preferred by re-selection at any time. Note 1. The Grid Handler support provided in this option is ONLY available for MapInfo Version 5.5 or later. 2. Third party software vendors, Vertical Mapper (developed by Northwood Technologies Inc.) create raster-based format grids. These files are of a raster format and not compatible with this version of Discover. A grid-read handler for Vertical Mapper formats is supplied with versions later than 6.0 of MapInfo. Discover supports four grid formats that are used widely in the geoscience industry. These grids are: Binary Interleaved by Line (BIL) ER Map Window (.ERS)

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Geosoft (.GRD) MapInfo (.MIG)

Band Interleaved by Line Grid Format


The Band Interleaved by Line (BIL) format for storing gridded surface data is a popular format and is readable by many other software packages, such as ER Mapper and Arc/Info. The BIL format simply stores each grid cell value sequentially starting at the upper left and proceeding by row towards the lower right. The geometry of the BIL grid file is defined in an associated .HDR file (that states the number of rows and columns as well as other information). The BIL format used by Discover allows grid cells of any values to be stored, as well as null cell values (for grid cells that do not have a value interpolated for them). Discover can also read BIL files created in other software and on UNIX workstations. When imported into MapInfo, it creates a .TAB that defines the BIL filename, format (raster) and the origin and extents of the data. The coordinate system and projection information is also specified. When a grid surface is created using Discover, the MapInfo grid format also contains metadata (see What is Metadata?) that describes the parameters used to control the gridding process. Below is an example of a TAB file containing metadata:
!table !version 300 !charset WindowsLatin1 Definition Table File "t.bil" Type "RASTER" (129.722,-20.5257) (0,11) Label "Pt 1", (129.722,-19.9757) (0,0) Label "Pt 2", (130.472,-20.5257) (15,11) Label "Pt 3" CoordSys Earth Projection 1, 0 Units "degree" ReadOnly begin_metadata "\Encom" = "" "\Encom\Surfaces" = "" "\Encom\Surfaces\Version" = "4.000" "\Encom\Module" = "Surfaces"

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"\Encom\Type" = "Grid - Isotropic" "\Encom\Grid" = "" "\Encom\Grid\Creation" = "" "\Encom\Grid\Creation\Parameters" = "6 near neighbours" "\Encom\Grid\Creation\GridSize" = "0.05 x 0.05" "\Encom\Grid\Creation\Weighting" = "2" "\Encom\Grid\Creation\XYUnits" = "degree" "\Encom\Grid\Creation\LUT" = "rainbow" "\Encom\Grid\Creation\Origin" = "129.722,-19.9757" "\Encom\Grid\Display" = "" "\Encom\Grid\Display\SunShading" = "Off" "\Encom\Grid\Display\SunAzimuth" = "" "\Encom\Grid\Display\SunElevation" = "" "\Encom\Source" = "C:\Program Files\ MapInfo\Professional\Discover\DEMO\VeinsDykes.TAB" "\Encom\Date" = "06/04/2001" "\Encom\Grid\Display\MinCellValue" = "326.664154" "\Encom\Grid\Display\MaxCellValue" = "426.394135" "\Encom\Grid\Display\Min Cell Value to Colour" = "326.664154" "\Encom\Grid\Display\Max Cell Value to Colour" = "426.394135" "\Encom\Grid\Display\Standard_Deviation" = "17.655758" "\IsReadOnly" = "FALSE" end_metadata

ER Mapper Grid Format


The ER Mapper software image/grid format is described in detail in the ER Mapper Open Standards documentation. The grid format is unchanged from Versions 3.x, 4.x, 5.x and 6.x of ER Mapper. The standard raster image that may be displayed by ER Mapper software can be imported as a Discover grid. The image/grid is actually defined by two files, a header (.ERS file) plus a binary BIL (Band Interleaved by Line) data file. The content of the .ERS file is defined in ER Mapper documentation but an example is shown below:
DatasetHeader Begin Version = LastUpdated = SensorName = SenseDate = DataSetType = DataType = ByteOrder = CoordinateSpace 5.5 Thu Mar 3 23:38:11 GMT 1995 GEOTEM Fri Nov 19 06:07:58 GMT 1996 ERStorage Raster MSBFirst Begin

Surface Creation and Analysis Datum = AGD66 Projection = TMAMG53 CoordinateType = EN Units = METERS Rotation = 0:0:0.0 CoordinateSpace End RasterInfo Begin CellType = Signed32BitInteger NullCellValue = -9999999 CellInfo Begin Xdimension = 50 Ydimension = 50 CellInfo End NrOfLines = 128 NrOfCellsPerLine = 320 RegistrationCoord Begin Eastings = 327600 Northings = 8595050 RegistrationCoord End NrOfBands = 2 BandId Begin Value = Channel 16 Units = ppm BandId End BandId Begin Value Units BandId End RasterInfo End DatasetHeader End = Channel 3 = ppm

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When ER Mapper grids are being output (see Grid Configuration) the Datum, Projection and CoordinateType recorded in the ERS file are not related to the projection information of the original data points. These coordinate system parameters are set to an ER Mapper compatible default. These variables must be edited and replaced with the correct ER Mapper projection information that equates to the original point data used by Discover. Geosoft Binary Grid Format The Geosoft binary grid format is composed of two elements: a 512 byte grid header the grid/image data

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Specific details of the contents of these files can be obtained from Geosoft (Toronto, Canada). Some revisions of the grid format have been made and the import utility within Discover has been established to comply with the grid format current as of March 2000.

MapInfo Grid Format


MapInfo uses a standard binary grid format referred to as a .MIG file (also referred to as the MapInfo Continuous Grid). This format is documented by MapInfo and can be used as a transfer grid type where its end use is for a MapInfo import application. The grid format was made available by MapInfo in release Version 5.5. The .MIG grid format is primarily used for the MapInfo Thematic Grids (Map>Create Thematic Map). Discover can use this format for grid creation however the colouring of the grid is limited to a red-blue shading. To modify this grid colouring (Map>Modify Thematic Map>Styles). Note Not recommended. MIG format is a floating-point grid format. There is no choice of small or long integer, just 8-byte double float values.

Importing a Grid Surface


To import an existing grid surface into MapInfo, the standard import facility can be used. Select the Raster format file types or the Grid Image format option enabled by Discover:

Grid or raster image import facility

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Discover provides an alternative import to the MapInfo import. The Discover Surfaces>Register Grid File option provides a method that enables the user to check the grid header file during the import process. Note Errors occur in the projection of a grid image via the File>Open Table menu when there is no existing tab file. When importing grid images using this method the grid projection is assigned incorrectly. This is because the user is unable to assign the projection for the required image and as a result a default projection of UTM Zone 1, Northern Hemisphere (WGS 84) is assigned. The user is unable to modify the image registration to correctly register the grid. To avoid this problem, register BIL, ER Mapper and Geosoft grids using Discover. Choose Discover>Create and Analyze Surfaces. From the Surfaces menu choose Register Grid File.

Creating a Surface
Surfaces>Grid and Contour>Inverse Distance Weighting Surfaces>Grid and Contour>Triangulation Discover provides two basic methods for creating an interpolated surface from a set of input points. These are: Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) - a technique where the value of the surface at a given grid cell is calculated from the weighted average of surrounding points. The weights given to each of the surrounding points during the averaging is determined by the distance of those points from the grid cell. The further away that a point is from the grid cell being interpolated, the less weight it has. The averaging or smoothing effect of IDW means that grid cell values calculated by this method may not exactly honour co-located data values. Triangulation with Natural Neighbour Interpolation (referred to simply as triangulation). The process of triangulation allows a surface to be created by forming a triangular irregular network from the input data points. The natural neighbour interpolation process then uses the triangulated network to generate regularly gridded values.

The interpolation method that you decide to use is determined by the type of data to be gridded. In general, triangulation is best suited for gridding elevation data, where the grid values needs to honour local data values. Alternatively, IDW gridding is best for data such as geochemistry where some degree of

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smoothing is usually beneficial (that is, if a repeat measurement is made at a point, an identical value would not necessarily be recorded as opposed to elevation measurements where repeats should always be the same). In order to create an interpolated surface with Discover, you need to have the data points mapped, and you must select the required input data points from the map window. The positional information for each of the input data points is taken from the map window coordinate system that is, the gridded surface is created with the coordinate system of the front map window. Note It is recommended that the grid be created in the coordinate system of the point data file. To create a grid in an alternate projection, save a copy of the point data file into the new projection and use the new point file. In the Save Copy As option select the Projection button and choose your new projection. Now create the grid from the new point data.

Selection of table and layer for gridding

By using a selection, you can easily create a grid for only part of your data, or ignore data points that do not meet certain criteria. Note Ensure that the map window is in the coordinate system that you wish to view the grid image in, as a raster image of a grid can only be displayed in the coordinate system it is registered in.

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The data value to be interpolated (the Z value) must be selected from a list of columns. If you select a character column, then the numeric equivalent of these values are gridded. Discover provides the option of automatically ignoring zero and/or negative values during the gridding process. This can be very useful where the data points contain negative numbers that indicate, for example, that no measurement was taken. Once the Z value column has been selected, you must enter the gridding parameters and, optionally, specify how contours are to be displayed.

Gridding Parameters
The grid cell size and grid bounds parameters are relevant for both IDW and triangulation gridding methods. The other parameters are required only for IDW gridding. Discover provides a sensible default value for each parameter, to allow you to quickly generate a grid.

Specifying the gridding parameters

Grid Cell Size The grid cell size is entered in map units and the default is such that a grid of about 50 cells across is generated. If the grid is to be stored as MapInfo

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polygons, then the X and Y grid cell dimensions can be different, otherwise the grid cell height and width must be the same. Grid Bounds By default, the grid is generated so that it covers a rectangle that just encloses the input points. This ensures that extrapolation in the grid is minimized. However, you can extend (or shrink) the bounds as required. Note For triangulation, grid cell values are not extrapolated outside the bounds (the convex hull) of the input data. Neighbour Search For IDW, when not using a search ellipse, the number of nearest neighbouring data points used for the interpolation needs to be entered. The default of 6 usually provides the optimum balance between computation time and best interpolation. Higher values take longer to compute and produce a smoother result. This parameter is not required for triangulation. Using the nearest neighbour search, Discover always interpolates a value for each grid cell. However, this may lead to significant edge effects where the grid cell is distant from the nearest data points. To get around this problem, the search ellipse should be used. Search Ellipse For IDW, if the input data points are not randomly distributed (for example you have soil samples taken on a fairly regular grid), then you should use the search ellipse IDW option. A search ellipse of fixed size and orientation is specified, and grid cell values are then calculated from the weighted average of all data points that lie within the ellipse centred on that grid cell. The search ellipse is defined by specifying the semi-major axis (or long radius) and the semi-minor axis (or short radius) lengths, together with an orientation (of the semi-major axis), measured clockwise from North. The minimum points used per cell controls whether a grid cell has a null value. If fewer data points than this minimum number lie within the search ellipse for a grid cell then a null value is assigned to this grid cell.

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The search ellipse can produce quite different results from the nearest neighbour method, especially in areas where data is sparsely distributed. If no samples occur within the ellipse for a grid cell, then that grid cell is assigned a null value and displays as white in the grid image. If the search ellipse that you specify is too small, then the result is too many null values between data points. Weight Power For IDW, the weight given to a data point is determined by some function of its distance from the grid cell. The weight power defaults to 2 (that is, the weight of a data point is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the grid cell) but can be set to any positive value. Using a weight of zero produces a simple arithmetic averaging of data points, with all data points contributing equally to the grid cell value. Grid Output The grid output may be any of: BIL grid (.ERS, .GRD and .MIG) Polygon grid Contours Combination of any of the above

If you choose to save the grid as a BIL grid, you can also select one of 25 colour look-up schemes to use with the grid image display. The colour patterns used for the image are stored in the Discover configuration directory in .CLR files, and are similar to those used in ER Mapper (an image processing and display program). See the section below on Alter Grid Display for more information on options to change the grid display colours. If you choose to save the grid as MapInfo polygons, then the polygons are generated as polygons with no line or fill style. You should use the thematic map function to display the polygon grid. Note that whilst MapInfo can efficiently display raster grids of millions of cells, a polygon grid larger than a few thousand cells takes a long time to redraw and colour.

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Contouring Parameters
Contour intervals can be specified in one of two ways: 1. Discover suggests contour intervals based on the range of values in the first Z value column. The Major Contour Interval must be divisible by the Minor Contour Interval. You should also specify different line styles for optimal visual effect. You can specify maximum and minimum values to contour between. This can be extremely useful when contouring data with some outliers (extremely high or low values), as it prevents Discover from spending extra time generating unwanted contour lines. Alternatively you can instruct Discover to read a Contour Level file containing a simple text list of contour levels to produce contours for. The text file should contain only this list of contour levels, in increasing order, with a normal separator (comma, space etc.) between each level. An example contour level file is as follows: 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 500 A contour level file is very useful when you have a non-normal distribution of sample data, and want the contours to show more detail in one part of the data range than others. For example, when contouring a soil grid for gold values in the range of 0.1 to 250 ppb, you may wish to have closely spaced contours in the range between 0 and 20 ppm, but more widely spaced values above this. Using a contour level file, Discover gives every contour line the same line style. If you want to alter the style of some lines, you then need to select them and use MapInfos line style picker. To select all contour lines that are, for example, multiples of 50, you can also use the following clause in your select statement: where Pb_ppm MOD 50 = 0 (replace Pb_ppm with your contour column name).

2.

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Specifying Contour line generation parameters

If contour smoothing is turned on, each contour line is smoothed using a spline interpolation. This greatly improves the appearance of the contours though the size of the contour table is increased as each line contains more nodes. Note In certain instances (for example where many contour lines describe a saddle feature), turning contour smoothing on can result in some cross-over between adjacent contour lines.

Contouring a Grid File


Surfaces>Contour Binary BIL Grid File Whilst the grid creation functions in Discover can optionally create contours at the same time, there is often a requirement for generation of contours from existing grid files. Discover can generate contours for any registered BIL grid, including those grid files generated by Discover and those from ER Mapper. Simply select the grid table to contour, and specify contouring parameters as described above. Note Discover always creates contours as attributed polylines in a permanent MapInfo table. If contouring a read-only grid (such as on a CD-ROM) you need to save the contour lines to a directory with write permission. This option cannot be used with Geosoft grids.

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Exporting Grids and Contours


Surfaces>Export Grid and Contours>Export Contours to 3D DXF Discover can export attributed contour lines to 3D DXF files. Whilst MapInfo exports any map objects to a DXF file, it does not use an attribute (such as height) for the elevation field in a DXF file. Use Discover to create 3D DXF files containing the Z value attribute from the contour line that can then be imported into AutoCad, MicroStation or other 3D visualization software. Surfaces>Export Grid and Contours>Export Binary BIL to ASCII You may need to use a Discover grid with other software that cannot read BIL grids. In this case, the safest way to transfer the grid is in ASCII format. Discover provides the option of exporting the grid as either XYZ or Z values only per line. This option cannot be used with Geosoft grids.

Adding Labels to a Contour Plan


Surfaces>Label Contour lines Discover can add Z value labels at user-specified intervals to contour lines. The labels are created as MapInfo text objects in a chosen layer, such as the cosmetic layer. Discover adds labels to any attributed contour plan that has a column for contour level value. You can also use this option to add line-parallel labels to other linework such as rivers or roads.

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Specifying contour labelling parameters

The contour labels are placed parallel to the contour lines as normal text objects. If the contour plan and labels are then viewed at a different scale to that specified in this dialog, the Z value labels appear at a proportionately different size.

Surface Profile Over a Grid or Contour Plan


Surfaces>Make Profile Discovers Make Profile function provides a powerful tool for identifying and analyzing trends and spatial relationships on gridded surfaces. Profiles for any line or polyline can be generated across gridded surfaces or contour plans. A profile across a topographic, geochemical or geophysical data grid can be integrated with vector information from polygon and line layers to allow the relationships to be interpreted. Profiles for multiple surfaces may be displayed together to show, for example, topographic and base of weathering surfaces, together with magnetics and soil geochemistry, with the surface geology and fault lines draped over the topographic surface.

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Diagram of a multi-surface profile

Introduction to Surface Profile


To create a profile over a surface, you must have a map window open with a grid or contour plan displayed and have a line (along which the profile is to be generated) selected. Discover then generates a profile by checking the Z value for each grid cell or contour line that the selected line crosses. Commonly the profile is for a topographic, geochemical or geophysical surface but it may also be for any gridded variable such as tree height, number of mineral occurrences, laterite depth etc. You can drape the profile with polygon intersections from a second layer, such as geology, or soil type. The profile is split into separate lines at each polygon intersection and the separate lines are coloured and attributed according to the intersecting polygon. Additionally, you can display as points on the profile the intersections of the profile line with lines from other layers (such as faults or rivers). Discover can create profiles from Discover, ER Mapper or Geosoft grids, polygon grids or contour plans. When creating a profile from polygon grids or contour plans, the Z values must be stored in a numeric column.

Layers to Profile
If a gridded surface is present in the front map window, then Discover suggests this as the surface to generate a profile for. If you wish to display more than one surface in the profile map, then it is important to specify the primary surface here. The primary surface forms the basis for the positioning of additional surfaces.

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To select additional surfaces to display in profile, click the Show Other Surfaces button and pick the surfaces to use. For each of the additional surfaces you need to specify how the surface is to be positioned and offset relative to the primary surface. Absolute Positioning Use this option when the Z values in the surface are of the same type as the primary. For example, if the primary surface is topographic relief, then depth of weathering would be displayed with absolute positioning, but soil Au geochemistry would be displayed with relative positioning (see below). For absolute positioning, the Z values are scaled the same as for the primary surface. Relative Positioning A surface should be positioned relatively where it is of a different type to the primary surface. For relative positioning, you can specify the offset and scale, or leave them on auto for Discover to adjust. If the surface is to be auto-positioned, then it places about 1cm (at screen scale) above the preceding surface. Refer to the section below on Display Options for more information about specifying vertical scale. If Discover is creating a profile across a contour plan, then the profile starts at the first contour line intersection and ends at the last, even if the selected line extends further. Discover does not attempt to extrapolate Z values beyond the last contour crossed. Similarly, where the selected line extends beyond the boundaries of a grid, the profile terminates at the grid boundary.

