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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering


Sri Adichunchanagiri Shikshana Trust
SJB Institute of Technology
BGS Health & Education City,
Uttarahalli Road, Kengeri, Bangalore - 560 060
Ph: 2860 5445/446, Fax: 2860 3651
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual
Subject Code: 10MEL58
Compiled By: MANJUNATH G.A Asst. Professor
&
SRINIVASA RAO.M Foreman
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
SYLLABUS
ENERGY CONVERSION ENGINEERING LABORATORY
Subject Code : 10MEL58 IA Marks: 25
No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Lecture Hrs : 42 Exam Marks: 50
PART - A
(INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENTS)
1) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of lubricating oil using Abel Pensky and
Pensky Martins Apparatus.
2) Determination of Caloric value of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.
3) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Redwoods, Saybolts and Torsion
Viscometers.
4) Valve, Timing/port opening diagram of an I.C. engine (4 stroke/ 2stroke).
5) Use of planimeter. 21 Hours
PART - B
(GROUP EXPERIMENTS)
6) Performance Tests on I.C. Engines, Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC,
FP, heat balance sheet for
a) Four stroke Diesel Engine
b) Four stroke Petrol Engine
c) Multi-cylinder Diesel/Petrol Engine, (Morse test)
d) Two stroke Petrol Engine
e) Variable Compression Ratio I.C. Engine 21 Hours
EVALUATION OF INTERNAL ASSESSMENT MARKS:
Submission of Record Book, Viva Voce, Performance in class - 15 Marks
Lab Internal Test - 10 Marks
--------------------
Total - 25 Marks
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
PART-A
1) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of diesel using Abel Pensky
Apparatus
2) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of lubricating oil using
Pensky Martins
Apparatus
3) Determination of Caloric value of gaseous fuel using BOYS gas
Calorimeter
4) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Redwoods Viscometer
5) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Saybolts Viscometer
6) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Torsion Viscometer
7) Port opening diagram of an 2 stroke petrol engine
8) Valve Timing diagram of 4 stroke Diesel Engine
9) Use of Analog Plani-meter
PART-B
10) Performance Test on Four stroke, Diesel Engine. Calculations of IP, BP,
Thermal
efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet.
11) Performance Test on Four stroke Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP,
Thermal
efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet
12) Performance Test on Multi-cylinder Petrol Engine, (Morse test).
Calculations of IP,
BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet
13) Performance Test on Two stroke Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP,
Thermal
efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet
14) Performance Test on Variable Compression Ratio, 4S Petrol Engine.
Calculations of
IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
Tabular Column:
Sl
No
Weight of
Empty
Flask
(60 ml)
W1 gms
Weight of
Empty
Flask +
60ml Oil
W2 gms
Weight of
60ml Oil
Wgms
Temp
of Oil
C
Time taken
for 60ml
Oil
Viscosity
Saybolt
T sec
Kinematic
Viscosity
Z
k
Centistokes
Absolute
Viscosity
P
Centipoise
1
2
3
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
SAYBOLT VISCOMETER
AIM: To determine the viscosity of the given lubricating oil using Saybolt viscometer.
APPARATUS REQUIRED: Saybolt viscometer, Thermometer, 60cc measuring flask, Stop
clock, Physical balance.
THEORY: The resistance of a fluid to shear sress is the effect of the Viscosity. Viscometer
is the measure of internal assistance of a fluid to shear and indicate its relative resistance
to flow. The absolute or dynamic viscosity is defined as the force required to move a
flash surface of unit area at unit velocity when separated by oil of unit thickness.
=
/
Where = Shear stress between the laminar fluid layers in laminar flow
= Abosolute Viscosity
= Noramal Viscosity gradient
The fundamental unit of is poise, having dimensions of dynes-sec per sq.cms. Since
absolute viscosity is difficult to determine readily, Kinematic viscosity is defined as ratio
of absolute viscosity to mass density. Saybolt viscometer generally applied for
determining the viscosity of the given oil. The objectives of the lubrication are as
follows;
1. To reduce the friction between moving parts to a minimum, so that power
losses reduce.
2. To reduce wear of moving parts.
3. To provide cooling effects.
4. To provide cushioning.
At the time of starting of the engine, the viscosity of the lubricating oil should be
low otherwise the engine may not start. While the engine is running the viscosity
decreases due to increase in temperature.
DESCRIPTION:
Saybolt viscometer consists a standard cylindrical tube provided with a capilary at its
bottom and an outlet tube with a cork stopper. This arrangement is placed within a bath
that can be electrically heated.Using thermometer measure the temperature of oil &
water. It is also as a receiving flask to collect the oil which drained. A stop watch is
required to note down the time required for the time required for the oil to fill in to the
flask up to the mark (i.e, 60 ml)
PROCEDURE:
1. Note down the name of the oil whose viscosity is to be determined.
