Chapter 1: Jacob and the Bible’s Ancient Interpreters ○ Introduction ■ it is a big question: why is Genesis in the Torah?

There are no laws, so why is it relevant? ● Jubilees (early 2nd century BCE): it is a crypto-halakhic work ● Philo (20 BCE to 30 CE) saw the characters as embodiments of the laws that would be given later ● the dominant approach from the rabbinic period onwards has been to see them as moral exemplars ○ at face-value these stories are not the most moral to say the least ■ the biblical interpreter was not principally apologetic, rather he was interested in explaining the stories ■ they worked with certain assumptions ● the Torah was supremely relevant and everything in it was meaningful ● much of the Bible is cryptic ● the Bible is one perfect, harmonious document ● it is the word of G-d ○ The Development of Exegetical Motifs ■ ancient interpreters focused on verses and words, not whole chapters/units ■ site: where the interpretation is based ■ exegetical motif: an explanation of a biblical text that was generally carried orally with the text ● there can be variants of the basic motif ● rival motifs: different explanations for one verse ■ narrative expansion: bits of story added to the biblical text ■ elements: significant details that distinguish one narrative expansion from another ■ midrashic doublets: same Midrash to explain at different sites ■ transfer of affects: an EM will be associated with the wrong verse ■ “overkill is one of the most characteristic features of ancient biblical interpretation ○ Other Jacob Traditions ● Chapter 2: The Ladder of Jacob ○ Introduction ■ Genesis 28:10-22 ■ this is the first time he talks to Jacob ● why is this frightening? ● why are the images necessary? ● what does it all mean? ○ Philo says it represents the ups and downs of life (On Dreams 1:150, 153-56) ○ Changing of the Guard

angels who accompanied him in Israel went up then different diaspora angels went down (Genesis Rabbah 68:12) Angels Had Been Exiled ■ perhaps these angels were ministering angels that were exiled for 138 years ● they revealed the mysteria of G-d ● they said they were the ones destroying Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19:13) A Real Ladder ■ perhaps the ladder was not part of the dream at all but rather an actual ladder with actual angels on it ■ with this, the method of communication is like that with Abraham and Isaac Angels Descending to Admire Jacob ■ why did these angels that were exiled leave right away? ● the Changing of the Guards just created an ad hoc rule that angels can only be for Israel or not; besides, we are not at the border ■ who were these angels coming down? ● they were admiring him and seeing if he matched up to his picture on the Heavenly Throne ● they were going up and down on him, not it (cf. John 1:5051 and Genesis Rabbah 68:12) ■ Palestinian Targum combines elements (Pseudo-Jonathan) ● exiled angels are the ones that tell the other angels to look upon Jacob Rise and Fall of Empires ■ R. Samuel b. Nachman says these are the guardian angels of the various nations and even Rome will descend (Exodus Rabbah 32:7) (see Daniel 10:13) Ensnared on the Staircase of History ■ Jacob did not ascend the ladder even Hashem asked him to (cf. Psalms 78:32) ■ therefore, his descendents would have to be “entangled with the nations” but not forever, Jacob should not be dismayed (Jeremiah 30:10) ■ there are no guardian angels, only the empires themselves ■ the Jewish people will have to climb up, but it will not be easy An Ancient Midrash on Jacob’s Dream ■ Ladder of Jacob we have is a Slavonic translation but the original is probably from Greek from Hebrew/Aramaic from the 2nd Temple Period ■ story elements ● top of the ladder was a man’s face in fire ● 12 steps with faces on each side ● the text literally says that a “head” is on top

