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Histoir_ ^u Régim_nt [ustro-\_lg_ ^_

Los Rios - Cl_rf[yt
1725-1802

Général Guillaume, Annales de la Société Royale des Beaux-arts et littérature de Gand, T. X, 1866, pp. 31-114

NYPL. Image ID: 89882 Oesterreich-Ungarn. [1] Hajduken-Inf.-Rgt. Andrassy. Officier; [2] Hajduken-(ungar.) Inf.-Rgt. Bagosy (heute No. 51); [3...

NYPL Vinkhujzen Collection. Image ID: 84292 Soldat du régiment de Los Rios. 1718. (1718) Image ID: 85236 Régimets wallons au service de l'Autriche. Porte- drapeau du régiment de Clerfayt (ancien Los Rios). Soldat du régiment ...

Los Rios Infantry
Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Los Rios Infantry Origin and History This Walloon regiment first served in the Dutch service, taking part in the battles of Oudenarde (1708) and Malplaquet (1709 ). In 1725, it was transferred in the Austrian service. Its Inhaber then became Franz marquis Los Rios de Gutierez. Its recruiting area was the Austrian Netherlands (actual Belgium). During the War of the Austrian Succession, on June 27 1743, the regiment took part in the battle of Dettingen. As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details). During the Seven Years' War, the chefs of the regiment were: since 1725: Franz marquis Los Rios de Gutierez During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commanders were: in 1756: Franz marquis Los Rios de Gutierez from 1757: Joseph baron Murray de Melgum from 1761: Franz prince Gavré d'Aiseau In 1763, after the war, the regiment garrisoned Mons in the Austrian Netherlands. Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 9". It existed till 1918 as "I.R. Graf Clerfayt Nr. 9". Service during the War At the beginning of 1756, the regiment was garrisoning Bruxelles and Brügge in the Austrian Netherlands. In 1757, the regiment contributed its 3rd Battalion (garrison battalion) to the Austrian Contingent sent to the assistance of the French Army during the invasion of Hanover. The four battalions strong Austrian Contingent assembled at Roermond. At the beginning of April, the prince de Soubise ordered the Austrian Contingent to move into the Cleves and Gueldres Duchies and occupy them. On April 6, three battalions of the Austrian Contingent, under the comte Dombasle, entered into Cleves. On April 8, the battalion of Los Rios occupied Wesel where it remained as garrison. On May 5, the battalion was assigned to the blockade of Gueldres. On July 26, the 3rd battalion took part in the battle of Hastenbeck. At the end of the year, the battalion took its winter quarters in Wesel on the Lower Rhine, in the fourth line of the French Army. On May 6 1757, the two other battalions of the regiment took part to the battle of Prague where they were deployed in the baron Breysach's brigade, in the second line of the right wing of infantry under count Königsegg while their grenadiers joined the Grenadiers Corps. On June 18, one battalion of the regiment took part to the battle of Kolin where it formed part of Reichlin’s brigade in the corps of count Colloredo held in reserve behind the centre. The marquis Los Rios de Gutierez got the Maria-Theresia order for the good performance of his regiment during this battle. On September 7, when general Nádasdy attacked Winterfeldt's isolated corps during the combat of Moys, one battalion of the regiment was deployed in the first line of the infantry right division under the command of lieutenant-general Wied. Lieutenant-colonel Joh. de Pasteel got the Maria-Theresia order for his behaviour in this combat. On November 22, one battalion of the regiment took part to the battle of Breslau where it was part of the Reserve Corps in baron Blonquet's brigade. On December 5 at the battle of Leuthen, one battalion of the regiment was deployed in the first line of the far right Reserve under major-general von Luzinsky. In April 1758, the 3rd battalion was recalled to reinforce the Austrian army in Bohemia. By August 2, one battalion of the regiment served in the first line of the main Austrian army under the command of field-marshal count Daun near Jarmeritz (actual Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou). Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the invasion of Moravia. In September, two battalions of the regiment took part in the siege of Pirna and Sonnenstein with the Reichsarmee. On October 10, two battalions took part in the battle of Hochkirch where they were deployed in the first line of the left column of Daun's main army, directly south of Hochkirch. Colonel Murray got the Maria-Theresia order for this action. In November, they took part in the blockade of Dresden. On August 12 1759, the regiment took part in the battle of Kunersdorf. It later went to the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) to replenish its ranks. On June 23 1760, the residual battalion fought at the battle of Landeshut. In July, it took part in the siege of Glatz. On August 15, it fought at the battle of Liegnitz.