2. Viscometer tube is cleaned well and closes the drain by rubber cork of viscometer
tube and fill it with the given oil up to the mark & Fill the water in the water bath
tank upto maximum level which surrounds the viscometer tube and close the lid,
place the thermometer for measuring water and oil temperature.
3. Weigh a clean 60 ml flask and keep below the viscometer tube.
4. Connect the heating coil to the electrical supply & set the temperature of water
and oil by operating the heater controller.
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
5. Allow the temperature of water and oil to stabalize say, 40, 50, 60c etc., heat
the water and stir the water thoroughly so that the uniform heating of oil takes
place.
6. Now remove the drain cork, start the stop watch simultaneously, Note down the
time for collecting 60ml of oil, finally weigh the flask with oil and note down the
reading.
7. Repeat the same procedure for different temperatures and tabulate the readings &
calculate the kinematic viscosity, absolute viscosity.
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Type of lubricating oil : SAE 20/40 grade oil
2. Thermometer range : 0 to 600
0
C
3. Room temperature :
4. Initial temperature of oil :
5. Weight of empty flask (60ml) W1 :
6. Weight of flask + 60ml oil W2 :
7. Weight of 60ml (W= W2-W1) :
Formula:
1. Viscosity of oil T = Saybolt sec
2. Specific gravity S = = =
W2W1
3. Kinematic Viscosity
a) Zk = 0.22T 135/T (T>100) Centistokes
Zk = 0.226T 195/T (32<T<100) Centistokes
4. Absolute Viscosity P = Zk Specific gravity Centi Poise.
Graphs:
1. Temperature v/s Viscosity
2. Temperature v/s Kinematic Viscosity
3. Temperature v/s Absolute Viscosity
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
Tabular Column:
Sl
No
Weight of
Empty
Flask
(50 ml)
W1 gms
Weight of
Empty
Flask +
50ml Oil
W2 gms
Weight of
50ml Oil
Wgms
Temp
of Oil
C
Time taken
for 50ml
Oil
Viscosity
RWN
Kinematic
Viscosity
Zk
Centistokes
Absolute
Viscosity
P
Centipoise
1
2
3
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
REDWOOD VISCOMETER
AIM: To determine the viscosity of the given lubricating oil using Saybolt viscometer.
APPARATUS REQUIRED: Redwood Viscometer, Thermometer, 50cc measuring flask,
Stop clock, Physical balance.
THEORY: The resistance of a fluid to shear sress is the effect of the Viscosity. Viscosity of
a liquid is the property by virtue of T the liquid offers resistance to any deforming
force. The viscosity of a liquid is a measure of reluctance of the liquid by shear. Absolute
and kinematic viscosity of given oil is determined by knowing the Redwood number and
seconds.
=
/
Where = Shear sress between the laminar fluid layers in laminar flow
= Abosolute Viscosity
= Noramal Viscosity gradient
The fundamental unit of is poise, having dimensions of dynes-sec per sq.cms.
Since absoulte viscosity is difficult to determine readily, kynamatic viscosity is defined as
the ratios of absolute viscosity to mask density of the fluid. i.e, v = /p. The
fundamental unit is called a stoke. This is a large unit, Centistoke is used.
DESCRIPTION: Redwood viscometer consists of a viscometer tube provided with a
standard jet. This jet can be closed by a ball valve. The tube is surrounded by a water
jacket, which provides a heating arrangement. This cylinder is placed in copper bath. The
bath has a stirrer to distribute the heat, which is supplied by an electric heating coil
disposed in the bath.The temperature of the copper bath and oil is measured by
thermometer. The agate jet in the oil cylinder can be closed by a small ball valve resting
in a hemispherical cavity formed in it. The instrument is supported on a tripod with
leveling screws.
PROCEDURE:
1. Note down the name of the oil whose viscosity is to be determined.
2. Note down the weight of the empty receiving flask & place below the drain of
viscometer tube.
3. Clean the viscometer tube and place the ball at the tp of the jet & close the jet
opening by placing the ball.
4. Fill the given oil in the collecting tank upto the mark in the viscometer tube, close
the cup with given lid and also fill the water in the flask upto the maximum level
which surrounds the viscometer tube.
5. Place the given thermometer to measure water and oil temperaure and stir the
water thoroughly so that the uniform heating of oil takes place.
6. Switch on the heater and set the temperature of water and oil by operating the
heater controller.
7. Allow the temperature of water and oil to stabilize 40,50,60 & lift the ball &
collect the oil in the measuring flask and note down the time for collecting 50ml
of oil.
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
8. Note down the initial weight of flask and also note down the measured value of
the cup with 50 cc of oil.
9. Repeat the same procedure for different temperatures and tabulate the readings &
calculate the kinematic viscosity, absolute viscosity.
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Type of lubricating oil : SAE 20/40 grade oil
2. Thermometer range : 0 to 600
0
C
3. Room temperature :
4. Initial temperature of oil :
5. Weight of empty flask (50ml) W1 :
6. Weight of flask + 50ml oil W2 :
7. Weight of 50ml (W= W2-W1) :
8. S=Specific gravity of oil
9. T=Time taken for collecting 50ml of oil at that temp.
10. 0.935 = Specific gravity of standard oil at NTP.
11. 535 = Reduced sec of standard oil at NTP.
12.100 = Constant.
Formula:
1. Specific gravity S = = =
W2W1
2. Viscosity (RWN) =

