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A RESEARCH REPORT ON

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF

GOKUL REFOILS &SOLVENT LTD.


SUBMITTED TO :HEMCHANDRACHARYA NORTH GUJRAT UNIVERSITY, PATAN

SUBMITTED BY :NAME ROLL NO. (12) (36)

GURJAR SHAILESH B. PARMAR KALPESH D. MBA SEM - II

NOOTAN SARVA VIDYALAYA KELVANI MANDAL SANCHALIT - MBA COLLEGE, VISNAGAR

ACADEMIC YEAR : 2007-09

PREFACE

We have to undergo marketing research project for an organization as on subject. After doing a lot of brainstorming We have chosen GOKUL REFOILS & SOLVENT LTD and study it under gone the title of customer satisfaction ". We had gain theoretical knowledge from the business school but in addition with it We also require practical knowledge & skill by this type of marketing research report. We have analyzed the report and came up to the findings that the customers of GOKUL REFOILS & SOLVENT LTD are highly satisfied with its product. In our project , We have studied the level of satisfaction of the customer of GOKUL industries in few cities. For this purpose We have prepaid questionnaire and collected information and made the findings. This project will really help us in building our future and is of great importance to us.

Date :Place :-

Gurjar Shailesh B. Parmar Kalpesh D. MBA Sem - II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Quality is never an Accident it is always the result of an intelligent effect. There must be a will to produce a superior thing. All we need in this world is hard work and confidence and the success is sure. Success is not a one-man phenomenon but it is the result of working together. It was really difficult for us to complete the marketing research project without getting co-operation of certain people. In other words there are so many external thankful who directly or indirectly help us in my marketing research project. First, We are grateful to HOD Dr. Jayashish Sethi who guided us regarding the project content and issues related to it further, We are very much thankful to prof. Rajesh Handa Sir, and prof. Virendra Chavada Sir, for providing their valuable time and guiding to us through the project report. We are very thankful to Mr. K. D. Ravaland Mr.Bipin Raval who gave us permission to doing this marketing research report in their organization and helped us and guided us regarding the sources of information related to particular industries. We are also very thankful to NSVKMS staff especially librarian, who has considered us convenience and gave priority to us.

Gurjar Shailesh B. Kalpesh D. MBA Sem - II

Parmar

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Oil played a very important role in Indian kitchen. Since ancient days oils had its important role. It has played vital role in the preparation of good food and taste, which is incomplete without oils. Oil had brought a great shift in the mind of the housewifes and changes its preference. India is basically in agriculture country and oils are extracted mainly from the agriculture product. Today even, oils had very great demand in the internal market of India . One of the major reasons behind it is its duality, suitability and properties. Other than it use in the kitchen, it is also used in the preparation of many herbal and medicines. So we can say that oil rules the taste and true blend of India. GOKUL industry serves quality oils to their customers. Since last few years preserving its own standards and serving quality oil to its customers and have large contribution in field of quality oil. India is principles source for supply of oils in the global market Rajasthan ,Maharastra and who produce and supply oil to international market. We have done marketing research project of GOKUL industry with the use of questionnaire. We had analyzed the report and made the findings. We have found that companys market share is steadily growing and their customers and increasing. We have also found the company need to increase in the advertisement of thats product.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sr. No.

Contents PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT EXECUTE SUMMARY 1.1 1.2 1.3 INTRODUCTION About industry About the company About the Product OTHER COMPITITORS OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT RESERCH METHODOLOGY