On August 16 1762 one battalion of the regiment fought at the battle of Reichenbach in Silesia. From August to October, a detachment took part in the defence of Schweidnitz. Uniform Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Source: Kronoskaf Uniform in 1762 - Source: Kronoskaf Uniform Details as per the Delacre Bilderhandschrift of 1757 and the Albertina Handschrift of 1762 completed with other sources where necessary Headgear Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a white fastener and small yellow button (in addition in 1762: a white pompom and 2 smaller red within yellow pompoms) Grenadier bearskin with a small brass frontplate and a dark green bag with a yellow tassel one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks) white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side none Collar Shoulder Straps white edged dark green fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only) dark green with 7 yellow buttons (2 groups of 3 and an isolated one at the top) Lapels horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons Pockets dark green with 3 yellow buttons Cuffs dark green (white in 1762) fastened with a small yellow button Turnbacks dark green (white in 1762) with 2 rows of 9 yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons white one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade) natural leather Crossbelt natural leather Waistbelt black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT” Cartridge Box Bayonet Scabbard black black (grenadiers only) Scabbard black shoes Footgear

Neckstock Coat

Waistcoat Breeches Gaiters Leather Equipment

Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet. Other interpretations For the late 1740s, Morier illustrates a single row of buttons on the waistcoat. For the 1762 uniform, the Bautzener Bilderhandschrift illustrates 3 white within dark green pompom. For the 1762 uniform, Raspe illustrates a dark green shoulder strap. Officers The officers wore the same uniform with the following exceptions: tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade black neckstock no shoulder strap no turnbacks yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank: lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob captain: long rush stick with a bone knob major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick. Corporals carried a halberd. Musicians Until 1760, despite the new regulation of 1755, the musicians wore coats of reversed colours with white swallow nests and white turnbacks. From 1760, they wore uniforms identical to those of the privates with swallow nests on the shoulders. The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white. Colours All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The colours were made of silk. The flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth. The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion. Colonel flag (Leibfahne): field: white border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF on the left wing and JM on the right

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne): field: yellow border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF on the left wing and JM on the right reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours. References Accurate Vorstellung der sämtlichen KAYSERLICH KOENIGLICHEN ARMEEN zur eigentlichen Kentnis der UNIFORM von jedem Regimente. Nebst beygefügter Geschichte, worinne von der Stiftung, denen Chefs, der Staercke, und den wichtigsten Thaten jedes Regiments Nachricht gegeben wird., Nürnberg auf Kosten der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Ao. 1762 Bilderhandschrift Delacre: Militair Etat der Ganzen Kayl., Königl. Armee Wienn 1757

Bleckwenn, Hans; Die Regimenter der Kaiserin, Gedanken zur "Albertina Handschrift" 1762 des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums Wien, Köln: 1967 Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979 Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760 Friese, Ulf-Joachim, Quellen zur Uniformierung der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee 1740-1763 Funcken, Liliane and Fred; Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967 Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63 Kornauth, Friedrich, Das Heer Maria Theresias: Faksimile-Ausgabe der Albertina-Handschrift, "Dessins des Uniformes des Troupes I.I. et R.R. de l'année 1762", Wien: 1973 Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904 Rogge, Christian; The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006 Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989 Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio Service historique de l'armée de terre - Archives du génie, article 15, section 1, §5, pièce 23 Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 32 Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993 Wrede, Alphons Freiherr von; Geschichte der K. und K. Wehrmacht. Die Regimenter, Corps, Branchen und Anstalten von 1618 bis Ende des XIX. Jahrhunderts, Vol. 1, 124, Vienna, 1898-1905 N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges. Acknowledgments User:Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment

