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, finance companies, investment managers and other companies that profit from the creation and flow of money. As financial intermediaries, banks stand between depositors who supply capital and borrowers who demand capital. Given how much commerce and individual wealth rests on healthy banks, banks are also among the most heavily regulated businesses in the world. With the exception of the extremely wealthy, very few people buy their homes in all-cash transactions. Most of us need a mortgage, or some form of credit, to make such a large purchase. In fact, many people use credit in the form of credit cards to pay for everyday items. The world as we know it wouldn't run smoothly without credit and banks to issue it. In this article we'll, explore the birth of these two now-flourishing industries. Banks have been around since the first currencies were minted, perhaps even before that, in some form or another. Currency, particularly the use of coins, grew out of taxation. In the early days of ancient empires, a tax of on healthy pig per year might be reasonable, but as empires expanded, this type of payment became less desirable. Additionally, empires began to need a way to pay for foreign goods and services, with something that could be exchanged more easily. Coins of varying sizes and metals served in the place of fragile, impermanent paper bills.
Bank play a significant role in the economic development. The overall economic of a country is absolutely dependent on the efficient banking system. Industrial, agricultural and commercial progress of a country is not possible without a good banking system. 1. Capital Formation Economic development depends upon the division of economic resources from consumption to capital formation. Capital grows out of savings. Banks play the prime role in accumulating capital by collecting the scatered savings of the people. Thus banks render a valuable service towards the development of a country by encouraging the growth of capital. 2. Inexpensive Media of Exchange Modern Banking provides inexpensive media of exchange. Issuing of currency notes is a great achievement of modern banking. In addition the cheques issued on the banks are frequently used instead of money in transacting business. Thus the cheques economise the use of currency notes. 3. Development of Trade and Industry Bank utilise their collected funds by advancing loans to commercial and industrial undertakings. In respect of foreign trade also, banks render a valuable service by issuing letter of credit etc. 4. Reservoirs of Funds Banks acts as the reservoirs of money in the country. In times of economic, crisis the bankers come forward to help the Government by purchasing the Government securities or by advancing loans. 5. Transfer of Funds Banks facilitate the transfer of funds from one place to another safely and at a very cheap cost through bank drafts, mail transfers, telegraphic transfer, travellers cheque etc.
Bank facilitates the transfer of funds from one place to another. Bank acts as trustees and Executor of will and documents on behalf of their customers. 7.6. They collect or make payments of bills of exchange. 7. other banks and financial institutions. 12. 5. 14. Bank keeps in capital formation by economic savings. Foreign remittances of funds are possible only through banks. dividend. Bank deals in foreign exchange and finances foreign trade. 9. . Specialized banks helps in the development of agriculture and industry. 13. They also extend financial advises to their customers. 6. 4. insurance premium etc. Bank acts as underwriters for raising capital or loan by Government. Under the guidance of the central bank all the banks in the country do their best for the sound management of money market. Bank finances trade and industry. Bank keeps deposits of public. Bank provides inexpensive media of exchange through its cheques etc. Central Bank controls credites. They act as the trustees ore executors of documents etc. Banks acts as the custodian of customers valuables. 8. All the banks participate in the development of money market. 10. Money Market Operations The structure and ups and downs of money market in the country are largely dependent on the bankers activities. Public Bodies and Campanies. Functions of Modern Bank The following is the list of functions or services rendered by a modern bank: 1. exchange and the money market. Bank acts as the correspondent and representative of its customers. 15. 2. 8. Dealing in Foreign Exchange Banks deal in foreign exchange by purchasing and selling foreign currencies and by issuing letters of credit. 11. 3. Service to Customers Banks perform various agency services on behalf of their customers. Bank acts as Reservoir of funds. on behalf of their customers. Central Bank issues notes and controls money supply.
Economy Economy in expenditure should be maintained for the proper operation of banking business. The Bank collects and makes payments of Bills of Exchange on behalf of its customers. Thus. Bank Discounts Bills. without sufficient capital no large scale banking can flourish. A bank must have some qualities in operating its functions efficiently and successfully. It generally deals in with others money and not with its own money. Bank purchases and sells stock exchange securities. A large scale operation and execution of various functions of a modern bank require large amount of capital at the initial stage. 5. He should not block his fund by advancing loans for long periods rather he should always prefer short term credits. The good banker is one who can distinguish the sound from the unsound borrower. 19. Money which is dealt in by a bank is not its own. The bank makes payments and collects in respect of subscriptions. a bank must have ample reputation in the money market. He should keep sufficient amount of cash reserve and should keep some assets in such a way that these can be encashed at any moment. Security and Safety In respect of advancing loans safety should be the main guiding principle for a bank. The persons to whom the advance is to be made. and also receives pension dividends and payment of utilities bills on behalf of their customers. insurance premiums. the operation of banking business is very risky one. Reputation of a bank depends upon the qualifications of the directors and on the efficiency of management and workers. Effective Publicity A bank should adopt various scientific methods of advertisement for the proper publicity of business. so a banker must always keep himself ready to meet the claims of his depositors. 6. Good Reputation Reputation is the most important factor in the progress of a bank. Bank advances loans and extend financial advices to its customers. It takes deposits from the public and again lends to its customers for the sake of interest or profit. salaries etc. Sayers. The loans advanced by the banker must be secured. 2. rents. 20. 17. According to R. To be successful. The qualities of good banking may be summarized as below” 1. 4. must be studied carefully before the lending of money.S. Adequate Capital A banker must have adequate amount of capital. Liquidity. 18. 3. Thus. . A good banker will always try to maximise his profit at a minimum cost. Qualities of Good Banking System Every bank is a dealer in money and credit.16.