12 steps are this age and the 24 faces are the lawless kings that Israel will have to endure because of his sins ● the four ascents mentioned and the 12 steps seems to combine the two previous motifs ● the angel in chapter 5 mentions the four ascents, but it was not mentioned in the original dream\ ○ the subject of Roman domination seems to be stuck in, for it flows much better without it ○ The Twelve Steps of the Staircase ■ variant motif of Staircase of History ■ connection between this motif and that of the Covenant Between the Parts ■ written either before Maccabees or around the early/mid 1st century CE ○ An Overview ■ Rise and Fall (from an amora) probably came after Staircase of History (from a tanna) ● Chapter 3: The Rape of Dinah, and Simeon and Levi’s Revenge ○ Introduction ■ chapter 34 of Genesis ■ we do not know whether or not G-d approves ■ older Bible commentary was in the form of retellings ■ Testaments of the Patriarchs from the 1st century BCE ○ Weapons From Heaven ■ in TOL 2:2 and chapters 5 and 6 ■ Levi ascends to heaven and he is given weapons from angels on high (5:1-3) ● in her prayer, she invokes the G-d of Simeon that He gave a sword to (Judith 9:2) ● “their swords were flashing forth like a flame of fire” and it says that G-d punished the Shechemites (1st century Hellenistic romance Joseph and Aseneth 23:14) ■ one curiosity in the text is ‫ בטח‬in Genesis 34:25 meaning “securely” or “in safety” ● maybe Jacob participated (Genesis Rabbah 80:10 based on Genesis 48:22) ● maybe the swords made them feel secure ■ Jacob might have been talking about their swords in Genesis 49:5 ○ One Son Dissented ■ they acted with guile when they told them to get circumcised (Genesis 34:13) ● it is glossed over in Judith (9:2-4) and in Jubilees (30:1-25) ● no mention of the circumcision in Judith ● the ancients targums change “with guile” to “with wisdom” (cf. Genesis 27:35)

Philo, Josephus, and Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarium also skipped the circumcision ■ there are varying manuscripts in TOL (6:3) whether or not he told Reuben and his father to have the people circumcised A Sincere Proposal ■ it says that all of the brothers proposed the circumcision (Genesis 34:13) ● did they all want to kill the inhabitants? Why did Simeon and Levi act alone? ■ it could be that Simeon and Levi opposed the circumcision and just wanted to kill the inhabitants ● Simeon did not approve of the circumcision idea and told Levi that they should kill the people (Theodotus) ● Levi opposed at first because he was zealous in TOL (6:3) ■ Genesis 34:30 can be read that Simeon and Levi’s actions made Jacob ill (TOL 6:4-7) ■ maybe the reading that they told Jacob and Reuben that the people should be circumcised can be salvaged because they went against Jacob’s will in that they told him that they had reconciled with the people ■ it seems most likely that he did not want to go through with the circumcision ● why would he be portrayed as someone who betrayed his father in such a way even though he is otherwise portrayed quite well ■ it says “I advised my father and Reuben that he should bid the sons of Hamor...” which probably was only “my father” in keeping with the version of Theodotus ■ in this version the circumcision is sincere and Levi is going against the idea of intermarrying that was proposed Killed One Each ■ Levi killed Shechem, Simeon killed Hamor, the brothers smote the city “with the edge of the sword” (TOL 6:4-5) ■ it says the brothers went into the city and pillaged, what do you mean they killed all the inhabitants?(Genesis 34:26) ■ there is a parallel to this account in a passage attributed to Theodotus that’s says that Levi killed Shechem and Simeon killed Hamor and that the brothers helped and carried off the prisoners (first time we learn of prisoners) ● elsewhere he seems to say that Levi and Simeon did kill others on the way ■ Jacob’s blessing (Genesis 49:5-7) says they killed “a man” Shechem Killed because a Foreigner ■ similar to Deuteronomy 22:28-29 ■ he was only supposed to pay and marry her, why was he killed? ● Shechem was a foreigner from one of the Canaanite tribes

