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**Root locus for analysis and design
**

Root locus design 2 1.5 1 Branch 0.5 0 –0.5 K = 1.5 –1 –1.5 K=4 –2 –4 –3 –2 –1 Real axis 0 1 p2 p1 K=1 0 K = 1.5 K=4

Figure 13.12 Root locus plot for d.c. motor. values of gain K are also shown at some points on the diagram; we find that we can complete the following table:

Gain 0<K<1 K=1 K = 1.55 K=4 Damping ratio, Natural frequency,

n

Response type Overdamped Critically damped Underdamped Underdamped

Not shown but ζ > 1 since both poles lie on real axis ζ=1 ζ = 0.8 ζ = 0.5 ωn = 1 ω n = 1.25 ωn = 2

In this example, the closed-loop poles approach each other as we increase the gain K. Note that the two poles are real for 0 < K < 1, and hence the system is over damped. At K = 1, the two poles have the same location and the system becomes critically damped. For K > 1, the two poles moves toward the two zeros at infinity and the system becomes under damped.

**13.6 Effects of adding a pole or a zero to the root locus of a secondorder system
**

We discussed how we could change the value of gain K to change the position of the closed-loop poles. This corresponds to placing a proportional gain, K, in cascade with the system G(s) and finding the closed-loop poles for different values of gain, K. However, proportional control is a simple form of control; it does not provide us with zero steady

13.6 Effects of adding a pole or a zero to the root locus of a second- order system

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state error and it will limit the type of time response we can produce from a system. For example, in some control design problems, to produce the performance required in the design specifications we need to move the poles to some positions on the s-plane, which may not lie on a root locus defined by the simple proportional gain K. To be able to move the poles to any position on the s-plane, we need to use a more complicated controller. For example, we may need to add a zero or a pole to the controller and see how this will affect the root locus and hence the position of the closed-loop poles. Examples of controllers with poles or zeros are: PI control: Lag controller: Kps + Ki K K(s) = Kp + i = s s K(s) = sτ + 1 αsτ + 1 (τ , α are controller parameters)

Thus, we need to know how the root locus will change if we add a pole or a zero. To investigate this, we will use a simple example.

**13.6.1 Effects of adding a zero on the root locus for a second-order system
**

Consider the second-order system given by G(s) = 1 ( s + p1)( s + p2 ) p1 > 0, p2 > 0

The poles are given by s = –p1 and s = –p2 and the simple root locus plot for this system is shown in Figure 13.13(a). When we add a zero at s = –z1 to the controller, the open-loop transfer function will change to: G1(s) = K( s + z1) , ( s + p1)( s + p2 )

(a) 2 1 Imag. axis 0 –p2 –1 –2 –6 (c) 2 1 Imag. axis 0 –p2 –1 –2 –6 –p1 Imag. axis –p1 Imag. axis

z1 > 0

(b) 2 1 0 –p2 –1 –2 –6 (d) 2 1 0 –p2 –1 –2 –p1 –p1

–4

–2 Real axis

0

2

–4

–2 Real axis

0

2

–4

–2 Real axis

0

2

–8

–6

–4 –2 Real axis

0

2

Figure 13.13 Effect of adding a zero to a second-order system root locus.

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Root locus for analysis and design We can put the zero at three different positions with respect to the poles: 1. To the right of s = –p1 2. Between s = –p2 and s = –p1 3. To the left of s = –p2 Figure 13.13(b) Figure 13.13(c) Figure 13.13(d)

We now discuss the effect of changing the gain K on the position of closed-loop poles and type of responses. (a) The zero s = –z1 is not present. For different values of K, the system can have two real poles or a pair of complex conjugate poles. This means that we can choose K for the system to be overdamped, critically damped or underdamped. (b) The zero s = –z1 is located to the right of both poles, s = – p2 and s = –p1. In this case, the system can have only real poles and hence we can only find a value for K to make the system overdamped. Thus the pole–zero configuration is even more restricted than in case (a). Therefore this may not be a good location for our zero, since the time response will become slower. (c) The zero s = –z1 is located between s = –p2 and s = –p1. This case provides a root locus on the real axis. The responses are therefore limited to overdamped responses. It is a slightly better location than (b), since faster responses are possible due to the dominant pole (pole nearest to jωaxis) lying further from the jω axis than the dominant pole in (b). (d) The zero s = –z1 is located to the left of s = –p2. This is the most interesting case. Note that by placing the zero to the left of both poles, the vertical branches of case (a) are bent backward and one end approaches the zero and the other moves to infinity on the real axis. With this configuration, we can now change the damping ratio and the natural frequency (to some extent). The closed-loop pole locations can lie further to the left than s = –p2, which will provide faster time responses. This structure therefore gives a more flexible configuration for control design. We can see that the resulting closed-loop pole positions are considerably influenced by the position of this zero. Since there is a relationship between the position of closed-loop poles and the system time domain performance, we can therefore modify the behaviour of closed-loop system by introducing appropriate zeros in the controller.

**13.6.2 Effects of adding a pole on the root locus for a second-order system
**

We demonstrate the effect of adding a pole by using the second-order system of the previous example. We add a pole at s = – p3 to the controller. The open-loop transfer function will change to: G2(s) = K ( s + p1)( s + p2 )( s + p3 ) p1 > 0, p2 > 0, p3 > 0

Once again, the root locus of the original system G(s) is shown in Figure 13.14(a). We can put the pole at three different positions with respect to p1 and p2:

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