Chapter 11: Thermal Processing-Metals and Alloys

Issues to address... STEELS... • Annealing: Why do we do it? • Martensite formation: It seems desirable, but
we can’t always produce it throughout an entire part.

Annealing:

heat up a material to Tanneal for an extended period, then slowly cool. Normalize (steels):
Deform steel with large grains, then normalize to make grains small. (heat up to get γ, then cool in air to get fine P)

Process Anneal: Negate
effect of cold working by (recovery/recrystallization)

Stress Relief: Reduce
stresses caused by -plastic deformation -nonuniform cooling -phase transform.

• Part geometry, alloy content, quenching medium:
How are they important in forming martensite?

TYPES OF ANNEALING

Full Anneal (steels): Spheroidize (steels):
Make very soft steels for good machining. Heat just below TE and hold for 15-25h. Make soft steels for good forming by heating to get γ, then cool in furnace to get coarse P.
Anderson 205- 11-2

OTHER SYSTEMS... • Precipitate Strengthening: How do we get it?
Anderson 205- 11-1

Continuous Cooling Curves: Fe-C System
• Normalize: fine pearlite • Full anneal: coarse pearlite
800

Hardenability:
1”

Ability of a material to form martensite

• Jominy end quench test of hardenability
TE

T°C
600 Callister, Fig. 10.18

Continuous Cooling Curves

400

Diagram assumes 0.77 wt%C M(start) M(50%) M(90%) 10 Fine Pearlite Coarse Pearlite 103 105 Time (s)

specimen (heated to γ phase field) 24°C water

flat ground 4” Hardness measurements

Callister, Fig. 11.2

• Hardness vs distance from quenched end
200

0 10-1

Callister, Fig. 11.3

Anderson 205- 11-3

Distance from quenched end Anderson 205- 11-4

Why does hardness changes with position?
• The cooling rate varies with position
60 40 20 0 1 2 3 distance from quenched end (in)

Hardenability vs Alloy Content
• Jominy end quench results, C = 0.4wt%C
100 60
4340

10

3

2 Cooling rate (°C/s)
100 80 50

%M Callister, Fig. 11.5

T(°C)
600 400 200 M(start) A →M

0% 100%

40

4140 8640 5140

Callister, Fig. 11.4

• “Alloy Steels”

20 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance from quenched end (mm) T(°C) 800 600 400 200 0 -1 10 10 A B

TE shift from A to B due to alloying M(start) M(90%)

0 M(finish)

(4140, 4340, 5140, 8640) -contain Ni, Cr, Mo (0.2 to 2 wt%) -these elements shift the “nose” -martensite is easier to form
10 100

0.1

1

Time (s)

1000 Anderson 205- 11-5

Time (s)

103 105

Anderson 205- 11-6

Hardenability vs Carbon Content
• Jominy end quench results, 8600 series
100 60 10 3 2 Cooling rate (°C/s)

Quenching Medium and Geometry
• Effect of Quenching Medium:
Medium air oil water Severity of Quench small moderate large Hardness small moderate large

40

0.6 wt%C 0.4 wt%C

Callister, Fig. 11.6

20 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance from quenched end (mm)

0.3 wt%C

• Effect of geometry
-When surface-to-volume ratio ↑, cooling rate ↑, hardness ↑ -Typical results Position center surface Cooling Rate small large Hardness small large

• Hardenability ↑ as wt%C ↑

Anderson 205- 11-7

Anderson 205- 11-8

Predicting Hardness Profiles
• Ex: -round bar, 1040 steel, water quenched, 2” diameter
Bar Diameter (in) 4 2 R R/2 center R = 54HRC R/2 = 30HRC center = 27HRC 700 T(°C) 600 500 Callister, Fig. 11.10 1040 400

Precipitation Hardening
• Particles impede dislocations • Ex. Al-Cu system
α
A C 20 α+L L θ+L

CuAl2

effective distance 0 0 0.5 1 from quenched end (in) Hardness, HRC 60 40 20 0 0.5 1 1.5 HRC 60 40 20

α+θ
30 40 50

θ

(Al)
2 effective distance from quenched end (in)

300 0 B 10

Pt A: Solution heat treat (get α solid solution) Pt B: Quench to room temp. Pt C: Reheat to C to nucleate small θ crystals within α

composition range crystals. needed for precipitation hardening Temp. Pt A (sol’n heat treat) Other precipitation Pt C (precipitate θ)

wt%Cu

Hardness profile

systems: Cu-Be, Cu-Sn, Mg-Al
Time Anderson 205- 11-10

2 in. Anderson 205- 11-9

Pt B

Example: 7150-T651 Al Alloy
• Boeing 757
skin of upper wing fuselage Callister, Fig. 11.0(a) structural parts of wing

Precipitate effect on TS, %EL
• 2014 Aluminum Alloy
-TS peaks w/precipitation time -increasing T accelerates process
500 400 300 200 204°C 149°C

• Microstructure: MgZn2 particles
grain boundary Callister, Fig. 11.0(b) precipitates (Mg + Zn) (darker phase) solid solution of mostly Al (lighter phase)

Callister, Fig. 11.16(a)

1min 1h 1day 1mo 1yr precipitation heat treat time (h)

30

-%EL bottoms out w/precipitation time
Callister, Fig. 11.16(b)

20 10 149°C

204°C

0 1min 1h 1day 1mo 1yr precipitation heat treat time (h) Anderson 205- 11-12

Anderson 205- 11-11

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