* * *
1

Page no. I II III

2 3 4

INTRODUCTION

ABOUT THE INDUSTRY

Indian society has traditionally been consuming butterfat Desi Ghee prepared from butter by heating, as a cooking medium of choice . However, this product has been in short supply for along time due to numerous reasons. Therefore, the past few decades have witnessed an increasing dependence on the vegetables oil, and product derived from it. Unit the mid-seventies domestics production oils were sufficient to meet 75% of the domestic requirements. A high rate of growth in vegetable oil consumption afterwards due to population growth, increase in per capital income and decrease in real price of vegetable ghee, created a gap between production and demand. The share of imported oil and fat has the been increasing gradually to fill up this gap. Indias oil industry was nationalized and a public sector organization was created to run this industry. Since private sector has been allowed to emerge and grow. Most of the units were under the control of NDDB. At present 80% of the sector is under private being processed. Through some oil mills have acquired ISO 9000 certificate and some are passing through the implementation phase ISO 9000 standard, other still lag far behind. A lot more could be achieved from the occupational health and safety. The management is keep to undertake environment initiatives in many cases. Still, the awareness level in worker and line staff is dismally low, making the implementation of better in house management practice difficult. This However, does not liberate management from the responsibility and the resulting consequence. The oil industry uses a variety of raw oils such as cottonseed oil, RBD soft and hard, polyolefin, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and canola oil. The last five raw materials are used occasionally, either due to the shortage of the soybean supply, or because of specific requirement of the product. Cottonseed oil is refined bleached and deodorized oil with hydrogenation.. Oil processing requires quite and intensive use of energy. It is due to the fact that for different processes and operation, different temperatures have to be maintained . The most common modus operating is to heat up water either to steam , or to higher temperature, and then to transfer the energy contained by this water to the material.

1.2 ABOUT THE COMPANY


NAME OF THE ORGANIZATION :-

Gokul Refoils & Solvent Ltd. Gokul Refoils & Solvent Ltd.
State Highway No 41, Nr. Sujanpur Patia, Sidhpur - 384151. Gujarat. INDIA

COMPANY ADDRESS

:-

BANKERS

:-

State Bank Of India Punjab National Bank Central Bank of India Development Credit Bank Limited Bank of Maharashtra State Bank of Indore State Bank of Travancore Union Bank of India Dena Bank HDFC Bank Bank of India Industrial Development Bank of India Limited

REGISTERED OFFICE (SIDHPUR UNIT)

Gokul Refoils & Solvent Ltd.

State Highway No 41, Nr. Sujanpur Patia,Sidhpur - 384151. Gujarat. INDIA

Phone : +91-2767-222075, 221275 Fax : +91-2767-223475 Email : info@gouklgroup.com


Website: www.gokuloil.com

The Company is registered with Registrar of Companies, Gujarat, Ahmedabad RoC Bhavan, Opp. Rupal Park Society, Behind Ankur Bus Stop, Naranpura, Ahmedabad 380013 Company Registration Number: 04 - 18745
CIN: U15142GJ1992PLC018745

Gandhidham Unit

:-

Gokul Refoils & Solvent Ltd.


89, Meghpar Borichi, Galpadar Road, Nr. Sharma Resort,

TA - Anjar, Dist. Kutch -370110. Gujarat. INDIA

Phone : +91-2836-247078 / 79 Fax : +91-2836-247080 Email : gdham@goulgroup.com SURAT UNIT :-

Gokul Refoils & Solvent Ltd.


Wed Prakash Sing, B-13 Mahalaxmi Housing Society, National Highway No: 8 , Near Joy & Joy Navi Pardi Ta: Kamrej Dist: Surat

CORPORATE OFFICE

:-

Gokul House
43-shreemali co-op. Housing Society LTD, Opp. Shikhar Building, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujrat (India)

Board of Directors

Name, Designation and Occupation Mr. Balvantsinh Rajput Thakkar Chairman & Managing Director Business Mr. Dinesh Sharma Whole-time Director Director Service Mr. Piyushchandra Vyas Independent Director Director Ex Secretary Gujarat Region, Indo American Chamber of Commerce Dr. Rashid Ali Khan Independent Director Ex Chief Director-cum-Edible Oils Commissioner, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Mr. Kanubhai Managing Director Business Dr. Dipuba Devda Independent Service Dr. Dipuba Devda Independent Service Mr. Manish Kella Company Secretary and Compliance Officer GOKUL HOUSE, Ahmedabad

ORGANISATION CHART:

