Applied Thermal Engineering 32 (2012) 49e58

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Applied Thermal Engineering
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Ventilation and internal structure effects on naturally induced flows in a static aircraft wing
Daithí Moore a, *, David Newport a, Vanessa Egan a, Vesna Lacarac b
a b

Stokes Institute, Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland AIRBUS, Filton BS997AR, United Kingdom

a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 25 January 2010 Accepted 12 August 2011 Available online 19 August 2011 Keywords: Natural convection Enclosure Ventilation Partitioning Thermal management

a b s t r a c t
The ventilation performance within an aircraft wing leading edge is investigated for a number of enclosure and ventilation configurations. The natural convection regime present is found to be highly sensitive to enclosure conditions, particularly the introduction of a partition. The presence of a partition reduced the overall heat exhausted from the cavity by up to 60%. The optimum ventilation strategy is also changed from a forward biased vent orientation (found for the unpartitioned case), to one where both the rear and front vents within the enclosure had the same open area. Cylinder plume effects dominate within the enclosure and were the main driver of the convective regime, with steady-state enclosure conditions highly dependent upon cylinder placement and plume orientation. An externally heated enclosure with internal heat source, combined with ventilation and an internal structure produced a complex natural convection regime which is sensitive to enclosure conditions. Hence an adequate knowledge of such conditions is necessary in order to fully appreciate the convective regime. Ó 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1. Introduction Natural convection within enclosures is extensively researched due to its presence in a wide range of engineering systems from electronic housing to solar collectors, nuclear reactors etc., where thermal management of equipment is of vital importance. One such scenario involves the convective regime within an aircraft wing leading edge. Due to aerodynamic and structural requirements placed upon aircraft wings, the enclosures within are typically of a non-standard shape when compared to those commonly investigated in natural convection studies. This presents a challenge as the convective regime is set up as a direct result of the exterior geometrical constraints and can be quite difficult to predict. The regime is further complicated by the presence of various heat loads placed on the enclosure. These occur both from within due to the presence of electronic components and vital aircraft functions such as the transport of engine bleed air to the main fuselage along with exterior heat loads such as solar loading upon the aircraft skin. In the presence of elevated environmental conditions, such as in hot desert climates, a thermally aggressive environment exists which could result in components experiencing temperatures outside their safe operating range. In such cases this aggressive thermal

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ353 363 61 202471. E-mail address: daithi.moore@ul.ie (D. Moore). 1359-4311/$ e see front matter Ó 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.08.018

environment must be reduced in order to ensure optimum aircraft operation. Typical investigations into enclosure natural convection have included both square and rectangular cavities of varying aspect ratios, where the thermal boundary conditions are limited to heated from the sides [1e7] or heated from below [8e14]. Little attention has been given to heating from above, as the expected result in this case is one of fluid stratification along with the inhibition of any convective motion. In order to initiate convective motion in an enclosure heated from above, a thermal gradient must be present along the height of the enclosure. This can exist either due to an imposed thermal boundary [15e18], or a thermally conductive vertical wall [19e21]. The resultant flow structure is complex with significant changes occurring over time. Local heat fluxes from the upper and lower enclosure walls are also sensitive to the thermal boundary conditions of the vertical walls [15]. The influence of enclosure shape has been extensively studied with tilted square and rectangular geometries [27e30], triangular and trapezoidal enclosures [31e34] and non-standard enclosures such as elliptical [35], wavy [36], backward and forward stepped [37,38] enclosures investigated. Typically, for lower enclosure Ra numbers, stratification and conduction within the fluid dominates. Increasing Ra produces a convective structure that is highly dependant on the enclosure geometry and as a result the final flow field and heat transfer characteristics can be enclosure specific. The presence of an internal structure within an enclosure can also