Draping Vector Layers


The primary surface may be draped with polygon and line intersections from other layers in the map window. Polygon intersections are shown in the profile as coloured line segments. The line segment has the foreground colour of the intersecting polygon and is also given an attribute from the polygon so it may be labelled. If line intersection display is turned on, Discover shows each line or polyline that intersects the profile as a point. The point is coloured according to the intersecting line and has the symbol type and size of the current default symbol. Discover only displays those line intersections from layers that are selectable in the map window. Discover can also create a horizontal profile for a polygon table where no surface information is available. In this case you would nominate a polygon drape table, but no profile layer. Use this option when you want to get a simple intersection profile across a geology map.

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Specifying profile display options

Display Options
If the vertical exaggeration of the primary surface profile is not important, leave the Autoscaling ofZ-axis option checked. With this default, the Z axis height is approximately 1/3rd of the X-axis length. If you wish to enter a specific vertical exaggeration, it must be calculated by comparing the range of Z values (that is, the maximum minus the minimum Z value in the profile) to the length of the profile (as measured in MapInfos current distance units, and noted in the dialog box). For example you want to enter a specificZ scale for displaying a profile of length 0.5 km across a geochem grid with values ranging from 7 to 120. In this case, a vertical exaggeration of between 0.001 to 0.003 would be appropriate, producing a profile whose height is between 25% and 75% of the profile length. Note Check the profile length and units of measurement in the dialog box when entering a specific vertical exaggeration.

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Profile of topography and geology (with vertical exaggeration) across a survey line

Other surfaces selected with Absolute Positioning uses the sameZ scale as applied to the primary surface. Other surfaces chosen with Relative Positioning use the scale selected for those surfaces.

Profile Map Window


When complete, the profile is labelled with minimum and maximum Z values, as well as the start and end coordinates (using the map window coordinate system). These labels are MapInfo labels, and need to be saved in a workspace. Additionally, for a profile generated along a polyline (such as a road or river), intermediate nodes in the polyline are shown as tick marks on the X axis, and can easily be labelled using MapInfos label tool. When profiles for multiple surfaces are shown, the Z axis covers all of those displayed with Absolute Positioning. Surfaces displayed in relative mode do not have a Z axis.

Profiles for Multiple Lines


If you have selected more than one line to create a profile for, then Discover provides the option of displaying the different profiles in separate map windows, or stacked with a small vertical offset between each profile. If you are creating profiles for parallel lines (such as adjacent grid lines) then displaying the profiles in stacked view can be very useful in identifying trends. The vertical stacking offset can be specified, or left as auto. If you wish to display stacked profiles for multiple surfaces you may find that the view becomes too cluttered. In this case, reduce the number of surfaces or display the profiles in individual windows.

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If the lines to create profiles for are not parallel then a stacked view is inappropriate and a separate window should be used for each profile.

Reporting Grid Cell Values


To report grid cell values directly to the screen, choose the Get Grid Cell Values button from the Surfaces button bar. If the tool is selected and the mouse clicked when the cursor is over a surface grid, the cell values for that location plus the surrounding cells are displayed in a dialog.

Assigning Grid Cell Values


Surfaces>Assign Grid Cell Values Assign Grid Cell Values assigns grid cell values from the grid to map objects that overlie them. This is used, for example, to assign elevations to sample points or to drillhole locations, from a digital elevation model, or to assign mean geochemical values from a geochemistry grid to geology polygons. Discover can also assign minimum and maximum values to polygons from the grid cells that lie within the polygon. As well as assigning the values to columns, the values can be reported to the screen.

Grid Query
Surfaces>Grid Query>Select areas from Grid Surfaces>Grid Query>Select areas by Elevation, Slope, Aspect The grid query tools provide a convenient method of creating MapInfo polygons that cover the areas of the grid that meet the grid query criteria. The Elevation, Slope, Aspect query tool has relevance only for digital elevation model surface grids. It provides the functionality to perform a complex query, such as would be required to identify steep slopes. Other options enable regions of certain elevation or slope to be isolated.

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Querying a grid to return polygon covering the required areas

Points to Regions (Voronoi Polygons)


Surfaces>Points to Regions The Points to Regions function generates Voronoi Polygons from a set of input points. What are Voronoi Polygons Voronoi Polygons are polygons that each enclose one point and the border of a Voronoi Polygon runs through the midpoint between neighbouring points. They are the inverse of a triangular irregular network and cover an area that may be thought of as the area of influence for that data point. Voronoi Polygons thus provide a method for creating a surface without interpolation and gridding. In many cases, for example when analyzing coal or mineral sands drillholes, creating a surface of Voronoi Polygons based on the drillhole locations may be preferable to gridding. When the Voronoi Polygons are created by Discover, all of the attributes of the points are transferred to the polygons, thus allowing quick estimation of volumes and concentrations.

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Example of Voronoi Polygons generated from sample locations

Creating Voronoi Polygons in Discover Discover generates Voronoi Polygons from selected points in the front map window. By default, the Voronoi Polygons extend no further than the outer boundary of the group of selected points (called the convex hull). However, the Voronoi Polygons can be extended by any distance outside of the convex hull. Alternatively, the Voronoi Polygons can be bounded by a selected polygon. In this latter case, the bounding polygon is selected prior to choosing the Points to Regions menu item, and all points that lie within the selected bounding polygon are used to create Voronoi Polygons.

Specify the parameters to control clipping a region as Voronoi polygons

When the polygons are created, they have the same table structure as the points table they were based on, so that they can easily be coloured, queried or thematically mapped.

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Merging Grids
Surfaces>Grid Arithmetic>Merge Grids Add, subtract, divide or multiply grids together. Use this option to perform any of the following options: 1. Subract one grid from another for example, base of weathering from topographic surface. The resulting grid shows the difference, which may be positive or negative values. 2. Add one grid to another for example, adding gridded Pb and Zn together to produce a combined base metal grid. 3. Multiply or divide two grids together for example, coal seam thickness multiplied by calorific value to return a grid showing economic product (in derived units). 4. Stitch adjoining grids together to make one large grid. This is an addition operation, but where there is no overlap between the two grids. The output grid covers the combined area of both input grids, with null cell values filling the minimum bounding rectangle. Note Both grids used in the grid arithmetic operation must be registered in the same coordinate system. However, the two grids can have different cell sizes. The output grid has the minimum cell size of the input grids. Surfaces>Grid Arithmetic>Constant Grid Arithmetic Use Constant Grid Arithmetic to add to or subtract from the grid fixed values, or to multiply or divide by fixed values. You would use this option to, for example, divide a soil grid by 1000 to change units from ppb to ppm. Alternatively, add 1000 to an elevation grid to change from AHD to mine datum. Surfaces>Grid Arithmetic>Horizontal Grid Arithmetic Discover provides a special grid calculation function for deriving slope and aspect from digital elevation models. The slope and aspect are calculated for each grid cell using elevation values in the surrounding cells.

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Surfaces>Grid Arithmetic>Volume to a Level Use this function to calculate the volume contained between a gridded surface and a specified level. If no polygon objects are selected, then the volume of the whole grid to the specified level is reported as a single value to the screen. If one or more polygons overlying the grid have been selected then the volume for that part of the grid under each polygon is reported to the screen or assigned as an attribute to each polygon. Uses of this function include calculating the volume of rock in a stockpile (using a DEM of the stockpile) or calculating the volume of water in a dam (using a DEM of the bathymetry).

Grid Clipping
Surfaces>Clip Grid to Region The Clip Grid to Region tool provides a simple method of reducing the size of the grid to cover just the area of interest. Use this to reduce a large grid to just that covering a tenement for reporting or data sharing purposes. Simply select a polygon covering the area required to clip and choose the appropriate clipping option from the clipping dialog. Clip Outside polygons discard all grid data that lies outside of the selected polygon(s). If the selected polygon is not a rectangular shape, then the clipped grid covers the minimum bounding rectangle of the polygon with null values in those parts of the grid outside of the polygon. Clip Inside polygons write null values into the area covered by the selected polygon(s).

Grid Display Tools


Surfaces>Modify Grid Display>Sun-shading Discover provides the option of adding real-time sun-shading to your gridded surface to improve the appearance of relief in 2D. Sun-shading works by brightening areas of the grid that face the direction of the sun and darkening those areas that face away from the sun, or are in shadow. Discover allows you to select a sun azimuth by octant (NE, E etc.) and sun elevation between 0 and 90. The sun-shading is applied in real-time.

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Surfaces>Modify Grid Display>Alter Grid Colours Use the Alter Grid Colours menu item to adjust the appearance of the grid in a map window. Using these options does not change the gridded data, just how it is displayed. By default, when a grid is created, or registered, Discover applies a linear colour pattern. This means that each colour in the look-up table is applied to the same sized data range. Whilst this method of grid display is adequate in many cases there are good reasons for altering the display method for certain types of data.

Grid display colouring options

Linear Stretch Discover applies colours linearly to the grid between the minimum and maximum values. Auto-clip Stretch Discover applies colours linearly between the middle n% of the data. Commonly, a 99% clip is used to avoid outlying low and high values distorting the grid display. Data values below the minimum and above the maximum are displayed with those minimum/maximum colours. Histogram Stretch Using this display method, Discover analyses the distribution of data in the grid and applies colours so that there are approximately equal numbers of grid cells displayed in each colour. Percentile Ranges With geochemical data, it is often appropriate to show the grid coloured into just a few ranges, based on the data distribution. For example, gridded geochemical data may be coloured with ranges of 0, 30, 60, 80, 90, 95, 98 and 100%. Each of these ranges would be shown in a different colour to highlight the areas of interest.

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Data Ranges Similarly to percentile ranges, colouring by data ranges allows the grid to be displayed with a discrete number of colours, specified by data value rather than percentile value. Note For colouring by Percentile and Data Ranges, the real-time sun-shading feature is disabled. Surfaces>Modify Grid Display>Make Legend for Grid In order to display a legend relating the grid colours to data values, choose this item. A legend appropriate to the display style is generated and may be added to a layout window for printing. The legend is created as a table in the Discover temporary directory.

Registering Grid Files


In addition to grid surfaces created within Discover, you can register other grids created externally, so that they display just as a Discover generated grid. Surfaces>Register Grid Files>BIL Grid Discover can register and display any BIL grid. If an .HDR file (ASCII header file such as that generated by Discover or Arc/Info) exists for the grid, then the grid geometry is read from this, and you just enter the coordinate system and registration cell coordinates. The grid file size is checked against the number of cells and the cell size to ensure that the grid geometry is valid. Surfaces>Register Grid Files>ER Mapper Grid Discover automatically registers an ER Mapper dataset (an .ERS file and accompanying grid file). You must select the appropriate coordinate system, and the registration dialog displays the information from the ER Mapper header file. Note Any .ERS files from a virtual dataset are not registered.

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Surfaces>Register Grid Files>Geosoft Grid Discover automatically registers Geosoft grids. You must select an appropriate coordinate system so that the Geosoft grid is correctly geo-located. Discover supports the all of the various Geosoft grid orientations. Surfaces>Register Grid Files>Import ASCII Grid File Discover can read ASCII grid files consisting of X, Y and Z values in whichever orientation the coordinates are sorted, although most grid files start at the top left or bottom left with values listed row by row. Additionally, Discover can read in ASCII files consisting of Z values only, with no coordinates. If you choose the Z values only option, you must specify the cell dimensions and grid origin as well as the orientation of the grid. The orientations are described by row (where the grid values go across the columns from left to right along a row, then move to the next row), or by column (where the grid values go up or down a column, then move right to the next column). To import an ASCII grid file to display as a MapInfo polygon grid, you should use Discovers Data Utilities>ASCII Object Import function. Note The ASCII grid file must describe an exact rectangular grid otherwise an error message is displayed. Surfaces>Register Grid Files>Convert v2.1 Grids Versions 2.0 and 2.1 of Discover created BIL grids in 8-bit per cell format. Whilst these still display with no problems, they cannot be used for grid analysis (profiles, contours etc.) with version 3.0. This function converts the old grid files so they can be used with version 4.0. The old grid file is overwritten unless it is a read-only file.

Grid File Manager


Surfaces>Grid File Manager If you want to rename, move or delete a Discover grid, use the Surfaces>Grid File Manager menu option. This ensures that the grid image file and other associated files are renamed, moved or deleted along with the MapInfo tab file.

Drillhole Display
Introduction Steps to Displaying Drillhole Data Data Formats Defining Drillholes Display Drillhole Data Display Controls Calculating Sectional Resources Data Validation Data Compositing Saving Display Settings

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Drillhole menu and toolbar items.

Discover provides a comprehensive environment for processing and visualizing drillhole data. The Drillhole Display module links in with functionality in the Surfaces module and also the map-making tools.

Introduction
Discovers Drillhole module provides the following key features for processing and visualizing drillhole data in section and plan view. Project oriented interface for ease-of-use Use drill data stored in any database that MapInfo can read Flexible data model 3D coordinates are calculated on-the-fly Display drillholes in sections of any orientation or plan view Topographic surface and plan geology can be displayed in the section Display downhole data as histograms, linegraphs or text

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Up to 16 data display variables can be displayed for each drillhole Display profiles of multiple surfaces in section view Log style display for individual drillholes, with up to 24 data columns Sectional resource calculator Data validation methods Data compositing by attribute, cut-off grade, elevation or depth Section layout with grid and titleblock Drillhole info tool Export sectional interpretations to 3D DXF files

Steps to Displaying Drillhole Data


A drillhole data set forms a relational database comprising drillhole collar location and geometry, downhole survey, downhole data and other related information. In order to take a set of drillhole data and display it, there are a number of tasks to be performed. 1. Organize all drill data in the database of choice (MapInfo, Access, Excel etc), and ensure that the collar table is mappable. 2. Create a new drillhole project, assigning tables and column names. 3. Perform data validation to check for drillhole name mismatches etc. 4. Draw or select a line of section in the collars map and generate the section. 5. Add downhole data annotation for the drillholes on the section. 6. Place the section in a layout to scale with grid and titleblock, ready to be printed.

Data Formats and Data Sources


Drillhole display in Discover has been designed to allow the use of data from a wide range of possible sources. Discover can use drillhole data stored in any database format that MapInfo can read, including Access and ODBC databases,

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and Discover does not need to make any alterations or additions to the source data. Discover calculates 3D coordinates for downhole samples as it displays the drillhole, which means that it is not necessary to store these coordinates. This improves ease of use with Microsoft Access database tables and read-only tables (such as Excel spreadsheets). Also, changes to the collar coordinates or to the downhole surveys do not require downhole coordinates to be recalculated. Drillhole data is stored in a number of related tables, with the Hole ID acting as the key to link the different tables. Some or all of the following data tables are used to define the project. Collar Location The collar location table is a mappable table containing point objects for each drillhole collar. It has mandatory columns for the following data: Hole ID, Easting, Northing, Elevation, Azimuth, Dip, Total Depth. Downhole Surveys The downhole survey table is not mappable and contains a list of depths and surveys for each hole. If you have no downhole survey information, then you do not need a downhole survey table. If present, it must contain columns for Hole ID, Depth, Azimuth and Dip. It is unlikely that you would want to include other data in this table and Discover does not check any other columns. Drillholes having no downhole surveys are displayed as straight lines using the collar dip, azimuth and total depth. Downhole Data There can be multiple downhole data tables that are not mappable, and contain sample data (or other sorts of data such as lithology) for each drill hole. The downhole data tables must contain columns for Hole ID, Depth From and Depth To, and the position of these mandatory columns must be the same in each downhole data table. You may include any other data columns (such as sample number, rock type, gold grades etc) as required. Discover can display data from any of the columns in the downhole data tables. Discover allows you to display data sets measured over different sample intervals (for example, Au from 10-11m,11-12m, 15-16m, 18-21m etc., and Rock Type from 0-11.4m, 11.4-19.1m, 19.1-21.0m etc.). Only data that conforms to the same sampling intervals should be stored in the one table. In the

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example above, you would have one table for assay data, and a separate table for rock type. You can use as many downhole data tables as you require. Note All mandatory columns, as noted above, should be numeric except for the Hole ID. The actual names and order of the mandatory columns is not important, as Discover allows you to nominate which column contains which information. The tables dh_collars, dh_survey, dh_assay and dh_lith in the Discover Demodata directory form an example data set in a format suitable for use with Discover. Examine the structure of these tables to help you prepare your own data, and use this test data set to run through the drillhole display program. ODBC Data Discover can use drillhole downhole data from ODBC databases in one of two ways. Using MapInfos open ODBC table command, a normal ODBC linked table can be created and it is then treated as any other MapInfo table. Alternatively, Discover can directly access just the ODBC data required for a specific section. This greatly reduces the local storage requirements for linked tables and can speed up operations. This manner of data access requires a special configuration file to be generated for each ODBC table used and is designed for database administrators to set up direct ODBC access, so that users can then easily take advantage. In order to use direct ODBC access for downhole data, you need to already have a linked table (that is, opened from MapInfos Open ODBC table command) which connects to the ODBC database using the appropriate SQL statement. This table (which need contain no data) is then used by Discover to create a template file (.XFG), when creating or modifying a project definition. The structure of the data retrieved from the ODBC data tables must conform to the guidelines described above for downhole data tables, but as this is accessed via an SQL query, the structure of the base ODBC tables is not limited. When generating a section the .XFG file is then read by Discover to connect to the ODBC database and download just the information required for this section. To use the direct ODBC access feature, create a new project or modify an existing project. Choose ODBC definition as the data table for survey or downhole data, and select the New option to create a new .XFG file. At this stage you need to select the linked tab file that the .XFG template file is based upon.

