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You are on page 1of 9

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Chapter - 3

Design of Rectangular Beams and One-way Slabs

12

b=12 h

Prof. Mohammed E. Haque, Ph.D., P.E. Rectangular Beams and One-way Slabs

Page 2 of 9

Two Methods: 1. Allowable stress design or working stress design (WSD) 2. Strength Design or Ultimate-strength design (USD)

With strength design method, the working dead load (DL) and live load (LL) are multiplied by certain load factors (equivalent to safety factors), and the resulting values are called FACTORED LOADS. According to ACI 318-02: Factored load, U=1.4DL ; U = 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL U = 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL + 0.8 W; U=1.2DL +1.0 LL + 1.6 W U = 0.9 DL + 1.6 W (Where, W= wind load) Similarly for other loads combinations.

= 0.90 for bending in reinforced concrete = 0.75 for shear and torsion = 0.65 for bearing on concrete

A beam that has a balanced steel ratio is one for which the tensile steel will theoretically start to yield and the compression concrete reach its ultimate strain (0.003) at exactly the same load.

Under-reinforced Beams

If a beam is under-reinforced and the ultimate load is approached, the steel will begin to yield even though the compression concrete is still under-stressed (strain < 0.003).

Over-reinforced Beams

If a beam should be over-reinforced, the steel will not yield before compression concrete failure (concrete strain = 0.003). Over-reinforcing is a situation to be avoided if at all possible, and the ACI code, by limiting the percentage of tensile steel that may be used in a beam, ensures the design of under-reinforced beams and thus the ductile type of failures that provide adequate running time.

Prof. Mohammed E. Haque, Ph.D., P.E. Rectangular Beams and One-way Slabs

Page 3 of 9

fc c C a T 0.85 fc C

T As b Actual Stress

a = 1c

Where 1 = 0.85 for fc 4,000 psi, and decreases by 0.05 for every 1,000 psi above 4,000 psi. 1 cannot be less than 0.65

C=T 0.85 fc x a x b = As x fy a = (As x fy)/( 0.85 fc x b) a = ( x fy x d)/( 0.85 fc), where steel ratio, = As/(b x d)

Because the reinforcing steel is limited to an amount such that it will yield before the concrete reaches its ultimate strength, the nominal moment, Mn can be written as:

The usable flexural strength or design strength, Mn is

Prof. Mohammed E. Haque, Ph.D., P.E. Rectangular Beams and One-way Slabs

Page 4 of 9

c = 0.003

c d NA

A 0.003

B As

y = fy/Es

Strain Diagram

C 0.003 + fy/Es

The NA is located by the triangular strain relationships, and is obtained by evaluating the similar triangles (ABE and EDF), and is AB/EF = AE/DF c / d = 0.003/[0.003 + fy/Es] Since, Es = 29 x 106 psi

Since a = ( x fy x d)/( 0.85 fc) Therefore, c = a/ 1 = ( x fy x d)/( 0.85 1 fc) = 87,000 d / [87,000 + fy] Since, this is a balanced steel ratio b condition, change by b Therefore, balanced steel ratio,

Prof. Mohammed E. Haque, Ph.D., P.E. Rectangular Beams and One-way Slabs

Page 5 of 9

An over-reinforced beam will fail in a brittle manner while an under-reinforced beam will fail in a ductile manner. To attempt to make sure that only ductile failures can occur the ACI code limits the maximum steel ratio as following:

Minimum permissible steel ratio, min

If the ultimate resisting moment of a beam section is less than its cracking moment capacity, the beam section will fail immediately when a crack occurs. ACI provides a minimum steel ratio, min

Minimum slab thickness: Use TABLE 9.5(a) of ACI 318/318R-97 Example-1: One-way simply supported slab, Span length, L= 10 ft.; Normal weight concrete (unit weight = 145 pcf), 60 Grade steel, fy = 60,000. Minimum slab thickness, h = L/20 = 10 x12/20 = 6. [Note: L=span length in inches]. Example-2: One-way simply supported slab, Span length, L= 10 ft.; Normal weight concrete (unit weight = 145 pcf), 40 Grade steel, fy=40,000 psi. Minimum slab thickness, h = L/20 x [0.4 + fy/100,000] = 10 x12/20 [0.4 + 40,000/100,000] = 6 x 0.8 = 4.8. [Note: L=span length in inches].

By: Mohammed E. Haque, Ph.D., P.E. d= b= As 20 in 16 in 4.74 sqin fc' = fy = 3 ksi 60 ksi

d As = As/(b.d) = b

0.01481

FROM TABLE A-5 (Page 462) max= 0.0160 min= 0.0033 N NOT ACCEPTED - ACI CODE 0

<= max

Y

>= min

Y

352.04 k-ft 391.150725

1 = 0.85 for fc 4,000 psi, and decreases by 0.05 for every 1,000 psi above 4,000 psi. 1 cannot be less than 0.65; 1 =

Put fc' & fy in psi (NOT IN KSI)

0.85

max = 0.75 b

0.0160 0.0033

min = 3fc / fy

>= 200/fy =

Mohammed E. Haque, Ph.D., P.E.

Select (values in between max and min), and find d. d = Mu /[ f y b{1 (0.59 fy/fc)}]

Select d, and find. Check min <= <= max. If not, select another d, and repeat.

Method 1 Calculate Look at Tables A-7 through A-11, and find

USE Course Website Tables 5 through 8

EXAMPLE

k = Mu / [ b d2 ]

Method 2 Mu = fy b d2 [1 (0.59 fy/fc)] Solve the quadratic equation of . You will get two values of . Accept the value of which satisfies min <= <= max . If none of the values satisfies, you need to change d.

Mohammed E. Haque, Ph.D., P.E.

k = M u / [ b d 2 ]

Table A-7 through A-11

Course website Table 5 thru 8

Find

N

Select main reinforcemen t same as the Shrinkage & Temperature

m in <= <= m ax

Y

Calculate

As = b d

Select bar size and spacing Check: Bar spacing. Max. Bar spacing <=3h and <=18"

Calculate shrinkage and temperature steel: Ash min = 0.0018 b h (for grade 60 steel) Ash min = 0.002 b h (for grade 40 & 50 steel)

Select bar size and spacing Check: Shr & Temp Bar spacing. Max. Bar spacing <=5h and <=18"

Draw the slab, and lebel all the reinforcement sizes and spacings

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