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GEODETIC ASTRONOMY
D. B. THOMSON
December 1981
TECHNICAL REPORT
NO. 217
LECTURE NOTES
49
INTRODUCTION TO GEODETIC
ASTRONOMY
Donald B. Thomson
Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering
University of New Brunswick
P.O. Box 4400
Fredericton, N .B.
Canada
E3B 5A3
September 1978
Reprinted with Corrections and Updates December 1981
Latest Reprinting January 1997
PREFACE
In order to make our extensive series of lecture notes more readily available, we have
scanned the old master copies and produced electronic versions in Portable Document
Format. The quality of the images varies depending on the quality of the originals. The
images have not been converted to searchable text.
PREFACE
These notes have been written for undergraduate students
in Surveying Engineering at the University of New Brunswick. The
overall objective is the development of a set of practical models
for the determination of astronomic azimuth, latitude and longitude
that utilize observations made to celestial objects. It should be
noted here that the emphasis in these notes is placed on the so
called secondorder geodetic astronomy. This fact is reflected
in the treatment of some of the subject matter. To facilitate
the development of models, several major topics are covered, namely
celestial coordinate systems and their relationships with terrestrial
coordinate systems, variations in the celestial coordinates of a
celestial body, time systems, timekeeping, and time dissemination.
Finally, the reader should be aware of the fact that much
of the information contained herein has been extracted from three
primary references, namely Mueller [1969], Robbins [1976], and
Krakiwsky and Wells [1971]. These, and several other's, are referenced
extensively throughout these notes.
D.B. Thomson.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE ••••
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
1. INTRODUCTION • • • • •
1.1 Basic Definitions
2. CELESTIAL SYSTEMS
2.1
2.2
The Celestial Sphere • • • • •
Celestial Coordinate Systems • • • • • • •
2.2.1 Horizon System ••••••••••••.
2.2.2 Hour Angle System •••••••••
2.2.3 Right Ascension System • • •••
2. 2. 4 Ecliptic System • • • •
2. 2. 5 Summary • • • • • • • •
Page
ii
v
vi
1
2
2.3 Transformations Amongst Celestial Coordinate Systems •
2.3.1 Horizon Hour Angle •••••
14
14
20
20
23
26
29
32
34
36
42
44
47
47
50
59
61
64
2.4
2.3.2 Hour Angle  Right Ascension •
2.3.3 Right Ascension Ecliptic ••
2.3.4 Summary •••••••
Special Star Positions
2.4.1 Rising and Setting of Stars
2.4.2 Culmination (Transit)
2.4.3 Prime Vertical Crossing •
2.4.4 Elongation •••••••
3. TIME SYSTEMS
3.1 Sidereal Time ••••••
3.2 Universal (Solar) Time •••
3.2.1 Standard(Zone) Time
3.3 Relationships Between Sidereal and Solar Time Epochs
and Intervals • • • • • • •
3.4 Irregularities of Rotational Time Systems •
3.5 Atomic Time System •••••
67
75
80
80
93
93
4. TIME DISSEMINATION, TIMEKEEPING, TIME RECORDING . . . . 95
4.1 Time Dissemination • • • ••
4.2 TimeKeeping and Recording •
4.3 Time Observations ••••
5. STAR CATALOGUES AND EPHEMERIDES
5.1 Star Catalogues ••••
. 5.2 Ephemerides and Almanacs ••
iii
. . .
• • • • 95
99
• ••• 100
• • • 106
• 108
6. VARIATIONS IN CELESTIAL COORDINATES· • • • • • • • • • •
6.1 Precession, Nutation, and Proper Motion•
6.2 Annual Aberration and Parallax ••••••••••
6.3 Diurnal Aberration, Geocentric Parallax, and
Astronomic f' .. • • • • • • • •
6.4 Polar Motion •••••••••••••
Page
117
118
127
134
138
7. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC AZIMUTH
. . . . . . . . 147
7.1 Azimuth by Star Hour Angles ••
7.2 Azimuth by Star Altitudes
8. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LATITUDE •
8.1 Latitude by Meridian Zenith Distances ••
8.2 Latitude by Polaris at any Hour Angle· •
9. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LONGITUDE. • •
9.1 Longitude by Meridian Transit Times• •
REFERENCES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
APPENDIX A Review of Spherical Trigonometry ••
APPENDIX B Canadian Time Zones
148
154
163
164
165
170
• 172
• 175
176
183
APPENDIX C Excerpt from the Fourth Fundamental Catalogue
(FK4) • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • . • • • 184
APPENDIX D Excerpt from Apparent Places of Fundamental
Stars • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 186
iv
LIST OF TABLES
Table 21 Celestial Coordinate Systems [Mueller, 1969] . • 33
Table 22 Cartesian Celestial Coordinate Systems [Mueller, 1969] 33
Table 23 Transformations Among Celestial Coordinate Systems
[Krakiwsky and Wells, 1978J .
Table 61 Description of Terms • .