as this allows a direct path for the entrained or forced fluid to enter. it is often for generic enclosures and boundary conditions. The effect of ventilation configuration and efficiency will be analysed for a number of different enclosure configurations in order to determine the optimum ventilation strategy along with determining the influence of the enclosure upon the regime. When considering a ventilation solution. with markedly different performance noted between configurations. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of ventilation upon the conditions present within a wing leading edge when the aircraft is operating in high ambient temperature conditions. more buoyant fluid through the upper opening. Cesini [22] and De & Delal [23] showed that the interaction of a horizontal cylinder with its enclosure is highly dependent upon cylinder positioning and enclosure aspect ratio with an optimum value of each depending on Rayleigh number. / Applied Thermal Engineering 32 (2012) 49e58 Nomenclature A Cp D H L QEX R* Ra T* T U V X* Y* vent open area (m2) specific heat of air at constant pressure (J/kg K) enclosure depth (m) enclosure height (m) enclosure width (m) heat exhausted from the enclosure (W) vent ratio Rayleigh number non-dimensional temperature local temperature (K) local velocity (m/s) global velocity (m/s) non-dimensional horizontal distance [x/L] non-dimensional vertical distance [y/H] Greek symbols 3 ventilation efficiency q vent inclination angle (rad) r density (kg/m3) Subscripts A exit to average enclosure temperature ratio Avg averaged across the interior domain C cold surface Exit measured at exit vent boundary H hot surface I exit to inlet flow temperature ratio Inlet measured at inlet vent boundary n normal to vent boundary x. The non-dimensional temperature within the enclosure is based on the following expression T* ¼ T À TC TH À TC (1) TA is the ratio of the exit vent temperature averaged across the vent boundary to the average enclosure temperature is defined as follows TA ¼ * TExit * TAverage (2) The temperature rise between the inlet vent temperature and the exit vent temperature is based upon the following expression TI ¼ * TInlet * TExit (3) The enclosure ventilation efficiency based on the enclosure temperature distribution is given as follows 3 ¼ TExit À TInlet TAverage À TInlet (4) The velocity passing normal to the vent boundary is found by the expression .44] due to the ease of removal of the hotter. The performance advantage of a displacement over mixing ventilation regime is also well documented [45e48] From the literature it is clear that while there are a large number of studies on enclosure natural convection. certain findings appear to be applicable across a wide number of scenarios. The influence of a confining wall has also been shown to be highly significant [24e26] and can have both a positive or negative influence on cylinder Nusselt number depending on proximity to the wall. with a decrease in heat transfer from the enclosure with a reduction in vent height [45]. This is highly relevant to the non-standard nature of the wing leading edge. Enclosures in industrial applications are typically not empty but contain objects such as partitions which can seriously inhibit the internal convective flow structure. Moore et al. Placing ventilation openings at the upper surface proves to be the most beneficial [43. Having more than one ventilation opening is also desirable. 2. Global efficiency measurements are compared to local enclosure measurements in order to determine their accuracy in describing the resultant flow conditions when used in the design of ventilation for non-standard geometries such as aircraft wing leading edges. The influence of the bleed duct position is also investigated as it is the dominant contributor to the convective regime and its position will ultimately influence the final enclosure conditions and ventilation performance.50 D. y global velocity components dramatically affect the convective regime [39. This is often in the form of enclosure ventilation. it is often the case that the heating and ventilation regime are highly specific and any knowledge gained from a particular investigation may not be directly applicable to other situations [42]. Ventilation placement is of vital importance. interact within and exit the enclosure relatively unobstructed [45]. Due to the strict size and weight restrictions placed upon aircraft designs. Placing the ventilation openings on the lowest enclosure surface is highly ineffective. The introduction of an internal heat source into an enclosure significantly alters the flow structures within the enclosure. The heat transfer is also inhibited due to the confinement of high temperature fluid to certain regions of the enclosure and in extreme scenarios can reduce the enclosure Nusselt number by up to 75% [41]. However.40]. Theory The analysis of the convective regime within the ventilated enclosure is carried out by considering the following parameters. The presence of high heat loads in enclosures requires an effective method of removing heat from the enclosure. often with little difference noted between a ventilated and unventilated enclosure. a passive ventilation system may be the only viable form of enclosure cooling. Typically a simple solution is to introduce forced convection cooling into the enclosure.

