Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations

Analysis of data collected at 7 railway stations in October 2000

TRAIL Research School, Delft, December 2001

Author:
Ir. Paul B.L. Wiggenraad Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering Section, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology

TRAIL Research School, December 2001

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Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations

. 7 ANALYSIS OF DATA……………………………………………………. 9 5.3 5. December 2001 iii .5 3 Length of dwell time……………………………………………… 9 Delays……………………………………………………………… 9 Composition of dwell times……………………………………… 10 Distribution of passengers over the platform………………….1 THE DWELLING PROCESS…………………………………………….v 1 2 3 1 2 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….4 5..…………………….5 DATA COLLECTION……………………………………………………. 13 15 Typical length of alighting and boarding times………………… CONCLUSIONS…………………………………………………………....2 5.Contents ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………..3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS…………………………..1 5.19 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………… 21 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………… 21 TRAIL Research School..….

iv Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations .

the vehicle characteristics (door passageway width) and the period of day (peak and off-peak). A passengers forms part of a cluster if the time interval between his predecessor and himself is 3 seconds at the maximum. being four local stations and three intercity stations with different locations of the platform accesses. a difference is made between alighting and boarding in clusters and individual alighting and boarding. and the arrival and departure process of the trains. The collected data are analysed. Conclusions are that measured dwell times. the numbers of alighting and boarding passengers. One observer recorded with a stopwatch the train movements and each of a number of observers was allocated to a platform sector and recorded with a digitizer the number of waiting passengers and the moments of passenger movements (alighting or boarding). the type of train service. and the influence of the type of station. Trains with wide door passageways show about 10% shorter typical alighting and boarding times and with narrower door passageways about 10% longer typical times. As to the alighting and boarding process.ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the dwell time of trains at railway stations. that dwell times in peak hours and off-peak hours are about the same. The length of occurring dwell times are determined by the length of the planned dwell times. the typical length of the alighting and boarding times. Items dealt with are the length of the dwell time and its different components. The distribution of passengers over the platform while waiting and when boarding are deduced. train and infrastructural characteristics. especially of intercity trains. the distribution of the passengers over the platform. December 2001 v . In October 2000 a measurement was carried out on seven typical Dutch railway stations. are longer than scheduled. that there are clear concentrations of waiting and boarding passengers around platform accesses and that the mean alighting and boarding time per passenger in clusters is about 1 second. Mean values are calculated for the length of dwell times and the components of dwell time. TRAIL Research School.

The data collection will be explained as to what. but can be increased with an extra buffer time to improve the service operation. Consequently.1. These two quality aspects determine strongly the competing power of public transport. An important aspect of speed and reliability is the dwell time. it is not surprising that forthcoming service delays and disturbances attract so much attention. how. This being also applicable for trains. where and when. It concentrates on railway stations in the Dutch context. TRAIL Research School. This paper starts with the analysis of the dwelling process leading to factors being involved in the collection of data. the collected data are analysed and eventually conclusions are drawn. December 2001 1 . The project is part of the research program into the quality of train service operation and aiming to develop instruments to improve the operational control. INTRODUCTION Crucial for the quality of public transport services are speed and reliability. The goals of this project are to quantify the different parts of the dwell time and to gather basic data for a more accurate planning of the dwell time and an improved service operation. The length of the dwell time is primarily determined by the length of the alighting and boarding process.

2 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations .

• opening of the doors. In spite of growth of passenger volumes these dwell times are not changed since a number of years. They will concentrate around the platform accesses and distribute consequently insufficiently over the train length.  the number of alighting and boarding passengers. • the departure announcement. but it is included in the running time between the previous and next transfer nodes. December 2001 3 . gap between platform and vehicle)  the arrival and departure process of the train • braking to standstill. Only in peak periods groups of more experienced passengers can be observed TRAIL Research School. The vehicle and infrastructure characteristics must enable a quick change of passengers. coupling and decoupling and change in running direction are involved. On intermediate stops the dwell time often is not explicitly determined. A dwell time of 1 or 2 minutes is standard. The design of the vehicle door offers mostly limitations. Even in a situation where a train arrives early at a station. the difference in height between platform and vehicle floor and the gap between platform and vehicle require – especially for elderly people and passengers with luggage – an extra effort delaying the process. When the train enters the station. Arrival and departure times are indicated in the timetable on a minute scale. • actual departure. However.  the train and infrastructure characteristics (number and width of doors. However. location of the platform accesses. • making the departure route available. Passengers waiting on the platform are not informed about the stop location of the train and the location of the doors. passengers look for empty seats in the stopping train and walk along with the arriving train until standstill. However. The scheduled dwell time is based on experience from the past.2 THE DWELLING PROCESS The dwell time is determined by a number of factors:  the planned dwell time. Due to the minute scaling inaccuracy arises in terms of utilisation of capacity and reliability. Also dwell times are expressed in minutes. Doors are often too narrow to allow two passengers to pass at the same time. a punctual departure from time to time is impossible because the process of alighting and boarding requires more time than planned. difference in level between platform and vehicle floor.  a planned connection. opening and closing of those doors require more time. • closing of the doors. Only the wide doors of the double-decker local trains with a guiding bar in the door opening form an exception: three passengers can alight or board simultaneously. on transfer nodes the dwell time is 2 to 4 minutes and even longer if connections. platform width.

the distance between the doors and the door width. The distribution over the platform is then more evenly. 4 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations . Girnau and Blennemann [1970] give for trains with a floor height of 1. They hamper the alighting ones. a distance between the doors of more than 10 m and a door width of 1. a difference in height of 14 cm.waiting at more distant places on the platform knowing the exact location of the doors of the arriving train. The alighting from a filled train is difficult.76 m in case of 20 alighting and boarding passengers a mean alighting time of 0. Table 1 Mean alighting and boarding times per door per passenger vehicle floor height 1. be it in laboratory conditions because in that stage only a mock-up of such a train was available. These included double-decker trains. Weidmann found for example an alighting and boarding time of 1. hurrying to board and get a seat.4 s per passenger for a boarding situation at grade and a door width of 1. Thus.15 1.5 m. Boarding passengers crowd around the doors.30 m and of 1. a gap between platform and vehicle of more than 20 cm.03 m at a platform height of 0.11 0.9 s per passenger in the following situation: 10 alighting and 10 boarding passengers. 1978] vehicle floor height 1. the difference in height between platform and vehicle floor.6 s per passenger for a difference in height of 70 cm and a door width of 75 cm.08 Weidmann [1995] did a number of measurements of length of alighting and boarding times at public transport stops.75 second per passenger and a mean boarding time of 0. The process of alighting and boarding is somehow chaotic.96 m alighting time [s] boarding time [s] 1.81 second per passenger. the gap between platform and vehicle.85 Source: [Dirmeier.1 m platform height 0.03 m platform height 0. Heikoop concentrated on the effect of a difference in height between platform and vehicle floor on the dwell time. Weidmann developed from his analyses a model by which alighting and boarding times can be estimated depending on a number of parameters: the relation of the number of alighting and boarding passengers. Heikoop [1996] did measurements on the Utrecht – Nieuwegein light rail system and on the Rotterdam tram system. Dirmeier [1978] found for two types of local train multiple units mean alighting and boarding times per passengers (see table 1). He found an average boarding time of 1.76 m alighting time [s] boarding time [s] 1. the capacity of walking space is limited.

type of train service. type of rolling stock. and the period of day. TRAIL Research School. The following classification for the variables was chosen: type of station. location of the platform accesses. December 2001 5 . and the period of day in the Dutch situation? Because these questions can only be answered on the basis of measurements. the vehicle characteristics. a measurement project was carried out on a number of typical Dutch railway stations.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Basically. particularly the train door width. also in the case of delays? What is the distribution of the passengers over the platform related to the location of the platform accesses? What is the typical length of the alighting and boarding times (per passenger) according to the vehicle/platform characteristics? What is the influence of the type of station. the type of train service. the research questions of this project are:     What is the length of the dwell time and of the different components.

6 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations .

Tilburg and Den Haag HS). As to type of rolling stock.90 m). In table 2 the locations and dates of the measurements and the number of observers are shown. and intercity local. Rotterdam Lombardijen) and intercity stations (Eindhoven.5-passenger lane (up to about 1 m) to 3passengers lane (1. express. The train services are distinguished between local trains. measurements are done both on carriages and on multiple units. Leiden for the Utrecht local trains. and intercity local.and 1.4 DATA COLLECTION Measurements were done on 7 railway stations. Leiden Centraal. A selection was made of local train stations (Delft. Table 3 Number of recorded trains per location per type of train service during 4 hours station Delft Schiedam Leiden Lombardijen Eindhoven Tilburg Den Haag total intercity — — — — 15 9 9 33 express 2 8 — 8 — 8 9 35 local 8 15 11 11 5 6 — 56 international — — — — — — 6 6 total 10 23 11 19 20 23 24 130 TRAIL Research School. Table 2 Locations and dates of measurements and numbers of observers station Delft Schiedam Leiden Lombardijen Eindhoven Tilburg Den Haag platform track 1 3 1 1 and 2 6 1 6 running direction Den Haag Rotterdam Utrecht Rotterdam Den Bosch/ Tilburg Den Bosch/ Eindhoven Amsterdam service type local and express local and express local local and express local. middle of the platform (Delft and Tilburg) or on one third and two thirds of the platform length (Rotterdam Lombardijen and Den Haag HS). and intercity date of measurement in 2000 September 21 October 5 October 10 October 12 October 24 October 25 October 31 number of platform sector observers 6 11 13 11 21 21 18 The location of the platform accesses varies: head of the platform (Schiedam. Eindhoven). express. Tables 3 and 4 give the numbers of observed trains per type of train and rolling stock. express trains and intercity trains (in Den Haag also international trains). December 2001 7 . The door width varies from a 1. express. Schiedam Centrum.

The time measurements were related to train and passenger movements. in peak hours some trains were longer. They recorded the number of waiting passengers in their sector at the moment of arrival of the train and the moments of passenger movements of their train door.00 hours). Each of a number of observers (varying from 5 to 20 according to the occurring train lengths) was allocated to a platform sector of about 20 m and a train door. passenger movements train out of train in. Measurements were done in morning peak hours (7. 900. and ‘door closed’). One observer recorded the train movements. 900. 8 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations . The digitizers were programmed for the recording of the time of events (in terms of ‘door open’. 1300 800. Train intervals hardly varied between peak and off-peak. 1300 1300 1100 1900 total number of recorded trains 1 25 3 17 39 45 130 Alighting and boarding times as well as the number of passengers were recorded.00 to 12.Table 4 Width of door passageway and number of recorded trains per type of rolling stock type Thalys carriage intercity multiple unit double-decker intercity multiple unit local multiple unit double-decker local multiple unit total door width [mm] 800.00 till 9. Stopwatches and digitizers were used as measuring devices.00 hours) and off-peak morning hours (10.

and Rotterdam Lombardijen) are included in the running time from the previous station.5 5. Generally. December 2001 9 . There is not much difference between dwell times in peak hours and in off-peak hours. Express trains have dwell times varying from 45 to 120 seconds and local trains from 45 to 60 seconds. departure and dwell times are expressed in minutes – which is inaccurate in this context –. Table 6 shows the thus calculated delays and deviations. where intercity off-peak dwell times are shorter and international train off-peak dwell times are longer. TRAIL Research School. and Schiedam with shorter off-peak hour dwell times for local trains and Lombardijen with longer off-peak hour dwell times for express trains. The measured dwell times of intercity trains vary from 90 seconds to more than 120 seconds.2 Delays Because the scheduled arrival. Schiedam. The dwell times for the local train stations (in this project Delft. the dwell times are longer than scheduled. 5. and period of day. delays in arrival and departure times and deviations in dwell times are calculated based on scheduled arrival/departure and dwell times at x min 0 s.1 ANALYSIS OF DATA Length of dwell time The length of the total dwell times is shown in table 5. dependant of type of station. Table 5 Dwell time lengths station Tilburg The Hague HS service type intercity express local international intercity express express local express local express local scheduled [s] 60 60 60 60/120 60 60 – – – – – – measured [s] 86 67 56 131 120 113 111 62 42 40 68 45 peak hours [s] 90 66 59 96 141 115 – – 43 47 59 47 off-peak hours [s] 80 69 51 154 104 109 111 62 42 33 77 44 Delft Schiedam Rotterdam Lombardijen Dwell times are only scheduled separately for intercity stations. type of service. Exceptions are The Hague HS.