Table 71 Azimuth by Hour Angle:Random Errors in Latitude 60°
[Robbins, 1976]
Table 72 Azimuth by Altitude: Random Errors in Latitude 60°
[Robbins, 1976] ••••••
v
49
133
155
158
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 11 Biaxial Ellipsoid • . • • • • 4
Figure 12 Geodetic Latitude, Longitude, and Ellipsoidal Height 5
Figure 13 Orthometric Height
Figure 14 Astronomic Latitude and Longitude (A)
6
8
Figure 15 Geoid Height & Terrain Deflection of the Vertical • . . 9
Figure 16 Components of the Deflection of the Vertical 10
Figure 17 Geodetic Azimuth • •
Figure 18 Astronomic Azimuth
Figure 21 Cele,stial Sphere ••
Figure 22 Triangle. .
Figure 23 Sun's Apparent Motion
Figure 24 Horizon System . . . .
Figure 25 Horizon System
Figure 26 Hour Angle System •
Figure 27 Hour Angle System
Figure 28 Right Ascension System
Figure 29 Right Ascension System
Figure 210 Ecliptic System .
Figure 211 Ecliptic System •
Figure 212 Astronomic Triangle •
Figure 213 Local Sidereal Time •
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
vi
.
. . . .
. .
. .
. .
. .
12
13
16
17
19
21
22
24
25
27
28
30
31
35
37
List of Figures Cont'd
Figure 214
Figure 215
Horizon and Hour Angle System Transformations •
Horizon and Hour Angle Systems • • • • • • •
Figure 216 Hour Angle  Right Ascension Systems •
Figure 217 Right AscensionEcliptic Systems • •
Figure 218 Celestial Coordinate System Relationships [Krakiwsky
and We.lls, 1971] ••
Figure 219 Circumpolar and Equatorial Stars •
Figure 220 Declination for Visibility ••
Figure 221 Rising and Setting of a Star • •
Figure 222
Figure 223
Hour Angles of a Star's Rise and Set
Rising and Setting of a Star
Figure 224 Azimuths of a Star's Rise and Set •
Figure 225 Culmination (Transit) • •
Figure 226 Prime Vertical Crossing •
Figure 227 Elongation • •
Figure 31 Sidereal Time Epochs •
. . .. . . . . .
Figure 32 Equation of Equinoxes (OhUT, 1966) [Mueller, 1969]
Figure 33
Figure 34
Figure 35
Figure 3.,...6
Figure 37
Figure 38
Figure 39
Sidereal Time and Longitude
Universal and Sideral Times [AA, 1981] •
Universal (Solar) Time • • • . • • • • •
Equation of Time (OhUT, 1966) [Mueller, 1969] •
Solar Time and Longitude •••
Standard (Zone) Time [Mueller, 1969]
Relationships Between Sidereal and Universal Time Epochs
vii
39
41
43
45
48
51
52
54
55
57
58
60
62
65
70
71
72
74
76
78
79
81
83
List of Figures Cont'd
Figure 310 Sun  February, 1978 .i98if . . .
Figure 311 Mutual Conversion of Intervals of Solar and
.Sidereal Time [SALS, 19811 •
Figure 312a Universal and Sidereal Times, ·1981 [AA, 1981J •
Figure 3l2b Universal and Sidereal Times, 1981 cont'd.
[AA, 1981 ] • • • • • • • • •
Figure 312c Universal and Sidereal Times, 1981 cont'd.
Figure 41 Code for the Transmission of DUTl
86
87
88
89
90
97
Figure 42 ·:·.Dating. of Events in the Vicinity of A Leap • 98
Figure 51 Universal and Sidereal Times,
1981 [AA 1981,
' . J
.
. . . 109
Figure 52 Bright Stars,
1981.0
[AA,··r98I]
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . 110
,,.
Figure 53 Bright Stars, 1981.0 cont'd. [AA,. 1281]
. . 111
. .
Figure 54 Sun  February, 1981
[SALS' 1981 L .
. . . . . .. 113
Figure 55a Right Ascension of Stars, 1981 [SALS, 1981] .
114
Figure 55b Declination of Stars,l981, [SALS, 1981].·
. 115
Figure 56 Pole Star Table, 1981 [SALS, 1981]
•·
. . . . 116
Figure 61 Variations of the Right Ascension System • 119
Figure 62 Motion of the Celestial Pole . . . . . . . . . .. 121
Figure 63 Mean Celestial Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . 123
Figure 64 True and Mean Celestial coordinate Systems 126
Figure 65 Aberration • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Figure
6.::.;6
Annual (Stellar) Parallax •• . . . . . . . 130
Figure 67 Position Updating M.C.T to A.P.T . . . . . . . . . 132
0
Figure 68 Geocentric Parallax • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
viii
List of Figures cont'd
Figure 69
Figure 610
Astronomic Refraction • • • • • • • • • • .
Observed to Apparent Place
137
139
Figure 611 Transformation of Apparent Place 141
Figure 612 Transformation from Instantaneous to Average Terrestrial
Figure 613
Figure 6:14
Figure 71
Figure 71
Figure 72
System • • • •
Celestial Coordinate Systems and Position Updating
[Krakiwsky, Wells, 1971] • . •••
Coordinate Systems Used in Geodesy • • • • •
Azimuth by the Hour Angle of Polaris [Mueller, 1969]
Cont' d • •
Azimuth by the Sun's Altitude •••••••••••.•
ix
143
145
146
152
153
159
1. INTRODUCTION
Astronomy is defined as 1975] "The scientific
study of the universe beyond the especially the observation,
calculation, and theoretical interpretation of the positions, dimensions,
motion, composition, and evolution of celestial bodies and
phenomena". Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences dating back to
ancient Chinese and Babylonian civilizations. Prior to 1609, when the
telescope was invented, the naked eye was used for measurements.