two ventilation openings are placed along the lower surface of the enclosure as shown in Fig. Upper surface heated to 100  C (Th). 0. Dashed lines indicate positions of horizontal and vertical centrelines within the enclosure along which temperatures are recorded.25. which provided isothermal conditions on the enclosure surfaces.5. An isothermal horizontal cylinder is also present in the enclosure with its location outlined by positions (a).75) and vertical (X* ¼ 0.1e0.75) positions within the enclosure. 2. Lower surface heated to 70  C (Tc).25. The enclosure is surrounded by approximately 50 mm of fibreglass insulation to minimise any heat loss to the environment. The temperature distribution within the enclosure is obtained by the placement of calibrated K-type thermocouples within the enclosure. In order to heat the enclosure to the prescribed conditions. Bleed duct positions: (a). A narrow glass window is also present in the rear wall of the leading edge to allow laser sheet entry into the enclosure. 2. (1) Data acquisition PC. (5) exterior enclosure. This consisted of an Nd-YAG laser and CCD (charge-coupled device) camera interfaced to a data acquisition personal computer via a synchroniser. 2 is placed into an external enclosure measuring 1. mats is attached to a Eurotherm 2216e PID controller.2 m (L) Â 0. Leading edge geometry. its particle diameter of typically 0.2 m (H) Â 1. 0.6 m (D). In order to allow optical access into the enclosure for recording PIV imagery. It consisted of a curved aluminium skin of 3 mm thick attached to a vertical aluminium wall 10 mm thick. 1. with the rear of the enclosure sealed by a polycarbonate sheet. The rear wall is isolated from contact with the upper and lower heated surfaces by rubber insulation placed between the surfaces. as well as four monitoring the exterior enclosure temperature. Enclosure height (H) and length (L). A representative wing leading edge enclosure was constructed. Cylinder position Partition e e Case 2 A e Case 3 A Yes Case 4 B Yes Case 5 C Yes . verified by the placement of thermocouples on the interior surfaces. The position of these openings are limited due to wing design. (2) synchroniser. Temperatures are recorded by two Stanford Research Systems SR630 16 channel thermocouple readers and an Agilent 34970A datalogger. The cylinder consists of a 50 mm diameter aluminium cylinder which is 580 mm long. A PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system is used to obtain the flow field within the enclosure.5. 0. These openings are 50 mm in width and extend the depth of the enclosure. two 500 W Elemex thin film rubber backed heater mats are applied to the upper and lower enclosure surfaces (Th and Tc) with a 250 W mat attached to the horizontal cylinder surface. Five thermocouples are also placed along the inlet and exit vent respectively. (6) optical access.43] deemed sufficiently small to accurately follow the flow field within the enclosure. 1. Experimental schematic. (b) and (c) depending on enclosure configuration. The interior leading edge enclosure dimensions are 300 mm (H) Â 550 mm (L) Â 600 mm (D). (b) and (c) of Fig. where drainage openings suitable for ventilation are present on the lower surface of the wing only which is replicated by the location of the vent openings in the current study. The test section presented in Fig. 0. The flow was seeded using incense smoke. / Applied Thermal Engineering 32 (2012) 49e58 51 Un ¼ VX cos q þ VY sin q The mass flow rate exiting the enclosure is obtained from (5) Z _ m ¼ r A Un (6) QEX is the heat exhausted from the cavity by the exit vent and is given by _ QEx ¼ mCp ðTExit À TInlet Þ (7) 3. Details of the enclosure configuration used for the cases under investigation are outlined in Table 1.D. (3) Nd-YAG laser. The incense smoke was first introduced into the outer enclosure and left for 30 min in order to achieve neutral buoyancy Table 1 Enclosure geometrical configuration Cases 1e5. Moore et al. Case 1 Fig. Each of the heater Fig. Air temperatures are recorded at three horizontal (Y* ¼ 0. (4) CCD camera. Experimentation The experimental setup used throughout testing is presented in Fig. a glass window is placed at the front of the enclosure.5 mm [42. All temperature measurements are recorded at steady-state conditions which are defined as no greater than 0.5  C change per hour. In order to determine the impact of introducing ventilation to the enclosure. 2. The system typically took between 5 and 6 h to reach this condition. and (7) thermocouple reader.