.
3. Kinematic Viscosity Zk = 0.247T 50/T (T>100) Centistokes.
Zk = 0.26T 179/T (32<T<100) Centistokes.
4. Absolute Viscosity P = Zk Specific gravity Centi Poise.
Graphs:
4. Temperature v/s Viscosity
5. Temperature v/s Kinematic Viscosity
6. Temperature v/s Absolute Viscosity
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
Tabular Column:
Sl
No
Heating Temperature C Flash Point Fire Point Cooling Temperature C Flash Point Fire Point
1
2
3
4
5
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
FLASH AND FIRE POINT OF A OIL BY PENSKY
MARTINS APPARATUS
AIM: To determine flash and fire point of the given lubrication oil (medium grade oil)
by Pensky Martins Apparatus.
APPARATUS REQUIRED: Pensky Martins Apparatus with electric heater, Thermometer & Oil.
THEORY: The temperature at which the vapours of oil flash when subjected to a naked
flame is known as flash point of the oil. If the container is closed at the time of the test it
is called closed flash point, and if open it is called open flash point.
Fire point is the temperature at which the oil, if once lit with flame, will burn
steadily at least for 5 seconds. This is usually 11
0
C higher than open flash point. Fire and
flash points are good indication of relative flammability of the oil and except for the
safety from fire hazards; they do not have any significance for engine operation.The
flash point of oil defined as the temperature to which oil must be heated to give
sufficient vapours to form a flammable mixture with air. The fire point heated to
produce a vapour air mixture that burns continiously once it has been ignited.
The flash and fire point temperatures depends upon the following properties:
a. Type of oil
b. Rate of heating
c. Air movement over the surface of the oil Means of ignition.
PROCEDURE:
1. Clean the oil cup using cloth and dry it, The given oil is filled upto the mark in
the pensky martin apparatus cup, close the cup then placed in the hole and
insert thermometer into the cup & record the temperature of oil and also
room temperature.
2. Heat the oil slowly and stir it at every 5c rise temperature, a spark is applied
on the top of the hole provided in the apparatus by opening the clip.
3. The temparature t which the vapour of oil catches fire and is seen as flash
gives the flash point.
4. Note down the temperature 2c rise and tested for ignition, the temparture at
which the vapours of oil catch fire and continousburn for at least 5 seconds is
the fire point.
5. Allow the oil to cool further and note down the temperature at which the oil
gives a flash & fir point.
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Flash point of the given oil on heating =
2. Fire point of the given oil on heating =
RESULT: The flash and fire point of the given________oil is ________
0
C and __________
0
C respectively.
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
Tabular Column:
Sl
No
Heating Temperature C Flash Point Fire Point Cooling Temperature Flash Point Fire Point
1
2
3
4
5
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
ABELS FLASH AND FIRE POINT OF A LUBRICATING OIL
AIM: To determine flash and fire point of the given oil by Abels Apparatus.
APPARATUS REQUIRED: Abels apparatus with electric heater, thermometers (2 nos.),
oil.
THEORY: Flash point is the temperature at which a flammable liquid will produce, with
standardized apparatus and procedure, a mixture of its vapour and air, which will ignite
to give a visible flash by contact with an open flame.
Fire point is the temperature at which the flash will sustain itself as a steady
flame for at least five seconds. The flash and fire points indicate the temperature below
which oil can be handled without danger of fire.
DESCRIPTION: the Abels apparatus is used for oils having flash point below 32.2
0
C and
also for oils having flash point in the range 32.2
0
C to 49
0
C. It consists of an oil cup with
a cover. The cover consists of three ports for the introduction of test flame and for
observation. One port at the central portion of the cover and others nears the rim of the
cover. The ports of the cover are opened and closed by sliding lid. The sliding lid has
two holes, one for the central port and other for the side port. The cover of the cup
carries a thermometer and a stirrer. Above the sliding lid, a test lamb is mounted which
can be oscillated by moving lid. It is provided with a jet to contain a wick so that test
flame is formed and applied to the vapour of the oil at the center of the cup. The cup is
mounted on the heating bath, which consists of two co-axial, flat-bottomed cylindrical
vessels and the space between them is used as a water jacket. An electric heater heats the
water jacket.
The flash point of an oil defined as the temperature to which oil must be heated
to give sufficient vapours to form a flammable mixture with air. The fire point heated to
produce a vapour air mixture that burns continiously once it has been ignited.
The flash and fire point temperatures depends upon the following properties:
d. Type of oil
e. Rate of heating
f. Air movement over the surface of the oilMeans of ignition.
PROCEDURE:
1. Clean the oil cup using cloth and dry it, The given oil is filled upto the mark in
the pensky martin apparatus cup, close the cup then placed in the hole and
insert thermometer into the cup & record the temperature of oil and also
room temperature.
2. Heat the oil slowly and stir it at every 5c rise temperature, a spark is applied
on the top of the hole provided in the apparatus by opening the clip.
3. The temperature t which the vapour of oil catches fire and is seen as flash
gives the flash point.
4. Note down the temperature 2c rise and tested for ignition, the temperature
at which the vapours of oil catch fire and continousburn for at least 5 seconds
is the fire point.
5. Allow the oil to cool further and note down the temperature at which the oil
gives a flash & fir point.
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Flash point of the given oil on heating =
2. Fire point of the given oil on heating =
RESULT: The flash and fire point of the given________oil is ________
0
C and __________
0
C respectively.
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl.
No.
Oil temperature,
T in
0
C
Size of
cylinder
Wire
gauge
Circular scale/
Pointer
reading, in
degrees
Redwood
number,
R in sec
(from
graph)
Kinematic
viscosity
in m
2
/sec
1
5
/
8
36
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
TORSION VISCOMETER
AIM: To determine the viscosity of the given oil using torsion viscometer.
APPARATUS: Torsion viscometer, thermometer, given oil.
THEORY: Viscosity influences significantly the ease of handling, transportation and
storage of fuels.
The viscosity of the oil supplied has a direct effect on atomization of oil and hence the
combustion efficiency. Residual oils have high viscosity at ordinary temperature and
needs preheating before atomization. The viscosity of fuel oils decreases as the
temperature rises but it becomes nearly constant above 120
0
C.
The performance of diesel oil depends upon its viscosity. Too low a viscosity
causes excessive leakage at the injection position. However too high a viscosity,
produces coarse oil droplets, which result in the incomplete combustion.
Also the viscosity of the oil increases with the increase of pressure. At a pressure of
70 bar, the increase is about 15%. Almost all the oils begin to solidify at pressure of
3500 bar.
DESCRIPTION: The torsion viscometer consists of torsion head which can hold cylinders
of different sizes by means of a torsion wire. The torsion wire and the released pin hold
the flywheel in horizontal position, which is surrounded by a graduated scale in degree.
A pointer serves as a reference for recording reading in degrees. Different cylinders can
be used with a specified torsion wire.
PROCEDURE:
1. Level the viscometer using leveling screws.
2. Select a particular cylinder and torsion wire based on the manufactures
catalogue.
3. Take the sample of testing oil in an oil cup and immerse the cylinder completely
in the oil. Care must be taken that cup is exactly below the flywheel and no oil is
spilled outside.
4. Now slowly rotate the torsion head till the pointer shows zero.
5. Rotate the flywheel in clockwise direction by exactly one revolution from the
initial zero position so that the pointer shows again zero position. Pin the
flywheel using the release pin.
6. Release the pin and note down the angle turned by the flywheel and note down
the corresponding viscosity value from the chart.
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Type of lubricating oil : SAE 40 grade oil
2. Thermometer range : 0 to 600
0
C
3. Room temperature : _________
0
C
4. Initial temperature of oil : _________
0
C
5. Cylinder size : 1
5
/
8