Geodetic astronomy, on the other hand, is described as [Mueller,
1969] the art and science for determining, by astronomical observations,
the positions of points on the earth and the azimuths of the geodetic lines
connecting such points. When referring to its use in surveying, the terms
practical or positional astronomy are often used. The fundamental concepts
and basic principles of "spherical astronomy", which is the basis for geodetic
astronomy, were developed principally by the Greeks, and were well established
by the 2nd century A.D.
The treatment of geodetic astronomy in these notes is aimed at
the needs of undergraduate surveying engineers. To emphasise the needs, listed
below are ten reasons for studying this subject matter:
(i) a knowledge of celestial coordinate systems, transformations
amongst them, and variations in each of them;
(ii) celestial coordinate systems define the "link" between satellite
and terrestrial coordinate systems;
(iii) the concepts of time for geodetic purposes are developed;
(iv) tidal studies require a knowledge of geodetic astronomy;
1
2
(v) when dealing with new technologies (e.g. inertial survey systems)
an understanding of the local astronomic coordinate system is
essential;
(vi) astronomic coordinates of terrain points, which are expressed
in a "natural" coordinate system, are important when studying
3D terrestrial networks;
(vii) astrondmically determined azimuths provide orientation for
terrestrial networks;
(viii) the determination of astrogeodetic deflections of the vertical
are useful for geoid determination, which in turn may be required
for the rigorous treatment of terrestrial observations such as
distances, directions, and angles;
(ix) geodetic astronomy is useful for the determination of the origin
and orientation of independent surveys in remote regions;
(x) geodetic astronomy is essential for.the demarcation of astro
nomically defined boundaries.
1.1 Basic definitions
In our daily work as surveyors, we commonly deal with three different
surfaces when referring to the figure of the earth: (i) the terrain, (ii)
an ellipsoid, and (iii) the geoid.
The physical surface of the earth is one that is extremely difficult
to model analytically. It is common practice to do survey computations on a
less complex and modelable surface. The terrain is, of course, that surface
on or from which all terrestrially based observations are made.
The most common figure of the earth in use, since it best approxi
mates the earth's size and shape is a biaxial ellipsoid. It is a purely
3
mathematical figure, defined by the parameters a (semimajor axis) b (semi
minor axis) or a and f (flattening), where f=(ab)/a (Figure 11). This figure
is commonly referred to as a "reference ellipsoid", but one should note that
there are many of these for the whole earth or parts thereof. The use of a
biaxial ellipsoid gives rise to the use of curvilinear geodetic coordinates 
<P (latitude), A(longitude),and h (ellipsoidal height) (Figure 12). Obviously,
since this ellipsoid is a "mathematical" figure of the earth, its position and
orientation within the earth body is chosen at will. Conventionally, it has
been positioned nongeocentrically, but the trend is now to have a geocentric
datum (reference ellipsoid). Conventional orientation is to have of
the tertiary (:Z) axis with the mean rotation axis of the earth, and parallelism •
of the primary (X) axis with the plane of the Greenwich Mean Astronomic
Mer:J.dian.
Equipotential surfaces (Figure 13), of which there are an infinite
number for the earth, can be represented mathematically. They account for the
physical properties of the earth such as mass, mass distribution, and rotation,
and are "real" or physical surfaces of the earth. The common equipotential
surface used is the geoid, defined as [Mueller, 1969] "that equipotential
surface that most nearly coincides with the undisturbed mean surface of the
oceans". Associated with these equipotential surfaces is the plumbline
(Figure It is a line of force that is everywhere normal to the equipo
tential surfaces; thus, it is a spatial curve.
We now turn to definitions of some fundamental quantities in geodetic
astronomy namely, the astronomic latitude astronomic longitude (.1\.), and
orthometricheight (H). These quantities are sometimes referred to as
"natural" coordinates, since, by definition, they are given in terms of the
·4
z
p
pi
Figure 11
Biaxial Ellipsoid
5
..
z.
ELLIPSOIDAL
NORMAL
~ ~  r       ~ ~ v
o·
(A=90)
Figure 12
Geodetic Latitude, Longitude, and r.llipsoidal Height
GEOID
6
PLUMBLINE
EQUIPOTENTIAL
SURFACES
TERRAIN
r E L L ~
Figure l3
Orthometric lleieht
7
11
t"ea1" (physical) properties of the earth.
Astronomic latitude is defined as the angle between the
astronomic normal (gravity vertical) (tangent to the plumbline a.t the point
of interest) and the plane of the instantaneous equator measured in the
astronomic meridian plane (Figure 1..4). Astronomic longitude (II.) is the
angle between the Greenwich Mean Astronomic Meridian and the astronomic
meridian plane measured in the plane of the instantaneous equator (Figure
1..4).
The orthometric height (H), is the height of the point of interest
.above the geoid, measured along the plumbline, as obtained from spirit
leveling and en route gravity observations (Figure 13). Finally, after some
reductions of and A for polar motion and plumbline curvature, one obtains .
the "reduced" astronomic coordinates A, H) referring to the geoid and the
mean rotation axis of the earth (more will be said about this last point in
these notes).