Moving the bias forward tends to increase the average enclosure T* shown in Fig. This is present in all three cases investigated.25. The camera has a resolution of 1600 Â 1200 and records at 30 Hz. Results and discussion The ventilation performance within a wing leading edge geometry is presented for a number of enclosure configurations. The vented enclosure with the cylinder shows an almost symmetrical profile. 3 but also increases the temperature of the air exiting the enclosure. Comparison of average enclosure temperature with vent configurations for the three cases investigated: ->-. An AF Micro Nikkor 50 mm f/1. back and total vent openings in the enclosure. T* increases when moving towards a rear (R* ¼ À1) or forward (R* ¼ 1) biased venting scenario. Case 2.75 and Y* ¼ 0. The entrainment of exterior air into the enclosure via the rear enclosure opening is not effective in contributing to the reduction in enclosure air temperature for this configuration. TA.1.76 at R* ¼ 0. 343 K and 408 K.75. Ventilation performance In order to determine the effect of ventilation configuration upon the leading edge. This suggests that an optimum value of TA exists when R* ¼ 0.6). Local flow and temperature distributions are presented providing an insight into the natural convection structures present in order to account for any enclosure effects which are not represented in the global ventilation measurements. as expected.605 and 0.8. lower and cylinder surfaces heated to 373 K.5. respectively.25. 2. where AFront. ABack and ATotal are the percentage open area of the front. 3. 3. Three different cylinder positions are considered within the enclosure. 0. 3. 0. as well as the inclusion of a non-conductive partition as illustrated in Fig.5 Â 10À5. The influence of bleed duct placement upon enclosure conditions and ventilation performance is also investigated. This increases the average temperature within the enclosure and coupled with the recirculation caused by the mixing ventilation at the open vent leads to a reduction in the temperature at the exit vent. Comparing the average enclosure temperature to the temperature of air exiting at the front vent of the enclosure. The temperature distributions exhibit a general trend whereby the lowest enclosure temperatures are recorded at R* ¼ 0. Case 1. This is attributed to the location of the larger open area front vent beyond the partition in the enclosure. The introduction of the isothermal cylinder increases the average T* from 0. This is to assess the impact of different conditions such as enclosure partitioning and bleed duct placement on the ventilation regime within.2 D lens was attached to the camera which operated at an aperture of f/2. with the upper. 2. The empty enclosure demonstrates slightly lower T* values when the vent openings are biased towards the rear of the enclosure. and -Δ-. For the partitioned case a similar increase in T* is noted for forward biased venting. This suggests that having the vent openings biased towards the rear of the enclosure is more beneficial both for a single vent (R* ¼ À1) and two vent openings of different magnitude (R* ¼ À0. respectively.5 mm laser sheet focused 500 mm from the lens. / Applied Thermal Engineering 32 (2012) 49e58 with the flow present within the enclosure before testing commenced. This results in a Rayleigh number based on the cylinder diameter of 6. During testing a number of different geometrical configurations are considered.58 to 0. All fluid properties are taken at the film temperature. 4. Case 3. 4. This leads to the increase in TA shown.6 to 1 seen in Cases 1 and 2 is not present in Case 3 when the partition is introduced. both vents equally open at R* ¼ 0 and only open at the front of the enclosure at R* ¼ 1. The geometric configurations are outlined in Table 1 in conjunction with Fig. to a much greater degree than the increase in the average interior T*. 4.5. The empty enclosure is. The average enclosure T* is presented for a varying R* under three different enclosure configurations in Fig. All cases are subjected to identical thermal boundary conditions. the vent ratio Fig. including a horizontal isothermal cylinder and a solid enclosure partition. with T* at 0. in Fig. . with the partitioned enclosure slightly lower at 0. compared to the optimal T* at R* ¼ 0 in Fig. the average temperature is comparable to that of a single vent only case and seems to provide no benefit as regards to the internal enclosure temperature. R* ¼ AFront À ABack ATotal is varied. Varying this parameter leads to a sole vent at the rear of the enclosure at R* ¼ À1. Due to the obstruction of the ventilation path caused by the partition its ability to remove the high temperature fluid from the rear partitioned section is restricted.52 D. TA then drops off significantly when only a single vent is open at the front of the enclosure (R* ¼ 1). The increase in T* from R* ¼ 0. The partition represents a subspar which is also present within the leading edge enclosure. 0.-. 