Figure 1 shows the mean length of the dwell time components. It is remarkable that on the average off-peak hour trains have longer delays (about 4 minutes) than peak hour trains (about 2 minutes). which means that on the average trains arrive late. In general.Table 6 Delays of the observed trains number of measured trains station Leiden Lombardijen Eindhoven Tilburg Den Haag total type of service international IC express train local train total period of day peak off-peak total 10 17 14 23 23 87 5 27 25 30 87 45 42 87 delays at arrival mean standard deviation [s] [s] 81 110 105 298 214 57 203 150 380 424 deviations in dwell time mean standard deviation [s] [s] -17 45 48 12 57 85 37 144 24 53 delays at departure mean standard deviation [s] [s] 64 155 153 309 271 63 192 133 382 408 579 212 85 173 761 395 154 158 59 67 41 -9 43 95 41 62 638 279 125 164 730 378 137 162 134 236 208 401 37 28 85 63 171 264 204 393 The mean values of the arrival delays are positive. The mean dispatching time and the unused dwell time both are rather constant independent of type of station. This results in even longer delays at the departure. the second part is individual alighting and boarding. The mean arrival delay varies from about 90 s to about 300 s. Moreover. with two exceptions all mean deviations in dwell time also have positive values. unused time and dispatching time. The mean alighting and boarding time. The alighting and boarding time is composed of two parts: the first part is alighting and boarding in a cluster. scheduled dwell times are sufficiently long for local trains. 5. Only international trains (5 trains measured in The Hague) have longer delays. but other service type trains need about 1 minute longer dwell times. 10 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations .3 Composition of dwell time The total dwell time consists of a number of components: alighting and boarding time. type of rolling stock or type of train service. both varies dependant on above-mentioned variables. whether in cluster or individual.

m an va e e lu local train sta s tion inte rcity sta s T rg a d T e tion ilbu n h Hg a ue in tercity ro lling sto (E d oven ck in h e xclu d) de lo l m ltip u ca u le nits (L e exclu e eid n d d) d ub -de o le cked train s inte rcity (T rg a T e H gu ilbu nd h a e) lo trains (E ho n an L cal ind ve d eide n e xclud d e) pe k (E d ove a Le e a in h n nd id n exclu d) de o ff-pe k (E d ove a Le en a in h n nd id e xclu d) de 0 20 4 0 6 0 8 0 10 0 12 0 tim [s] e d a in isp tch g n -cluste d a h g o in on re lig tin /b ard g u se nu d clu re a h g/b rd g ste d lig tin oa in Figure 1 Length and composition of dwell times The above mentioned lack of difference in dwell times between peak hours and off-peak hours is broken down in figure 1 in a longer mean clustered time in peak hours and a equally shorter mean non-clustered time. December 2001 11 . TRAIL Research School.

The cluster times vary from 20 to 60% of the total dwell times.7:18 7:59 scheduled departure time 8:36 9:06 10:29 10:59 11:36 11:59 0% 20% 40% tim e dispatching unused non-clustered alighting/boardingclustered alighting/boarding 60% 80% 100% Figure 2 Composition of dwell times in The Hague HS station (7-9/10-12 h) Figure 2 gives the distribution of the dwell time components of the measured The Hague trains in percentages. 12 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations . In peak hours the cluster times are twice as long as in off-peak hours. Both the total dwell time and the cluster time of intercities is about twice as long as the local train dwell and cluster times. The unused and dispatching times form together about 20% of total dwell time.

The left ones of the pairs of columns show the distribution of the waiting passengers on the platform. with a clear concentration close to the stairs. The stairs number 1 are related to the main entrance of the station building. shown by the distribution of the passengers while boarding (right columns). Then the highest concentration is 17%. December 2001 13 . waiting and boarding the train in The Hague (7-9/10-12 h) Figures 4 and 5 show the distribution of the passengers over the platform in Tilburg with stairs halfway the platform and Eindhoven with stairs near the front of the trains. There the highest concentration (28% of all waiting passengers) is found.4 Distribution of passengers over the platform Figure 3 illustrates the behaviour of passengers in The Hague HS station.5. People walk along with the train when entering the platform track. TRAIL Research School. At the arrival of the train the passengers distribute more evenly over the platform. 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% front stairs 1 stairs 2 tail waiting on platform boarding platform sectors [length each 40 m] and location of stairs Figure 3 Distribution of passengers over platform.