We are now in a position to examine the relationship between the
Geodetic and Astronomic coordinates. This is an important step for surveyors.
Observations are made in the natural system; astronomic coordinates are expressed
in the same natural system; therefore, to use this information for computations
in a geodetic system, the relationships must be known.
The astrogeodetic (relative) deflection of the vertical (e) at a
point is the angle between the astronomic normal at that point and the normal
to the reference ellipsoid at the corresponding point (the point may be on
the terrain (et) or on the geoid(e) (Figure 15).
g
e is normally split into
two components, and n prime vertical (Figure 16). Mathema
tically, the components are given by
n = (AA) cos $,
(11)
(12)
8
TRUE. ZIT"
ROTATION
·AXIS
INSTANTANEOUS
POLE
PLUMBliNE
GRAVITY
VERTICAl
Figure 14
Astronomic Latitude ( ~ ) and Longitude (A)
ELLIPSOIDAL
9
PLUMBLINE
GEOID
ELLIPSOID
Ficure 15
Geoid Heieht & Terrain Deflection of the Vertical
z
uz ·
10
uz
ELLIPSOIDAL
NORMAL
UNIT SPHERE
7J =<A A.> cos <P
Figure 16
Components of the Deflection of the Vertical
11
which yields the geodeticastronomic coordinate relationships we were seeking.
The geoidal height (N) is the distance between the geoid and a
reference ellipsoid, measured along an ellipsoidal normal (Figure 15).
Mathematically, N is given by (with an error of less than lmm) tfe:isianen
and Moritz, 1967]
N = hH. (13)
Finally, we turn our attention to the azimuths of geodetic lines
between points. A geodetic azimuth (a), on the surface of a reference
ellipsoid, is the clockwise angle from north between the geodetic meridian
of i and the tangent to the ellipsoidal surface curve of shortest distance
(the geodesic) between i and j (Figure 17). The astronomic azimuth (A)
is the angle between the astronomic meridian plane of i and the astronomic
normal plane of i through j (Figure 18), measured clockwise from north.
The relationship between these A and a is given by the
Laplace Azimuth equation [e.g. Heiskanen and 1967]
(Aa) = +  ncosa) cot z, (14)
in which z is the zenith distance. Note that the geodetic azimuth, a, must
also be corrected for the height of target (skewnormal) and normal section 
geodesic separation.
XG
12
ZG
#4'4 GEODESIC
YG
Figure 17
Geodetic Azimuth
13
z
AT X
CIO LA
ZLA
.
NORMAL
NORMAL PLANE OF
THROUGH j
VLA.
ASTRONOMIC·
MERIDIAN
Figure 1R
Astronomic Azimuth
2. CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS
Celestial coordinate systems are used to define the coordinates of
celestial bodies such as stars. There are four main celestial coordinate
systems  the ecliptic, 'tight ascension, hour angle, and horizon  each
of which are examined in detail in this chapter. There are two fundamental
differences between celestial coordinate systems and terrestrial and orbital
coordinate systems. First, as·a consequence of the great distances involved,
only directions are considered in celestial coordinate sytems. This means
that all vector quantities dealt with can be considered to be unit vectors.
The second differenceisthat celestial geometry is spherical rather than
ellipsoidal which simplifies the mathematical relationships involved.
2.1 The Celestial Sphere
The distance from the earth to the nearest star is more than 10
9
earth radii, thus the dimensions of the earth can be considered as negligible
compared to the distances to the stars. For example, the closest star is
estimated to be 4 light years (40xlo
12
km) from the earth (a CENTAUR!}, while
..
others are VEGA at 30 light years, a USAE MINORIS (Polaris) at 50 light
years. Our sun is only 8.25 light minutes (155xl0
6
km) from the earth. As
a consequence of those great distances, stars, considered to be moving at
near the velocity of light, are perceived by an observer on earth to be moving
very little. Therefore, the relationship between the earth and stars can be
closely approximated by considering the stars all to be equidistant from the
earth and lying on the surface of a celestial sphere, the dimension of which
is so large that the earth, and indeed the solar system, can be considered
to be a dimensionless point at its centre. Although this point may be
14
15
considered dimensionless, relationships between directions on the earth
and in the solar system can be extended to thecelestial sphere.
The instantaneous rotation axis of the earth intersects the
celestial sphere at the north and south celestial poles (NCP and SCP
respectively) (Figure 21). The earth's equitorial plane extented outwara
intersects the celestial sphere at the celestial equator (Figure 21).
The vertical (localastronomic normal) intersects the celestial sphere at
a point above the observer, the zenith, and a point beneath. the observer,
the nadir (Figure 21). A great circle containing the poles, and is thus
perpendicular to the celestial equator, is called an hour circle (Figure 21).
The observer's vertical plane, containing the poles, is the hour circle through
the zenith and is the observer's·celestial meridian 21). A small
circle parallel to the celestial equator is called a celestial parallel. Another
very important plane is that which is normal to the local astronomic vertical
and contains the observer (centre of the celestial sphere); it is the
celestial horizon (Figure 21). The plane normal to the horizon passing
through the zenith is the vertical plane. A small circle parallel to the
celestial horizon is called an The vertical plane normal to the
celestial meridian is called the prime vertical. The intersection points of
the prime vertical and the celestial horizon are the and west points.