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Once you have nominated the linked table to use, you are then requested to enter the column numbers to use for downhole data (column positions for HoleID, From and To columns) or downhole survey data (column positions for HoleID, Depth, Azimuth and Dip). You should also enter the SQL delimiter that Discover uses when amending the selection statement. The delimiter is probably dependent upon your database but may be (ascii 39). Having created the ODBC template (.XFG) file, there is one task that needs performing and which must be done manually. In order for Discover to download the data for just the current section, it needs to add a list of Hole IDs into the SQL clause, in the form of Where HoleID IN (ddh1, ddh2.). Discover requires that this sub-clause be present in the SQL statement but with the Hole ID string replaced by a placeholder (<listofholes>). Thus, you need to ensure that the following text is placed at an appropriate position in the .XFG file:
where (`HoleID` in (<listofholes>))

noting that you use the correct column name in place of HoleID and that this may need to be added to an existing where condition. An example SQL statement from an XFG file (for a simple Access database) is:
"select `HoleID`, `from`, `to`, `sampno`, `au`,`MAPINFO_ID` from `c:\tmp\drill_test`.`Dhole1` where (`holeid` in (<listofholes>))"

Once the .XFG definition has been completed, sections can be generated as normal. Because an ODBC query is run for each data source in each section, processing is not as quick as if data is being read from local files. Once the section has been generated, the mappable section tables remain in MapInfo format, but the downloaded ODBC data is deleted. Current limitations are that the ODBC access feature cannot be used with the drillhole info tool, data compositing or data validation features in Discover. Grid and Contour Surfaces Discover can extract sectional profile information from gridded and contoured surfaces (such as surface topography and soil geochem) to display in the drillhole section. The grids can be in Discover, ER Mapper or Geosoft format, whilst contour plans must have polylines attributed with the appropriate Z value. See the section on Make Profiles in the Surface Creation and Analysis section for more information on the grid formats.

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Geology Plans Surface geology information may be displayed on the section by specifying a geology plan containing attributed regions. Discover splits the surface profile into individual lines for each intersecting geology polygon, and assigns the colour and attribute appropriate for the geology polygon to each line. As for other data types, the column that contains the appropriate attribute information (geology) must be specified.

Selecting a Project to Use


Defining a drillhole project is the first step in the procedure to processing and visualizing your drillhole data in Discover. This is done from the Setup menu option and uses a Drillhole Project Manager. From the Drillhole Display>Setup menu item, you can either select a project to use, nominate to use the Section Manager, or alternatively Use Section tables that are currently open but not assigned to a project.

Drillhole Project and Display Manager dialog

The drillhole display Section Manager is designed to help with the management of section and plan tables, allowing easy retrieval of previously created sections or plans. If you have chosen the Add section to Section Manager option when generating a section, the section tables are stored either in the project directory, or in a sub-directory underneath the project directory, and the section is registered with the Section Manager. Using the Section Manager you can easily open an existing section and this section can then be used for plotting, amending the data display, calculating resources etc.

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If you have a section open, but it has not been assigned to the Section Manager, then you can select it to use as above. Alternatively, you can use the Section Manager to add it to the list of registered sections.

Defining a Drillhole Project


Part of creating a new project (from the Drillhole Display and Project Manager) is to define the various tables used in a drilling project. The specification dialog is shown below.

The Drillhole Project Definition dialog

Using the Project Definition dialog box, you need to select the appropriate data tables to be used in the drillhole project. A brief explanation of the various tables is: Collar Mappable table for drillhole locations, also containing drillhole collar geometry and total depth. A collar table must be specified for each project. Downhole Survey Non-mappable table containing depth, azimuth and dip data for drillholes. The downhole survey table is optional and if present does not need to contain surveys for each drillhole.

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Downhole Data Non-mappable tables containing depth interval (from and to) and assay, lithology or other downhole information. As many downhole tables as required may be selected. Topography Surface Gridded or contoured surface topography, used by Discover. The grids must be registered BIL or Geosoft grids or MapInfo polygon grids. Contour surfaces must have a numeric column containing theZvalue attribute. If the topography surface table is not specified then a surface profile is generated by joining drill collars together. Polygon Surface Mappable table containing attributed polygons in, for example, geology. The polygons are draped over the surface topography when displayed in section. The polygon surface table is optional. Other Surfaces Other grid or contour surfaces can be displayed in profile in the cross-section. The grid surfaces must be registered BIL or Geosoft grids or attributed contour tables. Assigning Columns Having selected the tables to use, you must specify the columns to be used for the mandatory data in the collar, downhole survey and downhole data tables. Nominate here whether to use positive or negative dip values for down direction, and which depth units to use. This allows depth units to be different to the X and Y units used for collar coordinates.

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Assigning columns during Project setup

Note

1. All columns except the Hole ID and Polygon code columns should be numeric. The Hole ID columns for each table should be of character type. 2. The column position of the Hole ID, From and To columns in the each downhole data table must be the same.

Drillhole Info Tool


The drillhole info tool provides information from the various related data tables for the drill collar where it is clicked. Once a drillhole project has been defined, the drillhole info tool can be used to summarize the collar, survey and all downhole information for any drillhole where the cursor is clicked.

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Drillhole information from the graphically selected hole

Generating Sections and Plans


Drillholes>Select New Section Having chosen the drillhole project to use, Discover opens a map of the collar table, and you can define a section or plan to display. Defining a Cross-Section A cross-section can be generated for a vertical plane at any location and in any orientation, or a plan may be generated for a horizontal plane at any elevation. Sections cannot be generated for polylines (or fences), and also cannot be generated for inclined planes. The geometry of the cross-section can be defined either by using a line drawn into the collar map window, or by entering the section start coordinates and orientation into the Section Definition dialog box.

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Defining a cross-section to be displayed

Selection of which drillholes are to be displayed in the cross-section is controlled by options in the Hole Selection by group. You normally want Discover to select all drillholes that lie within the section envelope specified, using the default Specify section option. However, you can manually pre-select the drillholes that you wish to be plotted using the Manually Select option. In this case, the entire length of each selected drillhole is displayed and the section envelope width is not used. This latter option is the only one available for plans. If you have drawn a line into the collar map window and selected it, then the Use Selected Line option is available. Otherwise it is disabled. If you have selected a line and this option is still unavailable, then the selected object is probably a polyline containing more than 2 nodes and Discover does not use this. Note When using a selected line, the section orientation is taken from the direction of the line as it is drawn.

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Using a selected line, the section start and orientation are defined, but the section length and envelope width can be altered. The envelope width is that distance either side of the section line, within which drillhole data is displayed. The Search all Holes option tells Discover to search through all the drillholes in the database to check for drillholes that start outside the section but cut across it at depth. This option is unavailable for plans.

Plan drillhole collars map

Defining a Plan Generating a plan is similar to a cross-section. However, prior to entering the plan display parameters, you must select the drillhole collars to plot. A plan may be generated for all selected drillholes with no elevation limits, or alternatively, level plans may be generated where the elevation of the plan plus a distance above and below the plan is entered. This is analogous to specifying a section envelope. Specifying Downhole Tables and Surfaces to Plot You may have multiple downhole tables and surfaces in the drillhole project, but not wish to use all the data and surfaces for each section. To nominate the downhole data and surfaces to be used for the section, choose the Downhole Data and Surfaces buttons. The selected downhole data and surface tables are remembered from one section to the next.

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For each surface that is selected, the profile of the surface is displayed where it crosses the line of the section. The surface profile may be positioned either absolutely or relatively. If the surface measures real elevation (for example, proposed pit plan or depth of weathering) then you would position it absolutely (with no scaling or offsets, other than the same vertical exaggeration as the section). If the surface is not in elevation units (for example, a geochemical or geophysical grid), it should be positioned relatively. The relative positioning and scaling can be either automatic or you can specify the offset and scale explicitly. This method of surface profile placement is the same as used in the Surfaces>Make Profile function. Section/Plan Annotation In addition to the parameters discussed above for defining the section or plan, additional options are available from the Annotation button to control the appearance of the section as follows: Default Text Style affects text labels for hole name, hole depth etc. Preferred Scale is the scale at which you expect to view the section. Text label sizes and other annotation are relative to this scale. Base of hole symbols are taken from a TrueType font file shipped with Discover and so appear at the same size regardless of the Map Window zoom width. Vertical Exaggeration provides control over the vertical scale, with larger values giving greater exaggeration and a value of 1 giving no exaggeration. Display Surface Line controls whether to display the topographic surface, created either from a topography table or from joining up the drillhole collars. Use Data Display Setting allows you to apply downhole data display such as linegraphs, histograms and text labels to the drillholes at the time the section is generated. See the next section for more information on data display settings. Add Section to Section Manager allows the section tables to be stored in the project directory or in a uniquely named sub-directory under the project directory, a very useful option for data management. If the section is not added to the Section Manager, then the section tables are stored in the Discover Temp directory. Show Depth Ticks and labels down the hole. Discover can place a tick and a text label at nominated depths, for example every 5 metres, down the

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hole. This can be used as an aid to interpreting and correlating with other information.

Drillhole Display Section Annotation dialog

Generating Multiple Sections Discover can generate multiple sections or level plans by entering a few parameters, using the Multiple Sections button. Normally, the multiple sections are created parallel with an equal offset from one to the next. In this case, the geometry of the first section is defined as described above. You can then enter the number of sections to generate, the offset in a direction perpendicular to the first section (the offset defaults to twice the envelope width specified for the first section). The section is named automatically using the coordinates of the section. Alternatively, if you have selected multiple lines, then Discover can create a separate section for each of these (they do not need to be parallel). In this case, the Multiple Sections button is disabled and Discover automatically names each section according to its coordinates.

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Drillhole Section with geochemical assay values and histogram representation

Displaying Downhole Data


Drillholes>Display Downhole Data When you have generated a drillhole section or plan using Discover, you probably want to display the downhole data against each drillhole. Discover provides a rich set of functionality to allow the downhole data to be displayed. The drillhole data display system has the following characteristics: up to 16 attributes (or variables) may be displayed for each drillhole; an attribute may be from any appropriate column from any downhole data table; each attribute can be displayed in one of five different ways - text, histogram, linegraph, trace shade or structure tick; colour patterns may be created for different attributes; the display settings may be used to create a legend; and once defined, the display settings may be saved to a file and recalled later.

You can display up to 16 attributes at the same time on a section or plan although generally you want a less cluttered display to maximise the visual impact.

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Part of the Downhole Display settings dialog

For each display attribute (1 - 16) that you wish to use, you need to select a Downhole Data Table, a Column from the column list, and then select a Display Type from: Text LineGraph Histogram Trace Shade Structure Tick

As you select a display type, a dialog is displayed for you to specify parameters for that display variable. Discover offers the following data display types: Text label Ideal for assays Histogram Scaled bars for each sample interval indicating the value of that sample Linegraph Continuous line down the drillhole with distance from the trace indicating the value for that depth Trace Shade Coloured log style display ideal for lithology Structure Ticks Lines drawn across the drillhole trace showing the true or apparent dip of measured structures

In addition to these data display types, you can use MapInfos Thematic Mapping and labelling tools to display data on the section or plan.

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Each of the display types (except for linegraph) can have a colour pattern applied to it with different values (grades, rock type etc) displayed in different colours. See the section below for information on how to define a ranged colour pattern for numeric data or an individual colour pattern for unique value data.

Text Display
When specifying how text labels appear on section or plan, the label size is the most important parameter. Because the size of the text label is related to the map scale, you need to enter both the font size and the map scale to which this size refers.

Entering parameters for text labelling of drillhole data including the range limits

The appearance of the text may also be controlled by selecting a colour pattern, choosing the position and angle of the label relative to the sample interval, and the formatting (for numeric values). If labelling from a numeric column, you may elect to have no formatting, or for decimals to be formatted to between 0 and 5 decimal places (0 dp to 5 dp in the list). For example, 0.08 displays as 0 when formatted to 0 decimal places, and as 0.1 with 1 decimal place. The text string itself for numeric data may also be controlled by specifying the maximum and/or minimum values to display (with values outside this range not

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being plotted), and by replacing negative numbers with abbreviations (see below). Text Display Abbreviations You can set up a list of abbreviations and replacement text for Discover to use when displaying numeric downhole data as text. This can be particularly useful when you have been storing negative numbers to represent non-numeric values such as no sample taken, or below detection limit. To set up the abbreviations, simply open and edit the MapInfo table d_abbrev from your Discover Configuration Files directory. The value in the number_field is replaced by the alpha_code field value (for example -7 may be replaced by BDL). The entry in the description field is for commenting purposes only and is not used by Discover.

Linegraphs and Histograms


Linegraphs and histograms are used to display numeric data in graphical form. The data limits are shown at the top of the dialog and if you wish to restrict the range of data displayed then click the Limits button and enter a restricted range. Use this to visually cut high grade assays. Additionally, Discover can log transform the raw data to display linegraphs and histograms.

Specifying linegraph and histogram display parameters

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The scale of the histogram or linegraph is specified in mm per data unit and is therefore related to the map scale at which the section or plan is to be viewed. The larger that the histogram/linegraph scale is, the larger the histogram and linegraphs are. If Discover detects that the scale you have entered is inappropriate for the data range, then a message is displayed. You cannot use a colour pattern for a linegraph because it is constructed as one continuous polyline for each drillhole, however you can select from the normal range of line styles. Linegraphs display much faster than histograms as there is just one map object per drillhole. The histogram and histogram can both be offset from the drilltrace that allows you to display multiple line graphs and histograms next to each drill trace.

Trace Shade
The trace shade display type is designed for displaying nominal data such as rock type, and produces a set width polygon for each sample, shaded from the specified colour pattern. You must specify a colour pattern for the trace shade. If the attribute value for a sample does not match any of the values in the colour pattern, then no trace shade polygon is displayed for that sample. The width of the trace shade polygons can be specified (in mm related to the current map window scale), and an offset away from the trace can also be specified. The offset refers to the centre of the trace shade, so that a trace shade 2mm wide, offset 1mm to the left of the drillhole is displayed with its right margin flush with the drill trace.

Structure Ticks
The structure tick display type is suitable for the display of structural data. Discover generates a line that crosses the drill trace at the appropriate dip angle. The structure measurement may be displayed as an apparent dip for unoriented core, or true dip for oriented core. For apparent dip display, two structure ticks, symmetrical about the drill trace, are displayed. For oriented core, the azimuth column needs to be entered. Note that the dip for oriented core is relative to the core rather than true, as Discover then calculates the correct dip of the structure using the downhole surveys.

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Specifying drillhole structural data display parameters

By specifying a structure code and a colour pattern, you can display different types of structural data measurements with different line colours and styles.

Data Display Settings


When the display parameters have been set up, they can be saved to a Display Setting, using the Save Setting button. Alternatively, use the Use Setting button to recall existing settings from file, or remove unwanted display settings from the list using the Delete Setting button. Once a setting has been saved, it may be used during section generation by choosing the setting name from the list in the Annotation screen. If you are not using an existing display setting from file, then the display setting that you have defined is referred to as Current.

Data Display Legend


When data display settings are applied to a section, a data display legend can optionally be generated. The legend consists of a schematic drillhole trace with text showing the location of each data display attribute, and a list of colour and attribute for each colour pattern used in the section. The data display legend shows the data scale for histograms and linegraphs. This scale can also be displayed graphically in the section (or plan) map

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window. The scale is placed at the top left of the section. To move the scale, ensure the annotation table is editable, select all the scale objects (lines and text) using the marquee select tool and then move them to the desired location.

Creating and Editing Colour Patterns


Drillholes>Edit Colour Patterns Drillhole colour patterns are used for colouring either numeric data (ranged colour patterns) in text labels, histograms or linegraphs, or nominal data (individual colour patterns) in text labels or trace shades. When creating a new colour pattern, you need to choose which colour pattern type to create, and how many categories or entries the colour pattern is to have. Colour patterns (individual or ranged) can have up to 16 categories, but where more are required for an individual pattern, a Discover colour table may be used. The Discover Colour Table provides an essentially unlimited number of categories. Use Discover>Colour Maps to create the colour table and store this table in the Discover configuration directory. The use of a Discover Colour Table for drillhole sections also allows you to standardize colours across plans and sections. Alternatively, when creating an individual colour pattern, you can choose the Build colour pattern from values in table option to automatically generate a list of the individual values required. When creating or editing a ranged pattern, the Colour Pattern dialog shows ranged values, whilst for an individual pattern (for example, rock type), a single Value column is displayed into which you should type the string value (for example, Shale).

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Creating a new colour pattern or editing an existing colour pattern

You can specify a fill and line style for each class. If the pattern is to be used for histogram fills, a transparent hatching pattern may be better than a solid fill so that the histogram does not obscure other objects (for example, other drill traces or annotations). Alternatively, you may want to use a transparent fill style (N) and a coloured line style, possibly with line thickness varying. When applying a colour pattern to a text display, the line style colour is used to colour the text.

Viewing Sections in the Layout Window


Adding one or more sections to the layout window is easy to do using the Drillhole Display>Add Section to Layout menu item. From this dialog you need to nominate the scale, size and position of the section frame in the layout window. When adding multiple sections to the layout window, the sections are automatically offset from each other so as not to overlap, and the number of pages in the layout increased to fit all the frames.

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Adding scaled sections to the layout window, ready to print

This menu option is specifically for cross-sections. If you have multiple plans to print use Discover>Add Scaled Frame to Layout as described in Map Making Tools. With either of these functions, you can add frames to existing layout windows, allowing you to add accurately scaled frames for sections and plans together in the one layout. A titleblock and scalebar can be added to the layout window, similarly to using Discovers map making tools such as Scaled Output. See the section on Map Making and Appendix A for more information on titleblocks and creating a customized titleblock.

Digitizing Boundaries and Exporting to 3D DXF


Drillhole Display>Boundary Digitizing>Digitize Boundary Drillhole Display>Boundary Digitizing>Export Boundaries Having generated one or more cross-sections with Discover, it is easy to digitize ore boundaries or geological interpretations. Discover facilitates this by creating a section table, the boundary table, to digitize into. The boundary table must be created with the Digitize Boundary menu item and is called <Section_Name>_B. Objects digitized into the boundary table can then be exported to 3D DXF files for visualization in other systems.

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You can digitize any type of object (polylines, regions, points etc) into the boundary table. When these objects are exported to DXF, any attributes that you have added to these boundary objects are also exported. Each section has a separate boundary table that is stored with the other section tables. Discover exports from multiple sections to the same DXF file if required, optionally placing objects from each section into separate layers which can have the same name as the section. The boundary table can also be used with the sectional resource calculation function to restrict the area over which the resource is interpolated.

Drillhole Log Display


Drillhole Display>Log Display The Drillhole Log Display function in Discover provides the means to display up to 24 columns of downhole data for one drillhole in a plain log style display. The log style of display is a valuable method of visualizing relationships between multiple variables such as a suite of element, lithology and downhole geophysics within a drillhole. If you have selected one or more drillholes from the collar map, a log display may be defined. If you have selected multiple drillholes, then a separate log is created for each drillhole. The log is stored in a table named for that drillhole and mapped in a non-earth (cm based) coordinate system that can be further annotated or added to the layout window and printed.