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early commentaries stress his foreign nature (cf. Judith 9:2, Jubilees 30:11-14, Josephus Jewish Antiquities 1:331-38) Shechemites Died for Other Crimes ■ they were punished for trying to do this to Sarah and other sins (TOL 6:6-7.1) ■ the Canaanites were sentenced to death anyways (Deuteronomy 7:2, Leviticus 18:24-30) ■ Theodotus also contains the motif of “Shechemites Died for Other Crimes” Other Shechemites Participated ■ perhaps they were actually all involved with the crime itself (see Judith 9:2-4 and Jubilees 30:3-4) ■ note the similarity with Sotah 1:7 and with Rahab (Mechilta D’Rabbi Yishmael, Yitro 1) ■ it does in fact say that they defiled their sister (Genesis 34:27) ■ see also TOL 7:1-3 The Shechemites Other Crimes ■ TOL and Theodotus mention other crimes that made them all guilty ● they did not have honor for anyone and they did not have laws (Theodotus) ● TOL 6:9 also said they did not honor Abraham specifically Shechemites Persecuted Strangers ■ the mistreating of Abraham by the Canaanites is probably an expansion of the Canaanites and the Perizzites were then in the land (Genesis 13:7-8) ■ Jacob mentions the Canaanites and Perizzites after the attack which solidifies the connection (Genesis 34:30) ■ Iblae in TOL might be based on Genesis 24:2 where he addresses his servant as Abdo which might be a proper name (cf. Judges 9:26, Ezra 5:6) “We Disgraced Them” ■ they all were involved in the defilement (TOL 7:1-3) Shechem the Non-People ■ “So I will make them jealous with a non-people” (Deuteronomy 32:21) ● the Samaritans (cf. 2 Kings 17:24-31 and Ben Sira 50:25-26) ● the Samaritans are those inhabitants of Shechem ■ what made the Samaritans foolish as it says in Deuteronomy 32:21? ● the Shechemites act was referred to as a folly (nevela) in Genesis 34:7 ● however this word can also refer to grave sexual offenses (cf. Deuteronomy 22:21; Judges 19:23-24; 20:6,10; 2 Samuel 13:12; Jeremiah 29:23; cf. Hoseah 2:12) as should be translated as outrage

therefore, we say it was called a folly because the sons of Jacob disgraced (nablu) the Shechemites which is why it is called “city of fools” ■ inadvertently the TOL included the motif that they were all involved in the rape (as seen in Jubilees and Judith) (TOL 7:2-3) G-d Ordered the Shechemites’ Death ■ it was a divine command (TOL 5:3; 6:8, 11; Judith 9:2,4; Theodotus; Jubilees 30:5-6; Joseph and Aseneth 23:14) ■ arose from “such a thing ought not to be done” (Genesis 34:7) ● Septuagint renders it “shall not be thus” which makes it a judgment about what took place meaning, perhaps, a divine judgment (cf. Judith 9:2 and Jubilees 30:5) Simeon not Involved ■ non mention in TOS to the Dinah incident ■ Simeon says to his children that they will become “few in number” because of “fornication” ● perhaps alluded to the plague after Zimri (Numbers 1:23 to Numbers 26:14) ● according to TOS there was some conflict with the tribe of Levi that led to diminution in number (TOS 5:4-6) The War Between Simeon and Levi ■ it was hinted at in Genesis 49:5 that they fought with each other and 49:7 that they would be scattered ■ in Moses’ blessing he skips over Simeon (Deuteronomy 33) ■ it is omitted because it was entirely a good thing (cf. Jubilees 30:23) ● in part for this act that Levi was granted priesthood (Jubilees 30:17-18) ■ perhaps the fight between Simeon and Levi is what is referred to after the Golden Calf (Exodus 32:25-28) ■ TOS is more in line with Jubilees and Judith (apparently) that the what happened in Shechem was all good whereas TOL is more balanced and in line with Theodotus Summary and Conclusions ■ TOL contains an interweaving of exegetical motifs ■ “Levi Dissented” and “We Disgraced Them” are unique to TOL ■ two approaches: the TOL-Theodotus and the Jubilees-Judith (more blood-thirsty and xenophobic) The Question of Intermarriage ■ these 2nd Temple-Period Jews had an axe to grind about intermarriage and their support for endogamy ■ by this period intermarriage was deemed a capital offense (see SJD Cohen) ■ the former school mentioned above speaks of Jacob and his sons supported exogamy with the circumcision ■ Ben Sira and Maccabees do not mention exogamy in 2nd century BCE meaning it was not a problem (1 Maccabees 1:15 might)