Due to the rotation of the earth, the zenith (nadir), vertical
planes, almucantars, the celestial horizon and meridian continuously change
their positions on the celestial sphere, the effects of which will be studied
later. If at any instant we select a point S on the celestial sphere (a star),
then the celestial meridian and the hour and vertical circles form a spherical
triangle called the astronomic triangle of S. Its verticies are the zenith
16
NCP
I
. I .
. I .
SCP
Figure 21
Celestial S Lphere
17
.
Figure 22
Astronomic Triangle
18
(Z), the north celestial pole (NCP) and S (Figure 22).
There are also some important features on the celestial sphere
related the revolution of the earth about the sun, or in the reversed concept,
the apparent motion of the sun about the earth. The most important of these
is the ecliptic, which may be described as the approximate (within 2" [Mueller,
1969])apparent path of the sun about the earth.(Figure 23). The ecliptic
intersects the celestial equator in a line connecting the equinoxes. The
vernal equinox is that point intersection where the apparent sun crosses the
celestial equator from south to north. The other equinox is the autumnal
equinox. The acute angle between the celestial equator and the ecliptic is
termed the obliquity of the ecliptic (e:=23°27') (Figure 23). The points at
90° from either equinox are the points where the sun reaches its greatest
angular distance from the celestial equator, and they are the summer solstice
(north) and winter solstice (south).
In closing this section we should note that the celestial sphere
is only an approximation of the true relationship between the stars and an
observer onthe earth's surface. Like all approximations, a number of corrections
are required to give a precise representation of the true relationship. These
corrections represent the facts that: the stars are not stationary points
on the celestial sphere but are really moving (proper motion); the earth's
rotation axis is not stationary with respect to the stars (precesion, nutation);
the earth is displaced from the centre of the celestial sphere (which is taken
as the centre of the sun) and the observer is displaced from the mass centre
of the earth (parallax); the earth is in motion around the centre of the
celestial sphere (aberration); and directions measured through the earth's
atmosphere are bent by refraction. All of these effects are discussed in
19
I 
AUTUMNAL 1 .,. .,. 
_ _ _
.,. "' " I
.... "'

1\
· Figure 23
Sun's Apparent Motion
SUMMER
SOLSTICE
20
detail in these notes.
2.2 Celestial Coordinate Systems
Celestial coordinate systems are used to define the positions of
stars on the celestial sphere. Remembering that the distances to the stars
are very great, and in fact can be considered equal thus allowing us to
treat the celestial sphere as a unit sphere, positions are defined by directions
only. One component or curvalinear coordinate is reckoned from a primary
reference plane and is measured perpendicular to it, the other from a
secondary reference p l a n ~  and is measured in the primary plane.
In these notes, two methods of describing positions are given. The
first is by a set of curvalinear coordinates, the second by a unit vector
in three dimensional space expressed as a function of the curvalinear
coordinates.
2.2.1 Horizon System
The primary reference plane is the celestial horizon, the secondary
is the observer's celestial meridian (Figure 24). This system is used to
describe the position of a celestial body in a system peculiar to a topogra
phically located observer. The direction to the celestial body S is defined
by the altitude(a) and azimuth (A) (Figure 24). The altitude is the angle
between the celestial horizon and the point S measured in the plane of the
vertical circle (0°  90°). The complimentary angle z =90a, is called the
zenith distance. The azimuth A is the angle between the observer's celestial
meridian and the vertical circle thro.ugh S measured in a clockwise direction
(north to east) in the plane of the celestial horizon (0°  360°).
21
Figure 24
Ilorizon System
22
ZH NCP
A=X/COS a
Figure 25
l!orizon System
I
I
I
X
y
COS a COS A
·COS a SIN A
Z H SIN a
23
To determine the unit vector of the point S in terms of a and A, we
must first define the origin and the three axes of the coordinate system.
The origin is the heliocentre (centre of mass of the sun [e.g. Eichorn,
The primary pole (Z) is the observer's zenith (astronomic normal or gravity
vertical). The primary axis (X) is directed towards the north point. The
secondary (Y) axis is chosen so that the system is lefthanded (Figure 25
illustrates this coordinate system). Note that although the horizon system
is used to describe the position of a celestial body in a system peculiar to
a topographically located observer, the system is heliocentric and not
topocentric.
The unit vector describing the position of S is given by
[
cosa cosAJ
cosa sinA
sina
T
Conversely, a and A, in terms of [X,Y,Z] are (Figure 25)
1
a = sin Z ,
1 y
A = tan ( /X).
2.2.2 Hour Angle System
(21)
(22)
(23)
The primary plane is the celestial eguator, the secondary
is the hour circle containing the zenith (obserser's celestial meridian). The
direction to a celestial body S on the celestial sphere is given by the
declination (o) and hour angle (h). The declination is the angle between the
celectial equator and the body S, measured from 0° to 90° in the plane of the
hour circle through S. The complement of the declination is called the
polar distance. The hour angle is the angle between the hour circle of S
*
Throughout these notes, we make' the valid approximation heliocentre =
barycentre of our solar system.
24
NCP
Figure 26
Ilour Angle System
XHA
;::
m
.....