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Log for DDH-09


Lithology
0

Pb_ppm Zn_ppm
500 0 100 0

As_ppm Ag_ppm Au_ppm


7 0 3 0 0.74

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130

Drillhole data displayed in log style

Defining the Log Display


The log display is defined by choosing a downhole data table, selecting the columns from this table to display, then selecting how each of these columns is to be displayed. The log can display up to 24 columns, with column 1 being at the left of the log, and column 24 at the right. Similar to displaying downhole data in section view, the log display may be made up of data from more than one downhole data table. When columns are chosen, they are assigned column positions in the log. Each column can be displayed as either text, histogram, linegraph or trace shade (similar to displaying data in section or plan). Non-numeric columns cannot be displayed as histogram or linegraph, and columns displayed as trace-shade must have an associated colour pattern. Discover provides an additional option for display of data in linegraphs. The linegraphs may be filled with solid colour. Alternatively, linegraphs can be filled with the colour patterns used for a trace shade. This data display method can be very valuable to highlight data relationships, and requires that one column (such as lithology or alteration etc.) must be displayed as a trace shade with a colour pattern.

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Parameters such as the column width, the vertical scale, default graphic styles, treatment of negative values and annotation options can be set for all columns in the log using the Global Log Display settings button. A number of these settings, such as the column width and graphic styles, can be overriden in the Individual Log Display settings either when the column is first chosen, or from the main dialog. When you have defined the log display as required, you probably wish to save the log display setting. This provides a method of easily recalling the settings.

Calculating Sectional Resources


Drillhole Display>Calculate Resource Discover provides a simple method for interpolating resources from crosssections or level plans. Using a two dimensional inverse distance weighted interpolater (similar to that used in Discovers Surfaces module), a grid of interpolated values can be generated for the entire section, or for a chosen boundary which has already been digitized. Note Encom does not advise using this function for ore reserve calculations. The resource grid is stored as a table named with the section (or plan) name plus a suffix to show it is a resource grid, and stored in the project or section directory. The Sectional Resource Calculator is a function of the Drillholes subsystem of Discover. It requires a drillhole project and either a cross-section or plan of the drillhole results to be used for the calculations. In order to ensure that all drillhole assay results which intersect the cross-section are included in the interpolation check the tick box Search all holes in the Drillhole Plotting form. (Drillholes>Select New Section). This recognises drillholes, which have collars outside of the section envelope, but those drillhole traces pierce the envelope at depth. Once the resource grid has been generated, it may be contoured, queried, recoloured etc. using the functions in Discovers Surfaces module.

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Drillhole plotting dialog and Search all holes option to be enabled

To create a drillhole project and section refer to Defining a Project and Generating Sections and Plans. With a drillhole project defined and cross-section generated to calculate a sectional resource, with the drillhole assay results, an ore boundary or shell must be computed and interpreted, based on a geological and geochemical assessment. To generate the ore boundary interpretation refer to Digitizing Boundaries. The boundary defines an area of the cross-section, that is used to select the drillhole assay results used for the resource interpolation. Use the menu item Drillholes>Sectional Resource Calculator and follow the steps below: Step 1 of 3 - First select the section to be used in the sectional resource calculation (Section Name) from the dialog above. Step 2 of 3 The calculator dialog (labelled 2 of 3 see below) is to set up the resource calculation tables. It refers to the assay and lithology tables of the drillhole project. In order to calculate a tonnage and grade, select the Use Digitized Boundaries that refers to interpreted ore boundaries. This excludes

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all results that lie outside the computed envelope. Width is inferred from the cross-section definition in Drillholes>Select New Section option. To accurately calculate the resource tonnage, entries must be made in the Drillhole Plotting dialog and the Specific Gravity (sg) or density of the boundary must also be entered. Enable the Store Resource in column item if you wish the results to be stored in the resource field of the bounday table (cross-section B layer).

Sectional Resources dialog Step 2 of 3

Step 3 of 3 The third dialog defines the parameters for the interpolation. Discover uses a simple two dimensional inverse distance weighted (IDW) algorithm similar to that used by Discovers Surfaces subsystem. The search orientation and ellipse is used to interpolate (when the mineralisation orientation is known) such as the dip or plunge of the ore body. The search orientation can be between 90o and 90o, where 0o is vertical, -90o and 90o orientations are both horizontal search orientations in the left and right hemispheres respectively. For example, a section with the mineralisation plunge/dip 50o to the right on section requires a search orientation of 40o. The long axis (major) and the short axis (minor) define the search ellipse used by the grid algorithm. For a simple search with no bias of the orientation use a 0o orientation with the long and short axis set the same, this is a circular search ellipse.

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Sectional Resources dialog (3 of 3) defining IDW parameters

Note

If the minimum number of points is set greater than 1, some cells may not report a value as they do not contain sufficient data points within the search ellipse. The resulting grid uses the section name with a suffix of resource saved into drillhole project and section directory.

Data Validation
Drillhole Display>Validate Database Discover includes a number of options to assist in validating the data in your drillhole project. Using the data validation options can highlight difficult to detect situations such as hole name or total depth mismatch between the collar and downhole data tables. The validation procedure works upon either the entire project database, the

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currently selected drillholes (selected from the collar map), or you may select the holes to check from a list. Data validation results are printed to the screen and/or written to a log file.

Selecting data validation parameters

Discover provides the following validation options which can identify a number of common data problems: Hole name mismatch common problems occur where the hole name is specified differently in the collar table to the downhole tables (for example, DDH007 and DDH7 are considered by Discover to be different drillholes). Total depth mismatch if downhole data exists below the total depth specified in the collar table it does not display in section. This can occur due to data entry errors, or if the collar data was entered before the drilling was complete. Large Dip/Azimuth changes data entry errors in either the collar dip/ azimuth or downhole surveys can cause significant problems that are difficult to pick up. Discover lists all drillhole surveys where the drill trace deviates by more than a specified amount between surveys. Duplicate sample numbers in some instances duplicate sample numbers are an indication of data entry errors and need to be identified.

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Overlapping sample intervals usually sample intervals do not overlap in a downhole data table and any such intervals must be identified. Sample interval gaps although many drillholes do not have contiguous sample intervals from top to bottom, it is often very useful to list out where the gaps are located to ensure no data entry errors.

Data Compositing
Discovers drillhole data compositing functions provide you with the tools to composite downhole data by the following methods: Composite by unique attribute Use this to perform compositing by a unique-value attribute such as lithology or alteration. All contiguous intervals with the same attribute value are grouped together. Composite by cut-off grade This function takes numeric parameters for cut-off grade, high cut and dilution to produce an output table with intervals above or below the specified cut-off grade. Composite by elevation An output table is produced with downhole intervals at regular elevation intervals. Composite by downhole depth An output table is produced with intervals at regular downhole depths.

Drillholes to be Composited
The drillholes to be composited can be selected in one of three ways: Composite the entire drillhole project; Composite those drillholes currently selected in the collar map; or Composite the drillholes selected from a list of all drillholes in the project.

When compositing a sub-set of the project you can add the composited drillholes to an existing composite table, or write them to a new table. The composited tables can automatically be registered with the project if required. For all compositing methods, the output table is named for the input table plus a user-specified suffix (which defaults to _comp).

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Compositing by Unique Attribute


Compositing by unique attribute is commonly used to merge contiguous intervals together where they share lithology, alteration etc. Multiple tables (for example, assay tables as well as lithology tables) can be composited from the intervals generated by processing one column in one table. Character values in other columns may be cleared to avoid incorrect values being present. Numeric values are composited with a weighted average.

Compositing by Cut-off Grade


Compositing by cut-off grade is commonly used to summarize assay data into intervals above and below a specified value. As well as specifying a cut-off grade for the required column, you also have the option of cutting high values, nominating internal dilution and minimum edge values. The composited interval is calculated by starting at the highest value assay interval in drillhole and working outwards, keeping a running weighted average.

Compositing by cut-off grade

Clear values in character columns Character values such as lithology are not appropriate when the original intervals are resampled. Use this option to clear the values in these columns. Values in numeric columns are all composited in the same interval as the main compositing column.

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Cut High Values If this option is selected, all values are cut to the specified maximum prior to the compositing calculation. This ensures that occasional high values do not distort the composited intervals. Maximum dilution width This option is used to limit low grade inclusions within a composited interval. The maximum dilution width often relates to a physical property such as minimum mining width. If this option is used, when the weighted average edge value exceeds this limit, the composited interval is truncated. The maximum dilution width is related to the minimum edge value, described below. Specify minimum edge values Select this option to ensure that the composited interval does not include low grade samples at the edge. When checked, the minimum edge value defaults to the compositing value specified above.

Compositing by Elevation and Downhole Depth


Compositing by elevation and depth is useful to normalize downhole data tables to a consistent sampling interval or by mining bench. You may select the downhole data tables from the current project to composite, and the compositing interval. Values in character columns may be cleared to avoid incorrect values being present, whereas values in numeric columns are composited with a weighted average. Note Compositing a drillhole by elevation requires that: Vertical drillholes have an azimuth that is non-zero; Collar survey information is not present in the survey file; and No negative numbers are present in assay columns.

Calculate 3D Coordinates
Drillholes>Calculate 3D Coordinates You do not need to calculate 3D coordinates for drillhole samples in order to display them with Discover. However, you may want these coordinates if the data is to be transferred to other data processing and visualization software. The Calculate 3D Coords function updates the selected downhole data tables with easting, northing and elevation values for the top and bottom of each sample. The coordinates are written into columns with specific names (XFE,

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XFN, XFR, XTE, XTN, XTR respectively) and if these columns do not already exist, they are created. If the columns are created in an Access database table, then Discover cannot set the order of the columns and they are created as the first 6 columns. This is likely to invalidate the column assignments that Discover stores. Therefore, after calculating 3D coords for an Access table, you should check the column order in Table>Maintenance>Table Structure, and the column assignments in Drillholes>Setup and Modify. Note If you are compositing a downhole data table that includes 3D coords, then you must recalculate the 3D coords after the compositing is complete.

Saving Display Settings


When displaying drillhole data in Discover, there are a number of ways to save display settings to make it easy to obtain consistent output from one session to the next. These various methods have already been described but are listed here to provide a summary. Colour Patterns Used for numeric (ranged) or character (nominal) data display in section or log view. The colour patterns can also be used with surface sampling data (see page 53, Map Making>Colour text labels from pattern). Downhole Data Display Setting Used to store the parameters for displaying data in section or plan. These settings list which data columns are to be displayed and how they are to be displayed. The display method includes scaling and colouring information. Log Display Setting Used to store the parameters for displaying data in log view. The log display settings list the global display parameters, the columns to display and the log display parameters for each column, Saved Sections and Plans When you have generated a section or plan, it is stored in either the Discover Temporary directory, or the drill project directory. You can modify the sections or plans by applying a different downhole data display setting.

Geological Data Processing


Graph Map Standard Map Colouring Structural Data Map Window Tenement Searches Australian Tenement Applications

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This section covers other geological data processing and display functions in Discover. These functions provide the user with the ability to: Display attribute data in a variety of graph formats, and relate the graph display to a map or browser view of the source data. Utilise standard colour look-up tables for polygon map tables. The look-up is carried out on any appropriate data attribute, and the colour may be applied as a permanent object setting or as a thematic map shade. Display structural data as appropriate structural symbols using a TrueType font set. Facilitate searches and analyses of tenement data, by company name, tenement type or using date criteria.

See sections on Gridding Parameters and Contouring Parameters, Generating Sections and Plans and Map Making for more information on processing and visualizing geological data.

Graph Map
Discover>GraphMap Use Discover to display attribute data in a variety of graphical formats. Select data from the graph and see it highlighted in the base table and vice-versa. Build a thematic map for multivariate graphs and apply the shade pattern to a map of the base data.

MapInfo Graphs and GraphMap


The MapInfo Graph window (Window>New Graph Window) is quite different to Discovers GraphMap, with the following major points of difference. Data can be selected in a Discover Graph, and the corresponding points viewed in a Map Window. Thematic maps can be created for Discover graphs, but not for MapInfo graphs.

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GraphMap creates graphs in a Map Window allowing the normal mapper operations (zooming, annotating, colouring) to be carried out. Formatting options in MapInfos graph window are limited. GraphMap, however, is not dynamic (if the source data changes, the graph must be re-created).

Introduction to GraphMap
GraphMap provides the capability to view and manipulate numerical attribute data in common graphical formats, and also view the linked data in the base table. The following graph formats are available: XY Scatter - Optionally log transform either or both series. Summary statistics are displayed for both variables. This includes measures of correlation and linear regression. Histogram - Normal or log. Summary statistics are displayed in the graph window. Probability - Normal or log. Summary statistics are displayed in the graph window. Rose/Kite - Radius is proportional to frequency or square root of frequency. Use this graph type for displaying the distribution of angular data such as flow direction. Ternary Provides an option to normalize the 3 data series used. Stereogram Display structural measurements in either equal-area or stereographic projections as poles to planes, cyclographic traces and lineations.

The graph is created as a Map Window in a separate table to the base data.

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Lead and Zinc values from a soil survey have been plotted in a scatter graph. Samples with high Pb and Zn values have been selected in the graph and the corresponding points are shown in the map.

Starting GraphMap
Using GraphMap is very simple. Just select the type of graph that you wish to plot, and the table from which you wish to graph data (it need not even be a mappable table).

GraphMap control and configuration dialog

Click OK and a dialog specific to the graph type is displayed. By default, the graph is created in a table called Graph1, and axes and labels are placed in a table called Graph1A. Both tables are created in the Discover Temporary

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directory. If you wish to keep your graph for later use, then use the Save As button to nominate table names. After a graph has been displayed, you can select the GraphMap>Respecify Current Graph menu item to alter parameters such as axis scales, or data columns for the graph. This means you can quickly and easily visually explore your attribute data in graph space. Alternatively, you can re-use a graph created in a previous session of GraphMap. Choose Open a Table from the Graph from Table List in the Setup dialog. Discover then attempts to link the selected graph to its original source data. If the link cannot be established (for example, if the source data table has been moved) then an error message is displayed and a different table must be selected. If the link to the original source data can be re-established, then the appropriate menu items are enabled and GraphMap can process graph <--> map selections and creation of ranges.

Specifying scatter graph parameters

Graph Scaling
All of the graphs created by Discover are created in Non-Earth Map Windows in cm units. However, different graph types have different default sizes as follows: XY Scatter The scatter graph defaults to equal length X and Y axes of 100 cm. You can change the X and Y axis lengths as well as the data range for these axes whilst specifying graph parameters.

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Histogram and Probability Histograms and probability plots default to equal length X and Y axes of 20 cm. You can change the X and Y axis lengths as well as the X axis data range whilst specifying graph parameters. Rose Rose and Kite diagrams default to a radius of 20 cm, which can be changed when specifying graph display parameters Ternary Ternary diagrams default to a size of approximately 1 cm. Stereogram Stereograms default to a radius of 20 cm, that can be changed when specifying graph display parameters.

Note

By maintaining a fixed size of graph, you can use a template created elsewhere (such as scanned in from paper) to display for example phase partitions for petrological or mineralogical analysis. The template can be sized accordingly and placed in the map as a separate layer.

Multiple Graphs from Unique Column Values


For any of the graph types, you can specify a column to create multiple graphs from. Discover examines the different values in the column and produces a different graph for each set of records grouped by the column value. Using this feature, it would be easy to display a separate scattergraph of Pb-Zn for each different rock value in the lithology column for a geochemical survey.

Viewing Graph Selections in the Map Window


When you select one or more objects from the GraphMap graph window, the corresponding objects in the source data are not automatically highlighted. You must choose the GraphMap>Select Graph>Table menu option. MapInfo can only highlight selections from one table at a time, so that when Discover selects and highlights the source data objects, the corresponding graph objects are redisplayed in the Selected graph objects object style (as defined in the main dialog). The fill style is used for histogram and rose/kite selections. Similarly, when you have selected one or more objects from the source data table and wish to see them highlighted in the graph, choose the GraphMap>Select Table->Graph menu option. To remove the selected graph objects from the graph, choose the GraphMap>Remove Graph Selection menu option.

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Making a Ranged Thematic Map for GraphMap


For the distribution graphs (histogram, probability, rose/kite) you should use the Create Thematic Map function in MapInfo to make a ranged thematic map. Each graph object has a From and To value in the X and Y columns in the Graph table. Use the GraphMap>Apply Ranges to Table menu option to apply this thematic map to a Map Window view of the base data.

Making an Individual Thematic Map for GraphMap


For the other types of graphs (scatter, ternary and stereogram), the multivariate nature of the graph means that a ranged thematic map cannot easily be constructed. Instead, use the GraphMap>Add Range menu option to add a range for the group of currently selected graph points. Select points for the next group and so on, finally applying the thematic map to the base data with GraphMap>Apply Ranges to Table when the ranges are completed. As ranges are added, the legend window is updated to show the status of the thematic mapping. The ranges are named as range1, range2 etc, and reflect the attribute value in the column named D2GMR of the Graph table. When the thematic map is applied to a source data table, Discover must firstly write the range attributes to the source data (and a new column must be added for this attribute) prior to the thematic map being created. If the source data is a permanent table and can be written to, the table structure is altered, otherwise (if the graphed data is from a query or otherwise read-only) then the range attributes are placed in a temporary column.

GraphMap Hints
When you have selected items on a graph, and highlighted the source objects on the map, it is often useful to add the selection as a layer in the map (use the Enhanced Layer Control or alternatively choose the Layer Control from the Map Menu). You can then alter the styles of the selected objects. You can create one or more templates that follow a classification scheme (for example, for igneous petrology). Discovers graphs are always plotted out at the same size (unless you change this), so you are able to use the template as a layer for each diagram that you create with Discover. By making regions on the template you can then use Assign Values to quickly add the appropriate classification to each sample on the graph. The graph is a normal map window and may be inserted as a frame into the layout window, to accompany a frame of source data.

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If you are graphing a selection, then the selection must be an explicit layer in a map window (such as Query4) in order to be able to apply a thematic map from the graph back to the source data map.