0. Laser optics produce a 1. Image acquisition was controlled by the TSI Insight 3G software package connected to a 2 Megapixel Powerview 2M Plus CCD camera. The sharp drop off in TA for Case 2 at R* ¼ 1 can be attributed to the inability of the cylinder to entrain exterior air into the enclosure as the cylinder is directly above the rear vent which is closed at R* ¼ 1. an increase occurs when going towards a front biased venting configuration.6. at the lowest overall enclosure temperature. -. Moore et al. with an obvious minimum T* at R* ¼ 0.6. producing a sharp drop in TA. The average enclosure temperature remains approximately constant in the enclosure when any forward biased ventilation scheme is used with the presence of a partition. respectively.775. where both vent openings are of similar size at the front and rear of the enclosure.635 for R* ¼ À1 and 1. The flow field was illuminated using a double pulsed 400 mJ Nd-Yag laser (532 nm) with a maximum operating frequency of 90 Hz. The overall enclosure air temperature is recorded at steady-state conditions and averaged over the six measurement planes: X* ¼ 0. with a maximum found at R* ¼ 0.

The enclosure flow structures for the cases with and without the partition are presented in Fig. the high temperature plume tends to remain in the upper region of the enclosure and does not significantly interact with the enclosure. a trend which was also noted in TA and TI. Due to the shape of the leading edge and the placement of ventilation holes. whereas Case 3 does not. causing the airflow which passes over the lower surface to be forced back towards the rear of the enclosure where it is entrained by the cylinder. some benefit can be gained by placing the vent opening towards the front of the enclosure as opposed to the rear. Moore et al. The temperature rise TI taken between the inlet and outlet vent for the various ventilation and enclosure configurations is presented in Fig. Once the partition is introduced into the enclosure. The curved shape of the enclosure means that the front vent is higher than the rear vent. -. and -Δ-. -. and this is generally perceived to be advantageous with regard to displacement ventilation performance [45e48].6 compared to R* ¼ À0. Overall enclosure ventilation efficiency: ->-. / Applied Thermal Engineering 32 (2012) 49e58 53 Fig. Even with this limitation it can be seen that having the ventilation regime biased towards the front. 5. Temperature rise in the ventilation flow based on the inlet and outlet temperature difference: ->-.D. -. 4. Case 2. This suggests that the introduction of a partition causes a change in the optimum ventilation strategy for the enclosure. and the partitioned case showing maximum efficiency at R* ¼ 0. with an unpartitioned leading edge benefiting from a forward biased ventilation solution. The ventilation path between the rear and front vent openings is blocked by the presence of the partition. there is not a large difference in the vent heights with regard to the overall enclosure height. 8.-. Ratio of average enclosure temperature to the exit flow: ->-. The partitioned enclosure in Case 3 shows no benefit in moving towards either a front or rear biased venting configuration. Case 2. and -Δ-.-. This means that the outlet flow at the front vent is exhausted through a narrower opening than the case without the partition. Fig. Case 3. Case 1. the plume is observed to be highly damped and orients towards the rear wall of the enclosure. The remainder of the enclosure remains relatively stagnant and exhibits a degree of stratification. . especially when deviating from R* ¼ 0. For the other cases. The flow is dominated by the cylinder plume recirculating anti-clockwise in the region adjacent to the vertical wall and the ventilation path along the lower enclosure surface. meaning the air exiting the enclosure at the front vent remains relatively cool as it has not mixed with the high temperature air in the enclosure to any great extent. higher vent tends to increase the ventilation performance. particularly Case 2. Cases 1 and 2 show an increase in efficiency when moving towards a forward biased ventilation regime. Case 3. and -Δ-. 5. 6. In the unpartitioned case. effectively reducing the open area of the vent used to remove high temperature air from the enclosure. Case 1. The overall enclosure ventilation efficiencies are presented in Fig. Case 2. A region of backflow into the enclosure is also present at the front vent opening where a small antilockwise recirculation occurs. Case 1. Moving towards the single vent at the lowest point of the enclosure Fig. 6.-. The influence of enclosure partitioning is particularly evident with a large reduction in 3 . It then travels along the upper surface of the enclosure into the front partitioned space where it attaches to the vertical partition before exiting at the front vent. The mixing of the buoyant thermal plume from the cylinder with the core region contributes to this effect. A vent ratio of 0 provides an optimum value for TI for all cases considered. with TI greater at R* ¼ 0. although there is a maximum temperature rise present at R* ¼ 0.6 for both the empty enclosure (Case 1) and with the horizontal cylinder (Case 2). Case 3.

