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Key staff member: NLS

Year 8 - Nutrients
r bo
a te
s Fa s
in ts rals
o te Mine ins
Pr Vitam

Sha Tin College Design & Technology Year 8

Previous targets:

Attitude to learning:
Always Usually Occasionally Rarely
Class work 1 2 3 4
Homework 1 2 3 4
Participation 1 2 3 4

Subject criteria:
Research Ideas Evaluation Planning Making K&U

Target Areas for Improvement Target Areas for Improvement

Complete all set tasks Annotate sketches/ideas

Complete homework Add colour to your sketches/ideas

Read instructions carefully Add more detail to your research/evaluations

Focus on the presentation of your work Label star diagrams & include a key
Submit booklet on the due date Add more detail to timeplans

Optional Comment/Target:


Name: TG: Date:


Glossary - Nutrition and Dietary Needs

1 Allergy A type of food intolerance.

2 Anaemia A lack of the mineral iron.

3 Diabetic Someone who is unable to convert sugar

in the blood into energy.

4 Coeliac An unpleasant reaction to the protein

gluten found in wheat.

5 Folate One of the B group vitamins. It is

important that pregnant woman eat
enough folate (folic acid).
6 Gluten A protein found in wheat.

7 Intolerance An unpleasant reaction to food.

8 Lactose A carbohydrate found in milk.

9 Macronutrient A nutrient needed in larger amounts by

the body.

10 Micronutrient A nutrient needed in small amounts by

the body.

11 Vegan A vegetarian who does not eat meat,

fish, eggs or dairy food.




The five types of nutrients are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and
minerals. Nutrients have special jobs to do in the body. They provide energy and
warmth. They also help to build and repair the body. They protect the body from
illness. Eating a variety of foods will ensure your diet contains all the nutrients you
need to stay healthy.

Macro-nutrients are the nutrients required in greater amounts by the body.

Carbohydrate, protein and fat are macro-nutrients
Micro-nutrients are the nutrients required in smaller quantities by the body.
Vitamins and minerals are micro-nutrients.

There are three types of carbohydrate:
Sugars .......... table sugar, natural sugars found in milk and fruit.
Starches ....... flour, rice, potatoes, cereals and bread.
Cellulose ....... fruits and vegetables.
Starchy foods provide energy and add bulk to the diet.
Many starchy foods provide dietary fibre. Sugary foods
provide energy but do not contain many other nutrients
and are sometimes known as ‘empty calories’.
Sugar is linked to tooth decay.

Children need protein to build up the millions of body cells which form muscles,
nerves, skin and body organs. Adults have stopped growing but they need protein
to renew worn-out or damaged body cells.
If people eat more protein than they need the extra protein will be used for energy.

Protein is found in animal foods: meat, fish, cheese, milk and eggs.

Protein is found in plant foods: peas, beans nuts, cereals and rice.

Fats are a very concentrated source of energy.
Fat can be found as: Animal fat: butter, lard, fatty meat,
milk, cream and cheese.
Vegetable fat: nuts and beans.
Researchers have discovered that fats affect the amount of a substance in blood
called cholesterol. It is thought that if cholesterol builds up in the blood it may be
one cause of heart disease.

Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins and minerals are only needed in very small quantities but are essential for good
health. They are used to keep bones, teeth and skin healthy, maintain a healthy blood
system and to fight off infections.

There are several different vitamins named after letters of the alphabet, e.g. Vitamin A,
B, C, D, E

Iron, calcium and sodium are three important minerals.

Vitamins and minerals are found in a variety of foods such as vegetables, fruit, meat,
milk, breakfast cereals and bread.


1 Explain the term macro-nutrient. (1)

2 List the three types of carbohydrates. (3)
3 Give three reasons why we need to eat protein. (3)
4 Name two foods containing animal protein. (2)
5 Which protein foods would be suitable for a vegetarian? (2)
6 Name two examples of foods containing animal fats and two examples of foods
vegetable fats (4)
7 Why should you get most of your energy from carbohydrate foods and not from
fatty foods? (1)
8 Which snack foods are high in fat and which foods could be eaten as healthier
alternatives? (4)
9 Why are vitamins and minerals called micro-nutrients? (1)
10 Which foods are a good source of vitamins and minerals? (2)
11 Which nutrients do the following foods contain:
a) milk (3)
b) sugar (1)
c) bread (3)



Nutrition Questions


Nutrition Questions (continued)


Vitamins are chemicals which are found in food. They are necessary to keep the body
healthy. Vitamins were not discovered until the beginning of the century.
As scientists discovered the different vitamins they were named after letters of the
Vitamins are called micro-nutrients because we only need them in small quantities.

Vitamin A (chemical name: retinol)

Vitamin A is necessary for growth and healthy skin and eyes.

Vitamin A is found in margarine, butter, milk, carrots, eggs and oily fish.

B Vitamins (chemical names: thiamin, riboflavin and nicotinic acid)

There are at least eleven B vitamins.

Three important B vitamins are thiamin, riboflavin and nicotinic acid.
B vitamins help growth and keep nerves, muscles and blood healthy.
B Vitamins are found in flour, bread, potatoes, beans, lentils and meat

Vitamin C (chemical name: ascorbic acid)

Vitamin C keeps bones and skin healthy.