Speciality To be successful.7. 2. Functional Classification of banks. banking business is carried on through a network of branches in the same town or country under the guidance and control of one single head office. 1. These branches may also be located in outside of the country. Large Scale Operation Branch banking system enjoys all the advantages of large scale operation. 10. Structural Classification Banks can be classified on the basis of their structure or constitution. Good Show within the Office The bank office should be well equiped with modern aminities proper sitting arrangement should be made within the bank office for its customers. Structural Classification of banking. The U. banking may be classified as (a) Branch Banking (b) Unit Banking (a) Branch Banking Under branch banking system. (b) Unit Banking Under unit banking system the banking operations are carried through a single office without any branch. 3. The individual commercial banks are also specialized in different fields of banking. The bank should be located in the business centre so that it can flourish its business successfully. Classification of Banks The banks can be classified on the following three basis: 1. . Good Personnel and Efficiency The officers and the employees of the bank must be efficient in their work. 8. Industrial bank provides long terms credits to the industries. According to structural classification.S. Now-a-days this system if followed by many countries of the world including Pakistan. Operational Classification of banks. are dealt through correspondence between banks of two places. They should be well trained in different fields of banking. Remittances and foreign exchange etc. This system of banking was originated in the United Kingdom. Advantages of Branch Banking 1. Localization Good locality of a bank is another quality. Proper division of labour is applied successfully and the employees become specialized in different banking fields. Furthermore they should be well behaved and polite in the manner and must possess pleasing personality. 9. An agricultural bank always aim at financing the formers for agricultural purposes.A is the home of unit banking. a bank should be specialized in any one or more fields of banking.
Remittances of Funds This system facilitates easy remittances of funds from one place to another through its number of branches in different places. Loose Control and Management Under branch banking system.2. Relationship Between Management and the Employees Due to large number of branches the relationship between the employers and employees is not close and cordial. So full economy in maintaining cash reserve can be secured by a banking having number of branches. the funds can easily be transferred from one branch to another. 5. As it has got a good number of branches throughout the country. Advantages of Unit Banking . Concentration of Financial Lesources In branch banking system large financial resources are concentrated in the hands of small number of authorities of bank. In case of losses incurred by branch in an area can be offset by profits of the branches of other areas. Economy of Reserves Under this type of banking. Superior Management and Personnel Training Branch banking system having large scale operations attracts superior personnel and offers wide scope for the training of the personnel. Spreading Risk Geographically The bank having many branches can spread its risk geographically or territorially. 4. 6. 5. Red Tapism Red-Tapism and delay is common due to lack of sufficient authority to branch managers. 9. so they do not have the chance of becoming familiar with local needs. Foreign Exchange As it has got foreign branches it is easier to operate foreign exchange for a branch banking. Disadvantages of Branch Banking The critics of the branch banking mentioned the following disadvantages: 1. Parity in the Rate of Interest By making easy movement of funds from one place to another branch banking system can maintain parity in the rate of interest in different parts of the same country or of the world. Investment of Idle Funds Under branch banking system a branch can transfer its idle funds to other branches where this can be invested on profitable terms. Loans and advances are made on merits and not on other consideration. 3. They are also not allowed to stay for long in one branch. Late Decision A branch banking a large organisation. 3. 7. Applications for large amount of loan are passed on to the higher authorities in head office. 2. can take neither quick decision nor prompt action in case of emergencies. it becomes very difficult for a single head office to manage and control a number of branches much effectively. 4. 8. It can study money and credit position correctly. Wise Banking Policy The bank can formulate a wise banking policy.
