# Evaporation

Evelyn R. Laurito Ch.E. 206

Learning Outcomes

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To describe when and how evaporation is used as a separation technique in unit operations Determine the boiling point of solutions Differentiate Single and Multiple effect evaporation with multiple feeding To set up the material and enthalpy balances and heat transfer equation for single effect evaporators To solve the area and economy of evaporation systems

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usually steam which is in indirect contact through a steam chest Operating pressure is low. Determination of BPR    Colligative Property Equation: BPR = i Kb m Duhring’s Rule: The boiling point of solution varies linearly with the boiling point of pure solvent. Boiling Point of Solution (TI) is greater than the Boiling Point of Solvent (T1) Boiling Point Elevation or Rise (BPR) = T I – T1 Strong electrolytes have significant BPR. 19. usually in vacuum units. but organic solutions usually have negligible BPR.11/502) Boiling Point Nomograph (See Fig. 100 mm Hg vac. (See Foust. (Ex. 11-124/11-112 or 11-115/8th ed)) Single Effect Evaporator 2 . Boiling Point Concepts      Boiling point is the temperature at which the confining pressure becomes equal to the vapor pressure of the liquid.) Boiling temperatures must be reached for evaporation to take place. Fig.Evaporation  Definition     The conversion of a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through the removal of solvent Requires the use of a heating medium.

Duhring’s Chart for NaOH H-x-T diagram for NaOH-H2O 3 .

CPS = 1.187. Ps Tc1.p.  hF = CPF (TF – TI).TI) = 0  HI = CPW(T1 – TI) + L1 + CPS (TI – T1) CPW = 4. Hs F. F. hI = CPI(TI. TF)  Hs. (xF. hc1 F = feed or thin liquor rate L = thick liquor rate x = solute fraction E = evaporation rate or capacity P1 = operating pressure Ps = steam and condensate pressure Vo = steam rate = C = condensate rate Ts.303 BPR 4 . L1 = latent heat at T1 HI = L1 – 2. Tc1 = steam. condensate temperatures TI = boiling point of L = T of vapor TF = feed temperature H. h = enthalpy symbols Material Balances  Overall Balance   F + Vo = E + C + L (but Vo = C) F=E+L F xF = L xL = Throughput Rate Throughput Rate = constant  Solute Balance   Enthalpy Balance    General Form  F hF + Vo Hs = E HI + C hc1 + L hI For systems w/ h-x-t Data (Ex. xL TI.hc1) = E HI + L hI – F hF = q  hI.884. Ps Ts. xF TF. hF L. TI.TI). hF based on (x L. hL C.HI P1 Vo.Single Effect Evaporator E. hc1 based on steam table For systems with negligible heat of dilution (no enthalpy data) with liquid enthalpy as zero at the boiling point of solution.504)  Vo (Hs. NaOH-H2O.

303 BPR In Engl Units: HE = L1 .hc1 = 1.187(To .To)+ Lo + 4.Negligible Heat of Dilution: Using TI as reference Temperature: hF = CpF (TF .BPR To = saturation temperature of steam 5 .303(TI-T1) = L1 .2.hc1 = Lo + 4.303BPR] + F CpF (TI-TF) Evaluation of Hs .884(TS .884(TS .hc1 = Lo = latent heat at To = sat’n temp.hc1 = 1.Tc) Heat Transfer Equation q = U A T q = heat rate supplied by steam = Vo (Hs – hc1) U = overall heat transfer coefficient A = heat transfer area needed T = effective temperature driving force = To – TI = To – T1 .0.hc1     Saturated Steam Condensing without subcooling:  HS . Superheated Steam Condensing without subcooling:  HS .TI) HL = CpL (TI – T4) HE = 4. boils at t1 and becomes superheated vapor at TI or HE = L1 .187 (T1-TI) + L1 + 1.Tc) Saturated Steam Condensing with subcooling:  HS .2.2.187(To .To) + Lo Superheated Steam Condensing with subcooling:  HS .884 (TI-T1) E starts as liquid water at TI.55 BPR Substituting into the Enthalpy balance eqn gives the following: Heat Balance Equation: q = Vo(Hs-hc) = E [L1 .