injunctions against exogamy (TOL 14:5-6; TOJ 13:6-8; TOD 5:4-5) Kugel is not keen on the idea that Christian hands are the reason for the tolerant views of outsiders in TOL ● Chapter 4: Reuben’s Sin With Bilhah ○ Introduction ■ Genesis 35:22 ■ four (!) condemnations of this (Leviticus 18:7, 21:10; Deuteronomy 22:30, 27:20) ○ Reuben’s Punishment ■ he did not get the double portion (Deuteronomy 21:15) as in implied in Genesis 49:3-4 and made explicit in 1 Chronicles 5:1 ○ Saw Bilhah Bathing ■ he saw her bathing and had to sin with her (TOR 3:11-15; Jubilees 33:2; cf. 2 Samuel 11:2) ■ stems from “unstable as water” (pachaz k’mayim) in Genesis 49:3-4 ● most likely actually means wanton/lewd ■ how is water wanton? ● Targum Onkelos says “he followed his own direction like water” ● in Targum Neophyti Reuben is overcome by his desires as a garden is by water ● his wantonness with in/with water ● his sin connected to Deuteronomy 33:6 “Let Reuben live” and says he sinned b’mayim (Genesis Rabbah 98:4) ● with notariqon, pachaz can include a root of “seeing” (cf. Midrash Tanchuma, Vayyechi, 9) ○ Poured Out Like Water ■ Reuben poured out his desires like water (TOR 1:6, cf. Psalms 22:15) ■ Vulgate translation of Genesis 49:4 is “effuses es sicut aqua” meaning “you were poured out like water” ■ two meanings in TOR- he sinned in/with water and his emotions were poured out like water ○ Bilhah was Asleep ■ she was bathing in a covered place (TOR 3:11 and Jubilees 33:2) ■ he did the deed when she was sleeping naked from begin drunk when Jacob was away with Isaac (TOR 3:13-14) ■ she is not drunk and catches Reuben in the act and yells but then does not tell anyone (Jubilees 33:1-6) ■ the blessing makes way for the expansion that he was away and Reuben could just go to his father’s bed ○ An Angel Told Jacob ■ an angel told him and he touched her no more (TOR 3:15) ■ Bilhah tells Jacob when he comes back and he is exceedingly angry with Reuben (Jubilees 33:6-9)
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“Israel heard of it” is interpreted to man that only Jacob heard (Genesis 35:22) ■ “Israel heard of it” in TOR to mean that he heard in an unusual way Bilhah Spurned Forever ■ he never had relations with her again hinted at in the list of children after (Genesis 35:22-23) ■ rare “break in the middle of a verse” before “and the sons of Jacob were 12” Reuben Punished With Illness ■ both got off rather lightly (Jubilees 33:15-17) since the Pentateuch had not been fully realized ■ he was sick for 7 months in his loins and Jacob prayed for it to stop (TOR 1:7-8, 4:4) ● perhaps Moses words (Deuteronomy 33:6) were quoting a prayer uttered by his father Jacob to save him from illness ● Philo attributes the above words to Jacob (On the Change of Names 210) ● also, see Chizkuni, Pseudo- Jonathan, Fragment Targum on this verse ● used as a proof for resurrection of the dead (Sanhedrin 92a) Joseph heads the List ■ TOR 1:7 says he was 30, Jubilees said he was 21 ● Reuben was 13 years older than Joseph (TOR 1:1-2), thus Joseph was 17 and shepherding his sheep (Genesis 37:2) ● says “These are the generation of Jacob: Joseph..” (ibid.) ● Reuben just lost his rights to the double portion and thus Joseph is first Reuben’s Penitent Abstinence ■ he repented for 7 years (TOR 1:9-10) ● Deuteronomy 33:6 indicts that he repented (Sifrei Devarim 347) ■ he must not have been eating with his brothers when they threw Joseph into the pit (Genesis 37:29) (cf. Genesis Rabbah 84:19, Pseudo-Jonathan Genesis 37:29) Watchers Looked Continually ■ women are wily and use their looks to tempt men (TOR 5:1-2) then goes to cite Genesis 6:1-2 when the Watchers mate with the daughters of men ■ other early works do not mention the women’s tempting nature (cf. 1 Enoch 6:2, Ben Sira 16:7, 1 Baruch 3:26-28, Jubilees 5:1-5, etc.) ■ it says that the Watchers say that they were beautiful, hinting at their wiles Summary ■ seems to be a direct literary connection between Jubilees and TOR ● that she was bathing in a covered place serves no exegetical purpose