A lack of vitamin C causes a disease called scurvy.
Vitamin C dissolves in water and is easily lost during the preparation of fruit and
vegetables. Vitamin C is found in oranges, potatoes and green vegetables.

Vitamin D (chemical name: cholecalciferol)

Vitamin D is required for strong bones and teeth.

Vitamin D helps the body absorb Calcium. The disease called rickets is caused by lack
of vitamin D and calcium. Rickets is found in people with a poor diet who rarely get
much sunlight. Their bones become so weak that their legs bend under the weight of
their body.
Vitamin D is found in milk, eggs, oily fish and is added to margarine.
Vitamin D is added to margarine and baby food. The action of sunlight on the skin

TASK 1 For each vitamin complete the following information:
1) Chemical name.
2) What does the vitamin do in the body?
3) Foods which contain the vitamin.

Name of the Chemical name What does the Foods rich in the
vitamin vitamin do in the vitamin
Vitamin A

B Vitamins

Vitamin C

Vitamin D

TASK 2 Make a list of the vitamins added to breakfast cereals.

Why do you think foods have extra vitamins added to them?


Key Words
micro-nutrients calcium iron fluorine
sodium sodium chloride haemoglobin fluids

Minerals are called micro-nutrients because we only need them in small quantities.

1. Calcium
Calcium is needed to form strong bones and teeth. Calcium will help blood clot
properly and helps muscles and nerves to work properly.
Milk, cheese and yoghurt are good sources of calcium.
Calcium is added to white flour and bread by law.

2. Iron
Iron is needed to make haemoglobin. This gives blood cells their red colour. Red
blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of the body.
Iron is found in meat, green vegetables, yeast and cocoa.
Iron is added to white flour, bread and breakfast cereals.
A lack of Iron causes an illness called anaemia.
Someone suffering from anaemia may feel tired and look pale.

3. Fluorine
Fluorine helps prevent tooth decay. Fluorine is added to most toothpaste.
In some parts of Britain fluorine is added to the water supply.

4. Sodium
Sodium is used to maintain the balance of fluids in the body.
Table salt is made up of sodium chloride. Salt is found in foods such as crisps and
savoury snacks, olives and canned vegetables.
Most people eat more salt than they need.
They add it to food as they cook or add salt as they eat.
Too much salt may lead to high blood pressure and heart disease.

Which minerals do these foods / products contain?


TASK 1 For each mineral list:

Mineral What does the mineral do in the body? Which foods contain
the mineral?

Mineral What does the mineral Which foods contain

do in the body? the mineral?






Food Allergy and Intolerance

Most people can eat foods without any problems. Most people will have likes or
dislikes that influence their food choice. However some people have unpleasant
reactions to some foods. These unpleasant reactions are called food intolerances.

A food intolerance usually occurs between a few minutes and a few hours after
eating a particular food. The symptoms of food intolerance may be diarrhoea,
headaches, itching and or asthma.
Food intolerance is more common in children than in adults. Children often grow
out of the problem.


Foods that may cause an intolerance include: chocolate, shellfish, soya, wheat,
milk, nuts, tea and coffee.
A few people are sensitive to certain additives such as particular colours or
preservatives. Food labels give information about most additives so that specific
ones can be avoided if necessary.

One type of food intolerance is caused by the lactose in milk. Lactose intolerance is
common where adults do not traditionally drink milk. People with lactose
intolerance can usually drink small amounts of milk and eat cheese and yogurt
without problems.

Coeliac disease is an unpleasant reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat.
People with coeliac disease must avoid foods that contain gluten throughout their
life, for example bread, cakes and biscuits. Many foods have small amounts of
wheat or other cereals added, so people with coeliac disease must check food
labels carefully. Rice, maize and soya products do not contain gluten so are
acceptable, and gluten-free versions of foods such as bread and pasta are

Some people are allergic to particular components of foods, for example the
proteins in wheat, milk or in egg. The symptoms of an allergic response may be
very similar to those of a food intolerance.
In extremely rare cases, a severe allergic reaction can cause death. An example of
this is a serious allergy to seafood, peanuts or other nuts. Peanut allergy is
becoming increasingly common, especially in children.



Special Diets Research


Special Diets Research


Design Brief
Due to health, safety, moral and ethical concerns the number of
vegetarians is increasing. Design and make a vegetarian main meal.
The meal should be visually attractive and appeal to both vegetarians
and non-vegetarians.

1. Work individually or with one other student. (Maximum group size 2)

2. Each individual student will need a time-plan.
3. Each group will need an ingredient order form.

Design Constraints
• Suitable for vegetarians, therefore it must not contain meat or fish.
• Preparation time must not exceed 30 minutes.
• Cooking time must not exceed 30 minutes.
• Choose a recipe with skills you understand how to make.
• Do not use a recipe that requires deep fat frying.
• Do not make more than two portions. You can divide the recipe to
reduce the number of portions.
• Use metric measurements (g / ml)


Product name:
Quantity Ingredient


Cooking time and temperature:

Time Method


Sensory Evaluation