6oC.15) = L(.6-24) solving: Vo = 15492 kg/hr a) Economy = E/Vo = 13500/15492 = 0. e must be at least 1 to compensate for the steam condensation Single effect evaporation does not usually result in a high economy.6) solving : A = 41. Given: Req'd: a) Economy b) A Sol'n: OMB: 18000 = L+E SB: 18000(. The feed enters at 24oC with a specific heat of 3.6-50. To = 130.1] A single effect evaporator will handle 18.000 kg/hr of an organic colloid in water.87 HTE: q = UA (To-T1) = 2840 (3600/1000) A ( 130. Lo = 2171.TF) Vo[2171.47 m2 6 .768)(50.768 kJ/kgK. Calculate the economy and evaporator area. The solution has a negligible BPR.Evaporator Economy (e)     This is the ratio of evaporation rate or capacity to the steam rate e = E/Vo Ideally.1)+18000(3. T1 = 50.6) L = 4500 E = 13500 at Po = 275 kPa.6oC L1 = 2379.884 (Ts-To)] = EL1 + F CpF (T1 .884(140-130. Overall heat transfer coefficient is 2840 W/m2K.8 kJ/kg at 660 mm Hg vac or 100 mm Hg abs (13.1 kJ/kg HBE: q = Vo[Lo + 1.33 kPa). A pressure of 660 mm Hg vacuum shall be maintained in the vapor space. Example 1 Ex. The solution will be concentrated from 15% to 60% solids.6)] = 13500(2379.8+1. Steam available is at 275 kPa and 140oC.

000 lb/hr of a 20% solution of NaOH to 50% solids. Duhring’s Chart for NaOH H-x-T diagram for NaOH-H2O 7 . The feed enters at 100oF. Calculate the economy and evaporator area.Ex. Overall heat transfer coefficient is 250 BTU/hr ft2-oF.2 Ex 2] A single effect evaporator is used to concentrate 20. Saturated steam is at 20 psig and the vapor space at 100 mm Hg.

and the evaporator has an over-all coefficient of 2500 W/m2-K.5) L = 8000 E = 12000 lb/hr EB: q = VoLo = EHE + LhL . T1 = 124.2381m2 c)A = 14.Given: Reqd: a)Economy b) A Soln: OMB: 20000 = L+E SB: 20000(.4881m2 8 .5) = 197oF BPR = 197 -124.78 HTE: q = VoLo = UA(To-TI) = 250 A (258. Assume that the feed has a specific heat of 3.7oF Lo = 939. xF=0.5 kJ/kg-K. Example 5 MT/hr of an aqueous solution with 10% sugar will be concentrated to 50% in a single evaporator system operating at 694 mm Hg vacuum. Calculate the economy and evaporator area.6 BTU/lb From Duhring's Chart: TI =(T1=124. Determine the steam requirement. economy and heat transfer area Needed for the evaporator if the feed enters at: at a) 25oC b) 43oC c) 70oC Answers: a)A = 15.5) = 12000 [1115.7.7 psia.2) = L(. To = 258. The feed enters at 100oF. xL=0.5) = 221 BTU/lb Substituting in EBE: Vo(939.5 BTU/lb for vapor: at 100 mm Hg or 1.Concentration Diagram: hF = (TF=100oF.3oF From Enthalpy.8 lb/hr a) Economy = 12000/15375.FhF for steam at 20 psig or 34. Overall heat transfer coefficient is 250 BTU/hr ft2-oF. Saturated steam at 113oC will condense without subcooling in the steam chest.93 psia.2) = 55 BTU/lb hL = (TI=197oF.6 + .7oF H1 = 1115.45(72.7 = 72.7381m2 b)A = 15.3 Ex 3] A single effect evaporator is used to concentrate 1000 kg/hr of a 10% solution of NaCl to 30% solids. Saturated steam is at 20 psig and the vapor space at 100 mm Hg.7-197) A = 936 ft2 Ex.3)] + 8000(221) -20000(55) Vo = 15375.xL=0.8 = 0.

4 Solution TF  25 Vo  hF  CpF   TF  TI hF  63 E  HI  L  hI  F  hF Lo e  0.Solution F  5000 xF  0.89666  T  70 A  15.6 To  386 HI  2400 Lo  2696  473.6 9 .99163 E e  Vo  T  Ts  T1 Vo  Lo A  U   T  3.5 Pv  694 xL  0.7381 Vo  4460.F hF I From ste am table : T1  316  273 BPR  0 T1  43 L1  2579  179 TI  T1 HI  L1 hI  0 To  Ts  273 Lo  2222.01325 P  0.5 Pb  760 Ts  113 U  2500 ( Pb  Pv ) 1 P   760 1.1 CpF  3.08571 bar M ate rial Balance s: F = E + L F xF = L xL L  F  xF xL L  1000 E  F  L E  4000 Solution Case of Ne g ligible BPR/ No Enthalpy Data Enthalpy Balance : Vo (Hs .hc1) = E H + L hI .

92608  T  70 A  15.97402  T  70 A  14.5 E  HI  L  hI  F  hF Lo E Vo e  0.6 Solution TF  70 Vo  e  hF  CpF   TF  TI hF  94.4881 Vo  4106.Solution TF  43 Vo  e  hF  CpF   TF  TI hF  0 E  HI  L  hI  F  hF Lo E Vo e  0.2381 Vo  4319.6 10 .67686  T  Ts  T1 Vo  Lo A  U   T  3.26572  T  Ts  T1 Vo  Lo A  U   T  3.

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