why was Bilhah spurned in TOR? Seems to be from Jubilees with little thought that it did not fully fit. ● angel telling Jacob might be an attempt to explain the verse “and Israel heard” and allow Bilhah to be asleep ● TOR does not get “poured out like water” from Jubilees ■ overkill in Jubilees for “and Israel heard” ● she was spurned and she only told him ● Chapter 5: How Levi Came to be a Priest ○ Introduction ■ why were they chosen? ● their zealousness with the GC (Exodus 32:25-29) ● from Aaron having been priest (Deuteronomy 10:8) ● Moses blessing in his final blessing (Deuteronomy 33:8-10) ● Jacob himself had been anointed priest ○ Jubilees, 2nd century BCE ○ ALD from DSS and Cairo Genizah ○ TOL (apparently dependent on ALD) ○ Jacob’s Vow ■ after the dream, Jacob makes an oath, renames the place, and sets up a pillar. He also says he will give a tithe (Genesis 28:20-22) ● where did he fulfill this and who did he give it to? ○ it could only be given to a Levite (Numbers 18:2128) ○ the angel (Hoseah 12:4-5) attacked him because he did not go through with it (Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer 37) ○ The Bethel Connection ■ after the Rape of Dinah, G-d tells Jacob to go to Bethel and to build an altar (Genesis 35:1) ● G-d is telling him to pay up (Jewish Antiquities, 1:341) ○ Levi was Appointed a Priest ■ Levi became a priest at Bethel (Jubilees 32:1-9) ● he had a dream and Jacob made his 10th son from the youngest a priest (rival narrative expansions) ○ Levi’s Vengeance Rewarded ■ chosen because he was zealous with the Shechemites (Jubilees 30:18) ○ Isaac Blessed Levi as Priest ■ Jacob takes Levi and Judah to see his father Isaac ● Isaac tells Levi he will be a priest (Jubilees 31:14-16) ■ thus we have four reasons for why he became priest ● dream-vision ● Jacob’s human tithe ● reward for his zeal ● told by Isaac ■ the ideas are presented independently

The ALD ■ fragments in DSS, Cairo, Greek translations in TOL in Greece ■ Levi prays to be close to G-d and he is brought to heaven where 7 angels anoint him as a priest ■ Isaac instructed him on how to be a priest ■ also contains many separate motifs Levi the Human Tithe ■ he was tithed and needed as a priest to receive the tithes ■ where in Jacob’s blessing did he receive the priesthood? ● he was chosen long before at Bethel as the “10th” ■ different method of counting ● 4 first-borns were set aside and Levi came out to be 10th (Pseudo-Jonathan Genesis 32:25 and Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer 37) ■ the tithing was done in Jabbok not in Bethel ● Benjamin was not yet born for the counting A Chain of Priests ■ Adam had been a priest and it was passed on (even the clothes) ■ Jubilees is very keen on this idea and intersperses many later laws on the patriarchs ● according to Jubilees, Jacob was not a priest Jacob Was Not a Priest ■ Jacob does not built an altar or slaughter at Bethel (Genesis 28:1822) ■ the pillar is “for a sign” (Jubilees 27:26) so that a future priest can come back and offer offerings at this spot ■ all Jacob does with Laban is to slaughter for meat (Jubilees 29:7-8) Isaac Blessed Levi ■ Isaac blesses Levi (Jubilees 31:12-14) ■ thus, guided by prophecy Isaac sets up Levi as the next priest A Side-Trip to Hebron ■ when did Levi go see Isaac before Bethel? ● Genesis 35:27 is possible but it is much too late ● speaks of Rebecca’s servant dying with Jacob near Bethel (Genesis 35:1, 7-8) ○ what was she doing with them? She must have come with them when Jacob visited Isaac ■ Jacob wanted his father to come for the sacrifices but he invited him to his house to initiate Levi (Jubilees 31:12-17) ● this is in all 3 accounts Levi’s Two Visions ■ Jubilees mentions the vision in passing in one sentence (32:1) whereas ALD and TOL have two dream visions ■ in the TOL, the first is “Levi’s Apocalypse” ● comes on high to be told the secrets of heaven and the coming judgment (2:7-9, 3:1-10, 4:1)