LLJ
u
25
ZHA
X COS 6 COS h
Y = COS 6 SIN h
Z SIN 6
HA
Figure 27
Hour Angle System
26
and the observer's celestial meridian {hour circle), and is measured from
h h
0 to 24 , in a clockwise direction {west, in the direction of the star's
apparent daily motion) in the plane of the celestial equator. Figure 26
illustrates the hour angle system's curvalinear coordinates.
To define the unit vector of S in the hour angle system, we define
the coordinate system as follows {Figure 26). The origin is the heliocentre.
The primary plane is the equatorial plane, the secondary plane is the celestial
meridian plane of the observer. The primary pole {Z) is the NCP, the primary
axis {Xaxis) is the intersection of the equatorial and observer's celestial
meridian planes. The Yaxis is chosen so that the system is lefthanded.
The hour angle system rotates with the observer. The unit vector is
[
XL [cosO: cosh]
Y • cos& sinh
Z sin5
and ~ and h are given by
o = sin
1
z ,
1
h = tan {Y/x>·
2.2.3 Right Ascension System
'
{24)
{25)
{26)
The right ascension system is the most important celestial system
as it is in this system that star coordinates are published. It also serves
as the connection between terrestrial, celestial, and orbital coordinate
systems. The primary reference plane is the celestial equator and the secondary
is the equinoctal colure {the hour circle passing through the NCP and SCP
and the vernal and autumnal equinoxes)(Yigure 28). The direction to a star
Sis given by the right ascension (a) and declination (o), the latter of which
27
NCP
Figure 28
Right Ascension System
28
ZRA
YRA
EQUATOR
XRA
= cos 6 cos <X
z COS 6 SIN OC
RA SIN 6
Fi8ure 29
RiBht Ascension System
29
has already been defined (HA system). The right ascension is the angle
between the hour circle of S and the equinoctal colure, measured from the
vernal equinox to the east (counter clockwise) in the plane of the celestial
h h
equator from 0 to 24 •
The right ascension system coordinate axes are defined as having
a heliocentric origin, with the equatorial plane as the primary plane, the
primary pole (Z) is the NCP, the primary axis (X) is the vernal equinox,
and theYaxis is chosen to make the system righthanded (Figure 29). The
unit vector describing the direction of a body in the rightascension system
is
: ...
X cos' o c o s · ~
y

coso sino.
'
(27)
z
RA
sino
and a and o are expressed as
1 ;·
a • tan (Y/X), (28)
o = sin
1
z (29)
2.2."4 Ecliptic System
The ecliptic system is the celestial coordinate system that is closest
to being inertial, that is, motionless with respect to the stars. However,
due to the effect of the planets on the earthsun system, the ecliptic plane
is slowly rotating (at '0".5 per year) about a slowly moving axis of rotation.
The primary reference plane is the ecliptic, the secondary reference plane is
the ecliptic meridian of the vernal equinox (contains the north and south
ecliptic poles, the vernal and autumnal equinoxes) (Figure 210). The direction
30
Figure 210
Ecliptic System
31
X C O S ~ COS A.
Y C O S ~ SIN h.
Z E SIN ~
Figure 2il :.
Ecliptic System
32
to a point S on the celestial sphere .is given by the ecliptic latitude (6)
and ecliptic longitude (A). The ecliptic latitude is the angle, measured
in the ecliptic meridian plane of S, between the ecliptic and the normal OS
(Figure 2 ~ 1 0 ) . The ecliptic longitude is measured eastward in the ecliptic
plane between the ecliptic meridian of the vernal equinox and the ecliptic
meridian of S (Figure 210).
The ecliptic system coordinate axes are specified as follows
(Figure 211). The origin is heliocentric. The primary plane is the ecliptic
plane and the primary pole (Z) is the NEP (north ecliptic pole). The primary
axis (X) is the normal equinox, and the Yaxis is chosen to make the system
righthanded. The unit vector to S is
X
y
=
z
while B and A are given by
B =
A =
2.2.5 Summary
cos6 COSA
cosS sinA
sinS
1
sin Z,
1
tan (y/x)
'
The most important characteristics of the coordinate systems,
(210)
(211)
(212)
expressed in terms of curvalinear coordinates, are given in Table 21. The
most important characteristics of the cartesian coordinate systems are shown
in Table 22 (Note: ~ and o in Table 22 denote the curvilinear coordinates
measured in the primary reference plane and perpendicular to it respectively).
33
Reference Plane Parameters Measured from the
System
Primary Secondary Primary Secondary
Horizon Celestial horizon Celestial meridian (half Alti.tude
Azimuth
containi.ng north pole)
s+9o
0
0°<A<360°
(+toward zenith) <+east>
Hour Celestial equa Hour circle of ob Declination Hour
Angle tor server's zentth (half 90°<15< +90°
containing zenith) (+north)
(+west)
Right Celestial Equinoctical colure Declination Right Ascen
Ascension equator (half containing 90°S,I5S,+90°
\
sion
vernal equinox) (+north)
oh<a.<24h
(+east)
Ecliptic Ecliptic Ecliptic meridan (Ecliptic) (Ecliptic)
equinox (half con Latitude Longitude
taining vernal 90°<6<+90° 0°<A.<360°
equinox)
CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS [Mueller, 1969]
TABLE 21
Orientation of the Positive Axis
System
X
y
z )J u Left or Right
(Secondary pole) (Primary pole)
handed
Horizon North point A == 90° Zenith A a left
Intersection of
the zenith's hour
90°= 6h Hour angle circle with the h = North celestial h 0 left
celestial equator pole
on the zenith's
side.
