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e point g(x) = y, we want to compute the derivative of the composite function f (g(x)) at the point x. In other words, we want to compute f (g(x + h)) f (g(x)) . h0 h lim The answer involves the derivative of the outer function f and the derivative of the inner function g. Specically, d(f g) = (f g) (x) = (f (g(x)) = f (g(x)) g (x). dx To prove this rule we rst set up some notation. We are assuming that the function g(x) is dierentiable at the point x. This means that the number g (x) exists and is equal to our limit denition of the derivative, and so g(x + h) g(x) g (x) 0 as h 0. h We dene a new variable v by v= g(x + h) g(x) g (x). h

Notice that v depends on the number h and that v 0 as h 0. Similarly, because we are assuming the function f is dierentiable at the point y = g(x) we have f (y + k) f (y) f (y) 0 as k 0, k

where here we are using the variable k to stand for the h we normally use. Again, we dene another variable w by f (y + k) f (y) w= f (y). k Again, notice that w depends on k and that w 0 as k 0. From our denitions of v and w it follows that g(x + h) = g(x) + [g (x) + v]h f (y + k) = f (y) + [f (y) + w]k We now use these equations to rewrite f (g(x + h)). In particular, use the rst equation to obtain f (g(x + h)) = f (g(x) + [g (x) + v]h), and use the second equation applied to the right-hand-side with k = [g (x) + v]h and y = g(x). Note that using this quantity for k tells us that k 0 as h 0, and so w 0 as h 0. Applying this equation gives f (g(x) + [g (x) + v]h) = f (g(x)) + [f (g(x)) + w] [g (x) + v]h. Using this last equation we now simplify the fraction f (g(x + h)) f (g(x)) f (g(x)) + [f (g(x)) + w] [g (x) + v]h f (g(x)) = h h = [f (g(x)) + w] [g (x) + v]h h

2

We are now ready to compute the derivative: f (g(x + h)) f (g(x)) = lim [f (g(x)) + w] [g (x) + v] h0 h0 h lim = lim f (g(x)) + lim w

h0 h0

h0

h0

= f (g(x)) g (x), since v 0 as h 0 and w 0 as h 0. The Flawed Proof Many calculus texts present an incorrect proof of the chain rule that goes as follows: (f g) (x) = lim 1 g (x) f (g(x + h)) f (g(x)) h0 h f (g(x + h)) f (g(x)) h f (g(x + h)) f (g(x)) g(x + h) g(x) h g(x + h) g(x)

(f g) (x)

= lim

h0

= lim

h0

= f (g(x)).

Therefore (f g) (x) = f (g(x)) g (x). For 3 bonus points, explain why this proof is technically incorrect.

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