http://mavisming.blogspot.it/2011/11/empire-de-los-rios-regiment.htm

François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

François de Croix, Count of Clerfayt His Grave in Vienna Hernals Cemetery François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt (14 October 1733 – 21 July 1798),[1] a Walloon, joined the army of the Habsburg Monarchy and soon fought in the Seven Years War. Later in his military career, he led Austrian troops in the war against Ottoman Turkey. During the French Revolutionary Wars he saw extensive fighting and rose to the rank of Field Marshal. Early career Born at the Castle of Bruille in Hainaut in the Austrian Netherlands, he entered the Austrian army in 1753.[citation needed] In the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) he distinguished himself, earning rapid promotion, and received the Military Order of Maria Theresa decoration. At the conclusion of the peace (Treaty of Hubertusburg, 15 February 1763), though still under thirty, he had already become an Oberst (colonel).[2] During the revolt in the Netherlands in 1787, Clerfayt, as a Walloon by birth, came under great pressure to abandon Emperor Joseph II. But he resisted all overtures, and in the following year went to fight in the Austro-Turkish War (1787-1791) with the rank of Feldmarschal-Leutnant (lieutenant field marshal). In an independent command Clerfayt achieved great success, defeating the Turks at Mehadia and Calafat.[2] On 10 November 1788, the emperor appointed him to the rank of Feldzeugmeister.[3] French Revolutionary Wars In 1792, as one of the most distinguished of the emperor's generals, he received the command of the Austrian contingent in army of the duke of Brunswick, and at Croix-sous-Bois his corps inflicted a reverse on the troops of the French Revolution. In the Netherlands, he commanded the center at the Battle of Jemappes on 6 November. He opened the campaign of 1793 with the victory of Aldenhoven and the relief of Maastricht, and on 18 March 1793 proved instrumental in causing the complete defeat of Charles Dumouriez at the Battle of Neerwinden. In October, however, his victorious career suffered a reverse at the Battle of Wattignies.[2] He participated in the Flanders Campaign against Charles Pichegru in 1794.[2] Leading a flanking column from the north, he fought at the Battle of Tourcoing on 17-18 May. A French force under Dominique Vandamme slowed his progress until Joseph Souham defeated the Anglo-Austrian army on the southern part of the battlefield. Souham then turned against Clerfayt and compelled him to retreat to the northeast. In the course of the campaign.[citation needed] Clerfayt succeeded Prince Josias of Coburg in the supreme command, but he failed to make headway against the French, and had to recross the Rhine.[2] A Feldmarschall from 22 April 1795,[3] he commanded on the middle Rhine against Jean Baptiste Jourdan, and this time the fortunes of war changed. Clerfayt beat Jourdan at Höchst and brilliantly relieved Mainz. But the Austrian Foreign Minister Johann Thugut did not approve Clerfayt's action in concluding an armistice with the French, so the field marshal resigned his command and became a member of the Aulic Council in Vienna. He died in 1798.[2] Commentary A brave and skillful soldier, Clerfayt perhaps achieved more than any other Austrian commander (except the Archduke Charles of Austria) in the hopeless struggle of small dynastic armies against a French "nation in arms".[2] He was also very popular amongst his own soldiers.[citation needed] Notes 1. ^ His title is also spelled Count of Clairfayt and Count of Clairfait 2. ^ a b c d e f g Chisholm 1911, p. 496. 3. ^ a b Kudrna Smith, "Clerfayt de Croix". References • Kudrna, Leopold; Smith, Digby. "C2 Clerfayt de Croix, (Franz Sebastian) Karl Joseph Graf". A Biographical Dictionary of All Austrian Generals during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars •1792–1815 (with Biographical Essays by