the plume sets up an anti-clockwise recirculation in the left hand side of the enclosure near the rear wall. This change in optimum position implies that the effect of partitioning cannot be underestimated towards understanding the ventilation within an enclosure.1. The increase in temperature in the front partitioned space is mainly a direct result of the high temperature plume that flow attaches to the rear wall. 7(b). The measurement planes along which the air temperature values are recorded are indicated by the dashed lines in Fig.6. Its effect must be considered when analysing the ventilation regime in an enclosure. 7. and -Δ-. a distinct rise in T* is noted beyond the partition. This aids in the mixing of the high temperature plume flow within the region adjacent to the rear wall due to the unsteadiness of the plume. For Case 2. . the empty enclosure exhibits the lowest T* along the enclosure height. For the partitioned case. The steady-state temperatures along the enclosure centrelines and the conductive rear wall are presented along with PIV velocity vector fields of the enclosure flow. with a linearly increasing T* present along the enclosure vertical centreline height. For the empty enclosure there is a slight gradient present below Y* ¼ 0. This is further evidence that partitioning obstructs the ventilation path present along the lower surface of the enclosure. as was to be expected. attributed to the ventilation path between the rear and front vent passing directly over the lower enclosure surface. The partition will in effect only allow the higher temperature fluid from the rear to enter into the front partitioned space. Case 1.42 to 0. 7(a). (b) Vertical centreline.46.69 to 0. The empty enclosure (Case 1) is at the lowest average T*.76. Once again. The cylinder plume orientation also plays an important role in the temperature distributions within the enclosure. A drop in T* is noticeable at Y* ¼ 0. (c) Rear wall. agreeing with the T* values present in Fig. (a) Horizontal interline. Case 3.2) compared to Case 1. changing the local conditions surrounding the cylinder significantly. For the partitioned case. shown in Fig. a difference in the temperature profile along the enclosure height is evident for the different geometrical conditions considered. The temperature profiles exhibit an approximately constant T* across the enclosure width. ->-. The time averaged plume structures for the cylinder only and partitioned cases are presented in Fig. travelling along the upper surface of the enclosure and into the front section above the partition. This highlights the effect of the introduction of the partition in creating two separate temperature regions. 3. Local enclosure conditions The local velocity and temperature distributions presented in this section are taken at R* ¼ 0. The rear wall temperatures are shown in Fig. particularly the wing leading edge. This is also seen in Case 2. hence it is this fluid which is removed at the front exit vent. 7(c). Temperature distributions within the enclosure for R* ¼ 0 for the three cases investigated. One possible reason for this change in plume structure is the partition changes the aspect ratio of the rear section of the enclosure where the plume is present. / Applied Thermal Engineering 32 (2012) 49e58 decreases performance. Case 2.2. Along the vertical centreline in Fig. Moore et al. 2 are presented in Fig. This was chosen as it was seen to be the best performing scenario for the partitioned enclosure which is the most representative of the actual leading edge during operations. increasing from 0. 8. with the cylinder only case (Case 2) the highest. which then travels along the upper enclosure surface.2) and the remainder of the enclosure (Y* > 0. This flow structure is not present in the partitioned case.54 D. a b c Fig. -. however. An increase is found above Y* ¼ 0. 8. The horizontal centreline temperature distributions indicated in Fig. 2. a larger temperature difference exists between the ventilation flow (Y* < 0. This reduces any interaction with the bulk enclosure fluid and hence the slightly lower T* values recorded here for this case.-. 8(a) shows that Case 2 has a much thicker plume structure due to the strong oscillations of the plume. 4. the plume becomes highly damped and attaches to the adjacent wall. Fig.6 with T* increasing from 0.

