Smart Cities

Sustainable development

Smart Cities
5º B IIND. Sustainable development.
Felisa Jover Couce 15/05/2012

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Smart Cities

Sustainable development

INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION 2. IMPACT
A)

3 7 7 8 8 9 10 10 13 15 16

ECONOMIC CAPITAL B) ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITAL C) HUMAN CAPITAL D) SOCIAL CAPITAL 3. INDICATORS
A)

EUROPEAN SMART CITIES B) IDC: ÍNDICE DE LAS CIUDADES INTELIGENTES. 4. PROPOSALS FOR IMPROVING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF SMARTCITIES 5. REFERENCES

FIGURE INDEX
FIGURE 1: COMPETENCES OF SPANISH MUNICIPALITIES. FIGURE 2: SERVICES IN RELATION TO THE POPULATION. FIGURE 3: FIELDS OF A SMART CITY. FIGURE 4: SAVINGS WITH SMART CITIES. FIGURE 5: CHARACTERISTICS FOR MEASURING A SMART CITY. FIGURE 6: HIERARCHY FIGURE 7: INDICATORS AND WEIGHTING OF ECONOMY FIGURE 8: INDICATORS AND WEIGHTING OF MOBILITY FIGURE 9: INDICATORS AND WEIGHTING OF ENVIRONMENT. FIGURE 10: INDICATORS AND WEIGHTING OF PEOPLE. FIGURE 11: INDICATORS AND WEIGHTING OF WAY OF LIVING. FIGURE 12: INDICATORS AND WEIGHTING OF GOVERNANCE. FIGURE 13: COMPONENTS OF IDC 4 5 5 6 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 14

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1. INTRODUCTION
Cities represent the largest concentration of population around the world and the percentage does nothing but grow. This makes the cities become big centers of consumption. Mayors have to deal with those increasing difficulties in organizing their cities and as a consequence; they have to increase their cities’ efficiency. They have to be able to anticipate problems and to coordinate resources in the best way the can. Therefore, the application of the information technologies and communications (ICT) becomes essential and it is reflected in the Smart City concept.

The concept of Smart city is a city that uses ICT to make easier to give services to citizens. And the fact is that the active participation of the citizens is a fundamental piece in the development of the city. The main actors in the Smart Cities are public administration, citizens, energy efficiency and sustainability and ICT.

The main axes in which a Smart City usually insists on they are: urban mobility, energy efficiency and in general, the sustainable management of resources, the management of the infrastructure of the city, the participatory government and public safety as well as the areas of health, education and culture. But the real challenge is to do all this in a holistic and coordinated way. Currently, there are many projects of real Smart Cities being carried out and in their first stages; their objectives are to solve real problems in their cities and to give smart support to their infrastructure.

As an example we are going to center our attention into a Spanish city. Firstly, by law, they have to take care of certain responsibilities that are set out in the following table:

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Figure 1: Competences of Spanish municipalities.

Secondly, they have to provide some minimum services depending on their population that they are:

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Figure 2: Services in relation to the population.

Regarding both tables, we could divide the activity of a Smart City in:

Figure 3: Fields of a Smart City.

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Maybe we are still asking us why it is needed a smart city but the real fact it is that Smart Cities are going to be the best political and government tool to manage cities. And not only in relation to the quality of services but saving and improving efficiency too. There is a table showing some savings we can achieve:

Figure 4: Savings with smart cities.

Once exposed the main ideas of what is a smart city, I think it is obvious what is interesting about this topic in relation to sustainability. And that is why I chose this topic. I believe that it may be interesting to analyze this project of city towards we are moving to discover if we are really moving in the right path of sustainable development.

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2. IMPACT
We are trying to analyze now the impact in the different types of capital in the project of Malaga Smart City.

a) Economic capital
Like we said in the introduction, Smart Cities can suppose many savings. I am going to enumerate some actions they are going to apply in the actual projects of Smart cities that I think they affect to economic capital.

To begin with, the huge inversion they have to accomplish to make those projects possible. The generation of thousands of employments. Improving the supply of electricity with steps like: (Málaga)  Smart meters to make easier to consumers to consume cheaper.  Optimal integration of renewable energy in the electrical grid.  Management of systems to keep energy in batteries.  Setting of remote controllers and telecommunications to act instantly.  Automation of electrical grids (medium and low voltages). This could imply the saving of 20% of the current consumption.

 

Smart lightening. (Barcelona)  With LED technology.  Presence, vibration, temperatures sensors. Meter that controls the central heating (Amsterdam). More efficient buildings (Santander). Boost innovation and development (Japan). This will lead to a new generation of companies.

  

But we have to know that we will have several obstacles such as:  It would be a very long term inversion.  It depends so much on regulation.  High initial costs.

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b) Environmental capital
It is thought that it could be a way to decrease 20% of CO2 emissions, and to increase in a 20% the renewable energy consumed.  Lead to lower consumption of available resources:  Smart lightening.  Decrease oil consumption introducing the electrical car.  New models of central heating.  Irrigation with rainwater.  Recycling potable water.  Reuse of urban solid waste. Malta    

Use of local materials. Decrease of water consumption with saving systems. Encouragement of bike ways and public transport. Creation of new habitats.