CHAIRMAN

MANAGING DIRECTOR

GENERAL MANAGER

ASSISTANT MANAGER

FINANCE DEPARTMENT

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

MARKETING DEPARTMENT

H.R. DEPARTMENT

SENIOR MANAGER

SENIOR MANAGER

SENIOR MANAGER

SENIOR MANAGER

FINANCE MANAGER

PRODUCTION MANAGER

MARKETING MANAGER

H.R. MANAGER

ACCOUNTING MANAGER

OFFICERS

MARKETING EXECUTIVE

OFFICERS

SUPERVISOR

F.S.R

STAFF

1.3 HISTORY & DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY


Gokul Refoils & Solvent Ltd. Was get up by Mr. Balvantsinh c. Rajput in the 29-12-1992.
When he was passing his S.S.C. examination He thought that every human being should fulfill has employment so he thinks to start his own industry, Then he implement his dream & making industry a Gokul Refoils & Solvent Ltd. He started his plant with small capital. That time, they had six expeller machines but now a day they had twenty expellers machines to run the industry . Thus, the Company achieved the remarkable success no other company has achieved the success till now. First the company was registered with the name Gokul & Oil ltd. But after some time due to increment in profit new 3 plant were added. Thus after this they registration his industry with the new name a Gokul Refoils & Solvent Ltd. ISO 9002 company. IT has gives six two second highest prepared export awards for the year 1997-98,98-99,99-2000,2000-01,01-02,02-03,03-04, it has been awarded there by the association of solvent oil extractor during the year the govt. make the rules that if someone set the industry in south Gujrat, it will provide the facility of free tax policy so Mr. Balvantsinh takes the advantage of the rules& ste-up the new plant in Gandhidham, Surat.

The year 1993 saw the birth of Gokul Refoils & Solvent Ltd. (GRSL), at Sidhdhpur. The history of Gokul is the one of innovation and adventure, of risks taken and bold decisions made. The seeds of this successful corporate conglomerate were sown way back in the 80s by two farsighted men , Balvantsinh Rajput and Kanubhai Thakkar with a vision to lead the industry. The company is mainly engaged in the business of refining vegetable oils including seed procurement, processing, solvent extraction and marketing of edible oils. The present operations of the Company may be broadly categorized under three heads: Trading Manufacturing Marketing The Company, for its trading operations, sources various vegetable oils in either crude or refined form from domestic as well as international markets and sells them in bulk either directly or through brokers. It purchases mustard, rapeseed, groundnut, and sunflower seeds from different local and surrounding markets and imports palmolein and soybean oil from international markets. The total sales of the company is divided in three major areas: Institutional sale Wholesale in tanker loads to different parts of the country. Retail market in packed tins under its trademark GOKUL.

Manufacturing Capacity

Gandhidham Refinery
The capacity of the Gandhidham Refinery per day Refinery I Refinery II Refinery -- III Vanaspati Tin Making Plant The capacity of the Packing Unit per day Tin Packing Plant Pouch Packing Jar/Pet Bottle Packing Vanaspati Tin Packing Vanaspati Pouch Packing 40000 Nos. 20000 Cartons 10000 Cartons 7200 Nos. 4000 Cartons 400 MT 400 MT 100 MT 200 MT 20000 Nos.

The capacity of the Sidhpur Refinery per day Refinery I Refinery II Solvent Extra Seed Crushing Kachhi Gani Tin Making Plant Tin Packing Plant The capacity of the Surat Refinery per day Refinery I Tin Packing Plant 100 MT 5000 Nos. 250 MT 100 MT 600 Tonne 500 Tonne 300 MT 20000 Nos. 20000 Nos.

Quality Policy

GRSL is an ISO 9001:2000 Certified Company. The Quality Assurance Policy of Gokul is an intrinsic part of overall companys management strategy. The company believes in achieving complete customer satisfaction by providing products & services of consistent quality. Strict Quality Control Measures are taken at every step of the refining process to ensure the finest quality. Gokul overseas is our new unit started from Feb 2005. We are following the same standards of GRSL in our new unit Gokul Overseas. We can achieve ISO certificate for GO in short period of time.

Quality Control and Quality Assurance:


Gokul group is following international standards. Our QA & QC ensured good laboratory practices (GLPS). Our Quality Assurance and Quality control department ensure controls at every stage from raw material purchase to finished product dispatch. We will received raw materials from selected vendors only, after reaching raw material to our unit our quality assurance department check the materials for quality, and then certified. Certified material should be unloaded in our godown / tanks. For controlling the processing product parameters, Quality monitoring systems are ensured at all steps. At each and every step of processing our quality control department has good control, to deliver better quality product to our customers. After completion of the process steps finished product checked for the quality. Quality should be checked at the time of storage and at the time of dispatch also. Team work, confident and dedicated technical staff, skilled management and latest technology are the special features of our group. Our QA & QC department has qualified staff and sophisticated analytical equipment like Gas Liquid Chromatography, NMR, Spectrophotometer, Karl Fisher Titrator, Brookfield Viscometer etc., to give quick analysis reports to support the processing people and to improve the quality of our products.

