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ANA-MARIA PASCU

TESTS AND STRATEGIES


FOR

THE LINGUA EXAMINATION


WITH KEY

REVISED & EXPANDED

EXTRA SPEAKING ACTIVITIES


EFES CLUJ-NAPOCA 2008

CONTENTS PREFACE ...................................................................................................... 3 Part 1. STRATEGIES..................................................................................... 4 Part 2. READING and USE OF ENGLISH ................................................. 10 Test 1 ................................................................................................ 10 Test 2 ................................................................................................ 14 Test 3 ................................................................................................ 18 Test 4 ................................................................................................ 22 Test 5 ............ .................................................................................. 26 Test 6 ................................................................................................ 29 Test 7 ................................................................................................ 33 Test 8 ...................................... . ......... ......... .......... ..................... 37 Test 9 .................................................. ............................................ 40 Test 10 .............................................................................................. 43 Test 11 .............................................................................................. 46 Test 12 .............................................................................................. 50 Test 13 .............................................................................................. 53 Test 14 .............................................................................................. 56 Test 15 .............................................................................................. 60 Test 16 .............................................................................................. 63 Test 17 .............................................................................................. 67 Test 18 .............................................................................................. 70 Test 19 .............................................................................................. 74 Test 20 .............................................................................................. 77 Test 21 .............................................................................................. 80 Test 22 .............................................................................................. 83 Test 23 .............................................................................................. 86 Test 24 .............................................................................................. 89 Part 3. WRITING TASKS ............................................................................ 92 Reports, letters, proposals .......................................................... 92 Memos ........................................................................................ 95 Argumentative essays ................................................................. 96 Part 4. SPEAKING TOPICS ........................................................................ 98 Part 5. SPEAKING TASKS ....................................................................... 101 A. Individual long turn .................................................................. 101 B. Interaction ................................................................................. 102 KEY to READING& USE OF ENGLISH ................................................. 104

PREFACE TESTS AND STRATEGIES FOR THE LINGUA EXAMINATION has been created for the students who prepare for the Lingua Business English examination, while also being useful to anyone wishing to improve their knowledge of business English. A. The structure of the book The book begins with a set of STRATEGIES that candidates should consider before taking the examination. In Part 2 there are 24 READING& USE OF ENGLISH tests following the structure of the examination. Part 3 consists of a set of writing tasks focusing on reports, letters, proposals, memos and argumentative essays. Part 4 is meant to help students focus on the possible questions and presentation topics of the SPEAKING test. Part 5 provides extra SPEAKING practice that students will find useful both for the LINGUA and other international examinations. At the end of the book you can find the KEY to the READING& USE OF ENGLISH tests. B. The structure of the examination There are two tests: the written test (2 hours) and the oral test. The written test (18 points) o Listening comprehension (1 exercise) o Reading comprehension (1 exercise) o Use of English Open cloze Guided cloze Error detection Word derivation o Writing (1 exercise) The oral test (12 points) o Individual long turn (mini-presentation on a given topic) o Interaction (answering questions on a topic chosen on the spot)

I. STRATEGIES Here are some strategies that you may find useful for this examination. You may have your own "tried and tested" strategies and you may decide to use others than the ones given below. Whichever strategies you decide to use, remember that exam strategies are different from learning strategies and the former do not substitute for the latter. 1. Reading o Allot about 10-15 minutes to this task. o Read the text ignoring the gaps in order to get "the big picture", i.e. to understand the main ideas. o Start reading the text again. When you get to the first gap, have a close look at the sentence before the gap and the sentence after the gap. o Read the sentences at the end of the text. o Choose one sentence that has a connection with either the sentence before the gap or the sentence after the gap. Sometimes there may be a connection with both sentences. o Do the same for each gap in the text. Always read all the sentences even if you think you can eliminate the ones you have already used for the previous gaps. Thus you can avoid making mistakes and you can correct your own mistakes. o There is one extra sentence which does not match any of the gaps. This sentence will be either too general or in contrast with the meaning and grammar of the text. Sometimes this extra sentence competes with another sentence for a gap in the text. o At the end, read the text again to check whether it makes sense with the sentences you have chosen. Students tend to skip this last stage due to lack of time. You could leave it for the end of the test when you are more objective. 2. Use of English o Allot about 30 minutes to this part. Part 1: Open cloze {Instructions: For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found.) Read the text as it is, ignoring the gaps, and trying to "resist the temptation" to write any words down at this stage. Start reading the text again. When you get to the first gap, make sure you read the entire sentence first. Then, focus on the words around the gap and try to think of ONE word only.

As this part does not test vocabulary as much as grammar, you are not supposed to "guess what the author wanted to say". The words required are mainly prepositions, conjunctions, sometimes adverbs etc. They are words that establish connections among other words and more often than not they are words that form expressions with the other words around the gap. Do the same for each gap in the text. At the end read the text again to check whether it sounds right as a whole.

Part 2: Guided cloze {Instructions: For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.) Read the text to understand the main ideas first. Read the text again; when you get to the first gap, have a look at the entire sentence and try to think of one word to use without looking at the four options yet. As this exercise tests vocabulary, quite often the word you need will be part of a collocation. Look at the four options and choose one word for the gap. Best case scenario: you know the collocation or you recognize it when you see the four options (you have seen it or heard it somewhere else before) Worst case scenario: you are not sure what word to choose (they all sound so similar to you!). In this case you should try to choose the word that "sounds" best. Never leave an empty gap! Try to guess as you may guess right and not lose points, while if you leave the gap empty you will definitely lose points! Do the same for all the gaps. At the end read the text again to check your answers. Do not use more than one word for a gap. Make sure you write LETTERS (A, B, C, or D) on your answer sheet, not words! Part 3: Error detection (Instructions: In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C o r D that makes the

sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A o r B o r C o r D . ) Read the entire fragment before focusing on the four underlined sections. Read each of the four underlined sections in turn. Check for: Spelling mistakes (e.g. " altough" instead of "although") Grammar mistakes (e.g. "Advertising it is effective" instead of "Advertising is effective") Word order mistakes (e.g. "The employees wonder when will they start the new project" instead of "The employees wonder when they will start the new project") Semantic mistakes refer to meaning so you will have to check whether the underlined section makes sense logically in the context. Remember you do not need to correct the mistake or indicate what the mistake is. So if you are not sure of your answer, choose a section that does not "feel" right in the context, but only after going through the stages given above.

Part 4: Word derivation {Instructions: Starting from the word in

CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word.) Read the entire fragment ignoring the gaps and the given words. Look at the first gap. You will need to derive a word from the one given on the right to form a new word that fits in the same numbered gap. Read the entire sentence before dealing with a gap. One of the trickiest situations is when you need to form the antonym of the given word. You have to understand the meaning of the text in order to realize that you need an antonym. You may use prefixes (e.g. "inattentive" derived from "attentive"), suffixes (e.g. "business" derived from "busy"), or both prefixes and suffixes (e.g. "department" derived from "part").

3. Writing

Make sure you spelling is correct as incorrect spelling means you will not get any points for your answer! Read the text at the end to check if it sounds right.

o Allow about 45 minutes for this section. o Read the task carefully and underline the key words to help you better understand what is required of you. o Plan for about 5 minutes by writing down the main points you want to make. Do not write everything down on your draft! Leave 5 to 10 minutes at the end to proofread. o Use an appropriate style/ layout/ register for the type of writing you need to address. o Do everything the task requires you to do, i.e. do not leave anything out! o Make sure you do not go much beyond or below the word limit or you will lose points in both situations. Do not waste time counting every single word though. Approximate your total number of words. o Spelling and grammar mistakes are quite frequent in students' writing and they make a bad impression. Monitor your spelling and grammar as you write (do not use a word/ expression unless you are confident you are using it correctly) and check again after you have completed the task, o It is important to prove that you have a good enough level of English and you can do that through writing. Take advantage of the fact that you have time to plan what you write! Try to use more than just basic expressions and grammatical structures. o Make sure you do what the task requires you to do. Before the exam look at examples of different types of writing (memos, letters, reports, proposals, essays etc. ) and organize your writing appropriately in terms of layout and register. 4. Speaking Part 1: Individual long turn You select a topic card and have around 5 minutes to prepare your mini-presentation. You will speak for approximately 1-2 minutes. The interlocutor will not interfere. The topics are related to the themes you studied in the first two years. You can find them in the speaking section of this book. As you prepare, make sure you have A good introduction (around one or two sentences); Two or three main points signposted appropriately, supported by sub-points and examples; An effective conclusion (again, one or two sentences).

Use language that is appropriate for the task. For this purpose, before the exam, revise the vocabulary you learnt for each of the topics. Use accurate grammar structures to prove your level of English is more than intermediate. Remember that you are assessed according to the following criteria which are equally important: Grammar and vocabulary Discourse management Interactive communication Pronunciation

Part 2: Interaction 5. Listening There is one listening exercise in the test. There are three main types of listening tasks you may receive. In all the cases you will listen to the recording twice. Type 1: True or False You need to decide whether a number of sentences (around 6) are true or false, according to what the speaker(s) say. Before listening read the sentences carefully underlining the key words. You will have around a minute before listening to do this. Some sentences are made up of two parts (e.g. "The CEO decided not to sign the agreement for financial reasons"). In this case both parts need to be true for the whole sentence to be true. So if you only hear about the first part, then the sentence will be false. The sentence is also false if the reasons given are not financial in nature. As you listen for the first time concentrate on the information related to your sentences, as there will be some details that are irrelevant for the task. Make a decision based on what you hear, not what you THINK about the topic. After you have finished Part 1, you select a topic (e.g. "Marketing"). Again, the topics are the ones studied in the first two years. You can find them in the speaking section of this book. This time the interlocutor will ask you some questions related to the topic you have selected. Answer the questions (do not speak about something else) giving more than just basic answers, but do not attempt a one-minute speech. The same criteria from above are used to assess you in this part.

The sentences appear in the same order as they are addressed on the recording. As you listen for the second time check your answers.

Type 2: Gap-filling

You need to fill in the gaps in around 6 sentences with one or several words. You have to write the exact words you hear on the recording. Before listening read the sentences trying to guess what words may be used in the gaps. Even if you think this is pointless, your results are bound to be much better if you familiarize yourself with the sentences before listening. You will be too busy as you listen to focus on the text as well, so at least try to guess what part of speech you may need (verb, noun, adjective etc) or whether you need to write words or a number. You will have around a minute before listening to do this. Do not expect to hear the same words as the ones you have in your sentences before and after each gap. Focus on meaning, not on specific words. The gaps appear in the same order as they are addressed in the recording. At the end check your spelling and, if there is a maximum number of words allowed in a gap, make sure you do not exceed this number.

Type 3: Multiple choice: You have to choose one variant out of around three options based on what you hear. Before listening read the questions and the options, focusing more on the questions. It is useful to underline key words at this stage. You will have around a minute before listening to do this. As you listen, beware of the fact that you may hear the same words as the ones in incorrect options. So do not choose a variant just because you hear the same words! Pay attention to the entire context and the question you need to answer. The questions appear in the same order as they are addressed on the recording. As you listen for the second time check your answers.

II. READING& USE OF ENGLISH

READING 1 Read the following article, Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Market Research (1) What is Market Research? According to the American Marketing Association, marketing research is the systematic gathering, recording, and analyzing of data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services. Every small business owner-manager must ask the following questions to devise effective marketing strategies: o Who are my customers and potential customers? o __1___ o Where do they live? o Can and will they buy? o Am I offering the kinds of goods or services they want at the best place, at the best time, and in the right amounts? o Are my prices consistent with what buyers view as the product's value? o __ 2 ____ o What do customers think of my business? o How does my business compare with my competitors? Marketing research is not a perfect science. 3_ _ To conduct marketing research you must gather facts and opinions in an orderly, objective way to find out what people want to buy, not just what you want to sell them. Why do it? It is impossible to sell products or services that customers do not want. Learning what customers want and how to present it attractively drives the need for marketing research. 4 __ Large businesses must hire experts to study the mass market, while small-scale entrepreneurs are close to their customers and can learn much more quickly about their buying habits. Small business owners have a sense their customers' needs from years of experience, but this informal information may not be timely or relevant to the current market. Marketing research focuses and organizes marketing information. 5____

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o Reduce business risks o Spot current and upcoming problems in the current market o __ 6____ o Develop plans of action (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Are my promotional programs working? B. Small business has an edge over larger concerns in this regard. C. What kind of people are they? D. Nobody managed to do market research without knowing the theory. E. It ensures that such information is timely and permits entrepreneurs to: F. It deals with people and their constantly changing feelings and behaviors, which are influenced by countless subjective factors. G. Identify sales opportunities.

USE OF ENGLISH 1 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. How to do it Without being aware 1____it, most business owners 2____market research every day. Analyzing returned items, asking former customers why they've switched, and looking 3____competitor's prices 4____all examples 5____such research. Formal marketing research simply makes this familiar process orderly. 6____provides a framework 7_____ organize market information. Market Research - The Process Market research, 8____other components of marketing such as advertising, 9____be quite simple or very complex. You might conduct simple market research 10____as including a questionnaire in your customer bills 11____gather demographic information 12____your customers. 13____the more complex side, you might engage a professional market research firm to conduct primary research to aid 14____ in developing a marketing strategy 15____launch a new product. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.

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Regardless of the simplicity or 16____of your marketing research project, you'll benefit 17____reviewing the 18____seven steps in the market research process. Step One: Define Marketing Problems and Opportunities The market research process begins with 19 __ and defining the problems and opportunities that exist for your business, such as: o ___ 20____a new product or service o ______________ Low awareness 21____your company and its products or services o Low utilization of your company's products or services (the market is familiar with your company, but 22 is not doing business with you) o A poor company image and reputation o ___________ Problems with distribution - your goods and services are not reaching the buying public in a 23____manner 16 A extent 17 A of 18 A subsequent 19 A fixing 20 A Launching 21 A for 22 A yet 23 A good B complexity B from B consequent B finding B Proving B of B still B effective C rate C by C following C identifying C Starting C about C soon C timely D degree D with D below D shaping D Testing D on D finally D appropriate

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that snakes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence, THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Step Two: Set Objectives, Budget, and Timetables 24. Objective: With a (A) marketing problem or opportunity defined, the next step is to set objectives for your market research operations. (B) Your objective might be to explore the nature of a problem (C) so you may further define it, or perhaps (D) is it to determine how many people will buy your product packaged in a certain way and offered at a certain price. 25. (A) Your objective might even be to test possible (B) cause and effect relationships. For example, (C) if you lower your price by 10 percent what increased sales volume should you expect? (D) What impact this strategy will have on your profit? 26. Budget: (A) How much money are you willing to invest in your market research? How much can you afford? (B) Your market research budget is a portion of your overall marketing budget. (C) A method popular with small business owners to establish a

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marketing budget is to allocate (D) a small per centage of gross sales for the most recent year. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" _____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. 27.BUSY This usually amounts to about two percent for an existing business. However, if you are planning on launching a new product or 27 _ , you may want to increase your budget figure to as much as 10 percent 28.COMPETE of your expected gross sales. Other methods used by small businesses include analyzing and estimating the 28 __ 's budget and calculating your cost of marketing per sale. 29. REAL Timetables: Prepare a detailed, 29 __ time frame to complete ail 30. ACCESS steps of the market research process. If your business operates in cycles, establish target dates that will allow the best 30 __to your market. For example, a holiday greeting card business may want to conduct research before or around the holiday season buying period, when their customers are most likely to be thinking about their purchases. (http://www.sba.gov/)

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READING 2 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Market Research (2) Step Three: Select Research Types, Methods, and Techniques There are two types of research: primary research or original information gathered for a specific purpose and secondary research or information that already exists somewhere. 1____Secondary research is usually faster and less expensive to obtain that primary research. Gathering secondary research may be as simple as making a trip to your local library or business information center or browsing the Internet. Step Four: Design Research Instruments 2____Keep these tips in mind when designing your market research questionnaire. o _____________ Keep it simple. 3____ o Begin the survey with general questions and move towards more specific questions. Keep each question brief. o If the questionnaire is completed by the respondent and not by an interviewer or survey staff member, remember to design a questionnaire that is graphically pleasing and easy to read. o __ 4____Before taking the survey to the printer, ask a few people such as regular customers, colleagues, friends, or employees to complete the survey. Ask them for feedback on the survey's style, simplicity and their perception of its purpose. o ________________________ Mix the form of the questions. 5____The form or way a question is asked may influence the answer given. Basically, there are two question forms: closed-end questions and open-end questions. (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Include instructions for answering all questions included on the survey. B. Both types of research have a number of activities and methods of conducting associated with them. C. The most common research instrument is the questionnaire. D. Questionnaires are often difficult to use as a tool because people are difficult to convince to react to them. E. Use scales, rankings, open-ended questions, and closed-ended questions for different sections of the questionnaire. F. Remember to pre-test the questionnaire.

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USE OF ENGLISH 2 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Close-end questions - Respondents choose 1____possible answers included on the questionnaire. Types of close-end questions include: Multiple choice questions 2____offer respondents the ability to answer "yes" or "no" or choose from a list of several answer choices. Scales refer 3____questions that ask respondents to rank their answers or measure their answer 4____a particular point 5 a scale. For example, a respondent 6____have the choice to rank 7____feelings towards a particular statement. The scale may range from "Strongly Disagree," "Disagree," and "Indifferent" to "Agree" and "Strongly Agree." Open-end questions - Respondents answer questions in their 8____words. Completely unstructured questions allow respondents to answer 9____way they choose. Types of open-end questions include: Word association questions 10____respondents to state the first word that comes to 11_____when a particular word is mentioned. Sentence, story or picture completion questions ask respondents to complete partial sentences, stories, or pictures in their own words. For 12____, a question for commuters might read: "My daily commute between home and office is _____ miles and takes me an average of_____minutes. I use the following mode of transportation:_____" For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Step Five: Collect Data To help you obtain clear, 13____and reliable results, collect the data under the 14_____of experienced researchers. Before beginning the collection of data, it is important to train, educate, and supervise your research staff. An untrained staff person 15____primary research will lead to interviewer 16____. 17____to the objectives and rules associated with the methods and techniques you have set in Step Two and Step Three. Try to be as scientific as possible in gathering your information. Step Six: Organize and Analyze the Data Once your data has been collected, it needs to be cleaned. Cleaning research data 18 editing, coding, and tabulating results. To make this step 19____, start with a simply 20____ research instrument or questionnaire.

