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THE LEADING EDGE

A e r o d y n a m i c D e s i g n o f U l t r a - s t r e a m l i n e d L a n d Ve h i c l e s

CONTENTS
Useful Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv List of Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Introduction: A Short History of Streamlined Land Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . xi
The less wetted area the lower the aerodynamic drag, see Chapter 1.

1.

General Aerodynamic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Significance of Aerodynamic Drag Aerodynamic Drag Components Drag Area Trade-off Between Aerodynamic Drag and Vehicle Mass 1 6 9 18

Seperation flow on junction and bubble canopy, see Chapter 2.

2.

Basic Fluid Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


Some Fluid Fundamentals The Boundary Layer 21 27

3.
The arched sail was designed to take advantage of crosswinds, see Chapter 3.

Aerodynamic Forces on Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69


Streamlining Examples Drag of Flat Plates and Bodies of Finite Thickness Ground Effect Aerodynamic Moments Crosswind Effects 69 73 105 128 132

4.

Vehicle-level Aerodynamic Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147


Interference Drag Drag of the Wheel System Bubble Canopies Nose Shape Trailing-edge Thickness of the Main Body Gaps and Seams Effect of Surface Roughness on Skin Friction Ventilation 147 158 184 196 200 204 208 209

One possible solution to wheel well interference drag, see Chapter 4.

5.
Yarn tuft test with a downforce, see Chapter 5.

Aerodynamic Drag of the Entire Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217


Construction of a Simple Aerodynamic Drag Model Practical Aspects of Body Design Testing and Development 217 222 222

6.

Real World Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257


Successful Bodies and Their Development 257

Midnight Sun IV gets a checkup during Sunrayce 97, see Chapter 6.

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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