R&D Facilities:
Gokul group has R&D facilities to improve their existing product quality and for new product development. For that we installed poilet plant. Gokul group succeeded in this aspect

Customer Care
Gokul strongly believes that customer satisfaction is the first step for the growth of the organization. We take care of customer by supplying better quality products, delivering the products timely, and by giving technical support to our customers.

Better Quality

Our quality assurance department has qualified staff and technically sound facilities for analyzing the products. The Research and Development department of the company dedicated to the product and process development, and the applications testing. For meeting customer requirements Gokul Following: Selection of better quality raw materials Good laboratory practices Selection of qualified staff Training programmes to improve the skills of employees Good Manufacturing Practices Strictly follows quality monitoring systems Customer feed back Finding solutions

Timely Delivery and Technical Support


We know the needs of customers, and fulfilling their requirements. For customer business development point of view, product to be delivering at right time according to the consignment. Our technical team and R&D department will give support, if you need support at any time in your end product manufacturing or in applications.

PRODUCTS OF COMPANY
The Company is in the following lines of business:

Seed processing and Solvent Extraction

Oil cake Solvent extracted oil De-oiled cake

Refining of crude Edible oil to produce refined


Mustard oil Soyabean oil Sunflower oil Groundnut oil Cottonseed oil Palm oil

Hydrogenation of oil to produce


Vanaspati ghee

Captive power generation plant


Our consolidated total income for the financial years / period ended July 31, 2007, March 31, 2007, 2006 and 2005 was Rs. 657.91 Crores, Rs. 1566.90 Crores, Rs. 1255.76 Crores and Rs. 907.15 Crores,respectively, and our profit after tax for the said years was Rs. 20.70 Crores, Rs. 25.42 Crores, Rs. 12.34 Crores and Rs. 20.05 Crores respectively. Our sales have grown at a CAGR of 39.22% over the Last 5 financial years and our PAT has increased at a CAGR of 39.15% over the last 5 financial years.

IPO GRADING AGENCY


This Issue has been graded by [] as [] (pronounced []), indicating []. The rationale furnished by the credit rating agency for its grading will be updated at the time of filing the Red Herring Prospectus with the RoC.

Authority for the Issue


The present Issue has been authorized by the Board of Directors, in their meeting on August 10, 2007, and by the shareholders of our Company at an extraordinary general meeting held on September 6, 2007.

TERMS OF THE ISSUE


The Equity Shares being issued are subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, SEBI (DIP) Guidelines, our Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association, the terms of this Draft Red Herring Prospectus, the Red Herring Prospectus, the Prospectus, Bid-cum-Application Form, the Revision Form, the

Confirmation of Allocation Note and other terms and conditions as may be incorporated in the Allotment advices and other documents/certificates that may be executed in respect of the Issue. The Equity Shares shall also be subject to laws as applicable, guidelines, notifications and regulations relating to the issue of capital and listing and trading of securities issued from time to time by SEBI, the Government of India, the Stock Exchanges, the RBI, RoC and/or other authorities, as in force on the date of the Issue and to the extent applicable.

Authority for the issue


The Issue has been authorized by a resolution of our Board dated August 10, 2007 and by a special resolution adopted pursuant to Section 81(1A) of the Companies Act, at an extraordinary general meeting of the shareholders of our Company held on September 6, 2007.

Ranking of Equity Shares


The Equity Shares being issued shall be subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, our Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association and shall rank pari-passu in all respects with the existing Equity Shares of our Company including rights in respect of dividend. The Allottees in receipt of Allotment of Equity Shares under this Issue will be entitled to dividends, voting rights and any other corporate benefits, if any, declared by our Company after the date of Allotment

. Mode of Payment of Dividend


The declaration and payment of dividends will be recommended by our Board of Directors and our Shareholders, in their discretion, and will depend on a number of factors, including but not limited to our earnings, capital requirements and overall financial condition. We shall pay dividends in cash and as per the provisions of the Companies Act.