Abu Dhabi Their objectives are:  100% of renewable energy.  Smart buildings.  Accomplish a “zero waste”.  Last technology in reusing water. Songdo  The city has been designed to count with 600 hectares of urban green spaces.  Creation of bike ways.  Wasted potable water is employed in irrigation. Paredes  The water wasted in the kitchen is going to be retaken to the toilet.  The heated air produced in the mass storage data centers, is going to be redistributed to work like central heating.

c) Human capital
Education is a very important public service. Although it is competence of the communities, councils also collaborate in some aspects such as: participation in education programming and cooperation with the educational administration in the creation, construction and maintenance of public schools as well as participation in the enforcement of

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compulsory schooling. Smart cities have to do a lot in this new concept.The concept of elearning can make knowledge easy to access. On the other hand, citizens will have an enormous volume of information easy to access and very helpful. With knowledge about their energetic consumption and with hints about how to decrease it, information about traffic and advices about using public transport, educational systems online, etc. All these measures will lead to an increase in the human capital, because they can produce knowledge of how to be more efficient and will also enhance our technological expertise.

d) Social capital
Smart cities can increase our social capital as well. Smart cities provide us overall: more conformability and efficiency. Measures like Telemedicine, where patients can do all their consults from their houses, knowing the traffic, the hollows when you are parking, etc. can make our lives easier but we must ask to us some questions. Will come these facilities to all alike? And, are we ready to so much control? These and more questions will be interesting to analyze them maybe by sociologists.

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3. INDICATORS
a) European smart cities
This is a way of measuring smart cities. They define a smart city such a city well performing in 6 characteristics, built on the ‘smart’ combination of endowments and activities of self-decisive, independent and aware citizens. Those characteristics would be the next.

Figure 5: Characteristics for measuring a smart city.

They have established some hierarchy to make a ranking of smart cities. It is shown in the next figure.

Figure 6: Hierarchy

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They have chosen some indicators in each one of the six characteristics.

Smart Economy.

Figure 7: Indicators and weighting of economy

Smart mobility.

Figure 8: Indicators and weighting of mobility

Smart environment.

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Figure 9: Indicators and weighting of environment.

Smart people.

Figure 10: Indicators and weighting of people.

Smart living.

Figure 11: Indicators and weighting of way of living.

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Smart Cities
 Smart governance.

Sustainable development

Figure 12: Indicators and weighting of governance.

They do a standardization and aggregation to be able to compare the different indicators. To standardize, they use the method of z-transformation. This method transforms all indicator values into standardized values with an average 0 and a standard deviation 1. This method has the advantages to consider the heterogeneity within groups and maintain its metric information. Furthermore a high sensitivity towards changes is achieved.

To receive results on the level of factors, characteristics and the final result for each city it is necessary to aggregate the values on the indicator level. For the aggregation of indicators of factors we consider also the coverage rate of each indicator. A certain result from an indicator of an indicator covering all 70 cities weights therefore a little more than from an indicator covering only 60 cities. Besides this small correction the results were aggregated on all levels without any weighting. The aggregation was done additive but divided through the number of values added. That allows us to include also cities which do not cover all indicators. Their results are calculated with the values available. Still, it is necessary to provide a good coverage over all cities to receive reasonable results. For the 70 cities by 74 indicators we achieve a coverage rate of 87 %.

b) IDC: Índice de las ciudades inteligentes.
It is based on the next methodological steps:  Identifying basic pillars of the concept of intelligence which should be taken into account in the analysis. Identifying, for each pillar of the concept of intelligence, the criteria of evaluation and their relative weighting.

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Identifying, for each evaluation criterion, detailed indicators that you have to assess.

The props of the concept of intelligence that should be used for the analysis are organized in two groups:  Intelligent Dimensions: Smart Government, intelligent buildings, smart mobility, energy and environment intelligent and intelligent services. These are the areas for those who can develop and implement initiatives. Enabling Forces: People, Economy and Information and Communication Technology. While population and local economies benefit from the development of the smart cities, also act as support factors that create more attractive conditions for the success of its implementation. If we consider the definition of 'smart city' of IDC (local entity that declares and makes a conscious effort to take the information and communication technologies to transform your modus operandi essential), ICT play a key role as a facilitator. For this reason, its relative weighting is greater (40 %) that allocated to the people (30 %) and the Economy (30 %).

The next figure shows the components of the IDC.

Figure 13: Components of IDC

They don’t show the indicators, only the ranking.

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4. PROPOSALS FOR SMARTCITIES

IMPROVING

THE

SUSTAINABILITY

OF

Nowadays, it is possible that some big companies such as Telefónica, IBM, Microsoft, etc. they have done some bad use of the concept of smart city to try to take an advantage of it. They are trying to make us believe that smart cities are going to be the solution for everything. But we have to be very careful about it. Since every good idea it can be wrong managed, we should take this topic seriously and think more about people instead focusing so much in technological gadgets.

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5. REFERENCES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. http://www.smartcities.es/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_city http://www.smart-cities.eu http://davidruyet.wordpress.com/2012/01/12/para-que-sirven-las-smart-city/ http://electricidadsostenible.blogspot.com.es http://setis.ec.europa.eu/about-setis/technology-roadmap/european-initiative-onsmart-cities http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/smarter_cities/overview/index.html?re=sp h Smart Cities: un primer paso hacia la internet de las cosas. Fundación Telefónica. Smarter cities for smarter growth. IBM Mapa Tecnológico. “Ciudades inteligentes”. IDAE. Análisis de las Ciudades Inteligentes en España. IDC.

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