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13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

A A A A A A A A

unhindered influence performing stress move signifies more easy design

B B B B B B B B

unrestricted direction directing bias Get denotes more easier drawn

C C C C C C C C

unbiased pressure conducting pressure Stick involves much easy designated

D D D D D D D D

unlawful protection making objectivity Conform entitles easier distorted

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. 21. (A) Some helpful tips for organizing and analyzing your data are listed below. o (B) Look for relevant data that focuses on your immediate market needs. o Rely on subjective information (C) only such as support for more general findings of (D) objective research. 22. (A) Analyze for consistency; compare the results (B) of different methods of your datas collection. For example, are the market demographics provided to you from the local media outlet consistent with your survey results? o Quantify your results; (C) look for common opinions that may be counted together. o Read between the lines. For example, combine U.S. Census Bureau statistics on median income levels (D) for a given location and the number of homeowners vs. renters in the area. Step Seven: Present and Use Market Research Findings

23. Once (A) marketing information about your target market competition and environment (B) are collected and analyzed, present it in an (C) organized manner to the decision makers of the business. For example, (D) you may want to report your findings in the market analysis section of your business plan. 24. Also, (A) you may want to familiarize your sales and marketing departments (B) of the data or conduct a company-wide informational training seminar using the information. In summary, (C) the resulting data was created to help guide your business decisions, so it needs to be (D) readily accessible to the decision makers.

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Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Define the Problem or Opportunity The first step of the research process, defining the problem or A. opportunity, is often 25____- but it is crucial. The root cause of the problem is harder to 26____than its obvious manifestations; for example, a decline in sales is a problem, but its underlying cause is what must be 27____corrected. Assess Available Information Assess the information that is 28____available. It may be that current 29____supports one or more hypotheses, and solutions to the problem may become obvious through the process of defining it. Weigh the cost of gathering more information against its potential 30____. (http://www.sba.gov/) 28. IMMEDIATE 29. KNOW 25. LOOK 26. IDENTITY 27. INSTANT

30. USE

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READING 3 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Market Research Gather Additional Information Before considering surveys or field experiments, look at currently held information: sales records, complaints, receipts, and any other records that can show where customers live and work and how and what they buy. 1____With this kind of information he could crossreference his customers' addresses and the products they purchased to check the effectiveness of his advertising. Customers' addresses tell much about them. 2____Credit records are an excellent source of information, giving information about customers' jobs, income levels, and marital status. Offering credit is a multifaceted marketing tool with well-known costs and risks. 3____They hear customers' minor gripes about the store or service - the ones customers don't think important enough to take to the owner. Employees are aware of the items customers request that you do not stock. 4____ Outside Data- Secondary Research Secondary research exploits published sources like surveys, books, and magazines and applying or rearranging the information in them to bear on the problem or opportunity at hand. A tire sales business owner might guess that present retail sales of tires are strongly correlated with sales of new cars three years ago. To test this idea, it's easy to compare new car sales records with replacement tire sales three years later. 5____ Localized figures tend to provide better information as local conditions might buck national trends. Newspapers and other local media are often quite helpful. There are many sources of secondary research material. 6____Trade associations and government agencies are rich sources of information - GALES' Directory is available at any public library. (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Lifestyles - and buying habits - are often correlated with neighborhoods. B. Done over a range of recent years, this should prove or disprove the hypothesis and help marketing efforts tremendously. C. One small business owner found that addresses on cash receipts allowed him to pinpoint customers in his market area.

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D. It can be found in libraries, colleges, trade and general business publications, and newspapers. E. They can often supply good customer profiles from their day-to-day contacts. F. Employees are not always eager to reveal information about such matters. G. Employees may be the best source of information about customer likes and dislikes.

USE OF ENGLISH 3 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Market Research - Primary Research Primary research can be 1____simple as asking customers or suppliers how they feel about a business or 2____complex as surveys conducted 3____professional marketing research firms. Direct mail questionnaires, telephone surveys, experiments, panel studies, test marketing, 4____behavior observation 5____all examples of primary research. Primary research 6____often divided 7____reactive and non-reactive research. Nonreactive primary research observes 8____real people behave in real market situations 9____influencing that behavior 10____accidentally. Reactive research, including surveys, interviews, and questionnaires, is best left 11____marketing professionals, as they can usually get more objective and sophisticated results. Those 12____can't afford high-priced marketing research services 13____consider asking nearby college or university business schools for help.

For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Why Small Businesses Fail Success in business is never automatic. It isn't 14____based on luck 15____a little never hurts. It 16____primarily on the owner's foresight and organization. Even 17____, of course, there are no 18____. 19____a small business is always risky, and the chance of success is 20____ 14 A definitely 15 A so 16 A draws B infinitely B even B relies C strictly C although C thrives D systematically D despite D depends

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17 18 19 20

A then A proofs A Setting A thin

B than B guesses B Settling B slim

C there C attempts C Starting C weak

D thus D guarantees D Defining D ill

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. 21. According to the U.S. Small Bussiness Administration, (B) roughly 50% of small businesses (C) fail within the first five years. In his book Small Business Management, Michael Ames (D) gives the following reasons for small business failure: 22. o (A) Lack of inexperience o (B) Insufficient capital (money) o (C) Poor location o (D) Poor inventory management 23. o o o o (A) Over-investment in fixed assets (B) Poor credit arrangements (C) Personal use of business funds (D) Unexpected grow.

Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Figures aren't meant to scare you, but to prepare you for the 24____path ahead. 25____the difficulty of starting a business is one of the biggest obstacles entrepreneurs face. 26____, success can be yours if you are patient, 27____to work hard, and take all the necessary steps. It's true that there are many reasons not to start your own business. But for the right person, the advantages of business 28____far 29____the risks. You will be your own boss. Hard work and long hours directly benefit you, rather 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. ROCK ESTIMATE EVER WILL OWN WEIGH

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than increasing profits for someone else. Earning and growth potential are far greater. A new venture is as exciting as it is risky. Running a business provides 30____challenge and opportunities for learning. (http://www.sba.gov/)

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READING 4 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Is Entrepreneurship For You? In business, there are no guarantees. 1____Start by evaluating your strengths and weaknesses as a potential owner and manager of a small business. Carefully consider each of the following questions: 2____It will be entirely up to you to develop projects, organize your time, and follow through on details. 3____Business owners need to develop working relationships with a variety of people including customers, vendors, staff, bankers, and professionals such as lawyers, accountants, or consultants. Can you deal with a demanding client, an unreliable vendor, or a cranky receptionist if your business interests demand it? How good are you at making decisions? 4____ Do you have the physical and emotional stamina to run a business? Business ownership can be exciting, but it's also a lot of work. 5____ How well do you plan and organize? Research indicates that poor planning is responsible for most business failures. 6____ Is your drive strong enough? Running a business can wear you down emotionally. Some business owners burn out quickly from having to carry all the responsibility for the success of their business on their own shoulders. 7____ How will the business affect your family? The first few years of business startup can be hard on family life. It's important for family members to know what to expect and for you to be able to trust that they will support you during this time. 8____You may have to adjust to a lower standard of living or put family assets at risk in the short-term. A. Are you a self-starter? B. Good organization of financials, inventory, schedules, and production can help you avoid many pitfalls. C. Strong motivation will help you survive slowdowns and periods of burnout. D. Small business owners are required to make decisions constantly - often quickly, independently, and under pressure.

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E. Can you face six or seven 12-hour workdays every week? F. How well do you get along with different personalities? G. There is simply no way to eliminate all the risks associated with starting a small business but you can improve your chances of success with good planning, preparation, and insight. H. Few people are cut out for entrepreneurship. I. There also may be financial difficulties until the business becomes profitable, which could take months or years.

USE OF ENGLISH 4 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Development of Leadership Managers and leaders are very different animals. It is important to remember that 1____are definite strengths and weaknesses in 2____types of individuals. Managers are very good 3____maintaining the status quo and adding stability and order 4____our culture. 5____, they may not be 6____good at instigating change and envisioning the future. On the 7____hand, leaders are very good at stirring people's emotions, 8____their expectations, and taking them in new directions (both good and bad). However, 9____artists and other gifted people, leaders often suffer from neuroses and have a 10____toward self-absorption and preoccupation. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. They comparison shop over the Internet 11____the best quality and cost and purchase a range of goods from groceries to high-tech products. 12____the electronic-consumer trade continues to soar, business-to-business E-Commerce will be 13____ stronger. Many larger corporations have 14____mandated the use of online transactions to their 15____vendors. According to the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), the introduction of electronic commerce in federal contracting is moving 16____, and small business owners 17____adopt this new business strategy to remain 18____ competitive. 19____recently, developing an E-Commerce Web site meant dealing with multiple companies: one to develop the Web site, one for E-Commerce integration, one to host the site, and yet 20____provider for secure payment processing.

21. A around 22. A Before 23. A more

B forward B The sooner B even

C for C As C so

D against D Despite D such

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24. A just 25. A downstream

B never B upstream

C already C downright

D only D upright

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26. A away 27. A ought to 28. A largely 29. A Before 30. A other

B ahead B might B fully B Until B another

C afore C may C mainly C Since C others

D apart D must D extraordinarily D Although D otherwise

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. Unfair Business Practices C. (A) Many businesses will make almost (B) anything to gain an edge on the competition. (C) Without a clear understanding of antitrust laws, the price of (D) gaining customers may be losing a business. D. (A) Antitrust laws make it illegal (B) to conspire to restrain trade or (C) commerce in any marketplace, (D) regardless of the size. E. (A) While small businesses often fall victim before the (B) unfair business practices of larger companies, (C) they can be prosecuted for (D) unfairly dominating markets localized in cities, towns, neighborhoods, or niche industries. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Conspiring to Fix Market Prices: Discussing prices with 24____, even if it affects a small marketplace, may be construed as a violation of antitrust laws. Price Discrimination: Using dominant industry power to secure 25____product prices from buyers, even though such prices are 26____to weaker companies in the same industry, is generally a violation of antitrust laws. Conspiring to Boycott: Conversations with other businesses regarding the potential boycott of another competitor or 27____may violate antitrust laws. Conspiring to Allocate Markets or Customers: 28____between competitors to divide up customers, 27. SUPPLY 28. AGREE 24. COMPETE 25. FAVOUR 26. AVAILABLE

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territories, or markets are illegal. This provision applies even when the competitors do not dominate the particular market or industry. Monopolization: Preserving a monopoly position through the 29____of competitors, the 30____of competitors to the given market, or the control of market prices are all in violation of antitrust laws. (http://www.sba.gov/) 29. ACQUIRE 30. EXCLUDE

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READING 5 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Get ready for setting up your business How do I get a small business loan? You should prepare a business plan, including your loan proposal, and submit it to a local lender. 1____The SB A can guarantee up to 80% of a small business loan. However, the lender must agree to loaning the money with the SBA guarantee. The lender will then forward your loan application and a credit analysis to the nearest SBA District Office. 2____Upon SBA approval, the lending institution closes the loan and disburses the funds. How do I get a small business grant? At this time, Congress has not set aside any monies for grants to start and/or expand a small business. 3____The SBA guarantees loans that the lender could not normally approve. However, all funding is handled through your local lender. How do I get started in a business? The U.S. Small Business Administration provides a wealth of information on starting a business at the SBA home page sba.gov under "Small Business Planner." 4____You may take advantage of SBA's resource partners. The Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE) and the Small Business Development Center (SBDC) provides free one-on-one counseling to those interested in starting and expanding a business. 5____ (http://www.sba.gov/) A. If the lender is unable to approve your loan, you may request that your application be submitted, by the lender, to the Small Business Administration (SBA). B. SBA will not help you establish any of your personal traits that may determine whether your business will succeed or not. C. SBA does provide a loan guarantee program for loans made by your local lender. D. This includes critiquing your business plan, legal requirements, marketing, and licenses needed for your business. E. You will find information on writing a business plan as well. F. If the lender needs SBA applications and/or guidance it may contact the nearest SBA District Office by going to SBA.

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USE OF ENGLISH 5 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. E-Commerce: It's Time to Get Connected If you have not decided 1____an online presence for your enterprise is 2____exploring, you could be missing 3____on a powerful business tool. The Internet is proving 4____be a significant business leveler, allowing small and medium-size companies to compete 5____ the giants 6____the same global playing field. Whether you are a consumer 7____a business-to-business resource, 8____of the most efficient marketing and selling tools are available via the Internet, and the potential of reaching a vast audience is open to you through the World Wide Web. Consider 9____ facts: Forrester Research, Inc. estimates that 220 million North American users 10____ online access. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. How do I get a business license? Licensing is generally handled through your state or local government. You will need to consult your local telephone 11____in the "Government" section for an office that will assist you 12____a license or permit. For FREE one-on-one 13____, please go to SBA's home page sba.gov and select "Local Resources" for an area local contact nearest you. The Service Corps of Retired Executives and the Small Business Development Center can 14____you with your business venture. How do I write a business plan? If you go to SBA's home page sba.gov and select "Writing a Business Plan" under "Small Business Planner", you will find information 15____starting a business and writing a business plan. Under "SBA local resources" you can find local contacts 16____ as the Service Corps of Retired Executives and the Small Business Development Center that provide FREE one-on-one counseling in the area of starting and 17____a small business. They can assist you by critiquing your business plan and your business ideas. You can locate a center by selecting "Local Resources" under sba.gov as well. 11. A director 12. A for B directory Bon C direction C with D direct D about

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13. 14. A assist 15. A of 16. A such 17. A expandig

A council B provide B on B like B extending

B counseling C familiarize C or C much C acquiring

C counselor D councilor D acquaint D around D so D overtaking

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. What type of collateral do I need for a loan? 18. (A) Repayment ability from the cash flow of the business (B) is a primary consideration in the SBA loan (C) decision process but good character, (D) management capability, collateral, and owners's equity contribution are also important considerations. 19. (A) All owners of twenty percent (20%) or more of the business (B) are required to personally guarantee SBA loans. The SBA (C) does not deny approval for a SBA Guarantee Loan (D) solely due to lack of collateral.

20. (A) However, it can be used as a reason (B) in addition to another credit factors. For more (C) information on requirements on a SBA Guarantee Loan as well as (D) our guarantee loan programs available, please visit us at SBA.

Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" _____"). On your answer sheet, write the derived word.

Is there any business 21____available in my area? Yes. There are 12,400 Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE) chapters and 22____1,000 Small Business 23____Centers (SBDC) 24____. SCORE provides free expert advice based on many years of 25____ experience and shared 26____on 27____every aspect of business. The SBDC provides a 28____of 29____and technical assistance services to small 30____ and potential entrepreneurs. (http://www.sba.gov/)

21. ASSIST 22. APPROXIMATE 23. DEVELOP 24. NATION 25. HAND 26. KNOW 27. VIRTUAL 28. VARY 29. MANAGE 30. BUSY

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READING 6 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Borrowing money is one of the most common sources of funding for a small business, but obtaining a loan isn't always easy. Before you approach your banker for a loan, it is a good idea to understand as much as you can about the factors the bank will evaluate when they consider making you a loan. 1____Also included is a self-assessment checklist at the end of this section for you to complete. Key Points to Consider 1. Ability to Repay/Capacity The ability to repay must be justified in your loan package. Banks want to see two sources of repayment cash flow from the business, plus a secondary source such as collateral. 2____Generally, banks feel most comfortable dealing with a business that has been in existence for a number of years because they have a financial track record. 3____ If however, the business has been operating marginally and now has a new opportunity to grow or if that business is a start-up, then it is necessary to prepare a thorough loan package with detailed explanation addressing how the business will be able to repay the loan. 2. Credit History

One of the first things a bank will determine when a person/business requests a loan is whether their personal and business credit is good. Therefore before you go to the bank, or even start the process of preparing a loan request, you want to make sure your credit is good. First get your personal credit report. You can obtain a report by calling TransUnion, Equifax, TRW or another credit bureau. 4____Personal credit reports may contain errors or be out of date. In many cases, people find that they paid off a bill but that it has not been recorded on their credit report. It can take 3 to 4 weeks for this error to be corrected ~ and it is up to you to see that this happens. 5____ Once you obtain your credit report, how do you know what it says? First, check your name, social security number and address at the top of the page. 6____There are people who have found that they have credit information from another person because of mistakes in their identification information.(http://www. sba.gov/) A. It is important that you initiate this step well in advance of seeking a loan. B. However, these are not the essential parts you should worry about. C. This discussion outlines some of the key factors a bank uses to analyze a potential borrower.

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A. Make sure these are correct. B. You want to make sure that when the bank pulls your credit report that all the errors have been corrected and your history is up to date. C. In order to analyze the cash flow of the business, the lender will review the business's past financial statements. D. If the business has consistently made a profit and that profit can cover the payment of additional debt, then it is likely that the loan will be approved.