told of the special role he will play (2:10-12, 4:2-6) his role is in knowledge, not necessarily as a priest (2:10, 4:3) nd ■ the 2 in TOL 8 is “Levi’s Priestly Initiation” ● takes place on earth ● he is established as a priest and his descendants ■ no connection between the two ● probably separate accounts Levi Entered Heaven ■ “Levi’s Apocalypse” ● based on Malachi 2:4-7 ○ he is rebuking the priests of his day ○ it says that a covenant was made with him, perhaps implying with Levi himself ○ maybe he literally walked with G-d in Heaven An Angel Opened the Gates ■ the angel that initiated Levi in TOL (and probably ALD) is also hinted at in Malachi ■ the above text is understood as meaning that he descended (Berachot 12b) Echoes of Malachi ■ Aseneth loved Levi because he knew heavenly secrets and that he attached himself (Levi) to the L-rd (Joseph and Aseneth 22:13) ■ Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer 37 also reflects this tradition from Malachi (even alluding to 3:10) of Levi ascending to Heaven Seven “Men” Anoint Levi ■ in ALD and TOL, 7 men in white robes anoint Levi ● not anchored in Malachi Historical Relations ■ some ALD manuscripts from Qumran seem to be as early as 125100 BCE ■ some suggest it goes all the way back to the 3rd century BCE Relationship to Jubilees ■ agreement between ALD and Jubilees ● how Levi was elevated to priesthood ● the visit to Isaac ● Levi’s vision at Bethel ■ Jubilees dated to 2nd century BCE ■ not clear which is earlier, but no reason to assume ALD is ● ALD speaks of kings coming from Levi most likely dating it to after the Hasmoneans (second half of the 2nd century BCE) ■ Qumran had 15 separate copies of Jubilees ● many differences between the laws at Qumran and in Jubilees (e.g. Jubilees rejected a lunar calendar, had different Sabbath laws, did not mention a coming Messiah, etc.)
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no mention in Jubilees of the Hasmonean rule or the Seleucid revolt, placing it before 175 BCE ■ seems to be evidence that ALD borrowed from Jubilees ● the visit to Isaac is one sentence is and serves a clear exegetical purpose in Jubilees ■ Jubilees dates events and names unnamed people (as does ALD) ○ A Composite Work ■ ALD must have had other sources with all it its overkill and contradictions ● 2 angelic visions ● 4 accounts of how he became priest ● Levi says he died at 137 (12:9) but then refers to his last words at 118 (trying to reconcile multiple sources) ● careful exegesis of Genesis 35 led to Jubilee’s idea that they made a trip to Isaac’s house ● it is puzzling that it is only during their second visit to Isaac does he tell him about how to be a priest ● Levi wakes up from his dream and says “I just had two dreams. Why should I even have had 1?”, which is the author’s way of hinting at multiple sources ○ How the ALD Came to Be ■ seems to be that the Hasmoneans wanted a Levi document that stitched different traditions together (cf. Enoch) ■ Levi the Sage, not Levi the Priest, that receives primary focus in the first source ■ Hebraisms can be seen in the ALD ■ second source focuses on the priesthood ● probably independent and not a creation from the Hasmoneans writers, for why would they add a second dream scene and include the instructions from Isaac in the second visit ○ Once Again, Two Journeys ■ the author needed the non-Pentateuchal laws of sacrifice from Isaac to Levi (from Abraham) and he only knew of the visit to Isaac mentioned in the Torah ● Jubilees put the instructions back in the first visit and in the mouth of Abraham to Isaac) ● Chapter 6: Judah and the Trial of Tamar ○ Introduction ■ Judah offers himself in place of Benjamin (Genesis 44:33) and is given the kingship (Genesis 49:10) ■ but what of Genesis 38? ○ “She Wins: I’m the Father” ■ when Judah says “She is more righteous than me” he means “she is right- to me [belongs the goods]” (Onkelos and Neophyti Genesis 38:26)