Face Value and Issue Price per Share


The Equity Shares having a face value of Rs. 10/- each are being offered in terms of this Draft Red Herring Prospectus at a price of Rs. []/- per Equity Share. The issue price will be determined by our Company in consultation with the BRLMs on the basis of assessment of market demand for the Equity Shares offered by way of a 100% Book Building Process. At any given point of time there shall

be only one denomination of the Equity Shares of our Company, subject to applicable laws. The Issue Price is [] times the face value of the Equity Shares.

Compliance with SEBI Guidelines


Our Company shall comply with all disclosure and accounting norms as specified by SEBI from time to time.

ISSUE STRUCTURE
Public Issue of 77,00,000 Equity Shares of Rs. 10 each for cash at a price of Rs. [] per Equity Share [including a share premium of Rs. [] per Equity Share] aggregating to Rs. [] Lacs. The Issue comprises a reservation of up to 75,000 Equity Shares for subscription by Eligible Employees and a Net Issue to the Pubic of 76,25,000* Equity Shares. The Net Issue to the Public will constitute 28.91% of the fully diluted post Issue paid-up capital of our Company. The Issue will constitute 29.19% of the fully diluted post Issue paid-up capital of our Company.

For Employees
QIBs

Upto 75,000Equity Shares

Not more than 38,12,500 Equity Shares must be allotted to QIBs.

Non-Institutional Bidders Not less than 11,43,75Equity Shares Retail Individual Bidders Not less than 26,68,750 Equity Shares

1.4 OTHER COMPITITORS


There are large numbers of oil in the market . Before few periods there are few companies in market so that the particulars time few competitions in the market but today large competition in the manufacturing edible oil,. So, Gokul Industry suffered the big competition in the market . In that compaction there are N.K. PROTINS , RANI , ANKUR , MEGH DHARA in all of them which is stable those are not his qualitative product it affordable price with good services In short in the market of edible oil is full with competition and large product of that same product. Competitions in the market in oil are between these companies, which are as under.

N.K. PROTINS RANI ANKUR MEGH DHARA RUCHI SOYA

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

GENERAL OBJECTIVES
To find customer satisfaction for Gokul edible oil in MEHSANA district. We also know about reaction while people go for purchasing oil of any brand. Now days public requires more and more profit of any particulars brand. Now days people wants to get more and more profitability of any brand product. People see directly benefits while go for purchasing . A person wants also the product and availability. So among all the competitors of the particular brand any company have to fight in the market. Company also has to use different type of strategy. So we suggest the company that company should use the different strategy and increase the production in domestic and national market. Companies also define the customer satisfaction and try to satisfy.

OBJECTIVES BEHIND EACH QUESTION


Preferred type oil Preferred quality of oil during the purchasing. Duration of using the mentioned type of oil. Customers satisfaction. Customers perception about the availability of gokul oil. Perception about the availability of gokul oil during a particular time in a year. Perception about the customer about the price of gokul oil. Recommendation to others. Special features in gokul oil. Customers suggestion, other than price reduction.

RESEARCH METHODOLOG Y

RESEARCH DESIGN
Research design is the plan, structure , and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answer to research question and control variance. The definition consists of three important terms plan, structure and strategy. The plan is an outline of the research scheme on which the researcher is to work. The structure of researcher is more specific outline or the scheme and strategy shows how the research will be carried out, specifying the method to be used in the collection and analysis of data.

TYPE OF RESEARCH DESIGN


At the outset may noted that there are several way of studying and tacking a problems. There is no single perfect design. As such, the researcher should not wait unit he arrives a unique and research design. Research designs have being classified by various authors in different ways. Different types of research design have emerged on account of the different perspectives from which a research study can be viewed. However a frequently used classification system is to group research design in three board categories exploratory, descriptive and causal. I have Descriptive cross sectional design.

DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES
Descriptive studies are under taken in many circumstances When the researcher is interested in knowing the characteristic of certain groups such as age, sex, education level or income, a descriptive may be necessary.