6. Torsion wire size : 30 SWG


7. Density of the oil : 865 kg/m
3
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
CALCULATIONS:
Kinematic viscosity, m
2
/sec
= . ( ) for 34<R<100
= . ( ) for 100<R<2000
CHARACTERSTICS CURVES:
1. Redwood number Vs Temperature
2. Kinematic viscosity Vs Tmperature
RESULT: The kinematic viscosity of the given oil is ______________ m
2
/sec.
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl.
No.
Shape of
the figure
Position of
the anchor
point
Multipl
ier
M
Constant
C
Initial
reading
I
Final
reading
F
No. of
revolutio
n of disc
N
1
2
OBSERVATION & TABULATION:
Polar Planimeter Linear Planimeter
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
PLANIMETER
AIM: To find the area of regular and irregular figures using planimeter.
APPARATUS: Planimeter, Drawing sheets etc.
THEORY: It is a mechanical integrator used for the measurement of area of figure
plotted to a scale. There are two types of planimeter viz; the tracer arm planimeter and
the rolling planimeter. The most of the methods for determining the areas except
Simpsons rule assume straight rule for boundaries. If such areas are joined to some scale
of a map, there value can be easily formed by planimeter.
The most common type is polar planimeter. The area is computed by utilizing the
relationship between the tracing arm point moved area outline of the figure and the
connecting recording wheel (drum and disk), which records the displacement.
The planimeter essentially consists of two bar hinged together. At the extreme
end on one of the bars is suspended over a middle point or anchor point, which is used
to anchor the bar outside the area to be measured. The other bar known as tracing arm,
as a tracing point at which extreme end. The tracing point is moved as desired about the
middle point. At the other point of the tracing point, there is a roller which rolls on the
surface of the plane on the pointer is moved. Thus, when is used, the planimeter has
three contact points on surface of the plane, the anchor point, the tracing point and the
roller circumference. The roller arm drum circumference is graduated in 100 parts. A
fixed vernier is attached to the roller drum, which reads one by tenth of the drum
division. A disc is also connected to the roller leg, a worm drive, which is graduated in
ten parts. One revolution of the roller, twist the disc through one part. The length is so
designed that the tracing point is move completely around the boundary of the area to
be measured.
PROCEDURE:
a. Fix the figure whose area is to be determined on a smooth surface, preferably on a
horizontal surface.
b. Set the index to read 100 cm on the tracing arm if the area is required in cm
2
.
c. Ix the anchor point either inside or outside the figure such that the tracer is able to trace
the whole boundary of the area.
d. Mark a starting point on the boundary of the figure and place the tracer on the starting
point. Note the initial reading I. Move the tracer slowly along the boundary of the area
in clockwise direction until it comes back to the staring point.
e. The number of times the zero of the dial passes the fixed index mark either in a clockwise
or anticlockwise direction during the above process should be carefully noted. Record the
final reading F. Compute the area and percentage error.
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
CALCULATIONS
a. Area of the figure, A = , ) C 10N I - F M +
Where; M = Multiplier of the planimeter whose value is marked on the
side of the tracing arm.
F = Final reading
I = Initial reading
N = Number of times the disc has passed the fixed point. If the zero
mark of the dial passes in the clockwise direction, use plus sign and if it passes in the
anticlockwise direction use the negative sign.
C = Constant of the planimeter whose value is marked on the top
of the tracing arm. The constant C is to be taken into account only when anchor point is
situated inside the figure.
b. Percentage error, e = 100
A
A A
t
t