Standard Map Colouring


Discover>Colour Maps Use Discover to create a standard colour table for your polygon maps. Use this table to automatically assign colours to individual polygons in your polygon tables either as a permanent colour, or as a thematic shade. Colour Maps adds a separate menu to the MapInfo menu bar. From the ColourMap>Choose Action menu item, there are four choices available: Select colour table - Choose this action to select an existing colour table. Create empty colour table - This is useful if you need to manually build a colour table, from a list of colours in a different format. Create colour table from existing map - Choose this action to examine an existing map and build a colour table from the map objects. The existing map can even be a non-mappable table, such as a table of drill lithologies. Colour from thematic map - With this option, Discover colours map objects to be the same as those in a nominated associated thematic map. A Discover colour table may also be built at the same time.

Colour Map maintenance and creation

For the last option, a colour table does not need to be specified. For the other options, once a colour table has been chosen, the Edit Colour Table and Colour Map menu items are enabled.

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In order to colour a map or add colours as a thematic layer to the map, choose the Colour Map menu item. By default Discover expects you to colour region objects, however you can also colour lines, points or text objects using the selected colour table. This can be very useful to, for example, colour RAB hole collars with the bottom of hole lithology. A powerful use of Colour Maps ability to display a colour table as a thematic map is to have multiple colour tables representing variables such as lithology, tectonic setting, grade of metamorphism, alteration etc. The map window can then quickly be refreshed to show the appropriate variable, with MapInfos thematic map legend window displaying a key for the map. The Discover AutoShade function is also an important tool to use in conjunction with Colour Maps. Note When creating Colour Maps, both colour and polygon code columns must be of the same layer type (that is, both CHARACTER). This is due to the colour table of MapInfo being created using CHARACTER fields.

Shading a Map with MapInfos Thematic Map Window


Polygon maps can be quickly shaded using MapInfo's standard thematic mapping functions. For example, you can ask MapInfo to shade each polygon unit a different colour according to a field called MapCode, which may contain codes like "Czc, Pkc, d, dl". This brings about the following problems: You have little control over the initial colours chosen by MapInfo. It is a long-winded process to customize the colours each time you want to colour a map. It is difficult to apply a colour pattern created for one table to another table. There is an upper limit to the number of units you can shade at once. There may be no consistency in the colours chosen from session to session.

Colouring Polygons with Discover


Discover overcomes these problems by allowing you to build a standard table of polygon fill colours and then colouring each polygon unit in a map according to these standards. When we refer to a polygon map, we are referring to a map of region objects, each of which has an attribute code to identify it. This code

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would be, for example, a standard abbreviation for a specific rock unit (for example, "Czc" for Cainozoic). The polygon map could thus be geology, geomorphology, vegetation, land tenure, demographic regions etc. You also need a good idea of what colour you are going to assign to each polygon map code. MapInfo uses the 24 bit RGB method of colour definition, whereby the Red, Green and Blue components of a colour are each specified in the range 0 - 255 to give a maximum of 16.7 million colours. Whether or not your monitor or printer can display all these colour combinations, and whether or not the shades they display are correct, depends upon the hardware available. For example, many VGA systems display only 256 colours out of the full range of 16.7 million. In this case, the map window does not display colours as they would appear from a colour printer. Higher performance video cards that display 16.7 million colours or more (referred to as 24-bit, 32-bit or true-colour video cards) are readily available. You may find it useful to use a colour chart when assigning colours to map codes. An example of a colour chart is that supplied with the HP DesignJet series of printers. This chart may be printed at A0 size and shows 255 colours with their corresponding RGB values.

Creating a Colour Table from an Existing Map


If you selected the Create colour table from existing map option and specified the polygon table to use, you are then asked whether to use existing colours in the polygon table as the basis for the new colour table. In most cases you should answer yes to this. This allows you to create a complete colour table from an already coloured map, and then use it to colour other maps, or to make modifications to colours in the existing map. Discover makes a list of the different codes in the polygon table and draws a map code label and rectangle filled with the existing colour for each of the map codes into a new map window. If the map that you are creating the colour table from has no colouring, or is not mappable, then all of the rectangles have a null fill style. You may want to create a colour table for a non-mappable table such as drillhole lithologies, or a list of rock types obtained from a text file. In order to add colours or edit the existing colours, work your way down the list of map codes, selecting a map code rectangle and applying a colour to the rectangle using the standard MapInfo region style button or the Options>Regions Style menu option. To create a custom colour in MapInfo, select the colour square at the bottom right of the colours list and then specify

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the RGB/HSV values. An example of a list of codes and associated colours follows. When you have assigned a colour to each map code rectangle, choose the ColourMap>Build Colour Table menu option. You can also edit the colours in the colour table as described below (ColourMap>Edit Colour Table).

When the colour table is built, Discover examines each of the map code rectangles and inserts the RGB values for the colour that you have chosen into columns in the colour table. Columns Fore_Red, Fore_Green and Fore_Blue are filled with details of the foreground colour selected. If you have chosen a patterned colour, the pattern number is inserted into column Pattern and background RGB values into Back_Red, Back_Green and Back_Blue. The colour table is created with extra columns (Desc1, Desc2, Desc3) into which you can put legend text, so that these columns from the colour table can be used with Discovers Legend generator lookup feature. You can select a different line style for the border of each map code polygon if you wish. The line style parameters are stored in columns Pen_Red, Pen_Green, Pen_Blue, Pen_Pattern and Pen_Width.

Creating a Colour Table from a Thematic Map


If you selected the Colour from thematic map option and selected a colour table to create, then Discover automically performs this task. The colour table can be created from a thematic map of any type of map object (regions, lines, points etc). However, the thematic map must be an Individual type and not a numeric type such as Ranged or Graduated. As the colour table is created, the map objects are coloured at the same time. You do not need to nominate a column to use as this is defined in the Thematic Map description.

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Editing the Colour Table


Once the colour table has been created, or if it already exists in the correct format (with RGB values specified for each map code), you can choose the ColourMap>Edit Colour Table menu option for easy editing of individual colour assignments. Selecting this menu option brings up a list of the various codes and style pickers. When you have altered a style, click on the Accept button to write the change to the colour table.

Colour Table specification dialog

If you have more global changes to make to the colour table, such as altering the patterns for a number of codes, this is best done with the Browser window and select/update menu commands. If you want to edit the colour table without using the Edit Colour Table menu option, you need to know which patterns and line styles correspond to which numbers. Line styles are from 1 to 77, with style 1 equivalent to no style, 2 solid and so on, in step with MapInfos pen style picker. Pattern styles range between 1 and 71, with values 9-11 unavailable. Like the pen styles, pattern 1 is invisible, 2 is solid and so on in accordance with MapInfos brush style picker. If you import RGB values from another source, and you wish to make the hatch pattern transparent, ensure that the product of Back_Red, Back_Green and Back_Blue is negative (for example, make one of them -1, and the others positive).

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Colouring Maps with the Selected Colour Table


Once you have selected an existing colour table from the ColourMap>Choose Action dialog, you can choose the ColourMap>Colour Map menu option to apply colours to map objects. Note that this action is automatically performed when colouring from a Thematic Map as described above. Discover can apply the colour in one of two ways: using the Shade Quickview option to display the selected polygon table thematically shaded with the colour table; or applying the colouring as permanent display attributes of the map objects.

During the colouring, a status message is displayed describing which map codes are currently being coloured and which colour is being applied. If you are colouring from a batch list, the tables are processed in alphabetical order. You can use the geology map TESTGEOL in the Discover tutorial directory to see how the program works. Choose this table and ask Discover to create a new colour table. After altering the colours and building the table, browse the colour table to see the RGB values. If you need a legend created for the coloured polygon map, you should use Discovers automatic Legend Generator (see Map Making). Thematic Shading of the Map with the Colour Table Checking the Shade Quickview option uses MapInfos normal Thematic Mapping functions to quickly colour the map objects. This method of colouring is very quick, and provides a MapInfo thematic legend window but is limited to a maximum of 255 different codes in the colour table. One advantage of using the Shade Quickview is when you need to have multiple colour schemes for a map, you can easily change from one colour scheme to another. Choosing Tables to Colour To apply colours as permanent display styles to map objects, simply choose the map tables to apply colours to and the column in the map tables which contains the colour code.

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If you have more than one table to colour, choose Build batch list and select tables from a list of open tables. Using the batch mode, you can colour any number of tables in one run. You must also select the appropriate column in the polygon table that holds the map code. Colouring Different Object Types Colour Maps colour any type of map object, not just regions. Although the colour table stores foreground, background and border styles for each code, other objects are coloured as follows: Ellipses, Rectangles, Rounded Rectangles coloured using the region styles; Polylines, Lines, Arcs coloured using the region border style; Points coloured using the region foreground colour. Other symbol style parameters are unchanged; and Text coloured using the region foreground colour, and the region background colour if the text has a box or halo style. Other text style parameters are unchanged.

If your map tables contain a mixture of attributed object types, then you can select to colour only one type of object (such as regions or lines). Normally however, you leave this option set to colour all object types. This option is not available for Quickview shading.

Structural Data Map Window


Discover>Structure Symbols Discovers Structural Data Map Window allows you to display structural data as oriented structural symbols from a symbol library. The structural measurement data can be read in from a data file, or directly input with the digitizer/mouse and keyboard.

Introduction to Structural Data Map Window


The symbols are stored in a TrueType font that should be available in MapInfos symbol picker, along with the other TrueType symbol fonts that ship with MapInfo and Discover. If the symbol font is unavailable, then Discover uses normal text instead of the symbols. The True Type fonts should be installed during the Discover installation procedure, but if they are unavailable in MapInfo then check the Windows Control Panel, Fonts.

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The Structural Data Map Window offers two different ways to process structural data. Firstly, the measurements can be read from columns in a normal MapInfo table (such as a spreadsheet, text file or Access database table). This method provides a simple method for creating as many symbols as necessary in one go. Alternatively, you can digitize structural measurements into a map window one at a time. This is useful when you have measurements on a map that has not been transcribed to a file. In this case, the measurement location is taken from the digitized point (whether from a digitizer or mouse) and a dialog box is displayed requesting input for structural data for that location. A list of structural codes used by Discover is shown at the end of this section and in Appendix C. The STRUCIDX table in the Discover_Tutorial\Other Data directory is an example of data in a suitable format.

Structural Data Map Window Display Options


Discover provides three structural symbol font files for Australian, Canadian and US structural symbols. These are available as symbol libraries from the Structural Data Mapper and called: Australian Structural Symbols (modified by AGSO); Canadian Structural Symbols (modified by the GSC); and USA Structural Symbols (modified by USGS).

A full table of symbols for the Australian, US and Canadian symbol sets, together with Discover structural codes and keyboard codes, is given in Appendix C of this manual. The MapInfo>Options>Symbol Style option provides access to these libraries referred to as ET_Structural, ET_Struct_Canada and ET_Structural_USA respectively. You can choose which symbol library to use, and if this is different to that used previously, Discover asks for confirmation. You also have the option of choosing whether the azimuth information for structural readings is processed as Dip Direction or Strike. For strike, azimuths are interpreted as being recorded using the right hand rule. Thus all strikes are converted to dip directions by adding 90. Many structural codes measure the direction of plunge rather than a strike or dip direction (for example lineations and fold axes), and for these codes the azimuth

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information is always used as plunge direction regardless of whether strike or dip direction has been selected. You must nominate which columns in the structural data table contain the required data (or which columns to add data to if digitizing new data points). The structural data table must have numeric columns for the following (column position and column names are not important): Easting and Northing of measurement location; dip direction or strike of measurement; dip or plunge; and Discover Structure Code.

If you are digitizing data into a new table, then Discover can create it for you with the correct columns, ready for use. If there is a map window open, then the new table is assigned the coordinate system of this map window and opened in this Map Window. Otherwise you need to nominate the coordinate system to use for the new table. Your input data may also include other useful information such as sample numbers, site ID, lithology etc. This information is not used by Discover in the Structural Data Mapper. Discover also provides control over how the symbols should be displayed. You can select from the normal symbol formatting options including symbol size, colour and style (such as bold). You can also select whether to display dip/plunge labels as MapInfo labels, as text labels (in which case size and map scale must be entered) or not to display them.

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The Structural Data Map Window dialog

Symbol and Label Style


As the structural symbols are TrueType font symbols, you have the normal text formatting control over the appearance. The symbols are scale invariant so that they remain the same size on the screen (or paper) regardless of the map scale. The dip/plunge text can be displayed either as MapInfo object labels or as text objects stored in the cosmetic layer. The first option uses the normal MapInfo method to produce scale invariant labels. When object labels are created in this way, they must be saved with a workspace if you wish to use them at a later date. If you have chosen the text in cosmetic layer option, the text size is relative to a specified output scale and so must be resized if you wish to view it at a different scale. With this latter option, you can save the labels to a specific table for later use. The symbols can easily be moved around, if required, and the symbol table contains the dip (as well as other data) as attributes, so that the symbols can easily be re-labelled at a later date if necessary.

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Displaying Structural Data Processed from a Table


When the OK button is clicked from the main dialog box, the input data table is read and structural symbols created. Whilst processing the structural data, the message window informs you how much has been completed. After all the data points have been plotted, a map window is displayed.

Displaying Structural Data by Digitizing


If digitizing structural measurements one at a time, then a new menu DigStruct is added to the MapInfo menu bar when you click OK from the main dialog. The output table should be in the front map window and be editable. For each structural measurement that you wish to digitize, you can either digitize a point at the required location (using the normal MapInfo point drawing tool) or digitize a line (using the normal MapInfo line tool). As a point or line is digitized, the data entry dialog is displayed. If you digitized a line, then the dip direction, plunge or strike azimuth of that line is displayed in the appropriate box. You then need to enter only the structure type and the dip.

Entering Structural Data for a new Point

The symbol/label style is as previously selected, however you can alter the style for each symbol. Appropriate attributes easting and northing of the digitized point, dip direction/strike/plunge, dip angle and structure code are inserted into the record when the structural symbol is created.

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Dip and Plunge Angles


A dip or plunge value may be entered for most of the structural types that Discover supports, though some (such as wrench faults, trend lines, monocline etc) cannot have a dip value. Discover expects a value to be entered for dip between 0 and 90. However, there are instances where a dip has not been measured for a variety of reasons. But because dip values are stored in numeric columns, you cannot use a blank for the dip as it is stored as zero, indicating a horizontal structure. When digitizing structure measurements, leave the dip entry blank to indicate no dip measurement was taken. Discover stores a value of 99 in the dip column. If processing structural measurements from a table, then ensure that values of 99 are in the correct fields. If Discover finds a null dip value, no dip label is displayed.

Structural Symbol Codes


Structural symbols are based on those described in the Australian Geological Survey Organisation (AGSO) mapping style guide, with the addition of extra symbols such as schistosity, L1-L3 lineations, general trend line. A full table of symbols for the Australian, US and Canadian symbol sets, together with Discover structural codes and keyboard codes, is given in Appendix C of this manual. Note For a number of structure types, such as bedding or cleavage, Discover uses different symbols for horizontal and vertical dip. Discover Code 1 2 3 4-6 7 8 9 - 11 12 13

Bedding Overturned bedding Bedding Facing Cleavage s1 - s3 Not currently used Lineation (general) Lineation L1 - L3 Bedding-Cleavage Intersection Crenulation

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14 15 16 17 18 - 20 21 - 22 23 - 25 26 - 27 28 - 30 31 32 - 33 34 35 36 37 - 38 39 - 41 42 43 - 44 45 46 47 - 48 49 - 51 52 - 54 55 - 56 58 59-65 66-67 68-71 72-74 75-76 77 78 79-80

Mineral Alignment Banding/Platy Alignment Joint Foliation Anticline f1-f3 Overturned and recumbent Anticlines Syncline f1-f3 Overturned and recumbent Synclines Normal Faults Thrust Fault Shear Zones Fault Zone breccia Trend Line Parallel lines Veins (open and closed) Oriented drill collars Fault gouge Wrench Faults Columnar Joint Bedding (facing unknown) Undulating/Deformed bedding Foliation d1-d3 Bedding/Cleavage parallel s1-s3 Plunge of Bedding/Cleavage (s1-s2) intersection Monocline Minor Folds Assymetric Fold verging Fold vergence Minor Fold vergence Boudins/Chert contortions plunge Mylonitic foliation Eutaxitic foliation Glacial Striae

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Tenement Searches
Discover>Tenements>Searches Query a tenement data set by any of the holder, date or type attributes. The resulting query is named for the type of query issued. The tenement data may also be shaded by a range of date attributes. The Discover>Tenements sub-menu may have entries for other Discover applications such as the Minmet link and Australian EL Applications, if these program files are present.

Tenement Data
Encom Technology supplies exploration licence data every month for Australian states in a format suitable for using with the tenement query module of Discover. Alternatively, you can modify the structure of your own tenement tables (whether Australian or international) so that they work with Discover. You can query the tenement coverage by any combination of Holder (or licensee - commonly a company name), Type (Application, Granted or Moratorium) or Date (of application, grant or expiry). If Discover cannot find the required fields in the table the search is not carried out. You can have the tenement tables open already, or Discover can open them for you. A dialog is presented which allows you to choose the search parameters.

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The Tenement Query dialog

Licence Table and Licence Type


You should select the table to search from the list in the Licence Table pulldown list. If the table you want to search is not present, then you should edit the file EXNAMES.CFG (see below), or just open the table. The table name aliases are stored in the file EXNAMES.CFG, located in your Discover Config Directory. This text file contains a list of table names and their aliases, separated by commas (for example, TAS_EX, Tasmanian ELs). You should edit this file to allow aliases for your table names to be displayed. If the table names in EXNAMES.CFG are not fully pathed, then Discover looks in the Tenement Files Directory as specified through the configuration menu item. You also need to choose which licence type (Application, Granted or Moratorium) to search for; by default, Discover searches for licences of all types. If you do not further refine the search, the resulting selection is called APPLICAT, GRANTED or ALL_LIC. In the latter case, the selection includes all records from the tenement table. You can also optionally enter a range of tenement numbers to search between.