USE OF ENGLISH 6 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. On the rest of your credit report 1 __ will see a list of all the credit you have obtained 2 __ the past - credit cards, mortgages, student loans, etc. 3 ___ credit will be listed individually with information 4 __ how you paid that credit. Any credit where you 5 ___ had a problem in paying will be listed towards 6 ___ top of the list. 7 ___ are the credits that 8 __ affect your ability to obtain a loan. 9 __ you have been late 10 ___ a month on an occasional payment, this probably will not adversely affect your credit. 11 __ , if you are continuously late in paying your credit, 12 __a credit that was never paid and charged off, have a judgment against you, or have declared bankruptcy in the last 7 years, 13 ___ is likely that you will have difficulty 14___ obtaining a loan. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. In some cases, a person has had a period of bad credit 15 ___ on a divorce, medical crisis, or 16 __ other significant event. 17 ___you can show that your credit was good before and after this event and that you have tried to pay back those debts 18 ___ in the period of bad credit, you should be able to obtain a loan. It is best if you write an explanation of your credit problems and how you have 19 __ them and attach this to your credit report in your loan 20 __ . 15 A following 16 A no 17 A Unless 18 A occurred B relying B some B If B incurred C based C somewhat C Even if C occurring D prior D somehow D Only if D incurring

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19 A rectified 20 A pack

B reiterated B packaging

C repeated C package

D restructured D case

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. 21. (A) Each credit bureau has a slightly different way of (B) presenting your credit information. (C) You can get specific information on "how to read the report" from the appropriate company, but here are (D) few tips to get you started: 22. (A) Financial institutions want to see (B) a certain amount of equity in a business. Equity (C) can be built up in a business through (D) retained earnings or the injection of cash from neither the owner or investors. 23. (A) Most banks want to see that the (B) total liabilities or debt of a (C) business is not more than 4 times the (D) amounts of equity. 24. (A) Stated differently, when (B) you divide total liabilities by equity, your answer should not be more than 4. Therefore (C) if you want a loan you, must ensure that (D) there is enough equity in the company to leverage that loan. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space ("_"). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Don't be 25____into thinking that start-up businesses can obtain 100% financing through conventional or special loan programs. A business owner usually must put some of her/his own money into the business. The amount an individual must put into the business in order to obtain a loan is 26____on the type of loan, purpose and terms. For example, most banks want the owner to put in at least 20 - 40% of the total request. The balance sheet indicates the amount of equity or net worth of a business. The net worth of the business is often a combination of retained 27____and owner's equity. In many cases, owner's equity will be shown as a loan from 28____and therefore a liability. If a business owner wishes to obtain a loan, she will be obligated to pay the bank back first and not herself. 29____it may be

25. LEAD 26. DEPEND 27. EARN 28. SHARE 29. CONSEQUENCE

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necessary to restructure the liability so that it becomes owner's equity or subordinate the loan. If the current debt to net worth is 4 or over it is 30 __ that the business will be able to obtain additional debt/loan. (http://www.sba.gov/)

30. LIKE

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READING 7 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Write a Business Plan Market Analysis The market analysis section should illustrate your knowledge about the particular industry your business is in. It should also present general highlights and conclusions of any marketing research data you have collected. However, the specific details of your marketing research studies should be moved to the appendix section of your business plan. 1____ Industry Description and Outlook This overview section should include: a description of your primary industry, the current size of the industry as well as its historic growth rate, trends and characteristics related to the industry as a whole (i.e., What life cycle stage is the industry in? What is its projected growth rate?), and the major customer groups within the industry (i.e., businesses, governments, consumers, etc). Identifying Your Target Market Your target market is simply the market (or group of customers) that you want to target (or focus on and sell to). When you are defining your target market, it is important to narrow it to a manageable size; many businesses make the mistake of trying to be everything to everybody. 2____ In this section, you should gather information which identifies the: o Distinguishing characteristics of the major/primary market you are targeting. This section might include information about the critical needs of your potential customers, the degree to which those needs are (or are not) currently being met, and the demographics of the group. 3____ o __ 4____. Here, you would need to know the number of potential customers in your primary market, the number of annual purchases they make in products or services similar to your own, the geographic area they reside in, and the forecasted market growth for this group, o The extent to which you feel you will be able to gain market share and the reasons why. In this research, you would determine the market share percentage and number of customers you expect to obtain in a defined geographic area. 5____ (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Often this philosophy leads to failure. B. Size of the primary target market.

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C. This section should include: an industry description and outlook, target market information, market test results, lead times, and an evaluation of your competition. D. You would also outline the logic you used to develop these estimates. E. Maybe you should try that too. F. It would also include the geographic location of your target market, the identification of the major decision-makers, and any seasonal or cyclical trends which may impact the industry or your business.

USE OF ENGLISH 7 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Market Tests When you are including information about 1____of the market tests you 2____completed for your business plan, 3____sure to focus only 4____the results of these tests. Any specific details 5____be included in the appendix. Market test results might include: the potential customers who 6 __ contacted, any information or demonstrations that 7 ___ given to prospective customers, how important 8 __ is to satisfy the target market's needs, and the target market's desire 9____purchase your business' products or services 10____varying prices. Lead Times Lead time is the amount of time between when a customer 11 ___ an order and when the product or service is actually delivered. 12 __ you are researching this information, determine 13 __ your lead time will be for the initial order, reorders, and volume purchases. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Competitive Analysis When you are doing a competitive analysis, you need to identify your competition by product line or service as well as by market 14 ___ ; assess their strengths and 15 ___ , determine how important your target market is to your competitors, and identify any barriers which may 16 __ you as you are entering the market. Be sure to identify all of your key competitors for each of your products or services. For 17____key competitor, determine what their market share is, then try to estimate how 18____it will take before new competitors will enter into the marketplace. In other words, what is your window of 19____? Finally, identify any indirect or secondary competitors

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which 20 __ have an impact on your business' success. 14 A segment 15 A faults 16 A discourage 17 A all 18 A soon 19 A opportunity 20 A did B part B weaknesses B disappoint B each B long B chance B will C portion C possibilities C destroy C some C short C luck C may D sector D opportunities D hinder D another D early D attempt D should

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, And the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. 21. (A) The strengths of your competitors' are also (B) competitive advantages which you, too, can provide. (C) The strengths of your competitors may take many forms, but the most common include: o (D) An ability to satisfy customer needs 22. o Large share of the market and the (B) consumer awareness that comes with it o (C) A good track record and reputation o Solid financial resources and the (D) subsequent staving power which that provides o Key personnel 23. (A) Weaknesses are simply the flip side of strengths. In other words, (B) analyze the same areas as you did before to determine (C) what your competitors' weaknesses are. (D) They are unable to satisfy their customers' needs? 24. (A) Do they have poor market penetration? Is their (B) track record or reputation not up to par? (C) Do they have limited financial resources? Can they not (D) retain good peoples? 25. (A) All of these can be red flags for any business. (B) If you find weak areas in your competition, be sure to find out (C) why they are having problems. This way, (D) you can avoid the same mistakes they have done.

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Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (u _____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Regulatory Restrictions The final area that you should look at as you're researching this section is regulatory restrictions. This includes information related to current customer or 26 __ regulatory 27 ___as well as any changes that may be around. Specific details that you need to find out include: the methods for meeting any of the requirements which will affect your business, the timing involved (i.e., How long do you have to comply? When do the requirements go into effect?), and the costs involved. Primary success factors might include a superior 28 ___to satisfy your customers' needs, 29 __ efficient methods of delivering your product or service, 30 __ personnel, or a key location. Each of these would give your business a competitive advantage. (http://www.sba.gov/) 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. GOVERN REQUIRE ABLE HIGH STAND

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READING 8 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Your Business Plan - Service or Product Line
What are you selling? In this section, describe your service or product, emphasizing the benefits to potential and current customers. 1 ____ Tell them why busy, two-career couples will prefer shopping in a service-oriented store that records clients' food preferences and caters even the smallest parties on short notice. Focus on the areas where you have a distinct advantage. 2 ____ Give the reader hard evidence that people are, or will be, willing to pay for your solution. List your company's services and products and attach any marketing/promotional materials. 3 _____ Also include information addressing new services or products which will soon be added to the company's line. Overall, this section should include:

o ________________A detailed description of your product or service (from your customers' perspective). Here, you would need to include information about the specific benefits of your product or service. 4_____ o __ 5____Be sure to include information about where your product or service is in its life cycle, as well as any factors that may influence its cycle in the future. (http://www.sba.gov/)
A. Identify the problem in your target market for which your service or product provides a solution. B. You would also want to talk about your product/service's ability to meet consumer needs, any advantages your product has over that of the competition, and the present development stage your product is in (i.e., idea, prototype, etc.). C. For example, don't tell your readers which 89 foods you carry in your "Gourmet to Go" shop. D. Information related to your product's life cycle. E. The life cycle of your product may not always be relevant. F. Provide details regarding suppliers, availability of products/services, and service or product costs.

USE OF ENGLISH 8

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For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found.

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In the Service or Product Line section of your business plan you may also include: Any copyright, patent, and trade secret information 1 ____ may be relevant. Here, you need to include information 2____to existing, pending, or anticipated copyright and patent filings along 3_____any key characteristics of your products/services that you 4 obtain a copyright or patent 5____. This is 6____you should also incorporate key aspects of your products/services that may be classified 7 ____ trade secrets. 8____, but not least, be sure to add 9 ___ information pertaining 10 ____ existing legal agreements, 11 ____ as nondisclosure.

For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.
In the same section you should mention the research and development activities you are involved in or are 12 ___ to be involved in. R&D activities would include any 13 _____ or future activities 14 ___ to the development of new products/services. This section would also include information 15 ____ what you expect the results of future R&D activities to be. Be sure to analyze the R&D 16 ____ of not only your own business, but also that of others in your 17 ___ . 12 A hoping 13 A processing 14 A connected 15 A of 16 A strains 17 A factory B planning B processed B acquainted B related B struggles B industry C determined C in-process C related C implying C efforts C office D reluctant D past D equivalent D about D conflicts D department

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. Funding Request In this section, (A) you will request the amount of funding you will need (B) to start or expand your business. If necessary, (C) you can include different funding scenarios, such as a best and worst case scenarios, but remember that later, in the financial section, you must be able (D) to back off these requests and scenarios with corresponding financial statements.
(A) You will want to include the following in this section: (B) your current funding requirement, your future funding requirements (C) over the next five years, (D) how will

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you use the funds you receive, and any long-range financial strategies that you are planning that would have any type of impact on your funding request. 20. (A) When you are outlining your current and future funding requirements, be sure to (B) include the amount you are wanting now and the (C) amount you want in the future, the time period that each request will cover, the type of funding you would like to have (i.e., equity, debt), and (D) the terms that you would like to have applied. 21. (A) How you will use your funds is (B) very important to a creditor. (C) Is the funding request for capital expenditures? Working capital? Debt retirement? Acquisitions? (D) However it is, be sure to list it in this section.

22. Last of all, (A) make sure that you include any (B) strategic information related to your business that may have an impact on your financial situation in the future, such as: going public with your company, having a leveraged buyout, (C) being acquired over another company, the method with which you will service your debt, or whether or not you plan to sell your business in the future. Each of these is extremely important to a future creditor, (D) since they will directly impact your ability to repay your loan(s).

Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word.
The financials should be developed after you've analyzed the market and set clear objectives. That's when you can allocate resources 23___. If you own an established business, you will be 24 __ to supply 25 ___ data related to your company's performance. Most 26 ___ request data for the last three to five years, depending on the 27 ___ of time you have been in business. The historical financial data you would want to include would be your company's income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements for each year you have been in business (usually for up to 3 to 5 years). Often creditors are also interested in any collateral that you may have that could be used to ensure your loan, 28___of the stage of your business. All businesses, whether startup or growing, will be required to supply 29 ___financial data. Most of the time, creditors will want to see what you expect your company to be able to do 30 ____ the next five years. (http://www.sba.gov/)

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

EFFICIENT REQUEST HISTORY CREDIT LONG REGARD PROSPECT WITH

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READING 9 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Manage Your Business Successfully managing a business requires specific management skills in addition to knowledge of key business practices. Within this section you'll learn about leadership traits, decisionmaking skills, and how to manage your employees. 1____ Networking
Networking is an invaluable tool that anyone in the business world can utilize. 2 ______ To give a definition of networking, networking occurs when there is a planned event or gathering with the primary goal of connecting with others. 3_____ In other words, you have the opportunity to market yourself and your business in a relaxed, social situation. This often proves to be a comfortable situation for all involved. 4 ___ For a new owner of a small business, usually the most productive starting point would be to contact a local chamber of commerce or other organization that suits your field of business. 5 ___ To make sure that the organization is right for you before you join and pay dues, it is usually acceptable to request to visit the group first as a guest at no charge. This will enable you to get to know the group, get the feel of the group, and make sure it is right for you without putting out any money first. (http://www.sba.gov/)

A. Effective networking can be your best form of marketing, as well as being extremely affordable. B. Most chambers of commerce and professional organizations have membership dues that can be a considerable amount of money. C. The purpose of networking can vary based on one's own agenda, yet the primary focus is to meet people, and have people meet you. D. There are many opportunities to network in virtually every community on some scale. E. Additionally, we'll walk you through a host of important topics to manage your business including: marketing basics, setting prices, filing your business taxes, legal considerations, forecasting for future growth, and financing options.

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USE OF ENGLISH 9 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found.
You may want to visit, and possibly join, several chambers or organizations, but 1____

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you choose to do, it 2 __ only be effective if you use it. Regular attendance 3 ____ the meetings is extremely important 4 ___ effective networking. As you attend the meetings, you will be recognized 5 ___ more and 6 ___ people as well as get to know more and more people, 7 __ this facilitates you reaching 8 ____ goal. People will know you and your company and refer 9 ___ you, and you will 10 ____ the same for them 11 reciprocate. Personal referrals and word of 12 ___ advertising is invaluable and highly effective.

For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.
To make the 13 ___ of your networking meeting, here are a few guidelines you should follow: o Arrive early. If you are there before the mass of the group, you are assured the 14____opportunity to meet everyone. o 15____with a goal in mind. Before the meeting, set a goal for 16____for that day, and 17____achieve it. Don't arrive at the meeting feeling lackadaisical or 18____. Take some time for yourself to get yourself focused before the meeting. o Make sure you have writing materials and 19____of business cards and/or brochures. o _________ Make sure you have a purse or briefcase to deposit the materials and business cards that you 20____accumulate. 13 A best 14 A most 15 A Get 16 A you 17 A than 18 A focused 19 A plenty 20 A must B worst B maximum B Come B yourself B then B unfocused B lot B ought to C most C entire C Arrive C reaching C after C attentive C many C should D least D first D Attend D achieving D soon D inattentive D more D will

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D.
21. (A) As it is important to prepare for your meeting (B) by following the preceding criteria, it is (C) also very important to prepare (D) by making sure your personal appearance is appropriate for the gathering.

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A. (A) Your appearance is the first thing people notice. (B) Unfortunately, lasting impressions can be (C) formed about you or your company before (D) you even open your mouth is based solely on your appearance. B. (A) Because of this, it is important (B) to pay attention on this detail. Some points you may want (C) to note would be to: wear clothes that are setting-appropriate, wear clothes that fit properly and (D) pay attention to detail. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space ( u ____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word.

After the 24 ___, it is important that you follow up with the people you have met in a 25 ___ manner. If someone was interested in your company, don't wait two or three weeks to drop them a line; they may have forgotten you by then. Also, it is 26 ____ to follow through on any promises you may have made. If you told someone you would call them with some information, make sure you do it! It is very important to be credible and 27 ____ in order for your networking efforts to be 28____29____. Networking can be costly in fees, dues, luncheons, etc., but if done effectively, it can prove to be an 30____investment in your business's success. (http://www.sba.gov/)

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

MEET TIME ESSENCE RELY TRUE FRUIT VALU

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READING 10 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. You Can't Do It All - Learning to Delegate There is not a single management skill more critical to your personal and professional success as an entrepreneur than learning to delegate. 1 __ It does not mean to simply hand out assignments. It is a science and an exercise in understanding one's self. 2 __ It takes mammoth strength to let go and say, "OK, this is not my area of expertise and here is where I need help. This is how I will get this help." Often, there are things we wish we were good at but somehow cannot seem to grasp (not for lack of intellectual ability, but for lack of experience/exposure). 3 ________ In this fast-paced world we live in, we must choose what it is we wish to conquer and what we need to let go of. An artful business person learns what he/she does best and does that to the best of his/her ability. He/ She lives it, breathes it, and sleeps it. It is a passion. 4 __ Unfortunately, that someone else does not just appear from thin air. Networking or relationship building, as it is referred to '90s style, is the initial key component of delegating. You need to determine how your time would best be spent. For example, as a fundraiser, I know that in a given month, I can raise $X with uninterrupted, focused time. At the same time, I also want to publish a newsletter and send it out to my budding clientele. I have no experience creating a newsletter. While all of the software is at my fingertips, the question is, do I really have time to learn it? I ask myself, "Should I learn the newsletter software and design my own newsletter or should I spend $X and hire a designer who already knows the software and just supply the content?" Better yet, I could ask a local graphic designer to barter their services, but how do I find the local skilled person to barter with? 5 The key is to determine what you need to know, want to know, must know, and already know. Keep lists with these headings to remind you of these things. It is a great feeling to cross things off your list. (http://www.sba.gov/)

A. B. C. D.

We must learn to accept this fact. You can find this person through networking and relationship building. The rest can be left to someone else. There is much more to delegating than meets the eye.

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E. Delegating comes easier for some of us. F. Some of us have been lucky enough to find our strengths and at the same time recognize areas traditionally referred to as weaknesses.

