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# Chapter 7: Dislocations and Strengthening

ISSUES TO ADDRESS... 1. Why are dislocations observed primarily in metals and their alloys? 2. How are strength and dislocation motion related? 3. How do we increase strength? 4. How can heating change strength and other properties?

## Dislocation motion and material classes

Metals: Dislocation motion easier:
-nondirectional bonding -close-packed directions for slip
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + ion cores electron cloud

## Covalent Ceramics: (Si, diamond)

-dislocation motion hard: directional (angular) bonding
Directional bonds

## Ionic Ceramics: (NaCl)

-dislocation motion hard: need to avoid ++ and -- neighbors
+ + + + + + + positive ions negative ions Anderson 205- 7-2 + + + + -

## Anderson 205- 7-1

+ +

Dislocation motion...
Produces plastic deformation Depends on incrementally breaking bonds stretched zinc crystal

## Stress and Dislocation Motion

Crystals slip due to a resolved shear stress Applied tension can produce a resolved shear stress
Applied tensile stress: = F/A F A
Fs

R
As

R=Fs/As
Fcos A/cos F ns

## If dislocations dont move, plastic deformation doesnt happen!

Callister Fig. 7.8
Anderson 205- 7-3

Fs

As

R
Callister Fig. 7.7

R = cos cos
Anderson 205- 7-4

## Critical Resolved Shear Stress: CRSS

Condition for disl. motion:

## Dislocation motion in polycrystals

Slip planes and directions (, ) change from one crystal to another. R will vary from one crystal to another. Crystal with largest R yields first.

typically 10-4G to 10-2G

R = cos cos

R = 0 =90

R = /2 =45 =45

R = 0 =90

## Strategy for Strengthening: Make dislocations hard to move 4 ways to do this:

1. Reduce the grain size, d
Grain boundaries are barriers to slip. Barrier Strength increases with misorientation
slip plane grain A

## Example of grain size strengthening

70wt%Cu-30wt% Zn brass alloy yield = o + k y (grain size)1 / 2
grain size, d (mm)
200 150 100 ky 1 4 8 12 16 10-1 10-2 5x10-3

40m

1/ 2

50 0 0

## [grain size (mm)]-0.5

Anderson 205- 7-7 Anderson 205- 7-8

Anisotropy in yield
Can be induced by rolling a polycrystalline metal
Before rolling After rolling

## 2. Solid Solution Strengthening

Impurity atoms generate stress by distorting the lattice. This stress can produce a barrier to dislocation motion. Example: larger substitutional impurity
C B D Impurity generates local shear at C and D that opposes disl. motion to the right.
Anderson 205- 7-10

A

## anisotropic (since rolling affects grain orientation and shape).

Impurity generates local shear at A and B that opposes disl. motion to the right.

## Ex: Solution Strengthening in Copper

Tensile strength and yield strength increase with wt%Ni
180 400 300 200 0 10 20 30 40 50
wt. %Ni, (Concentration C)

3. Precipitation Strengthening
Hard precipitates are difficult to shear Ex.: ceramics in metals (SiC precipitates in iron or in aluminum) precipitate
Side View Large shear stress needed to move dislocation toward precipitate and shear it. Unslipped part of slip plane Top View Dislocation advances but precipitates act as pinning sites with spacing S.

## Fig. 7.16 (a,b) Callister

120 60

0 10 20 30 40 50
wt. %Ni, (Concentration C)

Empirical relation:

y C

1/ 2

S
Slipped part of slip plane

## Contribution to yield scales as: 1/S

Anderson 205- 7-11 Anderson 205- 7-12

## Example: Precipitation-strengthened alloy

internal wing structures upper wing skins
Boeing 767
Callister, Fig. 11.0

## 4. Cold Work (%CW)

Room Temperature Deformation Common forming operations change the cross sectional area.
Forging

Rolling

## Aluminum is strengthened with precipitates formed by alloying.

Callister, Fig. 11.0

## Callister, Fig. 12.2

Extrusion

Drawing

%CW =

Ao A d 100 Ao
Anderson 205- 7-14

1.5 m

## Dislocations during cold work

Titanium alloy after cold working Dislocations entangle with one another during cold work.
Callister, Fig. 4.6

## Result of Cold Work

Dislocation density (d)
Material condition Carefully prepared Heavily deformed

## d [mm/mm3] (typical values)

103 1010
Area, A dislocation pit

Ways of measuring d:
Volume, V length, l1 length, l2 length, l3

## Dislocation motion becomes more difficult.

120m

OR
d =
y1 y0

l +l +l d = 1 2 3 V

N A

## Anderson 205- 7-16

Dislocation-dislocation trapping
Dislocations generate stress This stress traps other dislocations

## Impact of Cold Work

Yield strength (y) increases Tensile strength (TS) increases Ductility (%EL or %AR) decreases

Red dislocation generates shear at pts A and B that opposes motion of green disl. from left to right.

A
Callister, Fig. 7.20

## Cold Work Analysis

Question: what is the tensile strength and ductility after cold working? 7.6mm 2 6.1mm 2
Copper Result of Cold working---> Do=15.2mm Dd=12.2mm ductility (%EL)

## Behavior at different temperatures

Results for polycrystalline iron:
800 600
Callister, Fig. 6.13 -200C -100C 25C

## %CW = ro rd 100 = 35.6% 2 ro

yield strength (MPa)

400 200

800 600

60 40 20

0 0

0.1

0.2

Cu
40 60

## 400 340MPa 200 0 20 40

Cu
20 40 60

y and TS decrease with increasing test temperature. %EL increases with increasing test temperature. Why? Vacancies help dislocations past obstacles.
3. dislocation is on new slip plane and can glide by obstacle 2. vacancies replace atoms on the half plane

Strain

0.3

0.4

0.5

Cu
60

7%

20

00

obstacle

## Effect of heating after cold work

Annealing Temperature (C) 100 300 500 700 60 600

tensile strength

Annihilation reduces dislocation density extra half-plane Scenario #1 of atoms the two
atoms diffuse to regions of tension extra half-plane of atoms opposite dislocations climb and annihilate to form a perfect atomic plane.

Recovery:

## Callister, Fig. 7.22

500 400

50 40 30

ductility
300

20

Scenario #2
3. Climbed disl. can now move on new slip plane 2. grey atoms leave by vacancy diffusion allowing disl. to climb 1. dislocation blocked; cant move to the right Anderson 205- 7-21

1 hr treatment at Tanneal:
-decreases TS -increases %EL

R
4. opposite dislocations meet and annihilate obstacle dislocation Anderson 205- 7-22

## Effects of cold work are reversed! 3 Annealing stages to discuss...

Recrystallization
formation of new crystals that
-have small d -are small -consume cold-worked crystals

Further Recrystallization

brass
after 4 seconds new crystals nucleate at 3 seconds at Tanneal =580C

## Anderson 205- 7-24

Larger grains consume smaller grains Why? Grain boundary area is reduced.

Grain Growth

## after 10 minutes (700C) exponent: materialdependent (typ. ~2) elapsed time

empirical relation
grain diameter at time=t

dn dn = Kt o