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Services are defined as anything the end user explicitly sees as worth paying for. The primary objective of a mobile telephony system is to allow mobile subscribers to communicate effectively. The GSM network offers Telecommunication Services to the network users. Telecommunication Services are divided into two categories: Basic Services Supplementary Services Basic Services are the one which are available to all the subscribers. Supplementary Services are the one which are available only on subscription. Basic Services is further divided in two main categories: Tele Services Bearer Services Tele Services: Tele services allow the subscriber to communicate (usually via voice, fax, data or SMS) with another subscriber. It is a complete system including necessary terminal equipment. Different types of tele services are as follows: Emergency call: The emergency call function enables a subscriber to make an emergency call by pressing a predefined button or by using the emergency number. (like 112 , 911). Dual Tone Multi Frequency: A tone signaling facility which is often used for various control purposes, such as remote control of answering machines and interacting with automated telephone services. SMS Cell Broadcast : A text message with a maximum length of 93 characters can be broadcast to all mobiles within a certain geographic area. traffic congestion warnings ,accident reports, weather announcements and advertisements. Voice Mail: This service is an answering machine within the network that is controlled by the subscriber. The subscriber accesses the mail box using a personal security code. Short Messaging Service: The service allows simple text message consisting of a maximum of 160 alphanumeric characters to be sent to or from an MS. If the MS is switched off, or has left the coverage area, the message is stores

in a Short Message Service Center (SMS-C). When the mobile is switched on again or has re-entered the network coverage area, the subscriber is informed that there is a message. Enhanced Messaging System: EMS can support relatively simple pictures,sounds and animation. EMS messages that are sent to devices that do not support it will be displayed as SMS transmissions. It is a 3GPP standard. Multimedia Message Service: MMS means a multimedia presentation which consists of music, voice, image, text, video and graphics all synchronized across a common timeline. MMS-enabled mobile phones enable subscribers to compose and send messages with one or more multimedia parts. Mobile phones with built-in or attached cameras, or with built-in MP3 players are very likely to also have an MMS messaging client -- a software program that interacts with the mobile subscriber to compose, address, send, receive, and view MMS messages. Instant Messaging: It enables to communicate with another individual in real time, analogous to a telephone conversation but using text based communication instead of voice-based communication. Streaming: It enables real time or on demand distribution of audio, video and multimedia on the internet. It is simultaneous transfer of digital media (video,voice and data) so that it is received as a continuous real-time stream.

Bearer Services: Bearer services are telecommunication services providing the capability of transmission of signals between access points. The bearer services describe what the network can offer (e.g. speech, data and fax).The bearer services are pure transport services for data. Some of the transmission modes and rates already used in modern data networks are implemented; others are planned. The following, already implemented, bearer services provide unrestricted information transfer between the reference points in the mobile stations. Data CDA (circuit duplex asynchronous) + basic PAD (packet assembler Disassembler) access Data CDS (circuit duplex synchronous) PAD CDA (dedicated PAD access) Alternate speech/data CDA (circuit duplex asynchronous) Speech followed by data CDA (circuit duplex asynchronous)

Data compression on the GSM radio interface .

Supplementary Services: Supplementary Services modify or supplement a basic telecommunication service. Consequently, they cannot be offered to a customer as a stand-alone service. They must be offered together or in association with a basic telecommunication service. The same supplementary service may be applicable to a number of telecommunication services. Most supplementary services are directly inherited from a fixed network, with minor modifications (when needed) to adapt to mobility. Examples of supplementary services are calling line identification and call waiting. Supplementary services extend beyond the normal bearer services and teleservices (basic telecommunication services) and can be subscribed to separately. In the following a supplementary service is called simply service, in contrast to basic telecommunication service.

Number Identification Services: These cover both the presentation and restriction of the calling line identity. The presentation part of the service supplies the called party with the ISDN or MSISDN number of the calling party. The restriction service enables calling parties to restrict the presentation of their number on the MSs of called parties. Calling line identification presentation (CLIP) Calling line identification restriction (CLIR)

Call Offering Services Call forwarding unconditional (CFU) Call forwarding on mobile subscriber busy (CFB) Call forwarding on no reply (CFNRy) Call forwarding on mobile subscriber not reachable (CFNRc) Call Completion Services Call hold Call waiting (CW) Multi-Party Service

Charging Services Advice of charge (AOC) Call Restriction Services Barring of all outgoing calls (BAOC) Barring of all outgoing international calls (BOIC) Barring of all outgoing international calls except to home PLMN country (BOICexHC) Barring of all incoming calls (BAIC) Barring of all incoming calls when roaming outside home PLMN country (BIC Roam)

Closed User Group (CUG): The CUG service enables subscriber connected to the PLMN/ISDN and possibly other networks, to form groups in which access is restricted. Example: members of a specific CUG can communicate with each other, but generally not with users outside the group.

GSM Value Added Services:

Call waiting Call Divert Voice response services Mail Roaming SMS MMS


Base Station Subsystem:The Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts, the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and the Base Station Controller (BSC). These communicate across the standardized Abis interface, allowing (as in the rest of the system) operation between components made by different suppliers.