USE OF ENGLISH 10 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Becoming an Expert Jack of all trades, master of none. The old adage holds 1 ___lot of weight in today's entrepreneurial environment. No 2 __ can 3 ___ run a small business alone. I know this because 14 __ tried. Know 5 ___ you do and do it the 6 ___ you can. I recently started a small business. I could 7 __ have gotten it 8 ___the ground without the help of a CPA, lawyer, graphic designer, and administrative assistant. My expertise 9 __ in the areas of people skills, marketing, and fund raising. I realized 10 ___ the start that 11___I attempted to be anything 12 ___ those things to my business, the long-term success of the business 13 __ doomed. I set 14 ___ immediately to find the experts I needed. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. It is important to 15 __ yourself with competent individuals who have 16 ___ areas of expertise. Choose carefully and wisely and be ready to 17 ___ these individuals for a job well done. In some cases, I was able to 18 __ payment until the business took off. In other cases, I made long-term promises such as potential employment if and when the business was 19 __ . When I was really lucky, I bartered. In fact, in most cases I bartered. Payment need not always come in the 20 __ of dollars. Remember your area of expertise and be ready to 21 __ it for what you need. 15 A encounter 16 A complex 17 A help 18 A start 19 A reliable 20 A form 21 A change B surround B key B pay B begin B practicable B amount B trade C help C strong C compensate C defer C real C sum C compare D compare D complimentary D award D deter D viable D light D swap

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In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, And the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. (A) When bartering you need to follow a few simple rules: (B) be nice and respectful, send thank you notes, and (C) recognize those individuals who (D) had helped you both publicly and privately. (A) In making so, you (B) will gain respect and (C) be known as someone who (D) gets the job done. (A) When you will be an expert, people (B) will come to you in need of your talent. (C) Be prepared to use it. (D) Be proud of your skill and share it. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. The Power of Delegating It is quite 25 __ once you really do let go and put your trust in other people. The key here is to identify good people, 26 _ them in your cause or business, give them the ball, and then allow them to run with it. Only you will determine if the ball gets dropped. You must manage and 27 __ the game on a consistent basis. You must give the right ball to the best possible player. For example, you would not hire a person with an associate's degree in accounting to do the job of a CPA. Likewise, a CPA needs certain facts to achieve the task of budgeting and 28 __ cash flow for your business. You need to supply him/her with the necessary information to get the job done. You must understand the process and know what you need the 29 __ to be. You must also communicate these objectives clearly and monitor the progress. Set meeting times for updates and a time line for 30 ___. Review the process and progress frequently. The same applies to the newsletter example mentioned above. As with everything, there are risks associated with delegating. (http://www.sba.gov/)

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

LIBERATE LIST SEE CAST COME COMPLETE

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READING 11 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Leadership Traits Over the past several years, one of the most important contributions psychology has made to the field of business has been in determining the key traits of acknowledged leaders. Psychological tests have been used to determine what characteristics are most commonly noted among successful leaders. 1 __ The increasing rate of change in the business environment is a major factor in this new emphasis on leadership. 2 ___The new leaders of tomorrow are visionary. They are both learners and teachers. 3 ___ Raymond Cattell, a pioneer in the field of personality assessment, developed the Leadership Potential equation in 1954. This equation, which was based on a study of military leaders, is used today to determine the traits which characterize an effective leader. The traits of an effective leader include the following: o _________________ Emotional stability. 4____Overall, they must be well-adjusted and have the psychological maturity to deal with anything they are required to face. o _________ Dominance. Leaders are often competitive, decisive, and usually enjoy overcoming obstacles. 5 ____ o _________ Enthusiasm. Leaders are usually seen as active, expressive, and energetic. They are often very optimistic and open to change. 6 ___ (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Not only do they foresee paradigm changes in society, but they also have a strong sense of ethics and work to build integrity in their organizations. B. Good leaders must be able to tolerate frustration and stress. C. This list of characteristics can be used for developmental purposes to help managers gain insight and develop their leadership skills. D. Overall, they are generally quick and alert and tend to be uninhibited. E. Whereas in the past, managers were expected to maintain the status quo in order to move ahead, new forces in the marketplace have made it necessary to expand this narrow focus. F. Overall, they are assertive in their thinking style as well as their attitude in dealing with others.

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USE OF ENGLISH 11 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. o ________________________________________ Conscientiousness. Leaders are often dominated 1 _________________________________ a sense of duty and 2 ___ to be very exacting 3 __ character. They usually 4 __ a very high standard of excellence and an inward desire to 5 __ one's best. They also have a need 6 ___ order and tend to be very self-disciplined. o _____________________________________________________ Social boldness. Leaders tend to be spontaneous risk-takers. They 7 ________________ usually socially aggressive 8 __ generally thick-skinned. Overall, they are responsive 9 __ others and tend to be high 10 __ emotional stamina.

For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. o Tough-mindedness. Good leaders are practical, logical, and to-the-point. They tend to be 11_ _ in sentimental 12 ___and comfortable with criticism. They are usually 13 _ to hardship and are very 14 ___ . o ________________________________ Self-assurance. Self-confidence and 15 common 16 __________________________among leaders. They tend to be free of guilt and have little or no need for approval. They are generally 17____and free from guilt and are usually 18 __ by prior mistakes or failures. 11 A down 12 A affairs 13 A insensitive 14 A balanced 15 A buoyancy 16 A strains 17 A safe 18 disaffected Blow B businesses B insensible B even B elasticity B traits B unsafe B inaffected C affluent C tendencies C unsensible C poised C resiliency C trails C secure C unaffected D inappropriate D attachments D unsensitive D equal D restlessness D features D insecure D affected

are

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the

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sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.

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Compulsiveness 19. (A) Leaders had been found to be controlled and (B) very precise in their social interactions. Overall, (C) they were very protective of their integrity and reputation and consequently (D) tended to be socially aware and careful, abundant in foresight, and very careful when making decisions or determining specific actions. 20. (A) Beyond these basic traits, the leaders of today (B) must also possess traits who will help them (C) motivate others and (D) lead them in new directions. 21. (A) The leaders of the future must be able (B) to envision the future and convince others that (C) their vision is worth to be following. To do this, (D) they must have the following personality traits: 22. High energy. (A) Long hours and some travel are usually a (B) prerequisite for leadership positions, especially (C) as your company grows. Remaining alert and staying focused (D) are two of greatest obstacles you will have to face as a leader. 23. Intuitiveness. (A) Rapid changes in the world today combined with (B) information overload result to an inability to know everything. In other words, (C) reasoning and logic will not get you through all situations. In fact, more and more leaders (D) are learning the value of using their intuition and trusting their instincts when making decisions. 24. Maturity. (A) To be a good leader, personal power and recognition (B) must be secondary to the development of your employees. In other words, (C) maturity is based on recognizing that (D) more can be accomplished by empowering others then can be by ruling others. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" __________ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Team orientation. Business leaders today put a strong emphasis on team work. Instead of promoting an adult/child relationship with their 25 __ , leaders create an adult/adult relationship which fosters team 26 __ . Empathy. Being able to put yourself in the other person's shoes is a key trait of leaders today. 27 __ empathy, you can't build trust; without trust, you will never be able to get the best effort from your employees. Charisma. People 28 __ perceive leaders as larger than life. Charisma plays a large part in this 29 __ . Leaders who have charisma are able to arouse strong emotions in their employees by

25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

EMPLOY COHESIVE WITH USE PERCEIVE

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defining a vision which unites and captivates them. Using this vision, leaders motivate employees to reach toward a future goal by tying the goal to 30____personal rewards and values. (http://www.sba.gov/)

30. SUBSTANCE

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READING 12 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Change Management - It Starts at the Top Change is a common occurrence in business today; because of this, it is important that you possess strong change management skills if you want your business to be a success. Change management skills include leadership development (to get people to believe in you), marketing and sales abilities (to promote your case for change), and communication skills (to help build support for the decision to change). 1____ The first thing you will want to focus on is your leadership ability. 2 ___ To be an effective leader in the change management process, it helps if you: Set an example. 3 __ If you want others in your business to change, you must set an example for them to follow. Eliminate perks. Perks suggest division and hierarchical thought processes. 4 5 __ The old school of business management promoted the idea that the top person was off limits, enclosed in his or her own glass tower. Leaders of today interact more with their employees; they manage by walking around and getting to know their employees and learning about the problems they face on a day-to-day basis. Be genuine. 6 __ Let others get to know you. Being a leader doesn't mean hiding your emotions. By interacting with employees on a one-on-one basis, you will build rapport and trust. (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Companies continue to make the mistake of focusing too much on business processes and not enough on good, strong examples of leadership. B. It will also help if you know a little about the stages people go through psychologically when they are dealing with change so that you are able to tell if you have managed a successful transition or if there are additional problems that you need to address. C. As a leader of change, it is important to be as real and honest as possible in your interactions with others. D. Walk around and talk to people. E. It is not that acting genuinely will always prove to be good advice, it is just that you must be yourself in all business circumstances. F. By eliminating or reducing your own, you show your desire to level the playing field.

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G. As the top person in your business, others look to you for direction not only in terms of business needs, but also related to behavior, ethics, and standards.

USE OF ENGLISH 12 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Have passion. To be a strong leader, you 1____have passion around your vision. 2___it, you will soon find 3 facing burnout. Leadership is tiring and saps energy 4______ a very high rate, 5 __ make sure you are passionate 6 __ what you 7 __ Building your ability 8 a leader 9 _____ the first step 10 __ the change management process. 11 __ employees believe in you and trust 12 ___ you're doing, you can then begin your campaign 13 __ change. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Your campaign should 14 __the different groups within your business and 15 ___ the reasons why change is necessary for each. For instance, the 16 __ of directors will want to know 17 __ the long-term effects of the change will be. 18 __ , your employees will want to know how they will be personally affected by the changes you are 19 __ . Once a change 20 _ it is very important to communicate on a regular basis with all affected. 14 A target to 15 A outsource 16 A board 17 A how 18 A conversely 19 A reporting 20 A occurs B target B outlive B chair B whatever B consequently B emphasizing B derives C target for C outmatch C head C what C subsequently C proposing C rises D address to D outline D chief D when D similarly D postponing D raises

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.

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A. (A) Let your employees know what is happening. (B) Unless your communication skills are weak or you don't have a formal (C) way of communicating with your employees, set one up (D) before you hit this stage of the change process. B. (A) As keeping everyone informed, you (B) reduce the chances of (C) low productivity and low morale that (D) often accompany unaccepted change. C. (A) it is important to realize that (B) altough you can use techniques to smooth the change transition process, (C) you will never be able to completely (D) jump from one way of doing something to another without experiencing at least some resistance. D. Why is this? Well, (A) people adjust to change on different rates. It's just (B) part of human nature. To reduce your frustration with this process, (C) it helps to know the six phases people go through whenever they are experiencing (D) any type of change, be it personal or professional. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank spaci (" ____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. In the first phase 25____- people don't know what to expect, so they wait, anticipating what the future holds. In the second phase - 26 __ - they are beginning to realize that the change is really going to happen or is happening. Phase three - 27 __ - can be quite disturbing. Phase 4___ - depression - is a necessary step in the change process. This is the stage where a person mourns the past. Not only have they realized the change 28 __ , but now they are beginning to comprehend it emotionally as well. Phase 5 29__ - marks the point where the person begins to accept the change emotionally. Although they may still have reservations, they are not fighting the change at this stage. Usually, they are beginning to see some of the benefits even if they are not completely convinced. In phase 6 - 30 ___ - people completely accept the new change. In fact, many wonder how they ever managed the "old" way. Overall, they feel good about the change and accept it as the status quo from here forward. (http://www.sba.gov/)

25. ANTICIPATE 26. CONFRONT 27. REALIZE 28. INTELLECT 29. ACCEPT 30. LIGHT

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READING 13 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Leading vs. Managing Are you a manager or a leader? Although you may hear these two terms thrown out interchangeably, they are in fact two very different animals complete with different personalities and world views. 1____The result is greater impact and effectiveness when dealing with others and running your business. We are going to take a look at the different personality styles of managers versus leaders, the attitudes each have toward goals, their basic conceptions of what work entails, their relationships with others, and their sense of self (or self-identity) and how it develops. 2___ 3 Managers - emphasize rationality and control, are problem-solvers (focusing on goals, resources, organization structures, or people), often ask question, "What problems have to be solved, and what are the best ways to achieve results so that people will continue to contribute to this organization?", are persistent, tough-minded, hard-working, intelligent, analytical, tolerant, and have goodwill toward others. 4_____ 5____Managers - adopt impersonal, almost passive, attitudes toward goals, decide upon goals based on necessity instead of desire and are therefore deeply tied to their organization's culture, and tend to be reactive since they focus on current information. Leaders - tend to be active since they envision and promote their ideas instead of reacting to current situations, shape ideas instead of responding to them, have a personal orientation toward goals, and provide a vision that alters the way people think about what is desirable, possible, and necessary. (http://www.sba.gov/) A. By learning whether you are more of a leader or more of a manager, you will gain the insight and self-confidence that comes with knowing more about yourself. B. Managers and leaders have very different attitudes toward goals. C. However, managers and leaders tend to set the same types of objectives. D. First of all, let's take a look at the difference in personality styles between a manager and a leader. E. Leaders - are perceived as brilliant, but sometimes lonely, achieve control of themselves before they try to control others, can visualize a purpose and generate value in work, and are imaginative, passionate, non-conforming risk-takers. F. Last of all, we will examine leadership development and discover what criteria are necessary for leaders to reach their full potential.

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USE OF ENGLISH 13 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Now let's look at managers' and leaders' conceptions of work. Managers - view work 1 __ an enabling process, establish strategies and 2 ___ decisions by combining people and ideas, continually coordinate 3 __ balance opposing views, are good at 4 __ compromises and mediating conflicts 5 __ opposing values and perspectives, act to limit choice, and tolerate practical, mundane work 6 __ of a strong survival instinct 7 __ makes them risk-averse. Leaders - develop new approaches 8_ _ long-standing problems and open issues to new options, 9 __ use their vision to excite people and only then develop choices 10 ___ give those images substance, focus people 11 __ shared ideals and raise 12 __ expectations, and work from high-risk positions because 13___strong dislike of mundane work. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Managers and leaders have very different 14___with others. Managers prefer working with others, 15 __ that solitary activity makes them anxious, are collaborative, 16 __ a low level of emotional involvement in relationships, attempt to 17 differences, seek compromises, and establish a 18 _____ of power, relate to people according to the role they play in a 19 __ of events or in a decision-making process, focus on how things get done, maintain controlled, rational, and equitable structures, and 20 ____ be viewed by others as inscrutable, detached, and manipulative. 14 A connections 15 A pretend 16 A distribute 17 A meet 18 A poise 19 A sequence 20 A should B relations B suggest B pertain B repair B balance B strip B must C networks C perceive C maintain C destroy C manifestation C maze C need D reactions D report D focus D reconcile D chain D relation D may

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In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence.

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THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. (A) Leaders maintain inner perceptiveness that (B) they can use in their relationships with others, relate to people in (C) intuitive, empathetic way, focus on what events and decisions mean to participants, attract strong feelings of identity and difference or of love and hate, and create systems (D) where human relations may be turbulent, intense, and at times even disorganized. (A) The self-identity of managers versus leaders is (B) strongly influenced by then- past. (C) Managers report that their adjustments to life had been straightforward and that their lives (D) have been more or less peaceful since birth. (A) They have a sense of self as a guide to conduct and attitude which is derived from A. a feeling of being at home and in harmony with them environment see themselves as B. conservators and regulators of an existing order of affairs with which they personally identify and (D) from which they gain rewards. They report that their role (A) harmonizes with their ideals of responsability and duty. (B) perpetuate and strengthen existing institutions, and (C) display a life development process which focuses on socialization. This socialization process prepares them to guide institutions and maintain (D) the existing balance of social relations. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ____ "), On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Leaders - 25 __ have not had an easy time of it, their lives are marked by a 26 __ struggle to find some sense of order, do not take things for granted and are not satisfied with the status quo, report that their sense of self is derived from a feeling of profound 27 __ , may work in organizations, but they never belong to them, report that their sense of self is independent of work roles, memberships, or other social 28 __ of social identity, seek opportunities for change (i.e. technological, political, or ideological), support change, find their purpose is to 29 __ alter human, 30 __ , and political relationships, and display a life development process which focuses on personal mastery. This process compels them to struggle for psychological and social change. (http://www.sba.gov/) 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. REPORT CONTINUE SEPARATE INDICATEPROFOUND ECONOMY

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READING 14 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Business Ethics The Foundation of Effective Leadership Business ethics are a hot topic these days. With everything from insider trading to employee theft on the rise, it is no wonder that businesses are beginning to focus on the impact of ethical leadership. 1 Many times, managers are forced to decide on issues where there are arguments on both sides - a problem that makes ethical decision-making very difficult. Let's look at an example. 2 About a month ago, she decided she needed to hire someone to help her since she was getting busier and busier. After interviewing several candidates, she decided to hire the best one of the group, Mary. She called Mary on Monday to tell her she had gotten the job. They both agreed that she would start the following Monday and that Mary could come in and fill out all of the hiring paperwork at that time. On Tuesday of the same week, a friend of Sally's called to say that she had found the perfect person for her. Sally explained that she had already hired someone, but the friend insisted, "lust meet this girl. Who knows, maybe you might want to hire her in the future!" 3 __ "Alright, if she can come in tomorrow, I'll meet with her, but that's all." "Oh, I'm so glad. I just know you're going to like her!" Sally's friend exclaimed. 4 __ She liked her a lot. 5 ___ She was everything that Sally had been looking for and more. In terms of experience, Julie far surpassed any of the candidates Sally had previously interviewed, including Mary. On top of that, she was willing to bring in clients of her own which would only increase business. 6 __ But what about Mary? She had already given her word to Mary that she could start work on Monday. (http://www.sba.gov/)

A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Rather reluctantly, Sally consented. Sally met with Julie on Wednesday morning. However, along with this new focus comes a lot of "gray area". All in all, Sally knew this was a win-win situation. Sally was not sure this would be a good idea though. Sally started her consulting business a year ago and has been doing very well. Sally did like her.