There is a general feeling that descriptive studies are very simple. This is not scientific skill on the researcher.

CROSS SECTIONAL DESING:-

A cross sectional study is a concerned with a sample of element from a given population. Thus it may deal household, dealer store or other entities. Data on the number of characteristic from the sample elements are collected and analyzed. Cross sectional studies are of two types Field studies and surveys. Although the distraction between them is not clear cut. There are some practical difference that needs difference techniques and skill.

RESEARCH PLAN:SOURCES OF DATA:Once the researcher has decided the research design, the next job is of data collection needs to be organized so that we can get some pattern and come to logical conclusion. Statistical investigation requires systematic collection of data, so that all relevant groups are represented in data. To determine the potential market for a new product, for example, the researcher might study 500 consumers in a certain geographical area. It must be ascertained that the group contains people representing variables such as income, race education and neighborhood. DEPENDINGUPON THE SOURCES UTILIZED. Whether the data has come from actual observation or from records that are kept for normal purpose, statistical data can be classified in to categories like primary &secondary.

I have used like primary data in my research.

PRIMARYDATA :Primary data is one, which is collected by the investigator himself for the purpose of specific inquiry or study. Such data is original in a character and is generated by individuals or research institution.

RESERCH APPROCH:Basically, there are two approaches in collection of primary data.


Observation and Survey I have used survey in my research. Survey: there are four methods by which data can be collected in a survey. The methods are personal survey, Mail survey, Telephone survey and Computer survey. I have used personal survey for conducting this research.

RESEARCH INSTUMENTS:I have used a structured non disguised questionnaire. Questionnaire constitutes the most prevailing method of information method among the communication method used. Both structure and unstructured questionnaire is used in marketing research. Different scale of measurement can be constructed and used to capture appropriately the strength of audience response. The communication method, in effects, is the method of designing questionnaire with a view to collect the information. The questionnaire can be classified into for main types-( 1 )structure- non disguised ( 2 )structure disguised ( 3 )non structured non disguised and ( 4 ) non structured - disguised. A structured is a formal list of questions framed so as to get the fact. The interviewer asks the question strictly in accordance with a pre arranged order. If, for example, the market researcher is interested in waking the amount of expenditure incurred on different types of clothing I.e. cotton, woolen or synthetic, by different house holds classified according to their income, he may frame a set of question seeking this factual information. if the marketing researcher appoints some interviewer to collect information on his behalf, the interviewers are expected to adhere to the same order in asking the questions as contained in the questionnaire.

A structure questionnaire can be of two types, namely, disguised and non-disguised. This classification is based on whether the object or purpose of the survey is revealed or undisclosed to the respondent. Thus, a structured-non-disguised questionnaire is one where the listing of questions is in a prearranged order and where the object of inquiry is revealed to the respondent.

SAMPLING :Sampling plays a vital in carrying out any marketing research study. There would be hardly any marketing research study, which does not involve the use of sampling backbone of marketing research. A company selling particular brand of toothpaste and interested in knowing what portion of household in Delhi use at brand would involve the selection of sample of household. A market potential study aiming at finding the number, distribution and socioeconomic characteristics of potential customers of a product would define definitely involves the selection of some kind of sample. A company interested in introducing a new style of packing for its product would be interested in knowing the reaction of its customer a study of which would require the selection of some types of sample.

THE SAMPLING PROCEDURE: We now turn to the sampling process. It is the procedure required right from the defining the population to the actual selection elements. There are seven steps involved in this process.

DEFINING THE POPULATION:It has the aggregate of all the elements defined prior to selection of sample. It is necessary to define the population in terms {1}elements,{2}sampling (3) Time. I have conducted the survey of customer PATAN district. The specification are as under. satisfaction of GOKUL Oil in

1 Elements:2 sampling :3. Time :-

Housewives. Household, then Housewives 2 Months

FRAME IDENTIFYINGTHE SAMPLING


The sampling frame should be so selected which consist of almost all the sampling units. Though it is not possible to have one to one correspondence between frame unit and sampling unit, However, we should choose a sampling frame, which field unbiased estimates with variances as low as possible. I have chosen semi-urban and urban viz. Palanpur, Siddhpur. Mehsana as my sampling frame.