Right ascension Vernal equinox a. = 90°=
6h
North celestial a. 15 right
pole
Ecliptic Vernal equinox = 90° North ecliptic A. f3
right
pole
CARTESIAN CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS [Mueller, 1969]
TABLE 22
34
2.3 Transformations Amongst Celestial Coordinate Systems
Transformations amongst celestial coordinate systems is an important
aspect of geodetic astronomy for it is through the transformation models that
we arrive at the math models for astronomic position and azimuth determination.
Two approaches to coordinate systems transformations are dealt with here:
(i) the traditional approach, using spherical trigonometry, and (ii) a· more
general approach using matrices that is particularly applicable to machine
computations. The relationships that are developped here are between (i)
the horizon and hour angle systems, (ii) the hour angle and right ascension
systems, and (iii) the right ascension and ecliptic systems. With these math
models, any one system can then be related to any other system (e.g. right
ascension and horizon systemS).
Before developing the transformation models, several more quantities
must be defined. To begin with, the already known quantities relating to the
astronomic triangle are (Figure 212):
(i) from the horizon system, the astronomic azimuth A and the
altitude a or its compliment the zenith distance z=90a,
(ii) from the hour angle system, the hour angle h or its compli
ment 24h,
(iii) from the hour angle or right ascension systems, the declina
tion o, or its compliment, the polar distance 90o.
The new quantities required to complete the astronomic triangle are
the astronomic latitude ~ or its compliment 9 0  ~ , the difference in astronomic
longitude 6A =A A (=24h), and the parallactic angle p defined as the
s z
angle between the vertical circle and hour circle at S (Figure 212).
The last quantity needed is Local Sidereal Time. (Note: this is
35
Figure 212
Astronomic Triangle
36
not a complete definition, but is introduced at this juncture to facilitate
coordinate transformations. A complete discussion of sidereal time is presented
in Chapter 4).
To obtain a definition of Local Sidereal Time, we look at three
meridians: (i) the observer's celestial meridian, (ii) the hour circle
through S, and (iii) the equinoctal colure. Viewing the celestial sphere
from the NCP, we see, on the equatorial plane, the following angles (Figure
213): (i) the hour angle (h) between the celestial meridian and the hour
circle (measured clockwise), (ii) the right ascension (a) between the equi
noctal colure and the hour circle (measured counter clockwise), and (iii)
a new quantity, the Local Sidereal Time (LST) measured clockwise from the
celestial meridian to the equinoctal colure. LST is defined as the hour
angle of the vernal equinox.
2.3.1 Horizon  Hour Angle
Looking first at the Hour Angle to Horizon system transformation,
using a spherical trigonometric approach, we know that from the hour angle
system we are given h and ~ ' and we must express these quantities as functions
of the horizon system directions, a (or z) and A. Implicit in this trans
formation is a knowledge of ~ .
From the spherical triangle (Figure 214), the law of sines yields
sin(24h) = sinA
~ ~   ~ ~
sinz sin(906)
(213)
or
sinh sinA
sinz
= 
c o s ~ (214)
and finally
sinA sinz = sinh cos& (215)
37
....JZ
<!
~ 9
wl:t:
...... w
W:E
u
Figure 213
Local Sidereal Time
38
The five parts formula of spherical trigonometry gives
cosA sinz =
or
cosA sinz = sin6  cos6 cosh
Now, dividing (215) by (217) yields
siru\. sinz
cosA sinz
""
sinh
sin6 coso cosh
(216)
(217)
(218)
which, after cancelling and collecting terms and dividing the numerator and
denominator of the righthandside by coso yields
tanA = sinh
cosh '
(219)
or
tanA =
sinh
(220)
cosh  tano
Finally, the cosine law gives
cosz = + (221)
or
cost = sino + coso cosh (222)
Thus, through equations (220) and (222), we have the desired
results  the quantities a (z) and A expressed as functions of o and h and a
known latitude
The transformation Horizon to Hour Angle system {given a (=90z),
A, compute h, is done in a similar way using spherical trigonometry.
The sine law yields
cos6 sinh = sinz sinA
'
(223)
and five parts gives,
coso cosh "" cosz sinz cosA (224)
39
Figure 214
Horizon and Hour Angle System
Transformations
40
After dividing (223) by (224), the result is
tanh •
cosA cotz
Finally, the cosine law yields
sineS = cosz + sinz cosA
(225)
(226)
Equations (225) and (226) are the desired results  h and c5 expressed
solely as functions of a(=90z),A,
Another approach to the solution of these transformations
is to use rotation matrices. First, both systems are heliocentric and left
handed. From Figure 215, we can see that YHA is coincident with YH (or YH
coincident with YHA), thus they are different by 180°. Also from Figure
215, ZH' ZHA' and all lie in the plane of the celestial meridian.