.
|

\
|
Where; A
t
= True area in cm
2
A = Measured area in cm
2
RESULT: The area and true area of the given figure is_____________cm
2
and
_____________cm
2
respectively.
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
TABULAR COLUMN:
Trial
No.
Flow rate in LPM Temp. of water Temp. of water Regulator
pressure,
in kg/cm
2
Higher
calorific value
of gas,
in kJ/kg
Water Gas Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet
1
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
CALORIFIC VALUE OF GASEOUS FUEL (BOYS CALORIMETER)
AIM: To determine the higher or gross calorific value of the given gaseous fuel (liquid
petroleum gas).
APPARATUS: Boys gas calorimeter, gas burner attachment, thermometers etc.
THEORY: The calorific value of a gaseous fuel is defined as the quantity of heat
produced by the complete combustion of unit volume of gas at standard pressure and
temperature. It is expressed in kJ/m
3
. In this method, the calorific value of gas is
determined by burning a known quantity of the gaseous fuel. The heat is transferred to
the known quantity of water, which circulates in the copper coil heat exchanger. The
type of heat exchanger used is called counter flow heat exchanger. Also it is assumed
that there is no loss and heat released from the fuel is completely absorbed by the
circulating water.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the gas burner to the main source (cylinder) through pressure regulator
and gas flow meter and keep all the valves closed till all connections are made.
2. Open the tap and allow the cooling water to flow through the coil.
3. Light the burner by opening the regulator and inlet valve.
4. Adjust the regulator and valve so that sufficient flame appears.
5. Adjust the water flow rate to some constant level.
6. When the temperature of outlet water gets stabilized, note down the water flow
rate, pressure gauge reading and gas flow rate.
7. Repeat the above procedure for different flow rates of gas and water.
8. Stop the supply of gas and keep the water circulating for some time so as to cool
the equipment.
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Fuel used for testing : Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
2. Atmospheric pressure, P
a
: 1.01325 kg/cm
2
2. Density of fuel,
g
: 0.0012 kg/litre (at NTP)
3. Specific heat of water,C
pw
: 4.187 kJ/kg
4. Inlet temperature of waterT
1
: ___________
0
C
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
CALCULATIONS:
Neglecting minor losses, the energy balance equation is that heat released by
gaseous fuel is equal to the heat absorbed by water .
i.e. =
The heat released by fuel, =
The heat absorbed by water, = ( )
Therefore, = ( )
=
( )