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USE OF ENGLISH 14 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word yon have found. She only 1 __ the resources to hire one person 2 ___this point. Clearly, the best business decision 3 __ to hire Julie, but 4 ___ about the ethical decision? 5 __ her business did poorly or Mary couldn't provide 6 __ support, the business would suffer. As a 7 ___ , her family would suffer. Money 8 __ already tight with two boys in college; yet she knew Mary also had a family she was supporting. 9 __ , she 10 __ been so enthusiastic about starting to work. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Obviously, Sally had a problem - an ethical problem. 11 __ she hire Mary (12 __ she'd already given her word) or Julie (who was obviously the best person for the job)? Questions like these touch on our 13 __ values. 14 ___on who you ask, you would get 15 __arguments for both decisions. This is what we mean when we talk about a "gray area." So what is the answer? According to Kenneth Blanchard and Norman Vincent Peale, authors of The Power of Ethical Management, there are three questions you should ask yourself 16 __ you are faced with an ethical 17 11 A Need 12 A whom 13 A richest 14 A Depending 15 A fierce 16 A when 17 A solution B Ought B who B deepest B Counting B powerful B whenever B misconduct C Will C whose C most relevant C Relying C strong C however C disaster D Should D how D toughest D Focusing D weak D wherever D dilemma

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.

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A. Is it legal? (A) In other words, will you been violating any criminal laws, civil laws, or (B) company policies by engaging in this activity? Is it balanced? (C) Is it fair to all parties concerned both (D) in the short-term as well as the long-term? B. (A) Is this a win-win situation for those (B) directly aswell as indirectly involved? Is it right? (C) Most of us know the difference between right and wrong, but when push comes to shove, how (D) does this decision make you feel about yourself? C. (A) Are you proud of you for making this decision? Would you like (B) others to know you made the decision you did? Most of the time, when dealing with "gray decisions," (C) just one of these questions is not enough; but by taking the time to reflect on all three, (D) you will often find that the answer becomes very clear. Developing Your Company's Ethics Policy D. (A) There are definite advantages to owning your own business (B) when you want to establish up an ethics policy. You see, (C) ethics come from the top. Without setting an example at the top, it is often difficult, if not impossible, (D) to convince your employees that they, too, should be ethical in their business dealings. E. (A) A well- defined ethics policy, (B) along with an outline of related standards of conduct, provides the (C) framework for ethical and moral behavior (D) within your company. F. What are the benefits to developing such a policy, (A) you may be wondering. The benefits (B) includes higher employee morale and commitment, (C) which in most cases lead to higher profits. However, (D) higher profits should not be the motivating factor in defining your ethics policy. G. (A) An ethics policy should look at the bigger picture of how (B) we relate to society as a whole and (C) what is our responsibility to the greater good. Of course, in these (D) days of downsizing and increasing change, some may argue that these ideals are unrealistic. H. However, (A) it is important to note that most of the opponents of good ethics are (B) focusing on short-term versus long-term results. Many organizations which have (C) participated in the downsizing mania are beginning to realize that (D) they have been traded long-term employee morale and productivity for short-term profit margins. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. The bottom line is "what goes around, comes around." If you 26. RESPECT

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treat your employees with 26 will do the same toward you. and 27 __ , chances are they When you are developing your ethics policy, you must decide what it is you want your company to stand for, put it in writing, and 28 __ it. According to Blanchard and Peale, you can base your policy on some fundamental principles: Purpose. A purpose combines both your vision as well as the values you would like to see 29 __ in your business. It comes from the top and outlines specifically what is considered acceptable as well as unacceptable in terms of conduct in your business. Pride. Pride builds dignity and self-respect. If employees are proud of where they work and what they are doing, they are much more apt to act in an ethical manner. Patience. Since you must focus on long-term versus short-term results, you must develop a certain degree of patience. 30 __ it, you will become too frustrated and will be more tempted to choose unethical alternatives. (http://www.sba.gov/)

27. TRUST 28. FORCE 29. HOLD 30. WITH

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READING 15 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which yon do not need to use. Writing Effective Job Descriptions 1 __A good job description begins with a careful analysis of the important facts about a job, such as the individual tasks involved, the methods used to complete the tasks, the purpose and responsibilities of the job, the relationship of the job to other jobs, and the qualifications needed for the job. It's important to make a job description practical by keeping it dynamic, functional, and current, 2_ _ A poor job description will keep you and your employees from trying anything new and learning how to perform their job more productively. 3 __ Realistically speaking, many jobs are subject to change due either to personal growth, organizational development, and/or the evolution of new technologies. 4 __ For example: Is your office manager stuck "routinely ordering office supplies for the company and keeping the storage closet well stocked " or is she/he "developing and implementing a system of ordering office supplies that promotes cost savings and efficiency within the organization?" 5 ___________________ (http://www.sba.gov/) A well-written, practical job description will help you avoid hearing a refusal to carry out a relevant assignment because "it isn't in my job description." Personally, I do not think there is such a thing as the perfect job description. Flexible job descriptions will encourage your employees to grow within their positions and learn how to make larger contributions to your company. A job description describes the major areas of an employee's job or position. When writing a job description, keep in mind that the job description will serve as a major basis for outlining job training or conducting future job evaluations. Don't get stuck with an inflexible job description!

USE OF ENGLISH 15 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found.

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A job description should 1 __ a: o Job Title o Job Objective or Overall Purpose Statement - This statement is generally a summary 2 __ to orient the reader to the general nature, level, purpose, and objective of the job. The summary 3 describe the broad function and scope 4 _____ the position and be 5 _ longer 6 __ three to four sentences. o ________________________________________________ List of Duties or Tasks Performed - The list contains an item 7 _____________________ item list of principal duties, continuing responsibilities, and accountability 8 __ the occupant of the position. The list should contain 9 __ and every essential job duty or responsibility that is critical 10 __ the successful performance of the job. The list should 11 ___ with the most important functional and relational responsibilities and continue down in 12 __ of significance. Each duty or responsibility that comprises at 13 __ five percent of the incumbent's time should be included in the list. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D Description of the Relationships and Roles the 14 __ of the position holds 15 __ the company, including any supervisory positions, subordinating roles, and/or other working relationships. When using job descriptions for recruiting 16 __ , you may also want to attach the following: o ____________________________________________________ Job Specifications, Standards and Requirements - The minimum 17 ______ of qualifications needed to 18 __ the essential functions of the job, such as education, experience, knowledge, and skills. 19 __ critical skills and expertise needed for the job should be included. For example, for a receptionist, critical skills may be having 1) a professional and 20___ telephone manner, 2) legible handwriting if messages are to be taken, 3) the ability to handle a multiple-lined phone system for a number of staff members, and 4) the patience and 21 __________ to sit behind a desk all day. 14 A employee 15 A with 16 A examples 17 A sum 18 A maintain 19 A Every 20 A courteous 21 A endurance B employer B within B contexts B amount B develop B Each B gracious B trustworthiness C occupant C without C situations C degree C respect C Any C civilized C empathy D holder D for D standards D extent D perform D Some D outstanding D reliability

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In each of the following sentences there are four parte underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.

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22. o Job Location - (A) Where will the work be performed. o (B) Equipment to be used in the (C) performance of the job. For example, (D) do your company's computers run on a Apple Macintosh or PC Windows environment? 23. o Collective Bargaining Agreements - Agreements and terms (B) that relate with job functions, if applicable, such as (C) when your company's employees are members of a union. 24. o Non-Essential Functions - Functions (B) who are not essential to the position or any (C) marginal tasks performed by the incumbent of the position. o Salary Range - (D) Range of pay for the position.

Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits In the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space ("____") On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Keep each 25 __ in the job description crisp and clear: o Structure your sentences in classic verb/object and 26____ phrases. Since the 27 __ of the job is your sentences' implied subject, it may be eliminated. For example, a sentence pertaining to the description of a receptionist position might read: "Greets office visitors and personnel in a 28 __and sincere manner." o Always use the present tense of verbs. o If necessary, use phrases telling why, how, where, or how o often to add meaning and 29 For example: "Collects all o employee time sheets on a bi-weekly basis for payroll o purposes." o Omit any unnecessary articles such as "a," "an," "the," or o other words for an easy to understand point description. Use 30____terminology. For example: use the he/she approach or construct sentences in such a way that gender pronouns are not required. Avoid using words which are subject to differing interpretations. Try not to use words such as "frequently," "some," "complex," "occasional," and "several." (http://www.sba.gov/) 25. 26. 27. STATE EXPLAIN OCCUPY

28. FRIEND 29. CLEAR 30. BIAS

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READING 16 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Advertising Primer 1 _ Some are in your line of business, while others may be in an entirely different industry. All are trying to convince your customers to buy their goods or services instead of yours. How can you win sales in this competitive environment? One way is with advertising. 2 _ Take another look at the marketing texts on your bookshelf, library, or bookstore ~ standards such as the Guerrilla Marketing series and others listed in the Resource Directory on page 77 are helpful. Review the fundamentals of targeting a buyer segment and marketing strategically to that particular niche. 3 Know what you're truly selling, which is probably not only your product or service, but also an intangible such as status, self-enhancement, or peace of mind. 4 __ Once you determine the intangible benefits of your product or service, you'll have a clearer sense of who else offers that intangible and what advertising approach and image you need in order to compete successfully. Taking into account target market, sales message, images, and competitive environment determine your underlying objectives in running an advertising campaign - objectives such as expanding the wholesale side of your business or developing a more affluent clientele. 5 __ By rule of thumb, it should amount to three to five percent of your annual revenues, although you'll need to consider adjusting up or down depending on the extent and spending levels of your competition. This budget should cover any community sponsorships you may provide, as well as your advertising in newspapers, magazines, Yellow Pages, newsletters, on radio and television, by direct mail, and any other promotional avenues you choose. (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Determine who your existing customers are, and define the target market you want to reach. B. Equally important, establish a realistic advertising budget. C. These have been called the secret motivators of sales. D. At this very moment, there must be at least nine other companies competing for your customers. E. Unless you are extremely well known on the market, you are bound to need advertising for your business. F. To understand how advertising works and how to obtain the best results, begin by refreshing your knowledge of the marketing basics.

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USE OF ENGLISH 16 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Think Like a Buyer 1 you're like most small businesses, you receive frequent calls and visits 2 _____ advertising representatives, all 3 __ convincing stories. 4 ___ can be confusing to try to compare and weigh the advantages 5 __ cite. To decide 6___ a particular advertising option is right for you, think the way a buyer 7 __ . Think like a buyer to assess 8 __ media connect you 9 the greatest concentration of people you're trying to reach. Examine 10 __ only demographics and geographic areas, but 11 __ programming or editorial style. 12 ___ your target market likely to watch this TV channel, listen to this radio station, or read this magazine or newspaper? Are they likely to trust and respond 13 __ the advertising they find there? 14___ the medium or publication cover the geographic area 15 __ your likely customers are located, 16 ___ including so broad a region that you're paying mostly for exposure you don't need? 17 the time to watch, listen, and read for yourself. Know your media firsthand, and get a feel for who their audiences are. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. 18 _ , think like a buyer to figure out what would make people buy from you, 19 __ than from companies selling either the same products and services or different ones that provide the same psychological benefits. In short, arrive at what's called your "Unique Selling Proposition," or U.S.P. - the unique or special benefit to customers that sets you 20 __ from the competition. Your U.S.P. tells people the specific advantage they receive if they buy from you, so instead of saying you have the largest inventory in the country, put it in customers' terms: they get the unbeatable 21 of 500 models to choose from and nextday delivery. That's your U.S.P. A Likely B Likewise C Unlikely D Conversely A much B sooner D quite C rather A apart B away D off C far A competition B convenience D pleasure C comfort In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and IX For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence.

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THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Six Essentials of a Successful Ad Program 22.(A) Unless you are new to advertising or if you're using (B) media or publications you havent tried before, it's important (C) to assign your ads to outside specialists (D) rather than try to create them yourself. 23.These specialists (A) may be the creative group at an advertising agency, (B) a freelance writer and designer, or (C) the add department of the newspaper, magazine, TV channel, or radio station (D) where you plan to advertise. 24.Such people (A) are experienced in translating information about (B) a product or service, or the target market. Moreover, (C) its extremely helpful to work with and learn from specialists (D) for several years before you consider doing advertising in-house. 25.(A) Weather you work with specialists or (B) create advertising on your own, here are (C) some guidelines to follow in developing (D) an ad program. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" _____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Stick to your own image and personality; stay with the basics of who you are. Make sure that the personality and image projected in your advertising ring true. Work as a team with your ad representative or ad agency. The best advertising results from a synergy of your 26 __ in your business and your ad specialists' expertise in advertising. 27 ___ explain your product, market, and goals, and let the ad people go from there to develop their ideas. Advertising is a give-and-take process, and both sides need to communicate and work together without dictating until the 28 __ feels right. Give each advertising medium you choose a fair test. Advertising rarely brings sales 29___. Run your ad at least five times - or at least two months in weekly publications to test the market properly. Often, consumers need to get used to seeing your ad before they'll act on it. Results take time. Don't 30 __ current customers. Nobody sells you better than a satisfied customer, so in your efforts to gain sales from new prospects, remember that you can build sales equally well through customer referrals and repeat purchases of existing clientele. Maintain a mailing list and, at your earliest

26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

EXPERT CARE COME NIGHT LOOK

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opportunity, start producing sale notices, newsletters, catalogs, or other goodwill and salesgenerating materials for current customers. Some of these items lend themselves to a direct mail campaign targeted at new prospects as well. (http://www.sba.gov/)

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READING 17
Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- G the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one sentence which you do not need to use.

What's In an Ad? Print ads generally have four written parts - headline, support copy, call to action, and company name - plus a visual. Visuals are usually more important than copies. 1____ Unless you're commissioning your own original artwork or photography, the visuals you'll use will probably be either drawings and photographs from your suppliers or non-copyrighted artwork (clip art) found in clip art books and scrap art computer programs, 2____
The most prominent piece of copy, your headline, must not only work with your visual, amplifying its meaning, but also attract attention with a word, phrase, or sentence announcing a benefit that appeals to your target market 3____Others point to the enduring effectiveness of the standard headlines "Sale," "Free," and "Buy now and save." Collect ideas that are right for you from your salespeople, the ads in your file, and advertising books. Remember, it is not so much the words, but the ideas they express that sell; determine your message, then find words to convey it. 4____Following this copy, a sign-off is a call to action urging the reader to respond ("Call for an appointment today," or "Remember, sale ends March 21"). Your company name, traditionally at the bottom of the ad, should include your address and phone number. Make your phone number larger to help stimulate response by phone. Add a cross street to your address (e.g., "5730 Sheridan, at La Monte") if you're a new business or if, for other reasons, people might have difficulty finding you. 5____It's best to study the ads in that publication in advance and consider what your ad might look like in order to stand out on the page. Experiment with different layout ideas rendered in thumbnail sketches, then fine-tune your ad to fit the layout you prefer. 6___Not only is skill required to make an ad look right, but the quality of your ad must compete favorably with others appearing in the publication. (http://www.sba.gov/) A. They're more effective in attracting readers' attention and can instantly present your product or service in a dramatic and motivating way. B. The next step is to combine all these visual and copy elements into an eye-catching, easyto-read ad formatted to the dimensions stipulated by the publication. C. One expert wrote that a headline is that final, mind-changing, sales-clinching comment you'd make when leaving the office of a prospect who, until then, had responded with nothing but negatives.

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D. Obviously, it's highly advisable, if not imperative, that when you're doing ads in- house, the person composing your ad has design experience. E. Below the headline, support copy explains the headline premise and adds secondary benefits and any assurance readers might need to dispel suspicions raised by the headline, such as the assurance of "same great quality" when you're offering a "new low price." F. With ads, you may not want to judge a book by its covers. G. Choose the strongest visual among them - the one that best draws the eye and explains what you're selling - and move on to copies.

USE OF ENGLISH 17 For each blank think of ONE word that can best lit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. It's also a good idea to prepare your ad well 1 __ of the deadline. This way, you can 2 ___ it aside for a few days and 3 __ review it with a fresh perspective while there's still 4 ___ to make revisions. As a final check, lay your ad 5 __ a page of the publication where it 6 ___ appear; make 7 __ it stands out from the articles and 8 __ ads on the page. Avoid These Pitfalls Perhaps the greatest obstacle 9 __ good advertising is excess. Ads can 10 ___ up so crammed with ideas and features 11___they appear dense and uninviting. If overdesigned, they can be more artistic 12 __ motivational, obscuring the sales message. If over-written, they can become too subtle or cute. Certainly, some of the best ads 13___ created are clever and visually arresting, 14 ___good ads must also sell. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Similarly, selling points may over-promise. Use "largest," "best," and other superlatives only 15 ______ you can 16___ them up. Avoid any claim that could be 17 ___ as deceptive. In 18 __ , make sure the overall tone of your ad is upbeat and appealing. Emphasize the solutions you provide, not the problems you 19 __ . Get outside opinions on your new advertising 20 __ to be certain they 21 ___ the personality and message you intend. 15. A that 16. A back 17. A construed B so B move B constructed

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C then C look C conceived D if D put D commented

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18. A conclusion 19. A address to 20. A shift

B nutshell B address B focus

C addition C solve C carry

Dall D propose D weigh

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.

Tracking Your Results A. (A) Establish a method to determine (B) how customers found you (C) and keep track off the results. Some companies routinely ask (D) "How did you hear about us?" of every new customer who phones or visits. Others have a "Referred by" box on each invoice.
B. (A) Whatever system you use, (B) unless you've done a coupon promotion and can simply (C) count the number of coupons redeemed, tracking is (D) the only ways you can assess how effectively your advertising is working. C. (A) Tracking tells you which ads or media bring (B) inquiries and which bring sales - a key distinction. (C) If you track by invoice, you can also (D) determine how much revenue each ad dollar is being producing.

Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space ("_ ____ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word.
Most important, tracking 24_ _ helps you decide how to 25 __ your advertising program 26 __ to make your budget work at its hardest. You'll know when to 27 __ certain media and publications and when to pump more money into others. You'll be able to see which Yellow Pages 28 __ and 29 ___ pull hardest for you, and you'll know when results are dropping off from 30 __ good sources, signaling that it's time to give them a rest. In the end, advertising is a trial-and-error process. You may need to spend several years trying out various advertising options and assessing results to know which target markets and media mix work best for you. (http://www.sba.gov/) 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. DEFINITE ADJUST PERIOD CONTINUE DIRECTOR HEAD PREVIOUS

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READING 18
Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. How to Create an Effective Yellow Pages Ad Yellow Pages ads resemble no other kind of advertising. They're not aimed at motivating consumers to buy a product, but rather convincing them to buy a desired product from a particular company, 1 __ The first thing your ad must do is get itself read. 2 _ The bottom line is to get the greatest amount of exposure, so compare competing directories on the basis of their usage figures - not distribution figures, but the number of actual consumer uses per year. If you then divide directories' uses-per-year figures by their charge for the same size ad, you'll see which directory provides the highest number of uses per dollar. 3____ Another key factor determining whether your ad will be read is the size you decide to buy. Obviously, the larger the ad, the more attention it gets. 4____You can then choose sizes larger, on par with, or smaller than theirs, depending on budget constraints and the competitive stance you want to take. Once you've decided on directories, headings, and ad sizes, concentrate on creating an ad that both attracts attention and stimulates customer response. Experts such as Jeffrey Price, author of Yellow Pages Advertising: How to Get the Greatest Return on Your Investment, say you can achieve those results by including the following in your ad: Attention-getting artwork. After size, artwork is the greatest eye-catcher for an ad. 5 __ Stick with illustrations whenever possible, since photographs may reproduce poorly. Keep areas of blank space around your artwork and throughout your ad as well, so your ad is uncluttered and easy to read. A headline that says what makes you special. Identify the special or unique characteristic that, for your target customer, puts you ahead of the competition. Write a short and tothe-point headline stating that advantage. 6____ Complete information buyers need to make a purchase decision. Your ad must convince buyers that you're the best source for what they need, so support your headline with information, usually presented in list form, about your: o o o o o Reliability (e.g., years in business) Authorized products and services Full range of product line Location (with maps, when helpful) Business hours

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o Special features such as parking, credit cards honored, discounts, licenses, guarantees, delivery policy, and emergency services Finally, try to get your ad placed in the most prominent position possible under each heading. 7 __ (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Once you select the heading or headings under which your ad will appear - and they should be headings for the products and services that give you the greatest profitability - open to those headings and see what ad sizes your competitors have. B. As companies attract business by showing they've got whatever consumers may want, Yellow Pages ads also tend to be full of brand names ana information. C. Since positions are assigned on a first-come-first-served basis, it's advantageous to finalize your contracts with Yellow Pages publishers as quickly as possible. D. Here, your success depends partially on which Yellow Pages directory (or directories) you choose to place your ad. E. Publishers are easy to get in touch with, so do not make this your first priority. F. If your headline must focus on just one of your products or services, choose the one that is most profitable. G. That's the directory that delivers the best value for your money. H. You can use visuals from your suppliers or even non-copyrighted artwork you locate in out-of-town or out-of-state Yellow Pages.

USE OF ENGLISH 18 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit In the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. How to Improve Your Yellow Page Advertising
"If you 1 __ at a 1951 Yellow Pages directory from Buffalo, New York, the ads appear basically the same then 2 __ they do now, not counting the recent addition of various color options. Forty-five years later, advertisers for the most part are 3 __ just highlighting their name and phone number. 4 __ simply enlarging the information 5 __ appears in their free listing, advertisers are definitely 6 __ getting as much out of their ads as they could 7 __ " So contends Dennis Rosen, 8 associate professor of Business at the University of Kansas 9 __ teaches courses in marketing, advertising, and consumer behavior; he is also a 10-year consultant 10 __ the Yellow Pages industry.

For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.

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"When consumers 11 __ up the Yellow Pages to help them make 12 ___decisions, they often aren't looking for a particular business name," Rosen continues. "Nor will they 13 __walk into an advertiser's place of business and say, 'I'm here because I really like your phone number.' So rather 14____ emphasizing a name and phone number, advertisers should be 15 __ key selling points - instead of treating such information as 16 __ . The 17 _ emphasis in this medium on attracting attention has often been to the exclusion of communicating a marketing 18 __ ." According to Rosen, most small business owners who 19 __ the primary Yellow Pages customer base - don't think that much about their ads until the sales representative calls. "Few other critical business decisions are made with so little time and analysis," he says, "even though for many entrepreneurs, the Yellow Pages are their only or primary means of advertising." 11 A make 12 A buy 13 A thus 14 A than 15 A advertising 16 A insufficient 17 A historic 18 A voice 19 A compound B get B purchase B then B then B highlighting B sufficient B historical B jingle B comprise C pick C purvey C needlessly C much C devising C incidental C main C message C consist D face D supply D subsequently Dwell D producing D accidental D true D mix D concur

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. 20.(A) Rosen claims that planning Yellow Pages advertising should be (B) an ongoing process that takes place through the year. "Owners (C) should ask themselves, (D) 'What is it that I want to say?' rather than simply "What size do I want to be?' 21. Deciding on (A) the appropriate message to put across, and (B) acquiring enough information to make this and (C) the other decisions involved, takes time. The three critical (D) areas in which entrepreneurs should acquire information, notes Rosen, are your business, your competitors, and your customers. 22. "The first area should be easy (A) because you know your business and (B) live it on a daily bases. However, (C) you must ask yourself what (D) you want to accomplish," Rosen points out.

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23. "Do you want to grow? (A) Are you satisfied with maintaining the status quo? Determining the answers to (B) long-term questions such as this, and being (C) as wellprepared as possible before you meet will enable your Yellow Pages sales representative (D) to better serve you in the consultative capacity of planning your advertising program." 24. (A) In term of competitors, small business owners (B) have a tendency to think that they compete with everyone in their heading, warns Rosen. "In fact, (C) taking attorneys as an example, you can see by looking at the ads that they project different images, and specialize in different areas of the law. So it's important (D) to first eliminate noncompetitors in your heading and hone in on those who more directly compete for your current and potential customers." Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ___ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. In 25 __ to determining what distinguishes them from the 25. ADD competition, Rosen advises entrepreneurs to think about how customers are 26 __ to shop for their product or service in the Yellow Pages. "In some instances, such as ordering pizza or a 26. LIKE plumbing emergency, the key is being called first - it's a oneshot deal. 27 __ , in other purchase situations, the key is being what I call "part of a consideration set,' in that potential 27. EVER customers are likely to make several calls before reaching a decision. This has important 28 in terms of how you should advertise in the Yellow Pages." 28. IMLICATE Just as business owners may 29 __ the number of competitors they confront in the Yellow Pages, many entrepreneurs assume they sell to everyone rather than to a specific target market, 29. ESTIMATE Rosen says. "The business owner should be able to define existing customer demographics, income level, and product or service benefits sought. They should also be able to define the type of 30. CONTRACT customers they are trying to attract." Rosen uses the example of a small building 30 _ who told his Yellow Pages sales representative that he wanted to cut the size of his display ad. "I'm not getting the kind of calls I want," he complained. "I want quick in-and-out jobs that involve a minimal amount of equipment and time, rather than being asked to add a second story or remodel a kitchen. My classified ad does a much better job of getting the kind of customer I want." (http://www.sba.gov/)

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READING 19 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. The Use of Color when Advertising in the Yellow Pages 1____"Including different colors, white knock-out ads, and process color photographs, these features provide more options for advertisers than ever before." 2____Instead of just establishing how a particular feature will help them stand out, business owners should determine how they can use these new options to enhance communication of key marketing messages." Color should be used purposefully in the Yellow Pages, according to Rosen, and do more than simply highlight the company name or border of the ad. 3____ As Rosen points out, color should be considered in conjunction with the overall impression a company wants to project through its existing graphic elements - including signs, business cards, and trucks. 4____If your colorful store sign is well known, for example, one option is to portray it in color," he suggests. 5____ (http://www.sba.gov/) A. "An advertiser already has a lot invested in a visual identity, and should use the Yellow Pages as another element to carry through the established theme. B. "The Yellow Pages medium is changing significantly in terms of the number of products now being offered," observes 10-year industry consultant Dennis Rosen. C. Bright colors have never worked though. D. "However," he warns, "historically, whenever a new product is introduced, everyone including the Yellow Pages reps doing the selling and the advertisers doing the buying - thinks in terms of how it will attract attention. E. "Or entrepreneurs may want to highlight important selling points that distinguish them from competition, such as breadth of product line or extended hours of operation." F. "First determine what you want to communicate, and then decide if using color will better help you do so," he advises.

USE OF ENGLISH 19 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. 1____we're aware of it or not, color affects us subconsciously, and can be very effective 2____evoking feelings and emotions," adds Ann Telthorst, senior manager, Product Development & Management at Pacific Bell Directory, 3____helped launch the

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company's four-color ads 4____1993. "5____should therefore be consistent 6____the

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message an advertiser is trying 7 __ convey. Blue, for instance, 8 __ not go well 9 __ eating as - other 10 __ blueberries and the requisite tourist drink in Hawaii - there are no blue foods. It's 11 __ in our realm of familiarity, and is simply not inviting in that context. So 12 _ blue would not work well for a restaurant ad, 13 __ would be appropriate for a diet center - 14 __ is trying to encourage disinclination 15 ___ food." For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. "Blue, which 16 __ implies security and stability, would also be an excellent choice for a bank or an attorney," Telthorst continues. "In addition, because of its connotation with water, it would be a(n) 17 __ choice for a pool service, or for a company marketing a product 18 as cool or refreshing - such as air conditioners." "In the same 19 __ , green is a relaxing and calming color (ideal for a therapist or a retirement community), while red evokes a stimulated psychological response," says Telthorst. "People tend to eat and spend more in a red 20 __ , so it's great for restaurants." A directly A obvious A situated A vein A medium B confidently B honorable B positioned B rank B office C subconsciously C tremendous C Launched C type C location D instinctively D direct D located D case D environment

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. 21. (A) One inclination Telthorst discourages is the "since I'm paying, (B) I should as well use all the colors" approach. "Red, blue, and green combined (C) have a carnival connotation. (D) implying fun and festivities. 22. (A) This is perfect for a party supply company or a (B) bus charter operation, but (C) unappropriate for a financial planner or a convalescent home, for example. The important thing is (D) to focus in on what is best for a particular ad and use color to emphasize key selling points or strengths about a business." 23. (A) With the advent of process color in the Yellow Pages, (B) which allows advertisers to incorporating full-color photographs, Rosen believes entrepreneurs (C) can be even more creative in conveying what (D) makes their business special.

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24. "However, (A) rather then showing the building exterior or (B) the face of the owner a common portrayal that is (C) not necessarily the best use of space - advertisers should (D) concentrate on what sells the business. A restaurant, for example, could highlight its interior and the atmosphere it offers patrons, while a photographer could visibly demonstrate the kind of work in which he specializes."

Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ___ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. There are times when incorporating a photograph of the business 25 __ is appropriate, concedes Rosen. "If he or she is a wellknown presence in the 26 __ , if the interaction with customers is likely to be a close one, or if the owner wants to project a warm 25. OWN and inviting image, a photo could be helpful. However," he warns, "owners shouldn't be caught up with the implicit ego aspect involved, and must be sure they have a good reason to use their advertising space this way." Telthorst adds this proviso. "A photo can be 27 ___and either work for or against you, so advertisers need to be very 28 __ in terms of what they select. For example, an 29 __ photo or one that shows a dated hairstyle or clothing can be deleterious for both the owner and his business. 30 __ , a shot showing an ethnically diverse office staff sends out a clear message without spelling it out. For these reasons, it might be wise to show the photo being considered to really candid friends and colleagues to gage their reaction." (http://www.sba.gov/) 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. COMMUNE TRICK CARE FLATTER CONVERSE

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READING 20 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Insurance Buying business insurance is among the best ways to prepare for the unexpected. 1 __ Ranging from indispensable worker's compensation insurance to the relatively obscure executive kidnapping coverage, insurance is available for nearly any business risk. Considering the multitude of available options, business owners must carefully weigh whether the cost of certain premiums will justify the coverage for a given risk. General Liability Many business owners buy general liability or umbrella liability insurance to cover legal hassles due to claims of negligence. 2 __ Product Liability Every product is capable of personal injury or property damage. Companies that manufacture, wholesale, distribute, and retail a product may be liable for its safety. 3 _ Businesses are considered liable for negligence, breach of an express or implied warranty, defective products, and defective warnings or instructions. Home-Based Business Insurance Contrary to popular belief, homeowners' insurance policies do not generally cover homebased business losses. 4 __ Internet Business Insurance Web-based businesses may wish to look into specialized insurance that covers liability for damage done by hackers and viruses. (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Additionally, every service rendered may be capable of personal injury or property damage. B. In addition, e-insurance often covers specialized online activities, including lawsuits resulting from meta tag abuse, banner advertising, or electronic copyright infringement. C. Without proper protection, misfortunes such as the death of a partner or key employee, embezzlement, a lawsuit, or a natural disaster could spell the end of a thriving operation. D. These help protect against payments as the result of bodily injury or property damage, medical expenses, the cost of defending lawsuits, and settlement bonds or judgments required during an appeal procedure. E. You may work from home and be protected by household insurance.

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F. Commonly needed insurance areas for home-based businesses include business property, professional liability, personal and advertising injury, loss of business data, crime and theft, and disability. USE OF ENGLISH 20 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Worker's Compensation Required in 1 __ state except Texas, worker's compensation insurance pays 2 ___ employees' medical expenses 3 _ missed wages if injured 4 ___ working. The amount of insurance employers 5 __ carry, rate of payment, and 6 __ types of employees must be carried varies 7 __ on the state. In most cases, business owners, independent contractors, domestic employees in private homes, farm workers, and unpaid volunteers 8 __ exempt. Criminal Insurance No matter 9 __ tight security is in your workplace, theft and malicious damage 10 always possibilities. 11 __ the dangers associated with hacking, vandalism, and general theft are obvious, employee embezzlement 12 more common than most business owners 13 Criminal insurance and employee bonds 14 ______ provide protection against losses 15 most criminal areas. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or R or C or D. Business Interruption Insurance Some businesses may wish to acquire insurance that 16 __ losses during natural disasters, fires, and other catastrophes that may cause the operation to shut down for a significant 17 __ of time. Key Person Insurance In addition to a business continuation plan that outlines how the company will 18 operations if a key person dies, falls ill, or leaves, some companies may wish to buy key person insurance. This type of 19 __ is usually life insurance that names the corporation as a 20 __ if an essential person dies or is disabled. Malpractice Insurance Some licensed professionals need protection 21 __ payments as the result of bodily injury or property damage, medical expenses, the cost of defending lawsuits, investigations and settlements, and bonds or judgments required during an appeal procedure.

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16. A extends 17. A length 18. A retain 19. A extension 20. A beneficiary 21. A for

B envelops B moment B preserve B coverage B benefit B against

C protects C amount C maintain C liability C recipient C of

D covers D extent D keep D risk D receiver D to

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or B. A. (A) Here are some more points to consider with the (B) market analysis in your business plan: Your pricing and gross margin targets. (C) Here, you would define the levels on your pricing, your gross margin levels, and any discount structures that you plan to set up for your business, (D) such as volume/bulk discounts or prompt payment discounts. B. (A) Resources for finding information related to (B) your target market. (C) These resources might include directoryes, trade association publications, (D) and government documents. C. (A) Medias you will use to reach your target audience. These might include (B) publications, radio or television broadcasts, or (C) any other type of credible source that may have influence (D) with your target market. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ___ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. The 25___ cycle of your potential customers. Here, you will need to identify the needs of your target market, do research to find the solutions to their needs, evaluate the solutions you come up with, and 26___identify who 27 ___ has the authority to choose the final solution. Trends and potential changes which may impact your primary target market. Key 28 ___ of your 29 ___markets. Just like with your primary target market, here you would again want to identify the needs, demographics, and the 30 __ trends which will influence your secondary markets in the future. (http://www.sba.gov/) 25. PURCHASE 26. FINAL 27. ACTUAL 28. CHARACTER 29. SECOND 30. SIGN

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READING 21 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Forecasting For Growth: Strategic Thinking Maintaining your momentum means looking forward even as you focus on the present. Forecasting and planning are critical to your continued success. 1 __Strategic thinking is a process whereby you learn how to make your business vision a reality by developing your abilities in team work, problem solving, and critical thinking. It is also a tool to help you confront change, plan for and make transitions, and envision new possibilities and opportunities.
X A JL

As you develop a strategic vision for your business, there are five different criteria that you should focus on. These five criteria will help you define your ideal outcome. The following is a list of the five criteria of the strategic thinking process: Organization. The organization of your business involves the people you will have working for you, the organizational structure of your business, and the resources necessary to make it all work. What will your organization look like? 4 How will you combine people, resources, and structure together to achieve your ideal outcome? Observation. When you are looking down at the world from an airplane, you can see much more than when you are on the ground. Strategic thinking is much the same in that it allows you to see things from "higher up." 5 __ (http://www.sba.gov/) A. Strategic thinking requires you to envision what you want your ideal outcome to be for your business, and then work backwards by focusing on the story of how you will be able to reach your vision. B. What type of structure will support your vision? C. To be effective as a leader, you must develop skills in strategic thinking. D. They are not the only ones a good leader should have in mind all the time. E. By increasing your powers of observation, you will begin to become more aware of what motivates people, how to solve problems more effectively, and how to distinguish between alternatives. F. In addition, they will help you set up and develop the steps necessary to make your business vision a reality.