1. 2. there are very little possibilities of fraud and irregularities. having no branch are linked together by correspondent bank system. (a). 3. The unit banks are completely independent of each other no doubt. Industrial banks specially finance the industrial undertakings. These unit banks are linked through correspondence. banks can be classified into the following two categories. a unit bank of a village or small town deposits a portion of its cash reserve with another bank in the nearest city. it becomes very easy for a single office to manage and control efficiently. 5. Limited Size of Operation Unit bank business can not be operated on large scale because of its limited area. Easy Management and Control Under unit banking system. Limited Financial Resources A unit bank has limited financial resources so it is not able to provide full and adequate banking facilities to the industry and trade of the area. Disadvantages of Unit Banking 1. 4. And this superior bank of city also deposits with another greater bank of big city. 2. there prevails a close and cordial relationship between employer and employees. Being the small organisation. Close Management and Workers Relationship Under unit banking system. but these are connected with one another through correspondent system. Use of Local Resources Local financial resources are used for local development. Under this system. 3. can not utilize its idle funds in profitable ways. As for example an agricultural bank takes up the special responsibility of financing agricultural activities. Japan is the home of specialized banks where different types of specialized banks are working with their special functions. there prevails a great disparity in the rate of interest in the same country as the management of different banks are separate from each other. division of labour can not be applied. . 5. Investment of Idle Funds A unit bank having no other branches. Disparity in the Rate of Interest Under the system. 4. So economy in cash reserve can not be secured under this system. Correspondent Banks The unit banks. bank can not transfer its funds to any other branch. Lesser Fraud and Irregularities Due to the less scattered affairs of the bank. Remittances of funds of home and foreign trade transactions are made through these correspondent banks. Specialized Banks The bank which performs one or more special functions is known as specialized bank. Operational Classification of Banks On the basis of nature of operation. Quick Decision The owners or the management of unit banks can take quick decision and prompt action in times of emergencies. (b). No Economy of Reserves Under unit banking.
Different kinds of banks. National Bank of Pakistan. Paris. Long term capital is required for acquisition and improvement of land and purchase of heavy machinery and equipments. if necessary. wages etc. It purchases the bill of exchange which arise in connection with the import and export trade of the country and they deal in exchange. On otherwards. manures. Short period capital is required by the farmers for current expenditure on seed. The Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan is another specialized bank who is financing large scale industries in Pakistan. Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP) is the best example of agricultural bank in our country who provides long term. (c) Industrial Bank Such institution specialises in financing industry. In our country. The exchange banks liquidate the international indebtiness by exporting and importing precious metals and securities. medium term and short term loans to the agriculturists. telegraphic transfers etc. Muslim Commercial Bank Limited and Allied Bank Limited are the commercial banks. (b) Commercial Bank Such type of bank is cheerfully engaged in financing internal trade. They draw and sell their own drafts on these deposit accounts. Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan is helping financially in the development of agricultural sector of our economy. specially of a developing country like Pakistan. with different functions may be summarized as follows: (a) Central Bank A central bank is the most important institution in the banking system of a country established with the objective of regulating the banking and monetary system of the country. It issues notes and currencies within the country and is entrusted with responsibility of maintaining the price level in the country stable. drafts. rather titles to foreign currencies in the form of bills of exchange. This type of bank is familiar in most of the world. they purchase bills in the international money market and deposit them with their banking agents inbig commercial centres like London.The specialized banks have a great role in the economic development of a country. Habib Bank Limited. In our country. State Bank of Pakistan is Central Bank of our country. (e) Exchange Bank Exchange bank deals mainly in the finance of the foreign trade of the country. It takes deposit from public through different type of deposit accounts and invests that collected fund in advances and loan of short period to the trading and commercial undertaking. (d) Agricultural Bank Such bank provides long and short term finance to agriculturists for their agricultural purposes. United Bank Limited. New York etc. It provides long term credit to people who carry on industrial enterprises. the main function of such bank is to buy and sell foreign currencies. Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan (IDBP) and Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation (PICIC) are the examples of industrial banks. Functional Classification Of Banks Banks may be classified according to their functions. . It deals in short term credit. for example. It deals in foreign exchange. It acts as banker to the Government and it directly or indirectly controls the activities of all other banks.
he has intensive experience in content production. House Building Finance Corporation is functioning as mortgage bank providing long term loans to house builders against securities of building and land property. workers in the factories etc. A graduate from Karachi University. buildings and machinaries etc. fisherman. This type of bank is essential in an under developed country where capital supply is very limited. agricultural lands.net. credit is give to the agriculturist. Generally. small industries or house builders. Depositers are allowed to withdraw money from their deposits twice in a week. All Rights Reserved. Post offices in Pakistan carry on functions of saving bank. By Fahim Patel Fahim Patel is the Content Manager of guesspapers. Copyright © 2012 guesspapers.(f) Cooperative Bank This type of bank is organised mutually by the persons of similar occupations within the objectives of providing banking and credit facilities to the members. .net. In our country. Of course commercial and other bank also accept saving deposits. Government patronises co-operative banks in order to encourage the cultivators. (g) Mortgage Bank Mortgage bank advances long term credits against securities of immovable properties like. This type of bank is established with the objective of promoting the thrift or saving habits among the people of small incomes. (h) Savings Bank Such banks provides facilities to people to save money. Maintained by MicroPoint Interactive. Generally in every country. It takes deposits from the public and lands the collected funds to traders.
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