The calorific value of the gas = ____________ kJ/kg


CONCLUSION: The higher or gross calorific value of the given fuel sample is found to
be ____________ kJ/kg.
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
Figure: Port Timing diagram of 2 Stroke Petrol Engine
INLET PORT: Through which mixture of fuel and air enters the crank casing.
EXHAUST PORT: Through which the burnet (exhaust) gas exits
TRANFER PORT: Through which air and fuel mixture enters the cylinder head
OBSERVATION & RESULTS:
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SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
PORT TIMING DIAGRM
(Cut section petrol engine)
AIM: To draw port timing diagram for a given 2stroke petrol engine.
THEORY: In this type of engines, ports which take charge of air and fuel mixture and
removes exhaust from the cylinder itself, by virtue of position of piston. When piston
moves inside the cylinder it closes & opens ports. In two stroke engines one revolution
of crankshaft completes one cycle. Figure shows the timing diagram for a two-stroke
cycle engine. It consists of a circle upon which are marked the angular positions of the
various cycle events. The diagram is for a vertical engine; for a horizontal engine the
diagram would appear on its side. With the two strokes cycle the inlet and exhaust ports
open and close at equal angles on either side of the BDC position. This is because the
piston in this type of engine is also the inlet and exhaust valve, so port opening and
closing will occur at equal angles on either side of the dead center position. Angles
shown are representative only.
PROCEDURE:
1. Fix a reference pointer on the body of the engine near the flywheel, Identify the ports.
2. Find out the direction of rotation of the crank shaft.
3. Mark the TDC position and BDC position on the flywheel.
4. Mark the opening and closings of the inlet, Exhaust and Transfer ports.
5. Using the protractor fixed on the flywheel, find out the angular position of the piston
6. Name the events IPO, IPC, EPO, EPC, TPO, and TPC.
RESULT: Draw the port timing diagram.
25
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
Actual Valve Timing Diagram (Four Stroke Diesel Cycle Engine)
26
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM
AIM: To draw valve timing diagram for given engine and calculate different periods.
THEORY: In a four stroke engine opening and closing of valves and fuel injection do not
take place exactly at the end of dead center positions. The valves open slightly earlier
and close after that respective dead center position .The fuel injection also occurs prior
to the full compression ie before the piston reaches the dead centre position. Both the
valve operates at some degree on either side in terms of crank angle from dead centre
position. When an intake valve opens before top dead center and the exhaust valve
opens before bottom dead center, it is called lead. When an intake valve closes after
bottom dead center, and the exhaust valve closes after top dead center, it is called lag.
On the exhaust stroke, the intake and exhaust valve are open at the same time for a few
degrees around top dead center. This is called valve overlap.
PROCEDURE:
1. Rotate flywheel freely by hand, fix a reference point on the body of the engine near
the flywheel
2. Now while rotating, observe piston at TDC (Top dead Centre) and mark with chalk
on flywheel with reference to the point
3. Similarly by rotating, mark the position of bottom dead center (BDC). It is to be
observed that it takes to rotation of flywheel to complete one cycle of operation. (One
cycle is suction, compression, power & exhaust strokes)
4. Now identify inlet and exhaust valves.
5. Find out direction of rotation of flywheel (crank shaft)
6. Bring flywheel to TDC position (pointer).
7. Go on rotating flywheel slowly and observe position (functioning) of both the valves.
8. Now observe when inlet valves opens mark it on flywheel (inlet valve open (IVO)
9. Slowly rotate flywheel, and observe when inlet valve closes (IVC)
10. Rotate further observe when exhaust valve opens (EVO)
11. Rotate further & observe when exhaust valve closes (EVC).
12. Using the protractor fixed on the flywheel, find out the angular position of the piston
13. Name the events IVO, IVC, EVO, EVC,
14. Then draw spiral diagram with data in marking on flywheel.
RESULT: Plot the Valve Timing Diagram on graph sheet, show Angle of overlap.
27
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
TABULAR COLUMN:
Sl
No
Voltmeter
Reading
(V)
Volts
Ammeter
Reading
(I)
Ampere
Speed
in
RPM
Time
for
10ml of
fuel
supply
(t) in
sec
Temperature in
o
C Air flow
reading
in mm
of
water
h
m
Electrical
load
connected
in watts
Air
inlet
Exhaust
Air
T1 T2
28
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
2-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER AIR COOLED PETROL ENGINE
AIM: To conduct performance test on 2 strokes, single cylinder petrol engine.
APPARATUS REQUIRED: 2 stroke, single cylinder petrol engine test rig, Stop watch, etc.
THEORY: Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical work.
Engine performance is an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its
assigned job, i.e. the conversion of the chemical energy in to the useful work. The degree
of success is compared on the basis of 1) specific fuel consumption 2) brake mean
effective pressure 3) specific power output 4) Specific weight etc. The engine
performance can be obtained by running the engine at constant speed for variable load
by adjusting the throttle.
PROCEDURE:
1. Check the petrol in the petrol tank and keep the gear lever in neutral position.
a. Start the engine by using kick start. Choose the top gear and set the engine
speed to 650 rpm, make it constant by using the accelerator.
2. Apply load on the engine by operating the electrical loading switches of the alternator
in steps. Use accelerator to engine speed to 650rpm, allow some time so that speed
stabilizes.
3. Keep the speed constant and note down the
b. Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption.
c. Voltmeter and ammeter readings
d. Monometer reading
e. Speed of the engine
f. Temperature of inlet air and exhaust gas
4. Repeat the experiment for different loads
5. Tabulate the readings and calculate the brake power, heat input, air-fuel ratio, specific
fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency.
6. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, SFC V/S BP and Brake Thermal Efficiency V/S BP
SPECIFICATIONS:
Bore (D) = 57mm
Stroke (L) = 57mm
Orifice diameter (d) = 12mm
Compression ratio: 7.4: 1
Cylinder capacity: 150CC
29
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
OBSERVATIONS:
Water density,
w
: 1000 kg/m
3
Calorific value of petrol, C
V
: 47,500 KJ/kg
Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec
2
Petrol density,
p
: 750 Kg/m
3
FORMULAE USED:
. =

/
Where, is density of petrol= 750 kg/m
3
t is time taken for10cc of fuel consumption in sec
Therefore ( ) = in Kg/Hr
2. Brake Horse Power (BHP)/ =