The Base Transceiver Station houses the radio transceivers that define a cell and handles the radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station. In a large urban area, there will potentially be a large number of BTSs deployed, thus the requirements for a BTS are ruggedness, reliability, portability, and minimum cost. The Base Station Controller manages the radio resources for one or more BTS. It handles radio-channel setup, frequency hopping, and handovers, as described below. The BSC is the connection between the mobile station and the Mobile service Switching Center (MSC). Network Subsystem:The central component of the Network Subsystem is the Mobile services Switching Center (MSC). It acts like a normal switching node of the PSTN or ISDN, and additionally provides all the functionality needed to handle a mobile subscriber, such as registration, authentication, location updating, handovers, and call routing to a roaming subscriber. These services are provided in conjunction with several functional entities, which together form the Network Subsystem. The MSC provides the connection to the fixed networks (such as the PSTN or ISDN). Signaling between functional entities in the Network Subsystem uses Signaling System Number 7 (SS7), used for trunk signaling in ISDN and widely used in current public networks. The Home Location Register (HLR) and Visitor Location Register (VLR), together with the MSC, provide the call-routing and roaming capabilities of GSM. The HLR contains all the administrative information of each subscriber registered in the corresponding GSM network, along with the current location of the mobile. The location of the mobile is typically in the form of the signaling address of the VLR associated with the mobile station. The actual routing procedure will be described later. There is logically one HLR per GSM network, although it may be implemented as a distributed database. The Visitor Location Register (VLR) contains selected administrative information from the HLR, necessary for call control and provision of the subscribed services, for each mobile currently located in the geographical area controlled by the VLR. Although each functional entity can be implemented as an independent unit, all manufacturers of switching equipment to date implement the VLR together with the MSC, so that the geographical area controlled by the MSC corresponds to that controlled by the VLR, thus simplifying the signaling required. Note that the MSC contains no information about particular mobile stations --- this information is stored in the location registers. The other two registers are used for authentication and security purposes.

The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database that contains a list of all valid mobile equipment on the network, where each mobile station is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). An IMEI is marked as invalid if it has been reported stolen or is not type approved. The Authentication Center (AuC) is a protected database that stores a copy of the secret key stored in each subscriber's SIM card, which is used for authentication and encryption over the radio channel. CORE ARCHITECTURE OF NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYTEM Network switching subsystem (NSS) is the component of a GSM system that carries out switching functions and manages the communications between mobile phones and the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). It is owned and deployed by mobile phone operators and allows mobile phones to communicate with each other and telephones in the wider telecommunications network. The architecture closely resembles a telephone exchange, but there are additional functions which are needed because the phones are not fixed in one location. Each of these functions handle different aspects of mobility management and are described in more detail below. The Network Switching Subsystem, also referred to as the GSM core network, usually refers to the circuit-switched core network, used for traditional GSM services such as voice calls, SMS, and circuit switched data calls. There is also an overlay architecture on the GSM core network to provide packet switched data services and is known as the GPRS core network. This allows mobile phones to have access to services such as WAP, MMS, and Internet access. All mobile phones manufactured today have both circuit and packet based services, so most operators have a GPRS network in addition to the standard GSM core network. Mobile switching center (MSC):Description:The mobile switching center (MSC) is the primary service delivery node for GSM, responsible for handling voice calls and SMS as well as other services (such as conference calls, FAX and circuit switched data). The MSC sets up and releases the end-to-end connection, handles mobility and hand-over requirements during the call and takes care of charging and real time prepaid account monitoring. Home location register (HLR):The home location register (HLR) is a central database that contains details of each mobile phone subscriber that is authorized to use the GSM core network. There can be several logical, and physical, HLRs per public land mobile network (PLMN), though one international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI)/MSISDN pair can be associated with only one logical HLR

(which can span several physical nodes) at a time. The HLR stores details of every SIM card issued by the mobile phone operator. Each SIM has a unique identifier called an IMSI which is the primary key to each HLR record. Authentication centre (AUC):Description:The authentication centre (AUC) is a function to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core network (typically when the phone is powered on). Once the authentication is successful, the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM and services described above. An encryption key is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications (voice, SMS, etc.) between the mobile phone and the GSM core network. If the authentication fails, then no services are possible from that particular combination of SIM card and mobile phone operator attempted. There is an additional form of identification check performed on the serial number of the mobile phone described in the EIR section below, but this is not relevant to the AUC processing. Proper implementation of security in and around the AUC is a key part of an operator's strategy to avoid SIM cloning. Visitor location register (VLR):Description:The visitor location register is a temporary database of the subscribers who have roamed into the particular area which it serves. Each base station in the network is served by exactly one VLR, hence a subscriber cannot be present in more than one VLR at a time. The data stored in the VLR has either been received from the HLR, or collected from the MS. In practice, for performance reasons, most vendors integrate the VLR directly to the V-MSC and, where this is not done, the VLR is very tightly linked with the MSC via a proprietary interface. Equipment Identity Register (EIR):The equipment identity register is often integrated to the HLR. The EIR keeps a list of mobile phones (identified by their IMEI) which are to be banned from the network or monitored. This is designed to allow tracking of stolen mobile phones. In theory all data about all stolen mobile phones should be distributed to all EIRs in the world through a Central EIR. It is clear, however, that there are some countries where this is not in operation. The EIR data does not have to change in real time, which means that this function can be less distributed than the function of the HLR. The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of the mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized or defective mobile stations. Some EIR also have the capability to log Handset attempts and

store it in a log file. Other support functions:Connected more or less directly to the GSM core network are many other functions. Billing centre (BC):The billing centre is responsible for processing the toll tickets generated by the VLRs and HLRs and generating a bill for each subscriber. It is also responsible for to generate billing data of roaming subscriber. Short message service centre (SMSC):The short message service centre supports the sending and reception of text messages. Multimedia messaging service centre (MMSC):The multimedia messaging service centre supports the sending of multimedia messages (e.g., images, audio, video and their combinations) to (or from) MMS-enabled Handsets. Voicemail system (VMS):The voicemail system records and stores voicemails.

Submitted By:Parina Hassani (B. Tech. 6th SEM Sec B1) Roll No. : - 06 Trainee at Nokia Siemens Networks Pvt. Ltd.