5 due to the mixing of the plume aiding heat transfer and reducing local wall temperatures. Enclosure flow structures and composite plume orientation images: (a) Case 2 and (b) Case 3. this is not an optimal scenario as most of the high temperature fluid is confined to the upper region of the enclosure and is not effectively removed from the enclosure. / Applied Thermal Engineering 32 (2012) 49e58 55 Fig. causing an increase in the overall temperature in this area. not the exterior boundary conditions supplied to the enclosure. Cylinder positioning has a significant impact upon the temperature distribution.15 compared to Y* ¼ 0.5 for Case 3 is associated with the point of attachment of the cylinder plume as shown in Fig. The plume is orientated towards the rear partitioned space. Both the cylinder only case and the partitioned enclosure have almost constant T* for the height of the rear wall. possibly due to the presence of a recirculation zone of high temperature fluid in the upper region of the enclosure. at Y* ¼ 0. An increase in T* at Y* ¼ 0. This plume recirculation into the rear partitioned space causes the temperature in the lower region of the enclosure to increase at a much lower height in the enclosure. The effect of cylinder positioning is presented in this section for the three different positions outlined in Fig.6. Case 5 reports the highest rear wall temperatures. The presence of the isothermal cylinder is also a major contributor to the convective regime and tends to be the main driver of the flow field. as shown previously in Fig. Thermal isolation of the rear wall is occurring with conduction inhibited between the rear wall and the upper and lower heated surfaces. The placement of the cylinder within the enclosure and its influence upon the final enclosure conditions therefore may be an important parameter to consider with regard to the design of such enclosures.5 corresponding to the point of plume attachment. Rear wall temperatures are presented in Fig. This is an expected result as in Case 4 the cylinder is located away from the rear wall and next to the partition.D. For Case 3. respectively. The minimal entrainment of exterior air into the enclosure for this cylinder position also contributes to this increase in T*. . 9(c) where Case 4 reports lower values compared to Cases 3 and 5. Moving the cylinder towards the partition in Case 4 produces a large increase in T* at X* ¼ 0.6. a maximum value in T* is recorded at Y* ¼ 0. confirming this phenomenon. 4. Although the rear partitioned space is at a lower temperature along the horizontal centreline. primarily due to the confinement of the high temperature plume flow to the upper region in this configuration. with the elevated temperature along the wall as a result of heat conducted through the solid. A steep rise in T* is also seen along the vertical centreline above Y* ¼ 0. This suggests that rear wall is primarily influenced by the presence and orientation of the cylinder plume.8 is attributed to the presence of the cylinder near the wall at this location. Case 5 exhibits a large drop in temperature across the horizontal and vertical centrelines compared to the other cylinder positions. Case 5 shows the greatest temperature difference. The vertical temperature gradient for Case 4 remains relatively constant through the enclosure height. This is also seen along the vertical centreline in Fig. Cylinder placement in partitioned enclosure It has been shown that partitioning the enclosure has a significant effect on ventilation performance within the leading edge enclosure. more so than as a result of the introduction of the partition. 9(b). 9(a) shows the enclosure temperature distributions along the horizontal centreline for the effect of varying the cylinder position.3. The maximum value at Y* ¼ 0. 2. 8. This is also reflected in the heat exhausted figures in Table 2. Overall the rear wall of the enclosure in Case 3 is at a higher T* than for the unpartitioned case as a result of plume attachment. presented in the previous section. where the T* values for this case are the highest recorded.5 the wall temperatures are similar in magnitude to Y* < 0. This is due to the presence of the cylinder plume in this region. Above Y* ¼ 0.3 for Case 4 and Case 3. 7(c). 8. Fig. Moore et al. There can be a large difference in T* between the two partitioned sections of the enclosure depending on the cylinder location.