A Court Proceeding ■ when Judah says “let her be burned” (Genesis 38:24), this must have been referring to some trial in court ● Genesis Rabbah 85:11 in which G-d testifies as well ● Midrash Tanchuma 1:187 The Testament of Judah ■ some hint to the court proceedings in Jubilees 41:28 ■ in the TOJ, he confesses to his weakness for alcohol and love of money Judah the Drunkard ■ Jacob’s blessing contains many references to wine (Genesis 49:11) ● same idea about eyes dark from drinking wine (Proverbs 23:29-30) Money-Hungry Judah ■ from Genesis 37:26, for he asks what the gain will be for throwing him in the pit (Onkelos makes it stronger with “what money do we stand to gain...”) The Testaments and the Septuagint ■ some of the Testaments clearly dependent on Hebrew/Aramaic sources (e.g. TOL on ALD) ■ M. De Jonge held they were ab initio in Greek ■ seems to be that they are based off of the Septuagint Issachar the Farmer ■ Issachar is never called a farmer in the biblical text but “worker for tribute” (Genesis 49:14-15) is rendered as farmer in the Septuagint (which is attested to in the TOI) ■ there is no proof from this that it was based off the Septuagint, for who is to say that it was not a commonly held view? ■ Samaritan Targum likewise renders it “tenant farmer” ■ also, the love of wine and money would be lost with a knowledge of only the Septuagint The Waters of Kozeba ■ Judah says he drank from the waters of Kozeba (12:3) and thus did not recognize her ● says Judah was in Khezib when his wife bore Shelah (Genesis 38:5) ■ he was deceived when he married his wife and when he had relations with Tamar “Before the Eyes of All” ■ Judah was not sure if it was Tamar that he went to (TOJ 12:7-10) ■ there were no other witnesses to the incident (Genesis 38:21) ● what to make of “before the eyes of all I turned aside to Tamar” (14:5) ■ overkill on the meaning of petach ainayim Tamar Told Him the Secret Words ■ she told him the secret words he said in his drunkenness (12:5-6)

she first sent the collaterals and then they had meeting when she told the words ● it says he was put to shame by them being sent privately, which is an error ○ see Berachot 43b, that Tamar would not embarrass Judah ○ A Divine Voice Called Out ■ in Genesis Rabbah 85:12, G-d tells Judah to say what he knows (that he slept with her) and He will say who the child belongs to ■ in Genesis Rabbah 85:12, G-d says “from me”, meaning he revealed that the child was Judah’s ■ two rival motifs on what the secret things were ● G-d revealing or Tamar revealing ● seems to be the phrase “secret words” was known to TOJ but he misinterpreted them ● Chapter 7: A Prayer About Jacob and Israel From the Dead Sea Scrolls ○ Introduction ■ DSS might be the greatest manuscript discovery in history ■ most things found were fragments ■ 4Q369 was misunderstood ● seems to be talking about the biblical Enosh (genesis 5:6-11) for it talks about his grandson Mahalel (Genesis 5:12-17) ● not about Enoch, Enosh, or some messianic figure ○ the first-born is Israel (Exodus 4:22) ○ Heavenly “Sabbath Gentiles” ■ who is to say that G-d did not cease resting and that he rests on subsequent Sabbaths? ● a pagan asks Akiva why nature still works on the Sabbath (Genesis Rabbah 11:5) ● G-d still creates on the Sabbath (Allegories of the Law, 1:18) ■ only G-d and the 2 highest classes of angels rested, so too only the Jews rest (Jubilees 2:17-20) the rest of the angels (Jubilees 2:2) work ○ G-d Thought of Israel First ■ Israel’s existence was conceived to observe the Sabbath during the first Sabbath, making them firstborns (ibid. Jubilees) ○ Firstborn by Dint of Discipline ■ 4Q369 seems to say that Israel is a firstborn in that they are beloved to Him like a firstborn ● becomes firstborn when the laws are given ■ His fatherly disciple makes us his sons (i.e. firstborn) (Words of the Luminaries) ■ His disciple makes us His sons (Ben Sira 17:17-18) ■ “your discipline is upon us as a firstborn” (Psalms of Solomon 18:34)