The figures show that stairs only at one location and moreover at the end of the platform create a higher concentration of passengers. Table 7 Concentration of waiting and boarding passengers on the busiest 150 m of the platform number and location of platform accesses 2 on 1/3 and 2/3 2 in the middle 1 at the front waiting passengers [%] 73 76 83 boarding passengers [%] 60 60 65 The Hague HS Tilburg Eindhoven 14 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations .30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% front stairs stairs platform sectors [length each 40 m] and location of stairs waiting on platform boarding Figure 4 Distribution of passengers over platform in Tilburg (7-9/10-12 h) 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% front tail platform sectors [length each 40 m] and location of stairs waiting on platform boarding Figure 5 Distribution of passengers over platform in Eindhoven (7-9/10-12 h) Table 7 shows the percentages of the total numbers of waiting and boarding passengers on 150 m of the platform with the highest concentation of passengers.

The boarding passengers arrived later on the platform. They are crowded at the doors.5 Typical length of alighting and boarding times During the dwell time two different processes of alighting and boarding were observed. start immediately alighting and boarding.  different periods of the day. a cluster was observed of passengers changing their position outbound and inbound.5.  the numbers of alighting and boarding passengers using the busiest door.  the percentage of this number related to the total number of alighting and boarding passengers. In fact. Immediately after the arrival of the train all passengers in the train who want to alight and all waiting passengers on the platform who want to board.  all observed stations except for Eindhoven (extra dwell times for securing connections with other trains) and Leiden (dwell times include terminal times of about 15 minutes).  the percentage of this number related to the total number of alighting and boarding passengers.  different service types. The table is given for  all observed stations. December 2001 15 . the train already being there.  the ditto numbers of the alighting and boarding passengers in cluster. In this project a passenger was assumed forming part of a cluster if the time interval in the alighting and boarding process between his predecessor and himself was 3 seconds at the maximum. Table 8 shows  the total numbers of alighting and boarding passengers. TRAIL Research School.  different types of rolling stock. After this cluster period a more individual alighting and especially boarding process was observed.

 the ditto times related to the number of alighting and boarding passengers. More train doors were available and indeed used in peak hours. This table contains the same arrangement of variables as table 8. both in total and in clusters. The busiest door was only used by 50% more passengers in peak hours compared to off-peak hours. About one fourth of the measured passengers were alighting and boarding via the busiest door (total measured doors varying from 4 to 20). In peak hours more than twice as much passengers were measured alighting and boarding as in off-peak hours. About 70 to 80% of the total number of alighting and boarding passengers was registered in clusters. Table 9 shows  the total alighting and boarding times. 16 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations .  the alighting and boarding times in clusters. and period of the day total alight + board [pass] total total (Eindhoven and Leiden excluded) rolling stock type intercity (Eindhoven excluded) local train (Leiden excluded) double-decker service type intercity Tilburg + Den Haag HS local train(Eindhoven and Leiden excluded) period of day peak hours (Eindhoven and Leiden excluded) off-peak (Eindhoven and Leiden excluded) 166 127 busiest door total cluster cluster busiest door cluster/ total alight + board [%] 74 % 78 % [pass] 30 23 busiest/ total [%] 23 % 23 % [pass] 109 94 [pass] 20 17 busiest/ total 23 % 23 % 163 97 132 249 56 24 20 25 34 15 16 % 26 % 25 % 15 % 28 % 122 80 95 175 45 18 17 17 22 12 17 % 26 % 23 % 14 % 28 % 77 % 79 % 77 % 71 % 79 % 183 81 29 19 19 % 27 % 135 60 21 13 19 % 26 % 78 % 77 % In intercity trains about four times as much passengers were measured alighting and boarding as in local trains. service type.Table 8 Mean numbers of measured alighting and boarding passengers per train in total and in cluster related to type of rolling stock.