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Company Name
One way to search for licences of a particular company or holder is to enter part of the holders name. You need enter only enough of the name for it to be unique. This search is not case sensitive and so you can enter ash to select Ashton, though this also selects Ashley Brown and Ashbourne Mining. Alternatively, click the Get List of Companies checkbox and Discover compiles a list of all companies holding tenements for that table and displays them in a pulldown list. If the tenement table is quite large, this may take a few seconds. Select the required holder from the list. Some data sets have multiple columns for holders. To search in these other columns, select a number other than 1 in the Primary Title Holder pulldown list. Discover also allows you to set-up a series of Alias names which group a series of related company names together. For example, you could set up an alias called NOREX which might include Normandy, North Flinders, PosGold etc. Using the Alias facility, you can then easily search for all tenements in which any group company has an interest. To set up one or more aliases, you must add a record to the table ELNAMEAL (in the Discover Configuration directory) and enter the appropriate details.

Dates
For date searches, you can choose between application, grant or expiry date (assuming the appropriate columns exist in your data). Specify the date range to search between, with dates entered in the format appropriate for your operating system - for example, 31/09/95 for non-US formats. By default, the From and To boxes are filled with the current date. Discover identifies all licences that expire within the specified date range, and displays them according to the parameters set. If the search is by date alone then the search result is called DATESRCH. Otherwise, the search result is named after the holder name as described below.

Shading By Date
If you choose to Shade by Date, you have the option of shading the application, grant or expiry date by month, quarter or year between specified dates (which

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default to a range from the current date to the maximum date found for that column). If you choose Shade by Quarter, a temporary column is added to the tenement table to hold the quarter number. Because of this, a shade that is saved with Auto-Shade is unlikely to work with other data sets. For the Shade by Month or Shade by Year options, the shade settings may be saved with Auto-Shade and used with other data sets.

Display Parameters
Normally, you choose Add to Map Window as the display option. This causes the results of the search to be displayed in a temporary table on top of the base table. You should specify a fill and/or line colour to differentiate the search results in the map window. The first word of the search string you type in (for example, the Riotinto of Riotinto Exploration) is used as the name for a new map layer holding the licences selected. If there is no map open, Discover opens a new map to display the search results. If you choose Highlight only the search result is held as a normal MapInfo query table and is displayed in the default highlight shade whilst still selected. If no map window is open, this option does not cause one to be displayed. The selected tenements and their associated attributes can also be examined in a browser window (which is opened if requested).

An example of multiple tenement searches using Discover

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Multiple Searches
You can repeat the search procedure multiple times, specifying a different colour for licensees or date periods that you are interested in. If you wish to perform multiple date-only searches, then you need to save the DATESRCH layer and then re-open it, prior to repeating the search.

Australian Exploration Tenement Applications


Discover>Tenements>Applications Generate sub-block listings for exploration licence applications, complete with the relevant forms to send to state mines departments. Discover can generate exploration licence applications for WA, NT, QLD and NSW. Please contact Encom Technology if you would like this facility to be extended to other states or countries.

Graticular Exploration Licence Descriptions


Discover can generate exploration licence descriptions for those Australian states that use a graticular sub-block system. The graticules are 1 minute blocks and are referenced to a mapsheet and in most cases to a larger 5 minute block. You should refer to documentation from the Mines Department of the states or territory for a full description of graticular references. The application areas and forms generated by Discover may or may not be accepted by the relevant departments in each state or territory as a valid application. Users of Discover should make themselves aware of the requirements in each state or territory, and check the data prepared by Discover prior to submitting it to the relevant authorities. Using Discover, you define an application over an area. This is stored as a region, along with other relevant details, in a MapInfo table. You can store multiple applications in one MapInfo table. Each application is named on a prospect basis (for example, Winter Hill, Blakes Find). The areas for the application are defined either by pointing with the mouse or by keying in the block and sub-block details.

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Discover then checks that each block requested is in the same state as the rest of the application, and builds a description of the area based on the mapsheet and graticular reference. The details are stored with each sub-block, and can then be compiled into an EL application report.

Setting Up
A new menu, EL Application, is added to the MapInfo menu bar. You should have a map window open, covering the area for which you wish to make the application. Choose the EL Application>Set Up menu item and the following dialogs are displayed. Note The state in which the Map Window is centred is shown on the dialog and it is this state for which the application is generated. Note also that some states require EL Applications to be lodged with AGD66 coodinate system and others with the AGD84 or GDA84 systems. The initial Set-Up dialog allows this selection:

It can be particularly useful to display the current exploration tenements (as supplied monthly by Encom Technology) or other tenement data. You can then make applications over vacant ground, or prepare an application covering parts of a tenement you know expires in the near future.

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EL Applications set-up dialog

Choose New Table to create a new applications table, or Existing Table to append the current application to an existing table. When making your first application, you need to specify a new table to hold the applications. You should then enter an Application Area Name. If you are using an existing table, the names of the applications held in it are displayed in a pulldown list. You can choose from the existing applications in the selected table or enter a new name. Normally you would want to make the application using the Point on map option, pointing to vacant blocks on the map with the mouse. You can alternatively select Key-In that allows you to build up an application by explicitly specifying the map-sheets, blocks and sub-blocks required.

Defining an Application Area by Pointing with the Mouse


You are now ready to use the + tool that has been added to the end of the Main button pad. Simply click with the mouse at each point you would like to add a sub-block. Discover adds the sub-block in the colour youve specified, and (apart from the Northern Territory) draws the surrounding 5 x 5 block boundary together with the block number. Continue to click and define the application. Discover issues a warning if you approach the nominal limit of sub-blocks allowed for the state. To delete a sub-

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block, click on it a second time. To select all 25 sub-blocks in a given block, hold down the SHIFT key when you click. You can use the EL Application>Draw Grid menu item to draw a quick grid with lines every 1 minute. Alternatively, you can generate a proper map grid using Discover>Map Grid. Sub-block labels can be displayed for the current application with the EL Application>Show Sub-block Labels menu option.

Defining an Application by Keying in the Description


Note This option is available only for WA, QLD and NSW. When the Key-In option is chosen for WA, QLD or NSW, the dialog shown below is displayed. The Key-In option for the Northern Territory is different and is described separately. In order to define the EL Application area by sub-block references, you need to have knowledge of the 1:1 000 000 map sheets and the block identification method. These details are available from the various state mines departments. The area is defined by listing the sub-blocks required in each 5 x 5 block. You need to take the following steps: 1. Select the 1:1 000 000 map sheet from the pulldown list. The map sheet that covers the current map window is presented as default. 2. Enter the required block number (between 1 and 3456). 3. Specify the sub-blocks required for this block. Check each of the sub-blocks required. Use the All button to select all 25 sub-blocks, or the Clear button to clear the selection. Alternatively use the edit box to type in a list of subblocks. Any entry in this box overrides the checkbox settings. 4. Click the Add button to add the block and sub-blocks to the list. 5. Repeat for each block/sub-block until the area has been defined. To edit the list of blocks, select a line from the list and click the Edit or Delete button. Choosing the Edit button makes that block description current, so that the sub-block checklist and the block number may be altered accordingly. Make the alterations required then click the Add button to place that block description back in the list.

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Click OK when the application description is complete and Discover builds the exploration tenement region and displays it in the current map window.

Defining an Application by Keying in the Description (NT only)


For an EL application in the Northern Territory, you need to specify the 1:100 000 map sheet number (see the NT DMEs index sheet) and then enter the required one minute block numbers. Valid block numbers are 4111 (block 41/11) to 7040 (block 70/40). When entering block numbers in Discover, do not enter the middle /. Enter blocks individually in the left edit box, or as a range starting in the left edit box and ending in the right.

Keying in an application for the Northern Territory

Use the Add, Edit and Delete buttons to manipulate the list of blocks. Once you have completed your description, click OK and Discover builds the EL application as a region and displays it in the current map window.

Creating a Report
When the application area is complete, select the EL Application>Report menu option. Discover asks you which application area in the applications table to report on (a new application area is at the bottom of the list) and leads you through a series of dialogs requesting details for the application. If you make an

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error whilst filling in these dialogs, you can rectify it in a text editor (such as Notepad). The details requested by Discover vary according to the state in which you are making an application. For example, for WA there are 7 data entry screens, whilst for Queensland there are only 2. After the report details have been entered, Discover merges the sub-blocks and checks whether the area is contiguous. If it is not, then Discover alerts you to this situation and asks if you wish to continue. If you do continue and produce a report, a note to this effect is placed at the end of the report. After the details have been completed, Discover generates the required report, complete with a listing of the sub-blocks applied for.

WA Form 21 Attachments 1 and 2


If you are making an application for an area in WA, Discover automatically generates the Form 21 Attachments 1 and 2 showing the application areas, in a format ready to be sent to the Mines Department. The Form 21 attachments are generated from tables shipped with Discover, and are presented in the layout window sized for A4 paper in portrait orientation. You just need to check that your printer setup is correct before printing the layout window.

Metadata Management
What is Metadata? Metadata Manager Updating Metdata Spatial Catalogue Glossary of Terms

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13

Using Metadata to Manage and Explore MapInfo Databases


What is Metadata and Why do we Need it?
Metadata is information that relates to a dataset and describes some characteristics of that dataset. Thus metadata may describe the ownership of the dataset, the source, the last date edited, the project that the dataset belongs to and so forth. It is important to maintain up-to-date metadata for corporate datasets for the following reasons: maintain a set of reference information about the dataset; keep an audit trail of dataset edits; keep track of data ownership and copyright; allow the metadata to be searched to extract all datasets meeting a set of criteria; allow the various datasets to be explored by examining metadata values; and judicious use of metadata can save storing vast amounts of duplicate data in each record in a table (such as UTM zone or project name).

Metadata has traditionally been stored in an ad hoc fashion - that is, as text files in the same directory as the dataset, or as paper records - or not at all. With metadata in this form, it is easy for the metadata to become separated from the dataset and thus lost, and it becomes very difficult to search the metadata.

How does MapInfo Deal with Metadata


MapInfo stores metadata as text items in a tables TAB file. With this format, the metadata is always kept with the dataset, regardless of whether the dataset is moved, renamed or copied. Furthermore, the metadata is stored using a hierarchical key structure, so that the metadata structure can have different levels of significance or importance. The metadata that MapInfo stores in the TAB files cannot be displayed in the standard MapInfo user interface (apart from using tablemgr.mbx installed by MapInfo in the tools directory). Although the metadata can be edited or added

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manually (by editing the TAB file) it should always be added or edited using Mapbasic procedures that ensure the integrity of the metadata structure is maintained. Each metadata key has a name and a value. For example, a metadata key may be named Source\Copyright and have a value AGSO 1997. The Metadata Manager and Spatial Catalogue programs allow the user to create metadata templates and propagate metadata in a standardised fashion to the tables, view metadata in a table, build an index of MapInfo tables containing a particular metadata, map the catalogue and perform custom queries on it.

Metadata Management with Encoms Toolset


Although MapInfo provides the tools to enable the storing and retrieval of metadata for tables, it does not provide a framework to allow consistent use of metadata across a corporate spatial database. For a database of metadata to be of use to an organization, it needs to be easy to set up, maintain and interrogate. Encom Technologys metadata management tools provide the required functionality to perform these tasks using an intuitive workflow paradigm. An overview of the components of the metadata workflow paradigm are shown below in flowchart and also in table form.
Define the Metadata Template Build Spatial Catalogue

Propagate Template across Spatial Database

Corporate Spatial Database

Spatial Metadata

View/Edit Table Metadata Metadata workflow graphically specified.

View/Query Spatial Catalogue

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Task Define Metadata Template Propagate Metadata

Description Define one or more metadata structures that are used across the spatial database. The metadata templates are propagated or inserted into all of or a selection of tables in the spatial database. Metadata for individual tables can be viewed and edited. Metadata can be maintained to ensure integrity with on-going edits and additions. Spatial catalogue of all or part of the spatial database is created by examining the metadata and geographic attributes of each table. The spatial catalogue may be viewed and queried to allow users to explore the corporate database.

Access Database Administrator to setup Database Administrator to supervise Users to view, Database Administrator and selected users to edit Selected users to maintain. Database Administrator to setup and build Users to view and query the spatial catalogue database

View/Edit Metadata

Metadata Maintenance Build Spatial Catalogue View/Query Spatial Catalogue

The Metadata Template


The metadata template is the starting point in the metadata workflow. It defines what metadata is to be stored for a table, and how that metadata is to heirarchically structured. Analagous to defining a database structure, the metadata structure needs to be given much thought prior to implementation so that appropriate levels of metadata are stored without attempting to store too much. The metadata template is typically defined by a workgroup with guidance from the database administrator and input from the major users of the spatial data. It is unlikely that one template or structure will be appropriate for all of the spatial data held by an organization, so a series of smaller templates may be defined instead. For example, the data status template may contain fields for custodian, copyright, editing dates, data type etc; the geology template may contain fields for project name, date mapped, survey type, etc.

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Propagating the Template


Once the template or templates have been defined, they can then be propagated (or inserted) across as much or as little of the organizations spatial database as required. During the process of propagation, the metadata structure is inserted into each MapInfo table on the processing list.

Editing and Viewing the Template


Once a template has been propagated across a spatial database, variable key values need to be inserted into the metadata for each table. Metadata keys that have function values or fixed values already have values inserted, but for other keys (for example, data compilation scale, data creation date) the values need to be entered manually.

The Spatial Catalogue


A spatial catalogue, in the context of this discussion, is an Access database table that contains information on the geography and selected metadata items for each table in the corporate database. It is, in essence, a database table that summarizes the entire spatial database. The Access database holds one record for each MapInfo table processed and stores information such as the path, geographical extents, number of rows and other metadata derived information (dataset type, mapsheet etc.) The spatial catalogue database is constructed by selecting the tables to catalogue and then selecting the catalogue structure (which is essentially a metadata template), that defines which metadata is to be stored in the catalogue.

Using a Spatial Catalogue


The spatial catalogue database is a powerful endpoint for the metadata process and provides the methods for users and database administrators to keep on top of what data is available and where it is located (in storage and geographical terms). The spatial catalogue can be visualized either with a familiar MapInfo interface displaying catalogued datasets as located polygons and thematically mapped by attribute, or as a tree-based view ordered by metadata attribute.

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For example, the following tasks are easily accomplished once a spatial catalogue database has been built: List all geology maps, heirarchically by compilation scale. Display the location of all datasets meeting a particular criteria. Open all tables of type airphoto lying within a particular map-sheet. Thematically map datasets of type geochem according to sample type.

Running the Programs


To run the Metadata Manager and Spatial Catalogue programs, select Run MapBasic Program option from the MapInfo File menu and select the METAMNGR.MBX or SPTLCTLG.MBX application respectively from the installation directory. This adds the Metadata or Spatial Catalogue menu items to the MapInfo menu.

Metadata Manager
The Metadata Manager program allows the user to create a new metadata template, modify an existing metadata template, propagate the metadata template to the selected tables and view and edit metadata in the selected table. The metadata template defines a metadata structure as a heirarchically arranged collection of metadata keys. Each metadata key has a name and a value. The metadata key value can be represented by free text or a function selected from a list. For example, the metadata key \Project\Data Type\ may contain the value Soils or the metadata key \Editing\Last Edited may be described by the function CurrentDate(). If a key value is represented by a function, the function name is stored in the metadata template. When the metadata template is propagated to tables or a Spatial Catalogue is built, the function is evaluated and the key is assigned the value of this function. Metadata templates are stored as text files with an extension .MDT.

Create New Metadata Template


To create a new metadata template choose the Metadata>New Template menu item, and the New Metadata Template dialog is shown. Specify the name of a template to create and choose Open. The View and Metadata screen is shown.

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View Metadata dialog

To add a metadata key choose New>Key from the menu. The new key is created under the key that is currently selected on the screen. The new key is given the default name New Key #1. For example, to create a key \Region\100k Sheet, create a key named Region and then create a key underneath called 100k Sheet. There are certain limitations on key names. A key name can contain only letters, numbers, spaces and a _. A key name cannot begin with a number, and the following key names are reserved:
_Mappable _Table Path _Table Name _MINX _MINY _MAXX _MAXY IsReadOnly

MapInfo also imposes a limitation on the length of the key name. The full key name (including all parent keys) cannot contain more than 239 characters. A warning is given if a key name is incorrect. To assign a value to a metadata key, select a key on the screen and choose New>Value from the menu, or double click in the right side pane of the dialog

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box. Note that at this stage (defining the template), you only want to assign values to those keys that have fixed values or that have function values. Most key values are assigned to individual tables after the template has been propagated.

Edit Key Value dialog

A key value can be free text or may be represented by a function. To enter text for a key value choose Value from the Type options and then simply type the text in the Key Value box. To describe the key value by a function, choose Function from the Type options and then select a function from Key Function list. If you enter a value for the metadata key in the template, this constant value is used whenever the template is propagated to a table. The available key functions are: NumberOfRows NumberOfColumns IsTableReadOnly IsTableSeamless TableType IsTableMappable MinxTableCanStore MaxxTableCanStore MinyTableCanStore MaxyTableCanStore CurrentDate CurrentTime

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CoordSysClause CoordSysName MinxInTable MaxInTable MinyInTable

CurrentDate&Time LastModifiedDate&Time NumberPointObjectsInTable NumberLineObjectsInTable NumberPolylineObjectsInTable

Each of these functions return a value when they are evaluated against the table. Most of these functions return an integer value representing the count of an item, or a float number representing the value. Some functions return a string, such as the coordinate system name, or the table type. Click OK to accept the new key value or Cancel to preserve the old key value. The key value is shown on the right part of the View and Edit Metadata screen. To rename a key, select a key and choose Rename from the menu. The key name is made editable. Press ENTER or click on another key to finish editing the key name. If you want to delete a key choose Delete from the menu, however the key is not permanently deleted until the template is saved. To save the template, choose Save from the menu.

Propagate Metadata Template To Tables


Once a metadata template has been defined, it can be propagated to any number of MapInfo data tables. This process adds the metadata structure defined in the template to each table that you select. To propagate a metadata template to tables, choose Metadata>Propagate Metadata. The Select Metadata Template dialog is shown on the screen. Select the metadata template file and click Open.