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USE OF ENGLISH 21 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word yon have found. Views. Views 1 __ simply different ways of thinking 2 ___ something. In strategic thinking, 3 __ are four viewpoints to 4 __ into consideration 5 ___ forming your business strategy: the environmental view; the marketplace view; the project view; and the measurement view. Views can 6 __ used as tools to 7 __ you think about outcomes, identify critical elements, and adjust 8 actions to achieve your ideal position. Driving Forces. 9 __ are the driving forces that will 10 __ your idea] outcome a reality? What is your company's vision and mission? Driving forces usually 11 __ the foundation for 12 __ you want people to focus 13 __ in your business (i.e., what you will use to motivate others to perform). 14 __ of driving forces might include: individual and organizational incentives; empowerment and alignment; qualitative factors 15 __ as a defined vision, values, and goals; productive factors like a mission or function; quantitative factors such as results or experience; and others such as commitment, coherent action, effectiveness, productivity, and value.

For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Ideal Position. After 16 __ through the first four phases of the strategic thinking 17 ___ , you should be able to 18 __ your ideal position. Your ideal position outline should include: the 19 __ you have found to be necessary if your business is to be productive; the 20 __ in the marketplace that your business will fill; any opportunities that may exist either currently or in the future for your business; the 21 __ competencies or skills required in your business; and the strategies and tactics you will 22 __ to pull it all together. 16. A getting 17. A game 18. A mention 19. A conditions 20. A mix 21. A representative 22. A entertain B evolving B process B define B contexts B opportunity B core B produce C working C procedure C locate C causes C break C inside C use D striving D stereotype D feel D conduct D niche D mentioned D build

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In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C o r D . 23. (A) By working trough these five areas, (B) you will begin to get a clearer picture (C) of exactly how your business vision (D) can be accomplished. 24. (A) As your vision becomes the more focused, your ideas (B) will appear stronger and more credible. (C) Not only will it be easier to convince others that your idea is a good one, (D) but it will also be easier to maintain your own conviction and motivation when you reach any pitfalls or obstacles in the road.

25. (A) Overall, you can apply strategic thinking skills to (B) any area of your life. But ( C ) by making a concerted effort to apply them specifically for your business venture, you will have (D) a much better chance of bringing your vision to life. And isn't that what you want?

Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. if you are planning on owning your own business, you must 26. MANAGE develop 26___skills, whether they come 27 __ or not. However, what do you do if you believe you are, in fact, a leader - a diamond in the rough? What can you do to develop as 27. NATURAL a leader? 28 __ history, it has been shown again and again that leaders have needed strong one-on-one relationships with 28. THROUGH teachers whose 29 __ lie in cultivating talent in order to reach their full potential. If you think you are a leader at heart, find a 29. STRONG teacher that you admire - someone who you can connect with and who can help you develop your natural talents and interests. 30. WAY Whether you reach glory status or not, you will grow in ways you never even imagined. Isn't that what life is about 30____?

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READING 22 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Understanding the Internet (1) 1 __But do you really understand how you're doing what you're doing as you move from web location to web location? How did it all get started, this Internet thing? The Internet began in the late 1960s as an experiment by the U.S. Department of Defense to see if a non-centralized network could be built to withstand the destruction of one or more of its parts. 2 _______ instead, all sites on the network were interconnected. 3 __ A protocol is a set of standards for how network communication takes place. The protocol is called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). This protocol is the standard that makes it possible for different computers all over the globe to talk to each other. The TCP/IP protocol is the foundation of the Internet. At first, the Internet was used solely by the government, but soon universities and other institutions connected themselves to the Internet to communicate with one another and collaborate on projects. 4 _ Each organization on the Internet was responsible for maintaining its part of the network, so the Internet was not owned or controlled by any one organization. 5 __ (http://www.sba.gov/) A. The Internet grew to connect hundreds of different sites all across the world. B. The growth was not as significant as originally expected. C. If you're using the Internet now to gather information, shop or just for entertainment, then you're probably familiar with the process of dialing in and moving from website to website. D. Today, the Internet connects up to 40 million people around the globe and is growing by as much as 10% per month. E. Unlike previous networks, this new network did not have a single central point. F. Out of this network came a protocol for linking computers together.

USE OF ENGLISH 22 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found.

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Getting connected The Internet is 1 __ a system of roads, freeways, and bridges. 2 ___ the term "Information Superhighway" is over-hyped, it is a decent metaphor 3 __ how the Internet works. From any road in any city, 4_ _ can get to almost any other road in any other city. 5 __ my computer at my desk, I can 6 _ _ an electronic mail message to someone sitting 7 __ a computer in Helsinki, Taipei, or Biloxi. Internet access companies or Internet Service Providers provide "onramps" to the Information Superhighway physical connections 8 _ allow you 9 __ access the Internet. These onramps 10 __ called "POPs," 11 ___ stands for "points of presence." Your computer uses a modem 12 dial into a POP which connects you to the Internet. 13 __ connected to a POP, you have access 14 __ all the resources of the Internet. Most ISP's will also 15 __ you with software available for "surfing" the Internet: a Web browser. For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. The Birth of Domain Names In the 1980's, a major shift 16 __ as a result of the increase 17 ___ scale of the Internet and its associated management issues. To make it easy for people to use the network, 18 __ were assigned names, so that it was not necessary to remember the numeric 19 __ . 20 __ , there were a(n) 21 __ limited number of hosts, so it was 22 ___to maintain a single table of all the hosts and their associated names and addresses. 16 A increased 17 A in 18 A guests 19 A homes 20 A Originally 21 A extremely 22 A reliable B appeared B of B hosts B addresses B Firstly B fairly B feasible C occurred Con C visitors C locations C Lastly C pretty C desired D raise D unto D receivers D profiles D Therefore D fair D expected

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D.

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23. (A) The shift to have a large number of (B) independently managed networks (e.g., LANs) (C) meant that having a single table of hosts was no longer feasible, and the Domain Name System (DNS) was established. The DNS (D) permitted the conversion of a numeric host address (i.e, 215.72.87.66) to a simpler, easier to remember name address (somesite.com).

24. The Birth of the Web Browser (A) In the October of 1994, Mosaic Communications Corporation (renamed "Netscape Communications" (B) on 11 November 1994) introduced (C) the first public beta of their browser, "Mosaic NetScape." This was (D) one of the first web browsers to be freely distributed across the Internet. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ___"). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. How does my email work? Let's say you're sending mail tojoy@aol.com. When you've finished composing your email, your 25 __ (email software) performs a gethostbyname system call to look up the IP address of the remote host (aol.com). 26___ the host would be looked up from /etc/hosts, but since you're on the Internet, your system queries an Internet name 27____ to find the address of aol.com. Your mailer opens a virtual circuit over the Internet to "joy's" mailer. It 28____with the remote mailer by using the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). If all goes well, the mail is usually delivered 29____a few seconds, even if the recipient's machine is on the other side of the world. If the remote site is down, your mailer will keep trying every hour or so, usually for a couple of days. If the site still can't be reached, the mail will be returned to you as 30___. 30. DELIVER 25. MAIL

26. 27. 28. 29.

NORMAL SERVE COMMUNE WITH

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READING 23 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Undemanding the Internet (2) About Modems and Telephone Lines Telephone lines were designed to carry the human voice, not electronic data from a computer. Modems were invented to convert digital computer signals into a form that allows them to travel over the phone lines. 1 A modem on the other end of the line can understand it and convert the sounds back into digital information that the computer can understand. 2 Buying and using a modem used to be relatively easy. 3 __ Today, modems not only run faster, they are also loaded with features like error control and data compression. 4 __ That way, one computer doesn't send information until the receiving computer is ready for it. Each of these features, modulation, error control, and data compression, requires a separate kind of protocol and that's what some of those terms you see like V.32, V.32bis, V.42bis and MNP5 refer to. If your computer didn't come with an internal modem, consider buying an external one, because it is much easier to install and operate. 5 __ With an internal modem, that means restarting your computera waste of time. With an external modem it's as easy as flipping a switch. (http://www.sba.gov/) Not too long ago, almost all modems transferred data at a rate of 2400 Bps (bits per second). Those are the scratchy sounds you hear from a modem's speaker. A. By the way, the word modem stands for MOdulator/ DEModulator. B. For example, when your modem gets stuck (not an unusual occurrence), you need to turn it off and on to get it working properly. C. So, in addition to converting and interpreting signals, modems also act like traffic cops, monitoring and regulating the flow of information.

USE OF ENGLISH 23 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On your answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. Here's a tip 1____you: in most areas, 2____you have Call Waiting, you can disable it 3____

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inserting *70 in front of the number you dial to connect to the Internet (or any online service). This will 4 __ an incoming call from accidentally kicking you off the line. A modem's speed 5____measured 6__ bits per second (bps). A 14.4 modem sends data 7 __ 14,400 bits per second, A 28.8 modem is twice 8 fast, sending and receiving data at a rate 9 __ up to 28,800 bits per second. Many things can interfere 10 __ the speed of a file transfer. These can range 11 ___ excessive line noise 12 __ the telephone line, to the speed of the web server from 13 ___ you are downloading files, the number of 14 __ people trying to access the same file and the overall traffic 15 the Internet In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and i). For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or B that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. Until the end of 1995, the conventional 16 __was that 28.8 Kbps was about the fastest speed you could 17 __ out of a regular copper telephone line. Today, you can buy a modem 18 __ of a data transmission up to 56 Kbps. The key question for you to know what speed modems your Internet service provider (ISP) has. If your ISP has only 28.8 Kbps modems on its end of the line, you could have the 19 __ modem in the world, and only be able to connect at 28.8 Kbps. 20 __ you invest in a 56 Kbps modem, make sure your ISP supports them. 16. A intelligence 17. A smash 18. A able 19 A cheapest 20. A Until B wisdom B splash B capable B most expensive B In advance C rationale C squeeze C potential C fastest C Beforehand D reason D tease D enable D slowest D Before

In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and O. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or B that Makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or D. DSL 21. DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), (A) a high-speed technology, is (B) becoming increasingly popular. A DSL line (C) can always remain connected on the Internet, so (D) you don't need to dial-up.

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22. (A) Typically, datas can be transferred at (B) rates up to 1.544 Mbps downstream and about 128 Kbps upstream (C) over ordinary telephone lines. Since a DSL line carries both voice and data, (D) you don't have to install another phone line. 23. (A) You can use your existing line to establish DSL service, (B) provided service is available in your area and (C) you are within the specified distance from the (D) telefone company's central switching office.

24. (A) DSL service requires a special modem and (B) a network card in your computer. Prices for (C) equipments, DSL installation and monthly service can (D) vary considerably, so check with your local phone company and Internet service provider. 25. (A) The good news are that prices (B) are coming down as competition heats up. Some companies now (C) provide free installation and equipment when (D) you sign-up for a year of service. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ___ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. What should it cost to have my own website? Hosting fees will vary based on your individual need for space, 26___ capacity, security and special programming requirements. Free Hosting Services There are a 27 __ of places on the Internet that offer hosting at no charge. Before you decide to host your website with one of these services, be sure you understand the fine print of your hosting 28 __ . In general free hosting services are free because of the following: You will be required to place banner 29___on either the top or bottom of each page of your website. In some cases you will be required to place them on both the top and the bottom of your web pages. The activities of 30 __ to your website will be tracked via Cookies or other online software. Their activities on the internet will be monitored and the data collected will be sold to marketing services. (http://www.sba.gov/) 26. 27. 28. 29. LOAD VARY AGREE ADVERTISE

30.

VISIT

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READING 24 Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- F the one which fits each gap (1-5), There is one sentence which yon do not need to use. Becoming a CDC The 504 Certified Development Company (CDC) Program provides growing businesses with long-term, fixed-rate financing for major fixed assets, such as land and buildings. 1 __CDCs work with the SB A and private-sector lenders to provide financing to small businesses. There are about 270 CDCs nationwide. 2 __ A CDC must operate and adequately service its Area of Operations. 3 __ A CDCs loan portfolio must be diversified by business sector. A CDC may provide small businesses with financial and technical assistance, or may help small businesses obtain such assistance from other sources, including preparing, closing, and servicing loans under contract with Lenders in SBA's 7(a) program. 4___ Applications for Certification as a CDC A CDC must be a non-profit corporation in good standing. 5 __ A CDC must have a designated Area of Operations, specified by the CDC and approved by SB A. There can be only one statewide CDC in each state, which must foster economic development throughout the state and provide 504 assistance to areas not adequately served by other CDCs. (http://www.sba.gov/) A. B. Each CDC covers a specific geographic area. A CDC also may loan amounts to the Borrower equal to the value of all or part of the Borrower's contribution to a Project in the form of cash or land, including site improvements, previously acquired by the CDC. A Certified Development Company is a nonprofit corporation set up to contribute io the economic development of its community. Not anyone can apply for this program. Applicants for certification as a CDC must apply to the SBA District Office serving the area in which the applicant has or proposes to locate its headquarters. It must market the 504 programs, package and process 504 loan applications, and close and service 504 loans.

C. D. E. F.

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USE OF ENGLISH 24 For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. On yonr answer sheet write the ONE word you have found. An SBA District Office may accept an application for a county only if: (1) 1 __ is no CDC that includes the county in its Area of Operations; (2) Any CDCs that include the county in their Areas of Operations 2 __ not averaged together at least one 504 loan approval per 100,000 population per year averaged 3___ the 24 months prior 4 __ SBA receiving a complete application 5 __ the applicant; and the county 6 __ not become part 7 __ another CDC's Area of Operations within the prior 24 months; or (3) The county is 8 __ of the Area of Operations of only one CDC; the county has a population 9 __ 100,000 or more; the county 10 ___ not become part of an Area of Operations within the prior 24 months of another CDC; the applicant is incorporated 11 __ the State 12 ___ the county is located; and the CDC that includes the county in its Area of Operations submits a statement of no objection 13 __ the application.

For each blank decide which of the options A, B, C or D is best. ONLY ONE answer is correct and THERE IS ALWAYS ONE correct answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or C or B. Public notice of CDC certification application (a) As part of the application 14 __ , the applicant must publish a notice in a general 15 __ newspaper in the proposed Area of Operations, including the name and location of the 16 __ CDC, its purpose and Area of Operations, and the names and addresses of its officers and directors. The applicant 17 __ send a copy of the notice to SBA. The notice shall 18 __ the public at least 30 days to submit written comments to the District Office. The SBA shall consider the comments in 19 __ its decision on the application, (b) CDCs serving the proposed Area of Operations shall be directly 20___ and given at least 30 days to comment. 14. A schedule 15. A tabloid 16. A suggested 17. A should 18. A supply 19. A making 20. A notified B timetable B target B proposed B shall B provide B seeking B addressed C process C culture C intended C can C warn C drawing C targeted D style D circulation D new D could D stimulate D making up D replied

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In each of the following sentences there are four parts underlined and lettered A, B, C and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A or B or C or D that makes the sentence INCORRECT. Only ONE answer is possible for each sentence. THERE IS ALWAYS ONE possible answer. On your answer sheet write A or B or Cor D. CDC Board of Directors

(A) The CDC must have a Board of Directors chosen from the membership (B) by the members, and (C) representing at least three of the (D) four membership group. (A) Not single group shall control. No person (B) who is a member of a CDC's staff may be a (C) voting member of the Board (D) except for the CDC manager. 23. (A) The Board Members must be responsable officials of the organizations they represent and (B) at least one member other than the CDC manager (C) must possess commercial lending experience. The Board (D) must meet at least quarterly and shall be responsible for CDC staff decisions and actions. 24. A quorum (A) shall require at least 5 Directors authorized to vote. (B) When the Board votes on SBA loan approval or servicing actions, at least (C) one Board Member with commercial loan experience acceptable to SBA, other than the CDC manager, must be present and vote. There must be (D) no actual or apparent conflict of interest with respect for any actions of the Board. Starting from the word in CAPITAL LETTERS at the end of each sentence, derive another word that best fits in the context of that sentence indicated by a blank space (" ___ "). On your answer sheet, write the derived word. Professional management and staff A CDC must have full-time professional management, including an Executive Director (or the equivalent) managing 25 __ operations. It must also have a full-time professional staff qualified by training and experience to market the 504 Program, package and process loan 26 __ , close loans, service, and, if authorized by SBA, liquidate the loan portfolio, and sustain a 27 __ level of service and 28 __ in the Area of Operations. CDCs may obtain, under written contract, marketing, 29 __ , processing, closing, servicing or 30 __ services provided by qualified individuals and entities who live or do business in the CDC's Area of Operations under certain circumstances. (http://www.sba.gov/) 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. DAY APPLY SUFFICE ACT PACKAGE LIQUIDATE

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ID. WRITING TASKS A. Reports, proposals and letters You work in the Human Resources department of a large multinational and you have received a lot of complaints from staff about their working conditions. You have been asked to write a report o mentioning the reasons for the complaints; o making recommendations for dealing with them. (200250 words) You work as an accountant in an advertising company. You are about to be promoted and your superior has asked you to write a report concerning your activity over the last month. Write your report o referring to your duties and responsibilities; o pointing out what motivates you most in your job; o mentioning some issues that could be improved as part of your job. (200-250 words) You have been delegated to attend a meeting with a bank representative in order to discuss the conditions for taking a loan that your company needs. Write a report to your superior giving details about the meeting. (200-250 words) You have just taken part in a meeting in which your colleagues presented some new methods to increase customer involvement in the product development. Write a report to your superior o comparing two methods proposed by the presenters; o giving your opinion on which should work best; o presenting one or two drawbacks of the chosen method. (200-250 words) You have taken part in a training seminar meant to help employees with their presentation skills. Your have been asked to write a report for the colleagues who could not attend. Write your report o giving a brief outline of the methods used by the trainer; o presenting the three most important points of the seminar; o explaining how the above mentioned points will be helpful in your activity. (200-250 words)

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You have just arrived from a conference on competitiveness. You have been asked to write a report for your head of department. Include information about:
o o o

two presentations you found most attractive; the way in which the information you learnt can be applied in your company; the steps you consider necessary so that your company's competitiveness could be improved. (200-250 words)

The company you work for wants to enter new markets and is planning to open a new branch abroad. You have been asked to make suggestions concerning this. Write a proposal to your superior
o explaining the best method to find information about the new market; o proposing a training method for the staff to be recruited there; o giving your opinion on how the new branch could be promoted

(200-250 words)

Your company has decided that an Employee of the Year Award would increase staff motivation. Write a proposal to your superior o suggesting two or three criteria to select the winner; o proposing a method to organize the contest; o giving your opinion on how to implement the program. (200-250 words) As a result of a recent rise in departmental costs, your head of department has asked you to suggest some ways of redressing the situation. Write your proposal
o o o

presenting the reasons for the sudden increase; suggesting one or two methods to encourage staff to reduce costs; giving your opinion on how to avoid such situations in the future. (200-250 words)

Your company has been invited to a trade fair. Write a letter to the company representative organizing the trade fair o making enquiries about the trade fair; o giving details about your products/ services; o stating your objectives for the trade fair. (200-250 words) A business acquaintance in Japan is planning to visit your company in order to sign a contract. Write a letter to him/ her o giving details about your company's culture; o offering advice about your country's economic context; o welcoming your guest. (200-250 words)

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You work in an insurance company and you have received a letter from a dissatisfied client who did not receive the compensation he was entitled to. Write a letter to this client o giving reasons for the delay in dealing with his issue; o apologizing for the inconvenience caused; o offering compensation for the delay. (200-250 words) Write a letter of application in reply to the following job advertisements: Job advertisement 1:

$50,000 + Super Large National Company Great Opportunity

An exciting opportunity exists for an experienced Accounts Payable Officer to work in the accounts department of one of Australia's leading mining companies. It will be essential to have outstanding time management skills and the ability to coordinate your day in an efficient and effective manner. Reporting to the Accounts Payable/Receivable Supervisor your duties will include: Processing invoices. Reconciliations. Assisting with month end. If you feel you meet the above criteria, have a great work ethic and are available for immediate interview apply now quoting Ref CF409139.