in KW
Where,
V = Voltmeter reading
I = Ammeter reading

g
= Efficiency of Generator = 0.75
. ( ) = in Kg/KW Hr
. = in KW
6. Brake thermal efficiency
bth
=
7. = . .
Where Ao= Area of the Orifice in m
2
=
= 2 ( ) ( )
=
Where, = Density of air in Kg/m
3
P = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x10
5
N/m
2
R = Real gas constant = 287 J/Kg
o
K
= Room temperature
= Manometer Reading in m
=
.
( )
Kg/m3
. =
30
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
READINGS RECORDED:
Sl.
No.
Spring
balance
force in
'kg'
Engine
speed
in
'RPM'
Water
meter
readin
g in
'sec'
Fuel
consum
ption in
'sec'
Mano
meter
readin
g in
'mm'
Temperature
F1 F2
Air
inlet
T1
Engine
water
inlet
T2
Engine
water
outlet
T3
Calori
meter
water
inlet'T4'
Exhaust
gas
inlet
T5
Exhaust
gas
outlet
T6
1
RESULTS CALCULATED:
Sl.
No.
Fuel
consumption
in
'Kg/min'
Air
consumed
in
'Kg/min'
Air fuel
ratio
BP in
'Kw'
SFC in
'Kg/ KW
Hr'
,
in 'Kw'
1
31
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE
AIM: To conduct a performance test on a single cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine and
analyses its performance characteristic curves.
APPARATUS: A Diesel engine test rig, a stopwatch etc.
THEORY: Diesel engine works on the principle of diesel cycle or constant pressure heat
addition cycle. It comprises of suction, compression, working and exhaust strokes.
1. Suction stroke: During this, piston moves from BDC to TDC. Due to suction
pressure inside the cylinder, inlet valve is opened and exhaust valve closes and fresh air
enters to the cylinder. When the piston is at BDC, the cylinder consists full volume of air.
For movement of the piston energy will be supplied by the flywheel, which is stored by
it during working stroke of previous cycle.
2. Compression stroke: During this stroke, piston moves from BDC to TDC. The
inlet and exhaust valves are closed at this position. When the piston moves upward, the
air gets compresses and its pressure and temperature rises. The flywheel supplies the
energy for the upward movement of the piston. The ratio of compression ranges from
20 to 22. At the end of the compression, diesel is sprayed over the hot air and
combustion of air fuel mixture takes place.
3. Working/Power stroke: Due to burning of air fuel mixture, large quantity of
high pressure hot gases is produced. These hot gases push the piston to move
downward. Some quantity of energy is utilized for this piston movement. Remaining
energy will be stored in the flywheel. At the end of this stroke, exhaust gases are let out
to the atmosphere. This will affect a sudden drop of pressure inside the cylinder.
4. Exhaust stroke: During the stroke, the exhaust valve is opened and inlet valve is
closed. The piston moves from BDC to TDC. Due to the upward movement of the
piston the gases present in the cylinder comes out and escapes to atmosphere. Flywheel
supplies the energy for the piston movement.
DESCRIPTION: The experiments were conducted on a four stroke diesel engine coupled
to a Rope dynamometer. All the tests were conducted for different loads viz; no load,
25%, 50%, 75%, 100% load. The quantity of airflow into the engine cylinder is
measured using air box fitted with an orifice plate. The burette with a three-way
stopcock is used for the measurement of fuel flow rate on volumetric basis. The different
temperature and speed of the engine is displayed on the digital temperature indicator
and digital rpm indicator respectively. The readings are taken after 10min, which is
needed for the engine to reach the steady state. The specifications of the engine are
shown in table 1.
Table 1: Specification of engine
Type Four stroke, vertical, water cooled,
Compression Ignition Engine
Speed 1500 rpm
Brake Power 5 HP (3.75 KW)
Bore diameter 80 mm
Stoke length 110 mm
Compression ratio 16.5:1
PRECAUTIONS:
32
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
1. Check the fuel level.
2. Check the lubricating oil level
3. Check the cooling water distribution to the engine and brake drum
4. Open all the three way cocks.
5. Keep the engine in NO LOAD condition before starting.
6. Run the engine at NO LOAD before stopping the engine.
PROCEDURE:
1. Open the fuel and ensure no air is trapped in the fuel line connecting fuel tank
and engine.
2. Zero load is applied to the engine using Rope dynamometer
3. Start the engine by cranking and ensure the rated speed at this zero load.
4. Again the speed of the engine is noted.
5. The time for 20cc of fuel consumption is noted with the manometer and a
stopwatch.
6. For measurement of airflow, the manometer reading is used.
7. The corresponding temperatures are noted by turning the temperature switch.
8. Next load is applied to the engine by adding more weights on the dynamometer.
9. The steps 4 to 7 are repeated until readings for all the loads are taken.
10. Zero loads is applied to the engine before stopping.
11. The engine is stopped only after it is made to run at zero load.
12. Close all the water and fuel supply valves connected to the engine.
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Fuel used : Diesel
2. Calorific value of fuel, C
v
: 43000 KJ/kg
3. Specific gravity of fuel : 850Kg/m
3
4. Diameter of the orifice, d : 15 mm
5. Coefficient of discharge,C
d
: 0.62
6. Generator efficiency,
gen
: 80%
7. Diameter of Brake drum,d
o
: 0.27 m
8. Diameter of rope, d
r
: 0.012 m
33
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
CALCULATIONS:
. , =

/
Where, is density of petrol= 850 kg/m
3
t is time taken for10cc of fuel consumption in sec
Therefore ( ) = in Kg/Hr
. , = . .
Where Ao= Area of the Orifice in m
2
= d= Diameter of Orifice =15mm
= 2 ( ) ( 1)
Where = Densi t y of w at er = 1000 Kg/ m
= Densi t y of ai r = 1.29 Kg/ m
= Manomet er Readi ng i n m
. =
. , =
( ) .