Digby Smith). Napoleon Series website. http://www.napoleonseries.org/research/biographies/Austria/AustrianGenerals/c_AustrianGeneralsC.html#C26. Retrieved August 2011. Attribution • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Clerfayt (or Clairfayt), Francois Sebastien Charles Joseph De Croix, Count of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 496. http://www.archive.org/stream/encyclopaediabrit06chisrich#page/496/mode/1up.cites as a source: o von Vivenot, Alfred (1869). Thugut, Clerfayt, und Würmser. Vienna. Further reading • Ebert, Jens-Florian. "Clerfayt in German"]. http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/clerfayt.html. Retrieved August 2011. • Smith, Digby (1998). The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill. ISBN 1-85367-276-9.

http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/biographies/Austria/AustrianGenerals/c_AustrianGeneralsC.html#C26 Dates of Life Born: Castle Bruille near Binche / Hennegau / Austrian Netherlands, 14.10.1733 Died: Vienna, 21.07.1798 Name Variants (French) François-Sébastien-Charles-Joseph de Croix de Drumez Comte de Clerfayt Promotions Major: 1759 Oberstleutnant: 1761 Oberst: 05.03.1763 Generalmajor: 01.05.1773 (w.r.f. 18.08.1765) Feldmarschalleutnant: 10.04.1783 (w.r.f. 14.04.1783) Feldzeugmeister: 10.11.1788 (w.r.f. 04.11.1788) Feldmarschall: 22.04.1795 Holy Roman Empire: Reichs-Generalfeldzeugmeister: 08.04.17931 Field Service (1792-1815) Commander of the (autonomous) Corps Clerfayt: 07.-10.1792 Interim Commander of the Army of the Netherlands: 11.1792 – 02.1793 Commander of the allied forces during the siege of Le Quesnoy: 28.08. – 13.09.1793 (+) Commander of the allied forces at the battle of Mouscron (Moescroen): 28./29.04.1794 (–) Commander of the Army of the Netherlands: 08.1794 – 04.1795 Commander of the allied forces at the battle of Courtray: 11.05.1794 (–) Commander of the allied forces at the battle of Roulers (Rousselaere): 10.06.1794 (–) Commander of the allied forces at the battle of Hooglède: 13.06.1794 (–) Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Aldenhoven (an der Roer): 02.10.1794 (–) Commander of the Army of the Rhine: 04.1795 – 08.1795 Commander of the Army of the Lower Rhine: 08.1795 – 02.1796 Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Höchst: 11./12.10.1795 (+) Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Mainz: 29.10.1795 (+) Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Pfeddersheim: 10.11.1795 (+) Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria) Order of the Golden Fleece: 1798 Military Maria Theresian Order – CC: 09.10.1789 / GC: 19.12.1790 Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°9: 1775 – 21.07.1798 I.R. Privy Councillor I.R. Chamberlain: 1762 Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries) – (?) Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith) Karl Joseph Graf Clerfayt de Croix joined the Austrian army in 1753. He fought with repeated distinction during the Seven Years War, particularly at the battles of Prague (6 May 1757), Hochkirch (14 October 1758) and Liegnitz on 15 August 1760. At the end of