14 0. service type and period of the day t total t alighting + boarding t cluster t cluster/ talighting + boarding [s] total total (Eindhoven and Leiden excluded) rolling stock type intercity (Eindhoven excluded) local train (Leiden excluded) double-decker service type intercity Tilburg + Den Haag HS local train (Eindhoven and Leiden excluded) period of day peak hours (Eindhoven and Leiden excluded) off-peak (Eindhoven and Leiden excluded) [s] 156 75 130 49 [s] 21 20 [%] 16 % 40 % t total/ pass.02 0. Table 10 shows more specifically the relation between the alighting and boarding time per passenger in clusters related to the width of the passageway. The alighting and boarding time per passenger in clusters is about 1 second and in non-clustered alighting and boarding more than 4 seconds.Table 9 Alighting and boarding times in total and in cluster related to type of rolling stock. TRAIL Research School. There is no difference between peak and off-peak hours as to alighting and boarding time per passenger in clusters.11 3. which corresponds with the difference in numbers of passengers (table 8).39 4.46 4.47 4.89 1.98 0.02 5.8 second).57 4.20 t cluster/ pass. busiest door [s] 5.96 89 67 80 105 48 62 38 54 78 24 22 19 20 28 13 36 % 51 % 36 % 36 % 54 % 4. The results of this research correspond with the alighting and boarding times given by Dirmeier (see table 1).98 0. The cluster time takes about one third to half of the total alighting and boarding time. busiest door [s] 0.91 75 74 50 48 24 16 47 % 33 % 3.97 In peak hours the total cluster times are 50% longer than in off-peak hours.96 0. December 2001 17 .29 0. The time data of Girnau and Blennemann are considerably lower (about 0. It is not known what definition they used of the boarding and alighting time.23 1.

12 1. 900 and 1300 plan T/V 1100 DDIRM 1300 DDAR 1900* * front door 1300 mm There seems to be a clear relation between the width of the passageway and the alighting and boarding time per passenger in cluster.88 [mm] ICR/ICM 800. Wider doors lead to 10% shorter times and narrower doors to 10% longer times.02 0.Table 10 Alighting and boarding times per passenger in cluster related to the type of rolling stock type of rolling stock width passageway alighting/boarding time per passenger in cluster [s] 1.90 0. 18 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations .

The mean alighting and boarding time per passenger in clusters is about 1 second. The lengths of the unused time and the dispatching time are constant. TRAIL Research School. but this is compensated by the shorter remaining alighting and boarding time of individual passengers. Added with the dwell times longer than planned. Dwell times in peak and off-peak hours are about equal. trains depart with even longer delays (intercity trains about 280 seconds). December 2001 19 . are longer than the scheduled ones. dependent on the width of the passageway. i. Further research is necessary to answer the question if a more equal distribution of boarding passengers over the train length would lead to substantially shorter dwell times.6 CONCLUSIONS The measured dwell times. In practice they vary from 90 to 120 seconds. Stairs at the end of the platform lead to higher concentrations than locations in the middle or on one third and two thirds of the platform. There is a clear difference in time length between types of rolling stock. There is no difference in alighting and boarding times per passenger in clusters between peak and off-peak hours. trains arrive generally late at stations (intercity trains about 210 seconds). especially for intercity trains. In peak hours the length of alighting and boarding time in clusters is longer due to the larger numbers of passengers. There are clear concentrations of waiting and boarding passengers around platform accesses. In the timetable they are mostly planned to be 60 seconds. On the average. Wide door doubledecker trains have 10% shorter time values and narrower door intercity rolling stock has 10% longer time values than this mean value.e.

20 Alighting and boarding times of passengers at Dutch railway stations .

Infrastructure and Logistics. Die Leistungsfähigkeit von Fahrzeugeinstiegen – Einflüsse und Auswirkungen. REFERENCES Girnau... December 2001 21 . Verknüpfung von Nahverkehrssysteme. pp. U. Höhere Leistungsfähigkeit der S-Bahn durch kürzere Aufenthaltszeiten. and financed by the Delft University of Technology. W. Der Nahverkehr 1-2/95 Heikoop. 1996 TRAIL Research School. pp. Berechnung der Fahrgastwechselzeiten.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This publication is a result of the research program Seamless Multimodal Mobility. G.. Dirmeier.. Reizigerswisseling. 34-39 Weidmann. Afstudeerrapport RET/TU Delft. Die Bedeutung der Haltezeit im Stadtschnellbahnbetrieb. carried out within The Netherlands TRAIL Research School of Transport. H. F. beschutting en kaartverkoop/controle. Der Nahverkehr 9/94. Düsseldorf 1970 Blennemann. 273-276 Hennige. Weiger. U.. Tramhaltes en reistijd. ETR (27) 5-1978. K.

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