Korach’s sons say “if we walk in His ways, we will be His sons” (Pseudo-Philo, LAB 16:5) ■ perhaps he is firstborn in the sense that the sale of Esau’s birthright was approved (Ben Sira 44:22-23 and Exodus Rabbah 5:7) No Angel Over Israel ■ boundaries of nations was established according to the “number of the sons of (Isra)el” but Israel got G-d as a portion (Deuteronomy 32:8-9) ● cf. Jubilees 15:30-32 for this idea of other nations being ruled over by angels to be led astray ● cf. Ben Sira 17:17 for the same idea G-d Appointed a Guardian Angel ■ is not Michael Israel’s angel? (Daniel 12:1; 10:13, 21) ■ Qumran speaks of the Prince of Lights and the Angel of Darkness that rule over the righteous/wicked ■ Michael is against the angel of Persia/Greece (Daniel 10:13, 20) ■ 4Q369 does not evoke the motif of “No Angel Over Israel” but speaks of the divine designation of Israel’s territory Israel’s Guardian, the Angel of Peace ■ ancient sages searched the Bible for Israel’s guardian angel’s name and existence ● “Behold, Erellim cry outside, angels of peace weep bitterly (Isaiah 33:7-9) ● angel of peace mentioned in TOD (6:5) ● depending on how hard it is for the soul to leave the body if the person met the angel of peace or Satan (TOA 6:4-6) ● also see TOB 6:1 ■ 2 explanations for the meaning of “angels of peace” ● they intercede for the peace of Israel ● they greet the souls that depart in peace ● 4Q369 seems to understand the angel of peace like TOD 6:5 (i.e. a national angel for Israel) Israel Rules the World ■ Israel and his descendants would be princes and rulers over the nations ● Isaac’s blessing to Jacob said that his mother’s children would serve him (Genesis 27:28-29) G-d Clarified His Statutes ■ He clarified his statutes to Israel in his beneficence ● either it was clarified through last wills, etc. (i.e. Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha) ● or there a line of transmission from Moses ○ often hinted at in the Torah ● Moses will come down and clarify the law to us, says Aaron (Pseudo-Philo, LAB 12:2)

seems to be that this was composed at a time when Israel was less polarized and a time before the idea of “Prince of Light/Darkness” The Torah is an Eternal Light ■ the idea of Torah as a light found in 4Q369 and even Proverbs 6:23, the Torah as a fiery law (Deuteronomy 33:2), the Lepidim on Sinai (Exodus 20:18) ● also, Pseudo-Philo, LAB 11:1, 9:7, 15:6, 19:4; 2 Baruch 17:4, 18:1-2; 2 Baruch 59:2 speaks of G-d giving light (Torah) to the Jews ● it is eternal because it illuminates like a lamp, but does not go out Conclusion ■ 1st column is not clear ■ 2nd talks about the good things G-d gave to Israel ■ creativity and scholarly care were put into these works ■ Jubilees’ main goal was to make sense of Genesis 28 and 35 ■ these exegetical tales are like a ladder that goes up to heaven to glorify scripture

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