(adapted from http://jobsxareeronexom.au/texis/jobsearch/details.html?id=47b9941f48dba0&company=Hays)

Job advertisement 2:

Dynamic product Strategic business role $85k + super + benefits

Do you have a passion for new and evolving technology services?

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Pioneering electronic content and technology services company known for its quality leading products have an exciting opportunity for a Senior Product Manager for their innovative Business Development division. This prominent technology leader is experiencing accelerated growth at present in both product and market development, and is looking for an energetic, passionate person to join the team. Working closely with all disciplines this progressive role will be responsible for : Owning and directing the company's retail product strategy. Product planning and execution throughout the product lifecycle. Prioritizing product and retail consumer requirements. Project manage the development of new retail products. Define and build the product strategy and maintain an up to date roadmap. Develop strong negotiation skills on a face to face basis. Define pricing structures and strategy with respect to maximizing competitiveness and profits. Develop and present concepts to both internal business teams and prospective customers and partners. Ideally you will have a technical background from the consumer retail technology industry, and will have a strong understanding and demonstrated experience in developing and marketing new products within the industry. If you are a positive, goal oriented person with high energy levels, have great organizational and time management skills and can work in a pressure environment this could be the position for you! As a self starter and tech savvy who appreciates the market do not miss this opportunity. If you would like the opportunity to actively contribute towards this prominent company's ongoing success then please send your CV and letter of application.
(adapted from http://jobsxareeronexom.au/texis/jobsearch/details.html?id-47bed89e48dce0&cornpany^iiays)

B. Memos A new colleague is about to join your team. As a team leader you need to inform your subordinates about this change. Write a memo to your team
o o

introducing the new colleague; telling your team who will be responsible for training him/ her. (150-200 words)

It has just been decided that your company will be taken over by a former competitor. As head of the marketing department, you are responsible for announcing your subordinates about this. Write a memo o explaining why the takeover was necessary; o briefly telling them whether their roles will change;\ o Inviting them to attend a meeting I order to discuss the impact of the takeover on your department. (150- 200 words)
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You suspect that a competitor keeps headhunting your staff. As head of the Human Resources department you would like to call a meeting with the other heads of department to discuss the situation. Write a memo o briefly presenting the situation; o explaining why a meeting is needed; o giving practical details about the organization of the meeting. (150- 200 words) C. Argumentative essays Write a 200-250 word argumentative essay debating the following quotations: If stock market experts were so expert, they would be buying stock, not selling advice. Norman Augustine (1935 - ) The market can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent. John Maynard Keynes (1883 - 1946), (attributed) The government's view of the economy could be summed up in a few short phrases: If it moves, tax it. If it keeps moving, regulate it. And if it stops moving, subsidize it. Ronald Reagan (1911 - 2004) A bank is a place that will lend you money if you can prove that you don't need it. Bob Hope (1903 - 2003) A banker is a fellow who lends you his umbrella when the sun is shining, but wants it back the minute it begins to rain. Mark Twain (1835 - 1910)

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The hardest thing in the world to understand is the income tax.

Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955), (attributed)


Advertising may be described as the science of arresting the human intelligence long enough to get money from it. Stephen Leacock (1869 - 1944) What is the difference between unethical and ethical advertising? Unethical advertising uses falsehoods to deceive the public; ethical advertising uses truth to deceive the public. Vilhjarmur Stefansson (1879-1962) There are worse things in life than death. Have you ever spent an evening with an insurance salesman? Woody Allen (1935 - ) Meetings are indispensable when you don't want to do anything. John Kenneth Galbraith (1908 - 2006)
(http://www.quotationspage.com)

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IV. SPEAKING TOPICS


The speaking topics that you may have to refer to in this test are the ones you studied in the first two years in the English classes. Think about the aspects below each topic as they may help you gather useful vocabulary related to each of the topics. PRESENTATIONS Think about o One situation when you had to deliver a presentation and be ready to give details o Some methods to prepare before giving a presentation o The qualities that good presenters need o A good presentation that you witnessed and be ready to explain what was special about it o Whether the audience is important and to what extent PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Think about o The qualities that good communicators have o Whether you are a good presenter and why o Whether one can learn how to become a good communicator o The means of written and oral communication used within organizations INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Think about o The difference between e-business and e-commerce o The advantages and disadvantages of e-business for companies and customers o The upsides and downsides of using intranets o The extent to which IT influences business nowadays COMPANY STRUCTURES Think about
o o o o o

What type of organization you would like to work for The advantages and disadvantages of hierarchical pyramid structures The pluses and minuses of flat management structures The way in which staff motivation may differ in large multinationals and small companies The upsides and downsides of home-based working
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BUSINESS ETHICS BUSINESS ETHICS Think about o A way of defining business ethics o Some examples of unethical business situations and the proper way to deal with them. o Whether ethics officers could influence the employees in an organization RECRUITMENT Think about o The most popular recruitment methods used nowadays o The steps of the recruitment process o Whether headhunting is an ethical recruitment method and be ready to explain MANAGEMENT AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY Think about o The connection between management and culture o Examples of differing ways of doing business in different cultures o The skills that managers need today and whether you have these skills o The tasks that managers need to perform on a daily basis o The importance of delegating tasks BUSINESS TRAVEL Think about o The advantages and disadvantages of business travel o The necessary preparation before going on a business trip o Some problems you might encounter on a business trip and possible solutions MARKETING Think about o What marketers do o What market research denotes o The market research a company should do before going international o The elements of the marketing mix o Whether you would like to work in sales and be ready to explain ADVERTISING Think about o The most popular advertising media used today and their effectiveness o The best way of advertising a new product of your own choice
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o o

The extent to which advertising can be manipulative The role of advertising agencies

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ACCOUNTING & FINANCE Think about o Whether you would make a good accountant and why o The skills that accountants need o Some important accounting documents and their role o The difference between an accountant and a financial manager BANKING Think about o Some banking services that are popular in our country o The different types of banks (not examples of banks) that exist in Romania o The role of the central bank o The role loans play in people's lives o Whether you would like to work in a bank and give details INSURANCE Think about
o o o

The main types of insurance you may or may not need The Romanian insurance market and the way you would describe it in a few words The difference between buying life insurance and savings accounts

INTERNATIONAL TRADE Think about o The importance of exports and imports for a country o The reasons for which countries trade o Arguments for and against protectionism and free trade ENTREPRENEURSHIP Think about the following questions o Have you ever thought about setting up your own business? o What should a business plan include? o What are the advantages and disadvantages of entrepreneurship? MEETINGS Think about o The difference between formal and informal meetings o The reasons for which meetings are organized o Some golden rules for effective business meetings o The role of the chairperson in a meeting
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V. SPEAKING TASKS Look at the following examples of speaking tasks. PART A: Individual long turn The following tasks will help yon both with the first part of your speaking test as well as with other international examinations which include similar activities. The importance of preparation before giving a business presentation. How to develop the qualities of a good presenter. The importance of knowing your audience before giving a business presentation. The importance of learning how to communicate effectively in the business environment. How to communicate effectively through writing within an organization. The importance of extending your business through the Internet. How to minimize the disadvantages of e-business for customers and companies. The importance of training staff to use intranets effectively. How to maximize the advantages of pyramid company structures from the employees' viewpoint. The importance of knowing the upsides and downsides of flat management structures. How to make sure staff stay motivated in large multinationals. The importance of combining home-based and office-based working efficiently. How to encourage employees to behave ethically at work. How to ensure that headhunting does not affect staff morale. The importance of cultural awareness for managers. How to develop management skills as a young graduate. The importance of good prioritizing skills for managers. How to delegate tasks efficiently as a manager. How to avoid the pitfalls of business travel. The importance of market research before developing a new product. How to choose the right advertising medium for a new product. The importance of working with an advertising agency when launching a new product. The importance of choosing a bank wisely before taking a loan. How to choose the right type of insurance for your needs. The importance of exports and imports for a country. How to design a good business plan before setting up a business. How to make meetings work for all employees. The importance of thorough preparation before business negotiations.

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PART B: Interaction The following tasks are meant to be performed in pairs so yon will have to work with a colleague. This type of activity will help you with the second part of the speaking test in the Lingua examination as you will have to prove you are able to interact with the examiner. You will also find these tasks helpful if you are also preparing for an international examination with similar speaking activities. You and a colleague of yours are in charge of organizing an important meeting of the marketing department. Discuss and decide together: o The main points on the agenda o How to encourage everyone to have a say in the meeting

You have just decided to set up a business with a few friends.

Discuss and decide together: o The advantages and disadvantages of setting up a business with a friend o The focus of the business You and a colleague are in charge of writing an article on the best method to get work experience before graduating. Discuss and decide together: o What arguments to focus upon o How to organize your work You and a colleague have to go on a business trip to a foreign country. Discuss and decide together: o Your objectives for the trip o How to organize your tasks before leaving Your superiors have just decided to introduce an ethics officer to minimize unethical behaviour on the part of the employees. You have to inform your colleagues about this decision. Discuss and decide together: o How to break the news to your colleagues o What your colleagues' reactions might be o How to deal with their reactions

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One of your colleagues has been headhunted and, as a member of the management team, you need to recruit a replacement.

Discuss and decide together: o What recruitment method to use o How to make sure the other employees stay motivated o How to prevent other headhunting activities in the future Your company has decided to organize a training seminar for new employees. You are part of the team that will give a presentation at the seminar. Discuss and decide together: o How to prepare for the presentation o How to make it as attractive and interesting as possible You have just discovered that some of your company's products have been illegally copied by a competitor. Discuss and decide together: o What action to take o How to protect your products from piracy in the future You are part of a team of marketers and your manager has informed you that several of the company's products have failed to sell.

Discuss and decide together: o The possible causes of the situation o How to remedy the problem It has been revealed that one of your company's best employees is actually an infiltrator. Discuss and decide together:

o What action to take o How to prevent such situations from arising in the future

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KEY KEY READING 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. C A F B E G

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. of do at are of It to like can such to about On you to

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

B C C C A B B C D (it is) D (will this strategy have)

26.

D (percentage)

27.

business

28.

competition

29.

realistic

30.

accessibility

KEY READING 2

1.

2.

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3.

4.

5.

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 2

1.

from

2.

which

3.

to

4.

at

5.

on

6.

may

7.

their

8.

own

9.

any

10.

ask/ require

11.

mind

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12.

example/ instance

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

C (only as) B (data) B (is collected) B (with the data) overlooked identify instantly immediately knowledge

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30.

usefulness

KEY READING 3 1. C 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A G E B D

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. as as by and are is into how without even to who should C C D

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

A D C B A (business) A (experience) D (growth) rocky Underestimating However willing ownership outweigh endless

KEY READING 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. G A F D E B C I

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 4 1. there

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

both at to However as other raising like tendency C C B C A B D B B B A (will do) D (of size) A (victim to) competitors favorable unavailable supplier

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28. 29. 30.

Agreements acquisition exclusion

KEY READING 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A F C E D

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. whether worth out to with on or some these have B C B A B

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14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

in C B B B A C D (a few) D (either the owner) D (amount) C (you must) misled dependent earnings shareholders Consequently unlikely

KEY READING 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C A F B D

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 7 1. 2. 3. any/ all have be

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

on should were were it to at places When what A B D B B A C A (competitors) A (A large) D (Are they) D (people) D (they have made) governmental requirements ability highly outstanding

KEY READING 8

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

C A F B D

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. that related with cannot for where as Last any to such B C C D C B D (backup) D (you will) B (want)

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21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

D (whatever it is) C (acquired by) efficiently requested historical creditors length regardless prospective within

KEY READING 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. F A D E C

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. whatever will at for by more and your

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

to do to mouth C B C B B B A D A (While it is) D (mouth based) B (attention to) meeting timely essential reliable truly fruitful invaluable

KEY READING 10 1. 2. D F

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3. 4. 5.

A C B

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. a one possibly have what best never/not off lies from if but was out B D C C D A B D (have helped)

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23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

A (doing so) A (when you are) liberating enlist oversee forecasting outcome completion

KEY READING 11 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. C F A B G E

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 11 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. by tend in have do/ give for are and to

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

in B D A C C D C C A (were found) B (traits which) C (worth following) D (two of the) B (result in) D (than) employees cohesiveness Without usually perception substantial

KEY READING 12 1. 2. 3. B A G

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4. 5. 6.

F D C

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 12 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. must Without yourself at so about do as is in Once what for B D A C D C A B (If your)

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22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

A (By keeping) B (although) A (at different) anticipation confrontation realization intellectually acceptance

31. enlightenment KEY READING 13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A F D E B

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 13 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. as make/ take and reaching/' making between because which to first

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 32.

which on their of B D C D B A D C (way) C (have been) B (their environment) A (responsibility) reportedly continual separateness indicators profoundly economic

KEY READING 14 1. 2. 3. C F A

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4. 5. 6.

G B D

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 14 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. had at was what/ how If enough result was Plus/ moreover had D A B A C B D A (will you be) B (as well) A (of yourself) B (establish)

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22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

A (well-defined) B (include) C (what our responsibility is) D (have traded) disrespect distrust enforce upheld Without

KEY READING 15 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D F A C E

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 15 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. include designed/ meant/ intended should of no than by of each

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

to begin/ start order least C B C B D C A A A (where the work will) B (relate to) B (which are) statement explanatory occupant friendly clarity unbiased

KEY READING 16 1. 2. 3. D F A

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4. 5.

C B

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 16 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. If from with It they if does which with not also Is to Does where without Take B C A B A (if you) C (ad department)

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24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

C (it's) A (whether) expertise Carefully outcome overnight overlook

KEY READING 17 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A G C E B D

KEY USE OF ENLGISH 17 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ahead put then time on will sure other to end

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11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

that than ever but B A A C B C C (track of) D (way) D (is producing) definitely readjust periodically discontinue directories headings previously

KEY READING 18 1. 2. 3. 4. B D G A

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5. 6. 7.

H F C

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 18 1. look 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. as still By that not be. an who in C B D A B C B C B B (throughout the year) B (information) B (basis)

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23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

B (these) A (terms) addition likely However implications overestimate contractor

KEY READING 19 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B D F A E

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 19 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Whether in who in It with to does with than

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11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

not while it which to C A B A D B (I might as well) C (inappropriate) B (to incorporate) A (rather than) owner community tricky careful unflattering Conversely

KEY READING 20 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C D A F B

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KEY USE OF ENGLISH 20 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.B 22. 23. 24. C (of your pricing) C (directories) A (media) every for and while must what depending are how are While is think can in D C C B A

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25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

purchasing finally actually characteristics secondary significant

KEY READING 21 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C A F B E

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 21 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. are about there take when be help your What/ which make lay what on

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14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Examples such C B B A D B C A (through) A (becomes more focused) C (specifically to) management naturally Throughout strengths anyway

KEY READING 22 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C D F A E

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 22 1. like

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

Although for you/ one From send at that/which to are which to Once to supply/provide C A B B A B B A (to having) A (In October 1994) mailer Normally server

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28. 29. 30.

communicates within undeliverable

KEY READING 23 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B D A F E

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 23 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. for if/ when by prevent is in at as of with from on which other on

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

B C B C D C (connected to) A (data) D (telephone) C (equipment) A (the good news is) download variety agreement advertisements visitors

KEY READING 24 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C A F B E

KEY USE OF ENGLISH 24 1. 2. 3. 4. There have over/ during/ within to

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

from has of part of has in where to C D B B B A A D (groups) A (no single) A (responsible) D (with respect to) daily applications sufficient activity packaging

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30.

liquidation

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Sites used as resource:


http://www.sba.gov/ http: //www.quotationspage. com/ http://iobs.careerone.com.au/texis/iobsearcix/details.html?id=47bed89e48dceQ&companv =Hays http.V/iobs.careerone.com.aii/texis/iobsearcb/detai]s.html?id=^47b9941f48dba0&companv =Hays

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