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Propagate Metadata template across the chosen tables

The path to the selected metadata template is shown at the top of the screen. To propagate metadata to individually selected tables, choose the appropriate drive and directory. All MapInfo tables in this directory are listed under Tables In Directory. To add a table to the Selected Tables list, select a table file and click the > button. To propagate metadata to all tables in all subdirectories underneath the specified directory, select the directory and choose the option Propagate to All Tables Underneath Directory. In this case tables in the Selected Tables list is ignored. There are two options that control how existing table metadata is treated when a new metadata template is propagated. Delete Existing Non-duplicate Metadata - This option allows the user to delete existing metadata, before the new metadata template is inserted. Normally this option is set unchecked (off), so that existing information is retained. Overwrite Existing Metadata - When propagating metadata across tables, if duplicate key names are encountered, this option specifies whether the values in these keys are overwritten or left. Usually, this option is set unchecked (off). If this option is set to on, then existing key values are overwritten only if the metadata template being propagated includes function or fixed values for that key (rather than null values to be edited later).

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View and Edit Metadata in a Table


To view metadata that already exists in a table, choose Metadata>Table Metadata and then select the MapInfo table for which you want to view metadata. You are presented with a dialog similar to that for creating and editing metadata templates. In this case, however, the metadata displayed is stored in the selected table. As you select keys, the key value is displayed in the right side pane of the dialog. You can add new keys, rename keys, delete existing keys and modify key values. Note that by adding, renaming or deleting keys you are modifying the structure of the metadata and thus making this table inconsistent with the template that was used. To modify a key value, simply double click on the key value shown in the pane on the right side of the dialog box. If a key value is described by a function, the function is evaluated and its value is assigned to a metadata key when metadata is saved in the table. See the above section on creating a template for a list of the metadata table functions supported.

Updating Metadata
An alternative method of entering and updating table metadata values is using the File>Update Metadata menu option. Simply select the tables to update the metadata. Then select the metadata template to use and the keys from this template to enter values for. Using this data entry method, you can enter values for a maximum of 10 metadata keys at once. However, you can enter metadata for multiple tables at the same time by selecting as many tables as you want from a list of open tables. The template and keys selected previously, and the key values previously entered are displayed in the dialog the next time it is called. You can also use this function to add metadata keys to tables that currently have no metadata. The chosen metadata keys (up to 10 keys) are added to the selected tables whether those keys are present or not.

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Updating selected metadata keys for multiple tables

Spatial Catalogue
The Spatial Catalogue is a database table that contains an entry for each MapInfo table and which lists both geographic and table attributes (such as the coordinate system or the number of rows) and a selection of metadata stored in each table. Once a spatial catalogue has been constructed, the user can view and query the catalogue to answer questions such as: how many tables of topographic data cover the Wangaratta 250k map sheet; how many cadastral datasets are stored with the AGD84 datum; or where is the aerial photography for the Midland Highway stored. Alternatively, the user may view the spatial catalogue as a thematic map coloured by a metadata value such as dataset type, or open all the geochem tables for project XYZ.
Geographic and Table Attributes MapInfo Tables Spatial Catalogue Selected Metadata

Constructing the Spatial Catalogue


The Spatial Catalogue program creates a catalogue or index table in an Access database. One record in the catalogue table corresponds to each MapInfo table

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that was located underneath the specified search path. A catalogue table record contains the MapInfo table path and name, the geographic extents (if mappable) as well as other information requested by the user. The catalogue table is automatically registered in MapInfo and a catalogue map is created. The catalogue map displays polygons representing the bounds of each MapInfo table listed in the catalogue table. The MapInfo catalogue table and map are located in the same directory with the catalogue database. Therefore the structure of a spatial catalogue table is a flat file made of fixed fields for table path and geographic extents, as well as a field for each of the metadata items that is included. For each record in the spatial catalogue, there is a rectangular polygon that covers the extents of the source table. Because the spatial catalogue contains a user-selected list of tables and a userselected list of attributes to store, it is possible, and in many cases useful, to have multiple spatial catalogues. For example, the organization may have one spatial catalogue for each project area or for each state. The multiple spatial catalogues can be overlapping (that is, reference the same tables) or be exclusive, and they may be stored in the same database or in multiple databases.

Viewing and Querying the Spatial Catalogue


Tree view of catalogue Query of catalogue Thematic map of catalogue

Spatial Catalogue

The Spatial Catalogue program also allows the user to create thematic maps based on values selected from the catalogue table and perform queries on the catalogue table.

Create a New Spatial Catalogue


To create a new spatial catalogue table, choose Spatial Catalogue>Create New Catalogue. The Create Spatial Catalogue screen is shown.

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Create Spatial Catalog dialog

1.

Choosing a metadata template - Click on Select Template to select a metadata template, or leave this item blank to use no template for the catalogue. If you are choosing a metadata template, then it should have been created with the Metadata Manager. Selecting search paths You can select one or more search paths for the catalogue to be built from. You should also specify whether all subdirectories in each path are to be catalogued. Catalogue Database and Table You need to select a database (an MS Access file) that stores the catalogue table, and then select a new table within this database to hold the catalogue. Click on Select Table to select the name of a catalogue table. The Select Catalog Table screen is displayed.

2.

3.

You may choose to create a new catalogue table or modify an existing catalogue table. If the catalogue database exists and contains catalogue tables, the names of existing catalogue tables are shown in the list. To create a new catalogue table select the Create New Catalog option and type the name of a catalogue table under New Name. To modify an existing catalogue table, select Overwrite Existing Catalog option and choose the table from the list. Click OK. The table name is shown on the Create New Spatial Catalog screen.

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Having selected a table, you also have the option of modifying the structure (field names, widths etc) before the catalogue is built. After the catalogue is built, you can always change the structure using Access. Key values in a metadata template can be described by a free text value or a function. If a key value is a function, then this function is evaluated for each MapInfo table underneath the search path. If a key value is free text, then the search can be based on the key name only or on the key name and value. In the latter case the user may request exact matches with the key value. For example, the user may want to build a catalogue of tables that have metadata key \Project that value contains the word Discover. If the user selects an option to search by Key Name and Value, then only tables that have metadata key with a name \Project and a value that contains the word Discover is listed in the catalogue table. To limit the search to tables that contain metadata key \Project which value exactly matches Discover, select Exact Matches Only option. Click on Create to build a catalogue table, and the progress bar shows percent completion. Each table selected is examined in turn and an entry written into the catalogue table. If the selected search path contains tables that cannot be opened or queried for some reason, their full names are listed in a log file called CATALOGUE.LOG. The user is notified if entries are made in the log file. The log file is located in the same directory as the Spatial Catalogue program and can be viewed in any text editor.

Updating a Spatial Catalogue


Creating a spatial catalogue may be a lengthy process, as there may be many thousands of tables to catalogue, and each table may need querying according to the template. However, you may wish to update the catalogue at frequent intervals to ensure that all newly created tables are added to the catalogue. To do this select the Update Catalogue menu item, and select an existing Access database and catalogue table. As for creating a new catalogue, when you update a catalogue, you have the choice of selecting a template (or none). You should always choose the same template as was used to create the catalogue otherwise the table structure implied by the template may not match the structure of the existing catalogue. In such a case, the cataloguer fields may be filled with inappropriate values for

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newly added table records. To alter the structure of an existing catalogue table, use MS Access. The Spatial Catalogue keeps track of the paths that were traversed to previously create the catalogue and you should choose these paths or select new ones. As the spatial catalogue tool examines tables found in the search paths, it performs one of 3 actions: New table not in catalogue The new table is added and catalogue fields are filled according to the template. Table in catalogue and in same location on disk The catalogue is checked and if a table exists, then it is skipped over and no change made to the catalogue record. Table in catalogue but not in same location on disk The catalogue record is deleted.

Viewing and Using the Spatial Catalogue Table


The spatial catalogue table is created in a normal Access database and can be viewed in one of three ways, each method being useful for exploring the catalogue. Browsing the catalogue in conventional form in Access or MapInfo allows the user to interact with the catalogue at its most basic level, and perform normal SQL queries. Explore the catalogue in heirarchical or tree view allows the user to see records in the catalogue (that is, tables in the spatial database) grouped by column values. The tree view is flexible so that a user can define a tree structure to view by. As well as examining the catalogue attributes for each constituent table, the user can also open tables directly into MapInfo from the tree view. View the catalogue in a map window to display polygons showing the location and extent of individual records (that is, tables in the spatial database). The map view can be tailored to display only those records matching a certain criteria, or may be thematically mapped by a selected column name. By selecting location polygons from the map, the user can then open the tables directly.

Tree View of Spatial Catalogue Table


A hierarchical or tree view of a catalogue table allows the user to view catalogue table records conveniently grouped by selected columns. To view

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hierarchy of the catalogue table choose Spatial Catalogue>Catalogue Tree View. You need to select the required spatial catalogue table from the spatial catalogue database (you could have multiple catalogue tables in the database), and then you must define the tree structure. The Select Table Columns To Query screen is shown:

Select Table Columns To Query dialog

The dialog box lists all of the columns in the catalogue table and you must select up to 5 columns to define the tree view query. The order in that the columns are shown in the Selected Columns list defines the structure of the tree or hierarchy. The tree is then constructed by building a list of all of the values in the firstlevel column. For each of these first level entries, a list of values in the secondlevel column is built and so on for up to 5 columns. That is, the records from the catalogue table are then grouped by value from the selected columns. This results in a multiply branched tree view of the catalogue. The example below shows a tree view of a catalogue arising from the tree query specified above.

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Hierarchical View of Index Table dialog

On the left part of the hierarchical view screen the values from the records in the catalogue table are shown in a tree structure grouped by values from the user-selected columns. When the user clicks on the entry in the left side of the dialog, the full names of the tables that have the selected values in the associated columns are shown on the right side of the dialog. The user may select several tables from the view and open them for browsing, open a new map window or add them to an existing Map Window.

Different Views of Catalogue Maps


To view a catalogue map choose Spatial Catalogue>Catalogue Map View from the menu. The View Catalogue Map screen appears.

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View Catalogue Map dialog

The Select All view option displays a catalogue map where location polygons for all records in the catalogue table is shown. This may be quite cluttered with multiple location polygons overlapping. In order to clarify the map display, and show only the required locational information, you may wish to use the Group By Columns option. This allows the user to select the location polygons to view by choosing a catalogue column and then selecting which values to display from this column. For example, the user could use this display method to restrict the view to location polygons for aerial geophysics surveys.

View Catalog Map-Select by Group

Select a column name from the list and click the >> button. Values from the selected column are then grouped and listed under Column Values. Select one

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or several values from the list and click Create Map to display the map or Open Tables to open the tables directly in MapInfo. Alternatively, you may wish to show the location polygons thematically mapped by one of the catalogued columns. Of course, you can also create a thematic map for the catalogue using MapInfos normal thematic mapping function.

Open Tables for Selected Polygons


At any stage whilst viewing the catalogue map, the user can open tables whose location polygons are selected. Simply choose the Spatial Catalogue>Open Tables for Selected Polygons menu item and a new map is created displaying the tables whose location polygons are selected.

Glossary of Terms
Terms used in this documentation are defined as below: Function Hierarchy A metadata key value that is calculated from a property of the table or of the environment. A multi-level storage system where levels in the hierarchy correspond to the significance of the data being stored. The name of a metadata key. The value of a metadata key that may be entered manually, inserted as fixed text or evaluated from a function. Data that describes properties of a dataset. Metadata usually includes information concerning the status and location of a dataset. The action of inserting a metadata template into each of the selected tables. A separate database table which holds a summary of the metadata for each table.

Key Name Key Value

Metadata

Propagate Spatial Catalogue

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Template

A hierarchical metadata structure of key names that may also include pre-set or fixed values for keys, or function values for keys.

Appendicies
A Title Block Customizing B Discover Program and Configuration C Discover Structural Symbol Fonts D Discover Geological Symbol Fonts

Appendix A Title Block Customizing

261

TitleBlock Customizing
Introduction
Discovers customizable titleblock is a normal MapInfo map table stored in a cm non-earth projection. It is designed to be inserted into the layout window at close to true scale. Text records in the titleblock can be used as placeholders that are recognized by Scaled Output (see the Map Making section).

Usage of the TitleBlock


Titleblocks in MapInfo, created and maintained by Discover can be used as follows: 1. 2. Open the table TITLEBLK.TAB from the Discover Program Files Directory (specified in the file ENCOM.CFG). Open a map window for TitleBlk and make this layer editable, or, if you wish to make another titleblock to use as an alternative, save this table to a new name and then edit that new table. TitleBlock Size - Discovers Scaled Output uses the titleblock at full size when the map frame width is greater than 50cm, and at half size for smaller widths. TitleBlock Linework - Edit the linework so that the titleblock has the desired appearance. Open a browser window for the TitleBlk table and position it so that you can see both windows on screen together. ScaleBar - The titleblock shipped with Discover includes a placeholder for a scalebar (the record called ScaleHolder in the browser window). Discover constructs a scalebar inside this placeholder if it is present. If the placeholder is not present in the titleblock, then Discover looks for a table called ScaleBar (in the Discover Program Files Directory), which does contain the placeholder and construct the scalebar within this. You should thus alter the dimensions and position of the placeholder to your requirements. The first record in the ScaleBar table is a record called ScaleHolder. If the ScaleBar table contains a second record called NoText, then Discover does not place text for Scale 1:nnnnnn next to the scalebar.

3.

4. 5. 6.

7.

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8.

If the TitleBlock contains the ScaleHolder record, and also contains a detail field (see point 12) called Scale:, then Discover does not place the Scale 1:nnnnnn text. Company Name - The company name specified in Discovers configuration is inserted into the titleblock in place of the Company Name placeholder. Set the position and font of the Company placeholder.

9.

10. Title Line - Set the position and font of the Title Line placeholder. The five lines of title text entered in the titleblock dialog in Scaled Output is concatenated, centre justified and inserted in the location of the placeholder. 11. Existing Details - The browser text for each of the details is what appears in Scaled Outputs titleblock dialog (for example, Date:, Author:, Ref:). The text that you enter in the dialog for each detail is then appended to the text object in the Map Window for each detail. Set the position and font of each detail placeholder. The titleblock shipped with Discover contains 6 details fields - Author, Date, Office, Drawing, Scale and Projection. The date field is automatically recognized by Discover and todays date is inserted, so it cannot be changed in the dialog box. If detail fields called Scale and Projection are present, these are also recognized by Discover and the current scale and map projection inserted so that it cannot be changed in the dialog box. 12. New Details - Scaled Output can use up to 12 details including specific named fields as follows: Date Formatted as set up in control panel Scale Formatted as 1:50,000 CoordSys Name for example, AMG Zone 54 (AGD 66) CoordSys Clause for example, 8,12,7,141,0,0.9996,500000,10000000 Projection for example, Transverse Mercator (Gauss-Kruger) Datum for example, Australian Geodetic 1966 (AGD 66) Ellipsoid for example, Australian National Origin Longitude numeric data Origin Latitude .. Standard Parallel 1 .. Standard Parallel 2 .. False Easting .. False Northing .. Logo [logo_tablename] for example, Logo [encom_logo.tab]

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263

To make a new detail field, create a new text item in the required position in the Map Window, and enter the required text in the browser for the new record. As explained above, the browser text is displayed as the prompt in the dialog box, and text entered in the dialog is appended to existing text in the Map Window. 13. Boundary - There must be a closed polyline forming the boundary of the titleblock, so that Discover knows how big the titleblock is. You can easily create a closed rectangular polyline by creating a rectangle, then using the Objects>Convert to Polylines menu option. 14. Logo - If you have a logo bitmap, then it can be referenced by the titleblock template as follows. The logo file should be placed in the Discover Configuration Files directory and registered in MapInfo to appear in the appropriate position with respect to the titleblock. To ensure that the logo is registered correctly, open it in the same map window as the titleblock. Alternatively you can use a custom symbol for the logo, inserted directly into the titleblock table. 15. If the logo is named LOGO.TAB, it is automatically recognized by Discover and inserted into the titleblock Map Window when Scaled Output is run. Alternatively, you can explicitly specify a table name in the titleblock table as Logo [logo_tablename]. These logo tables should also be in the Discover Configuration files directory and Discover then opens a table of this name in the titleblock window. This allows you to have multiple titleblock logos, each of which may be associated with a different titleblock. 16. Save the edited titleblock (and scalebar) table back to the Discover Program Files Directory.

Appendix B Discover Program and Configuration

265

Discover Program and Configuration


Discover version 4.0 maintains a number of different files in the program files and configuration directories. These files are listed below. Note that this list is provided for information only and you are not encouraged to edit any of the text files (except file extension names such as .CFG) or MapInfo tables, as corruption may cause unexpected results. Location: Discover Program Files Directory Name *.MBX File Type MapBasic Program files Description These must all be in the Discover Program Files Directory. Software updates include new versions of some or all of these files. These must all be in the Discover Program Files Directory. Contain program settings. Used in Scaled Output. Titleblock table can be customized. Available from the MapInfo Help menu Discover manual in Acrobat format. Available from the MapInfo Help menu.