i n KW
Where N= Speed Of the Engine in RPM
F
1
& F
2
= Force on Spring Balance in Kg
R= Radius of Brake Drum=0.19 in m
. , = in Kg/ KW Hr
. , = in KW
. , =
34
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
HEAT BALANCE SHEET ON MINUTE BASIS
1. Heat supplied in fuel,
= Fuel consumed Cal or i i c val ue of di esel
2. Heat carried away by engine head cooling water,
= ( )
Where = kg/ s
= = 4.18 k J/ kg K
3. Heat carried away by exhaust gas calorimeter water,
= ( )
Where = kg/ s
= = 4.18 k J/ kg K
4. Heat carried away by exhaust gases,
= ( )
Where = + /
= = . /
5. Heat equivalent of break power, BP
=
6. Radiation & unaccounted (By difference),
= ( + + + )
CHARACTERSTIC CURVES
1. Brake thermal efficiency (
bth
) V/s Brake power (BP)
2. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) V/s Brake power (BP)
3. Volumetric efficiency (
vol
) V/s Brake power (BP)
4. Total fuel consumption (TFC) V/s Brake power (BP)
5. Indicated thermal efficiency (
ith
) V/s Brake power (BP)
35
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
READINGS RECORDED:
RESULT CALCULATED:
Sl.
No
Compr
ession
Ratio
Speed
in
Rpm
Manomet
er reading
in 'mm'
Fuel
consumption
in 'sec'
Time for 20
cc of fuel
consumption
Voltage Current
Temperature
Air inlet
Calorimeter Exhaust gas
Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Sl.
No.
Fuel
consumption
in
'Kg/min'
Air
consumed
in
'Kg/min'
Air fuel
ratio
BP in
'Kw'
SFC in
'Kg/ KW
Hr'
,
in 'Kw'
1
36
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
VCR PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG
AIM: To conduct a performance test on a single cylinder Four Stroke Petrol Engine and
analyse its performance characteristic curves.
APPARATUS: A Petrol engine test rig, a stopwatch etc.
THEORY: The four stroke petrol engine works on the principle of Otto cycle. In this
the mixture of air and fuel are drawn in the engine cylinder through the carburetor and
ignited with the help of a spark plug. Hence, it is called spark ignition engines.
The various strokes of a four stroke cycle engine are as explained below;
1. Suction stroke: The piston moves from TDC to BDC, the inlet valve opens and
proportionate fuel- air mixture is sucked in the cylinder. Exhaust valve remains
closed.
2. Compression stroke: The piston moves towards TDC and compresses the
enclosed fuel-air mixture in the engine cylinder. The pressure of the mixture
rises in the cylinder and just before the end of this stroke the spark plug ignites
a spark, which ignites the mixture, and combustion takes place at constant
volume. Both the valves remain closed during the stroke.
3. Expansion or Working stroke: Due to combustion hot gases are produced that
forces the piston from TDC to BDC and thus works is obtained. Both the
valves remain closed during the start of this stroke but when the piston just
reaches the BDC the exhaust valve opens.
4. Exhaust stroke: The removal of burn gases is accomplished during this stroke.
The piston moves from BDB to TDC and the exhaust gases are driven out of
the engine cylinder; this is also called as scavenging.
DESCRIPTION: The experiments were conducted on a four stroke petrol engine coupled
to a D.C.Generator. All the tests were conducted for different loads viz; no load, 25%,
50%, 75%, 100% load. The quantity of airflow into the engine cylinder is measured
using air box fitted with an orifice plate. The burette with a three-way stopcock is used
for the measurement of fuel flow rate on volumetric basis. The different temperature
and speed of the engine is displayed on the digital temperature indicator and digital rpm
indicator respectively. The readings are taken after every 10 min, which is needed for the
engine to reach the steady state. The specifications of the engine are shown in table 1.
Table 1: Specification of engine
Type Four stroke, vertical, Air cooled, Spark Ignition Petrol
Engine
Speed 3000 rpm
Brake Power 2.5 HP (1.84 KW)
Bore diameter 70 mm
Stoke length 66.7 mm
Maker MK-25 Crompton Greaves
Compression ratio 4.65
Swept volume
256.56cm
2
37
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Check the fuel level.
2. Check the lubricating oil level
3. Check the cooling water distribution to the engine and brake drum
4. Open all the three way cocks.
5. Keep the engine in NO LOAD condition before starting.
6. Run the engine at NO LOAD before stopping the engine.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the panel instrumentation input to power line at 230V 50Hz single-
phase power source.
2. Open the fuel and ensure no air is trapped in the fuel line connecting fuel tank
and engine.
3. Keep the change over switch in OFF position.
4. Start the engine using the rope and ensure the rated speed at this zero load.
5. The voltage and current readings are recorded for this particular load.
6. Again the speed of the engine is noted.
7. The time for 20cc of fuel consumption is noted with the manometer and a
stopwatch.
8. For measurement of airflow, the manometer reading is used.
9. Now the changeover switch is operated to the position 1 for the purpose of
loading the engine.
10. Next load is applied to the engine by switching ON the load switch.
11. The steps 4 to 8 are repeated until readings for all the loads are taken.
12. Now, engine is made to run at zero load by turning the all the loading
switches to OFF position and the change over switch to OFF position.
13. The engine is stopped only after it is made to run at zero load.
14. Close all the water and fuel supply valves connected to the engine.
OBSERVATIONS:
1. Fuel used : Gasoline (Petrol)
2. Calorific value of fuel, C
v
: 40000 kJ/kg
3. Specific gravity of fuel : 0.78
4. Diameter of the orifice, d : 0.012m
5. Coefficient of discharge,C
d
: 0.62
6. Generator efficiency,
gen
: 70%
38
SJB Institute of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
CALCULATIONS:
. , =

/
Where, is density of petrol= 750 kg/m
3
t is time taken for10cc of fuel consumption in sec
Therefore ( ) = in Kg/Hr
. , = . .
Where Ao= Area of the Orifice in m
2
= d= Diameter of Orifice =12mm
= 2 ( ) ( )
Where = Densi t y of w at er = 1000 Kg/ m
= Densi t y of ai r = 1.29 Kg/ m
= Manomet er Readi ng i n m
. =
. , =

i n KW
. , = in Kg/ KW Hr
. , = in KW
. , =
CHARACTERSTIC CURVES
1. Brake thermal efficiency (
bth
) V/s Brake power (BP)
2. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) V/s Brake power (BP)
3. Volumetric efficiency (
vol
) V/s Brake power (BP)
4. Mass of fuel consumption (m
f
) V/s Brake power (BP)
5. Indicated thermal efficiency (
ith
) V/s Brake power (BP)