6. For this case though. This is as a result of the absence of the horizontal cylinder in the enclosure. Moving the cylinder towards the partitioned surface in Case 4 shows little difference in the heat rejection.4 Case 3 5. 4 and 5 creates a backflow into the enclosure. This can account for up to 33% of the vent opening. The introduction of the partition from Case 2 to Case 3 produces a 60% drop in the amount of heat transported out of the enclosure resulting in a drop in ventilation efficiency for this case. Case 5. Case 4. This. (c) Rear wall. Temperature distributions within the enclosure for the three cylinder positions investigated. The heat exhausted from the cavity varies significantly between the cases considered and highlights the influence of geometrical effects on the ventilation within a non-standard geometry. which is 62% lower than the other partitioned cases and 85% lower than the maximum value recorded in Case 2. QEX is substantially lower for the cylinder located in the upper region of the enclosure. Case 4.91EÀ04 15. combined with the drop in mass flow rate across the vent boundary Fig. The empty enclosure in Case 1. Case 1 ṁ (kg/s) QEX (W) 9. ->-. and -Â-.0 Case 4 4. The velocity profiles for the flow exiting the enclosure at the front vent are presented in Fig. 9. ->-.04EÀ04 16. with the overall enclosure temperature being significantly lower. For this case although the temperatures recorded along the enclosure centrelines are lowest for most of the enclosure height (Y* < 0.11 b c reduce the mass flow of high temperature fluid removed from the enclosure. V* is the non-dimensional vent opening distance from left side of opening (V* = 0) to right side (V* = 1). This contributes to the drop in ventilation efficiency seen for the partitioned case in Fig. 6.77 for Case 2. which is not desirable for the given enclosure conditions. / Applied Thermal Engineering 32 (2012) 49e58 a Table 2 Mass flow rate and exhausted heat from the enclosure across the front vent for Cases 1e5. Moore et al. Little difference is noted between Cases 3 and 4 across the vent boundary and this is reflected in the mass flow rates presented in Table 2.53EÀ04 24. 10. still produces the highest ventilation efficiency in Fig. The introduction of the partition for cases 3. which will severely Fig. -B-. . T* ¼ 0. Case 2.25EÀ03 41.9 Case 2 1. Case 5.-. This is further reflected in QEX being lower for Case 1 than Case 2 in Table 2.-. whilst exhibiting a lower exit flow rate at a lower temperature.56 D. -Δ-. Case 1. (b) Vertical centreline. Case 3. Un is positive at all points across the vent boundary. For the unpartitioned cases.9 Case 5 1. and -Δ-.58 compared to 0. (a) Horizontal centreline. The cylinder positioned in the upper left of the enclosure has the lowest mass flow rate out of the enclosure. the interior air temperatures are higher than for Case 3.89EÀ04 6. Velocity profiles across the exit vent boundary for -. 10.7) which would appear beneficial. -. Case 3. this is masked by the confinement of the high temperature fluid to the upper region of the enclosure.

G.R. Lili. T.P. L. Oubarra. I. J. Muftuoglu. K. [36] Y. Marsili.H. T.F. Oosthuizen. Roy. [31] R. Bilgen. [25] C.S. Cesini. Amaoui. Natural convection in tilted square cavities with differentially heated opposite walls. Corvaro. Moore et al. Bahloul. This combined with the effect of cylinder placement leads to a scenario where the amount of heat removed from such an enclosure is highly dependant on these effects. [39] A. heated cylinder placed in an enclosure. Basak. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 46 (19) (2003) 3551e3572. / Applied Thermal Engineering 32 (2012) 49e58 57 contributes to this sharp drop in QEX and is not an optimal placement for the cylinder within the leading edge. [9] C. H. Role of bejan’s heatlines in heat flow visualization and optimal thermal mixing for deferentially heated square enclosures. Xamán. C.H. A. Probert. Salat. [29] B. Y. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 31 (7) (2007) 721e739. 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