*.DLL

Windows libraries

*.INI TITLEBLK.TAB SCALEBAR.TAB DISCOVER.HLP DISCOVER REFERENCE MANUAL.PDF

Windows INI files Titleblock and Scalebar table Discover help file Discover reference manual

Location: Discover Configuration Directory DISCOVER.PRJ Projection file Customizable with Standard Projections

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ETVIEWS.TXT GEOSTYLE.TAB AUTOSHAD.TAB *.SHD GRIDLEG.TAB *.CLR XS_COLR.TAB XS_PROJECTS.TAB XS_MNGR.TAB XS_DISP.TAB XSECTION.TAB USERTABS.TAB USERWOR.TAB USERMBX.TAB

Standard Views table MapStyles table AutoShad table Shade file Grid Legend table Colour look-up tables Drillhole patterns table Drillhole project table Drillhole section manager Drillhole display settings Drillhole settings List of user tables List of user workspaces List of user MapBasic programs EL name aliases table

Customizable with Standard Views Customizable with Map Styles List of shade files and shade settings Shade settings for AutoShad Used to construct a legend for Grid/Contour image displays Used by Surfaces for colouring images Customizable with Drillholes Customizable with Drillholes Customizable with Drillholes Stores Drillholes data display setting Stores most recent Drillholes usage parameters Customizable with User Tables Customizable with User Workspaces Customizable with User MBXs

ELNAMEAL.TAB

Customizable with Tenement Searches

Appendix B Discover Program and Configuration

267

EXNAMES.CFG SCALEOUT.CFG DISCOVER.WOR

EL table locations file Scaled Output settings Workspace

Stores default Tenement table locations Stores Scaled Output frame settings Discover autosave workspace

Appendix C Discover Structural Symbol Fonts

269

Discover Structural Symbol Fonts


The Structural True Type symbol fonts should be installed onto your system via the Fonts folder in Control Panel. It is then available for use with any software that uses True Type fonts, including MapInfo, Corel Draw and MS Word. The symbols may be referred to in one of a number of ways: Symbol Name - Used with Discovers Structural Data Map Window when placing individual symbols. There are 3 separate structural symbol fonts that are available. Australian ET Structural Australia Canadian ET Structural Canada USA ET Structural USA Key and ASCII - Use this keystroke to display the appropriate symbol when entering text. Discover Code - Used when entering data into a spreadsheet for display with Discovers Structural Data Map Window. AGSO Code - The equivalent code as defined by the Australian Geological Survey Organisation (AGSO). Not all Discover symbols have equivalent AGSO codes. Australia
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2

Symbol Name
Bedding Bedding Horizontal Bedding Vertical Bedding Overturned Overturned horizontal Bedding Facing Facing vertical Facing overturned Cleavage (s1) Cleavage (s1) vertical Cleavage (s1) horizontal Cleavage (s2) Cleavage (s2) vertical Cleavage (s2) horizontal Cleavage (s3) Cleavage (s3) vertical Cleavage (s3) horizontal Lineation

Canada
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2

USA
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2

Key
! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + "," . / 0 1 2

ASCII
33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Discover Code
1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 8

AGSO Code
621 624 625 626 627 628 629 6210 921 924 925 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1021

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Lineation vertical Lineation horizontal Lineation (l1) Lineation (l2) Lineation (l3) Bedding-Cleavage Bedding-Cleavage Crenulation Crenulation horizontal Mineral alignment Mineral alignment Banding/Platy Alignment Banding/Platy vertical Banding/Platy horizontal Joint Joint vertical Joint horizontal Foliation Foliation vertical Foliation horizontal Anticline (f1) Anticline (f1) horizontal Anticline (f2) Anticline (f2) horizontal Anticline (f3) Anticline (f3) horizontal Anticline overturned Anticline recumbent Syncline (f1) Syncline (f1) horizontal Syncline (f2) Syncline (f2) horizontal Syncline (f3) Syncline (f3) horizontal Syncline overturned Syncline recumbent Normal fault Normal fault - Low angle Normal fault - High angle Thrust fault Shear zone Shear zone - Wide Fault zone breccia Trend line Parallel lines Vein (closed) Vein (vein) Dipping vein (closed)

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F P Q R S T U V W Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a e f g h i j k l m n o p

3 4 5 5 7 8 9 : ; = = > ? @ A B C D E F P Q R S T U V W Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a e f g h i j k l m n o

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F P P R S R S V W Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a e f g h i j k l m n o p

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F P Q R S T U V W Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a e f g h i j k l m n o p

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 90 91 92 93 94 94 96 97 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

8 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 37

1022 1023 n/a n/a n/a 1031 1032 1041 1042 1051 1052 1121 1124 1125 721 723 724 821 824 825 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 551 571 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 556 575 341 344 345 351 365 366 363 671 n/a n/a n/a n/a

Appendix C Discover Structural Symbol Fonts

271

Dipping vein (open) Dipping shear Dipping fault gouge Glacial striae Glacial striae Oriented drill collar Oriented drill collar Oriented drill collar Bedding facing unknown Bedding vertical Younging Undulating bedding dip Deformed bedding dip Minor anticline Minor anticline with Minor syncline Minor syncline with Minor fold with dip Minor fold with plunge Kink fold with plunge Assymetric verge left Assymetric verge right Fold verge left Fold verge right Recumbent fold verge left Recumbent fold verge right Minor fold s verge Minor fold z verge Minor fold m verge Boudin plunge Chert contortion plunge Mylonitic foliation Mylonitic foliation Eutaxitic foliation Eutaxitic foliation vertical Foliation d1 Foliation d2 Foliation d3

q r s t u y z {

q r s t u y z {

q r s t u y z {

q r s t u y z

113 114 115 116 117 121 122 123 130 131 132 133 134 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 161 162 163 164 165

38 32 42 79 79 39 40 41 46 46 7 47 48 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 77 78 78 49 50 51

n/a n/a n/a 653 654 n/a n/a n/a 6211 6212 641 632 633 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 51420 n/a n/a 5156 5155 5154 5153 5159 51510 51511 5157 5158 n/a n/a n/a n/a 831 832 833

Appendix D Discover Geological Symbol Fonts

273

Discover Geological Symbol Font


Discover 4.0 includes an extension of the MapInfo version 3 symbols that contain non-rotatable geological symbols. These symbols may be used with Discovers Styles Library (see Styles Library) or from the MapInfo symbol style picker. Contained below are the Discover Map Styles used by default. This list is followed by the ASCII and symbol equivalent list of all geological symbols available in Discover.

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Appendix D Discover Geological Symbol Fonts

275

Symbol Name
Petroleum exploration well, proposed site Petroleum exploration well, dry, abandoned Petroleum exploration well with show of oil Petroleum exploration well with show of oil, abandoned Petroleum exploration well with show of gas Petroleum exploration well with show of oil and gas, abandoned Petroleum exploration well with show of oil Petroleum exploration well with show of oil and gas Stratigraphic hole for petroleum exploration Oil well, shut in or suspended Oil well, abandoned Gas well Gas well, shut in or suspended Gas well, abandoned Oil and gas well Oil and gas well, shut in or suspended Oil and gas well, abandoned Gas and condensate well Gas and condensate well, shut in or suspended Gas and condensate well, abandoned Fossil locality Macrofossil locality Microfossil locality Trace fossil locality Fossil wood locality Oncolite locality Palynomorph locality Plant fossil locality Stromatolite locality Vertebrate fossil locality Sample location for isotopic age determination Type locality Drill hole Unworked deposit Prospect or mine with little production Abandoned prospect or mine with little production Mine; may be abandoned Major mine Mine abandoned or not being worked Minor open cut or quarry Major open cut or quarry Abandoned open cut or quarry, or not being worked Minor alluvial workings ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K

ASCII
33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

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Major alluvial workings Abandoned alluvial workings, or not being worked Treatment plant Treatment plant not operating, or abandoned, or former site Main shaft showing number of compartments Shaft extending above and below plan level Accessible shaft extending below plan level Accessible shaft extending above plan level Head of rise or winze T Foot of rise or winze Rise or winze extending through level Inclined accessible shaft extending below plan level (small scale) Inclined accessible shaft extending below plan level (large scale) Cross section of cross-cut or drive; same side of plane of section as observer Cross section of cross-cut or drive; opposite side of plane of section Cross section of cross-cut or drive extending across plane of section Ore chute Filled workings Portal and approach of tunnel or adit Natural surface Grab-sample locality Costean or trench Oil seep Gas seep Oil and gas seep or show Oil seep reported (by geoscientist) but not relocated Gas seep reported (by geoscientist) but not relocated Oil and gas seep reported (by geoscientist) but not relocated Mud volcano or mud volcano without with hydrocarbons Mud volcano with hydrocarbons Relative gravity high Relative gravity low Proterozoic symbol Cambrian symbol Photo point Drillhole Registration cross Scarp Inclined drill hole Inclined drill hole Inclined drill hole Inclined drill hole Major eruptive centre with recorded eruption Major eruptive centre with no recorded eruption Minor eruptive centre with recorded eruption Minor eruptive centre with no recorded eruption

L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

Appendix D Discover Geological Symbol Fonts

277

Astrobleme or impact structure or cryptoexplosive structure Trigometrical Astronomical station Major volcanic centre Volcanic plug residual Basalt capped residual hill Residual hill Crater wall Pediment Landslips

{ | } ~

123 124 125 126 127 129 130 131 132 133

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Index

279

14
A

Index
C
Change Direction reversing the direction of polylines and polygons, 121 Choose New Columns button, 23 clipping objects at a polygon boundary, 119 Colour code sample assay labels, 52 colour lookup tables colouring polygon data. See Colour Maps Colour Maps building colour lookup tables, 215, 216 editing colour lookup tables, 217 thematic maps using colour lookup tables, 218 using standard colour lookup tables, 213 ColourMaps>Colour Map, 24 Configuration auto-loading Discover, 7 Configuration File, 7 setup and installation, 5 Configure button on the Scaled Output dialog, 40 cookie-cutting polygons. See Processing Inlying Polygons Coordinate Transformation specifying parameters, 84 transforming data between two coordinate systems, 82 Coordinates storing/updating current object coordinates, 80, 110, 115, 120, 121, 134, 135 creating a polygon grid, 24 cursor position displaying by default, 8 Custom Re-Order Mode, 47 cutting objects with a selected line. See Line Cut Actual Map Size box, 33 Add Existing Shade File button, 24 aggregates assigning aggregates from points to enclosing polygons. See Assign Values aliases company names in tenement searches. See tenement searches. See tenement searches for MapBasic programs, 135 for table names, 134 appending multiple tables, 130 Assign Values assigning codes from polygons to enclosed points, 87 assigning data aggregates from points to enclosing polygons, 87 AUTOGRID, 18 AutoGrid table, 20 AUTOGRID_MASK, 20 Automatic Legend Generation described, 45 prerequisites, 45, 48, 49, 51, 53, 56, 76, 78, 79, 80, 110, 115, 120, 121, 134, 135, 154, 159, 160 specifying the order within a legend, 47 Auto-Shade applying saved thematic settings, 23 examples with other Discover functions, 24 saving thematic settings, 22 transferring shade settings between Discover installations, 24 Auto-Shadefacility, 22

B
button bars, 3

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data entry of titleblock details, 34 Data Utilities described, 75 decimal degrees grid spacing, 19 default table view setting, 27 digitizing with attribute data entry, 93 with automatic attribute data entry, 93 with standard styles. See Styles Library direction changing direction of a line. See Change Direction Direction storing direction of a line. See Line Direction Discover auto-loading, 3 running, 3 running on a network, 8 uninstalling, 6 User Interface, 3 DISCOVER.Prj, 26 DISCOVER.WOR, 8 donutting polygons. See Processing Inlying Polygons draw grid labels, 20 Draw Grid option, 33 Drillhole Cross-Section Generation downhole histograms, 188 downhole linegraphs, 188 downhole structure ticks, 189 downhole trace shades, 189 saving downhole display settings, 190 Drillholes > Sectional Resource Calculator, 197 Drillholes subsystem and resource computation, 196 Drillholes>Add section to layout tool, 42

ENCOM.CFG, 7 Enhanced Layer Control, 28 ERS ER Mapper grid header, 144 ET Str font, 56 exporting multiple tables, 130 Expression construction, 50

F
File>Print, 37 Font Size defaults, 51 format text, 51 frame setup, 33

G
geological maps colouring. See Colour Maps inlying polygons. See Processing Inlying Polygons Geosoft grid format, 145 Global Log Display, 196 Graphical Style, 21 GraphMap comparison with MapInfo graphs, 207 hints, 212 linking graphed data to the source map objects, 208 styles, 208 thematically mapping graphed data, 212 graphs linking with mapped objects. See GraphMap grid line intersection, 19 grid style, 19

H
hardcopy output. See scaled hardcopy output Hatching transparent hatching. See See-Thru Shading histogram plots

E
edge ticks, 19 edit the layer, 27 ellipse and resource calculation, 198

Index

281

linking with mapped objects. See GraphMap

I
Images as gridded output. See Gridding and Contouring importing tables from multiple directories, 130 Importing layered DXF data, 104 lines from coordinates on one row, 103 map objects from ASCII files, 101 Micromine files, 104 Polylines delimited by row or column, 102 XYZ grids, 103 Individual Log Display, 196 inlying polygons processing. See Processing Inlying Polygons Installing Discover, 5

legend creation, 46 Legend from objects within map window only option, 46 Line Cut cutting objects with a selected line, 120 Line Direction storing as an attribute, 95 Local Grid converting from. See Coordinate Transformation generating, 86 log display, 196

M
Map Frame Position offsets, 41 Map Grid drawing to a map window, 18 on printed maps. See scaled hardcopy output overlaying grids based on different projections, 20 saving, 20 Map making tools creating legends. See Automatic Legend Generation described, 31 Styles Library. See Styles Library. See Styles Library Map Making>Add scaled frame to layout tool, 42 Map Window Tools described, 17 map with no map grid, 33 Map>Options>Projection sequence, 26 Map>Previous View menu option, 41 MapGrid, 21 MAPINFOW.PRJ, 26 MapSize rectangle, 33 mask around grid, 20 Micromine importing files from, 104

K
keying in object coordinates, 110 object descriptions by distance bearing, 110

L
Label Lines checkbox, 50 Label Style, 50 LABELLER.MBX, 52 labels on grids, 20 Labels creating at an angle, 48 sizing to specified map scale, 49 layout window, 37 Layout>Align, 41 Layout>Align menu, 37 Legend creating. See Automatic Legend Generation

N
No List option, 36

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nodes decreasing the number in polyline and regions, 115 editing object nodes, 113 extracting from polylines and polygons. See Polyline/Polygon Node Extraction keying in object nodes, 110 Non-Printing Margins, 41

O
Object Editing Tools described, 109 Object Editing>Key In Shapes, 27 Object Offset function, 38 objects keying in object nodes, 110 Offset East, 50 Offset North, 50 Offset Objects creating copies of objects at a specified offset, 113 Open Layout Template from workspace, 35 opening tables from multiple directories, 130 Opening tables from a list of aliases. See User Tables Overlay Another AutoGrid option, 34

Polyline/Polygon Node Extraction extract coordinates or points from nodes, 96 position of the Scaled Output map, 33 pre-set geographic view, 25 probability plots linking with mapped objects. See GraphMap Processing Inlying Polygons and geological maps, 117 cutting polygons from surrounding polygons, 117 Profile. See Surface Analysis. See Surface Analysis Projections changing between commonly used projections. See Standard Projections determining the current map window projection. See Map Window Projection Proximity Search selecting objects based on distance from other objects, 89

Q
Querying based on proximity to selected objects. See Proximity Search Querying tables searching for particular text. See Text Search and Replace tenement tables. See tenement searches

P
packing multiple tables, 130 Pattern Density, 55 Pattern Width, 55 patternsfor see-thru, 54 PolyClip clipping objects at a polygon boundary, 119 polygonizing closure tolerance, 123 inclusion of text as attributes, 124 introduction to, 122 with automatic excising of inlying polygons, 124

R
register the shade file, 24 resource grid, 196 resources from cross-sections, 196 Restore Mapper State option, 28 RGB values use in colour lookup tables. See Colour Tables rose diagrams linking with mapped objects. See GraphMap

Index

283

rounded grid spacing, 19

S
Save Mapper State tool, 28 scalebar format, 36 scalebars on hardcopy maps, 1 scaled hardcopy output configuring frame settings, 40 determining coverage, 33 entering titleblock details, 34 hints, 41 scalebar format, 36 using an existing workspace as a template, 35 with standard map sheets, 38 Scaled Output, 18 Scaled Output button, 32 Scaled Output function, 32 Scaled Output>Accept Map Position, 34 Scaled Output>Quit Scaled Output, 40 Scaled Output>Respecify Parameters, 34 Scaled Output>ReSpecify Parameters, 38 Scaled Output>Restore Map Window, 34, 38, 41 scatter plots linking with mapped objects. See GraphMap Search all holes required, 196 search ellipse, 198 search orientation for sectional resources, 198 Section Name, 197 Sectional Resource Calculator, 196 See-Thru Pattern Library, 55 See-Thru patterns, 54 See-Thru Shading applying to selected regions, 53 SEETHRU table, 55 Select by Style dialog, 21 Send TitleBlock to Back checkbox, 35 Set Clip Region, 41 SETUP.EXE installation program, 5 shade files, 22

slideshows, 5 sort a table permanently, 132 special symbol fonts, 56 Specify Order option, 46 splitting multi-section polylines and regions, 121 Standard Projections maintaining a list of commonly used projections, 26 Standard Views maintaining a list of standard geographic views, 25 zooming to a standard view, 25 Standard Views button, 25 stereograms linking with mapped objects. See GraphMap Store Resource in column, 198 structural data displaying as symbols. See Structural Data Mapper Structural Data Mapper digitizing structural symbols, 223 Overview, 219 symbol codes, 224 styles library, 43 Styles Library inserting stored attributes, 44 storing and applying standard object styles, 43, 45, 48, 49, 51, 53, 56, 76, 78, 79, 80, 110, 115, 120, 121, 134, 135, 154, 159, 160 using Discover colour tables, 43 sub-sampling polylines and regions decreasing the number of nodes in polyline and regions, 115 Surface Analysis Alter grid image colours, 164 Grid file manager, 167 Profile over a grid or contour plan, 154, 155 Surface Creation contour parameters, 151 Surface Creation and Analysis function, 24 Surface Profile. See Surface Analysis. See Surface Analysis

284

Discover Reference Manual

T
Table Utilities described, 129 tenement searches by company name, 228 by date, 228 overview, 226, 230 shading by quarter, month or year, 228 ternary diagrams linking with mapped objects. See GraphMap Text sizing for a given map scale, 51 text angle, 50 text label string into a column, 52 text labelling, 49 Text Search and Replace searching for and/or replacing particular text, 78 the mineralisation orientation, 198 Thematic map settings saving and re-applying. See Auto-Shade thinning polylines and regions by node number, 115 by node position, 116 decreasing the number of nodes in polyline and regions, 115 Title Lines, 34 TITLEBLK.TAB, 35 titleblock details, 34 Titleblock Position, 35 titleblocks on hardcopy maps. See scaled hardcopy output toolbars, 3 True Type Fonts of structural symbols. See Structural Data Mapper

U
Uninstalling Discover, 6 Update Coordinates storing coordinates from multiple projections, 81 update coordinate columns from objects, 81 update object position from coordinate columns, 81 update the text in text objects, 52 updating a table subset with valuse from another table, 132 an assay table with incomplete lab results, 132 updating text labels, 52 User MBXs maintain an alias list of commonly used MapBasic programs, 135 User Tables maintaining an alias list of commonly used tables, 134

V
Vertical Mapper, 142

W
Workspace saving automatically, 8

Z
zooming the map window, 28