the war, he was a colonel at only 30 years of age. In 1773 he was promoted to Generalmajor and two years later, in 1775, received the proprietorship of the Infantry Regiment N°9, which office he held until his death. In 1783 Clarfayt was promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant. When Belgian separatists rose up in 1787/88, he resisted their repeated calls to join the rebellion, remaining true to the Emperor. During the wars against the Turks (1787-92) he was promoted to Feldzeugmeister (1788), in recognition of his victories at Mehadia and on 27 July 1788, at Calafat on the Danube. Shortly in succession he was awarded the Commander's Cross (1789) and Grand Cross (1790) of the Military Maria Theresian Order. In April 1792, Clerfayt was given command of the Austrian army, which was to operate on the Rhine with the Duke of Brunswick's Prussians against the French. On 11 June of that year, Clerfayt's troops inflicted the first defeat on the French under GdD JeanBaptiste Gouvion at La Grisuelle. Gouvion was killed in this action. Clerfayt then took the fortresses of Longwy (on 23 August) and Verdun (2 September); he then covered Brunswick's retreat from Valmy (20 September 1792), back to the Rhine. The count was then ordered to move north, into Belgium, to join the country's governor, Albert Herzog von Sachsen-Teschen. He set off on 7 October, reaching Mons on 31 of that month. At Jemappes (6 November 1792) Clairfayt commanded the Austrian centre in their defeat. The Austrians fell back east to Roermond; Clerfayt took over command, when the Duke Albrecht fell ill. He was forced to continue the withdrawal to Köln, as FML Beaulieu's corps had become cut off from his own and had been forced to fall back south into Luxemburg. In the spring of 1793, overall command of Austrian forces opposite the Netherlands was given to FM Friedrich Josias von Sachsen-Coburg; Clerfayt retained command of the major part of the line of battle troops. He surprised the French at Aldenhofen on 1 March and decided the battle of Neerwinden on 18 March. He also commanded one of the assault columns at the battle of Caesar's Camp on 7 August. He then successfully laid siege to the fortress of Le Quesnoy (28 August – 13 September 1793). The Austrians now laid siege to Maubeuge, the last fortress between them and Paris. French General Lazarre Carnot rushed an army together under the levée en masse legislation, to save Maubeuge. On 15 October, Jourdan led this army against Clerfayt's Observation Corps at Wattignies; it was easily beaten off. But next day, Jourdan threw overwhelming forces on the Austrian left wing and Clerfayt was forced to retreat to the Sambre. Maubeuge was saved. In spring 1794, FZM Clerfayit commanded the Austrian right wing in Flanders and successfully beat off all French assaults, until his defeat at Pichegru's hands at Courtray on 11 May. The main Austrian army was now defeated on 26 June; the Prinz of SachsenCoburg was dismissed; Clerfayt took his place, but the strategic situation was now such, that all he could do was to conduct a fighting withdrawal eastwards to Köln, and over the Rhine, which was reached on 2 October. Together with his promotion to Field Marshal Clerfayt was appointed commander of the Austrian army on the Middle and Upper Rhine against General Jourdan, and beat GdD Schaal in the battle of Mainz on 29 October. On 21 December 1795, he concluded an armistice with the French and returned to Vienna. Here, he fell foul of intrigues. His conclusion of the armistice was heavily criticised and he was removed from command. Shortly before his death in 1798 the count was installed as a knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece. Printed Sources Bodart, pp.279, 287, 288, 292, 298, 305, 306 | BU 8, p.433f. | Englebert N°14 | Hirtenfeld 1, p.284ff. | Lorette, Jean: Le Feldmaréchal Comte de Clerfayt (1733-1798). In: Carnet de la Fourragère N°6 (June 1953) and N°7 (Sept. 1953) | MD 7, p.46 | Megerle, p.282f. | MilSchem | Neuhaus, p.342 | ÖMKL 1, p.710ff. | Pickl, p.236 | Reilly, Feldherren, p.417ff. | Schmedes, IR28, p.296 | Vivenot, Alfred von: Thugut, Clerfayt und Wurmser. Original-Documente aus dem k.k. Haus-, Hof- und Staats-Archiv und dem k.k. Kriegs-Archiv in Wien vom Juli 1794 bis Februar 1797, Vienna 1969, p.LXXXIff. and passim | Wrede 1, p.174 | Wrede (6), p.29 | Wurzbach 2, p.384ff. | Zivkovic, Generalität, pp.13, 36 | Zivkovic, Heerführer, p.127 Internet Sources Boettger Ebert (http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/clerfayt.html) Jewison/Steiner Schmidt-Brentano, Generale Notes 1 ) date of the Imperial Kommissionsdekret