ZH are also separated by and are different by 180°.
transformation, then, of HA to H is given simply by
X
X
The
y
=
(227)
Z H
z HA
or giving the fully expanded form of each of the rotation matrices
X
cosl80° sinl80° 0 0 X
y
= s.inl80° cosl80° 0 0 1 0
y
. (228)
z
H
0 0 1 0 cos(90«>)
ZHA
The effect of the first rotation, R
2
(90«>), is to bring ZHA into coincidence
with ZH, into the same plane (the horizon plane). The second
rotation, R
3
(180°), and YHA into coincidence and YH
respectively, thus completing the transformation.
41
NCP
215 Figure
and Hour
Horizon .
1 Systems
Ang e
EAST
POINT
42
The reverse transformation  Horizon to Hour Angle  is simply
the inverse* of (227), namely
=
(229)
H
2.3.2 Hour Angle  Right Ascension
Dealing first with the spherical trigonometric approach, it is
evident from Figure 216 that
LST = h + a. (230)
Furthermore, in both the Hour Angle and Right Ascension systems,
the declination o is one of the star coordinates. To transform the Hour Angle
coordinates to coordinates in the Right Ascension system (assuming LST is
known) we have
a = LSTh (231)
o=o (232)
Similarly, the hour angle system coordinates expressed as functions of right
as.cension system coordinates are simply
h = LSTa (233)
c5=c5 (234)
For a matrix approach, we again examine Figure 216. Note that both systems
are heliocentric, zHA: ZRA' and YHA.' and YRA all lie in the plane
*Note:
For rotation matrices, which are orthogonal, the foflowing rules
If x=Ry, then y=Rlx; also (RiRj)1 = , and
'R
1
ce> = R(e).
43
Figure 216
Hour Angle· Right Ascension Systems
44
of the celestial equator. The differences are that the HA system is left
handed, the RA system righthanded, and XJJ.A and are separated by the
LST. The Right Ascension system, in terms of the hour angle system, is
given by
or, with R
3
(LST) and the ,reflection matrix P
2
expanded,
[
X] [ cos(LST) sin(LST)
0
1
0
(235)
(236)
The reflection matrix, P
2
, changes the handedness of the hour angle system
(from left to right), and the rotation R
3
(LST) brings XJJ.A and YHA into coin
cidence with and YRA respectively.
The inverse is simply
(237)
2.3.3 Right Ascension  Ecliptic
For the spherical trigonometric approach to the Right Ascension 
Ecliptic system transformations, we look at the spherical triangle with vertices
NEP, NCP, and Sin .Figure The transformationof the Ecliptic coordinates
a, 6 (E assumed known) to the Right Ascension coordinates a, o, utilizes the
same procedure as in 2.3.1.
0

h:

_.
~
45
z
RA
Figure 217
Right AscensionEcliptic S .
ystems
SUMMER
SOLSTICE
YE
. 46
The sine rule of spherical trigonometry yields
coso cosa • c o s ~ cosA
and the five parts rule
coso sina = c o s ~ sinA cos£  sinS sinE
Dividing (239) by (238) yields the desired result
tana =
From the cosine rule
sinA cos£  tanS sinE
COSA
sind = c o s ~ sinA sinE + sinS cosE
'
which completes the transformation of the Ecliptic system to the Right
Ascension system.
(238)
(239)
(240)
(241)
Using the same rules of spherical trigonometry (sine, fiveparts,
cosine), the inverse transformation (Right Ascension to Ecliptic) is given
by
cosS co.sA == coso cosa
'
cosS sinA = coso sina cose + sino sinE ,
which, after dividing (243) by (242) yields
and
tanA =
sina cose + tano sine
cos a
sinS = coso sina sinE + sino cosE •
(242)
(243)
(244)
(245)
From Figure 217, it is evident that the difference between the
E and RA cartesian systems is simply the obliquity of the ecliptic, E, which
separates the ZE and ZRA, and YE· and YRA axes, the pairs of which lie in the
same planes.
47
The transformations then are given by
r:Jll
= R (e:)
1
[ ~ L
(246)
and
[:]
= Rl(e:)
[ ~ 1 AA
(247)
E
2.3.4 Summary
Figure 218 and Table 23 summarize the transformations amongst
celestial coordinate systems. Note that in Figure 218, the quantities that
we must know to effect the various transformations are highlighted. In addition,
Figure 218 highlights the expansion of the Right Ascension system to account
for the motions of the coordinate systems in time and space as mentioned in
the introduction to this chapter. These effects are covered in detail in
Chapter 3.
Table 23 highlights the matrix approach to the transformations
amongst celestial coordinate systems.
2.4 Special Star Positions
Certain positions of stars on the celestial sphere are given "special"
names. As shall be seen later, some of the math models for astronomic position
and azimuth determination are based on some of the special positions that
stars attain.
Ecliptic
___ _j ___ __,
Mean Celestial
@ T
0
··'·
, I
Mean Celestial
@ T
Hour Angle
True Celestial
@ T
I
I Horizon I
Apparent
@ T
CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
RELATIONSHIPS [Krakiwsky and Wells, 1971]
FIGURE 218
.::.
CD
Ecliptic
Ecliptic
rxl .
I .
l:J E
">j
1'•
Right Rl ( t:l
Pl
Ascension I'
(I)
Ul
c+
Ill
a
Hour
Angle
I
Horizon
Original System
Right Ascension Hour Angle
'
Rl ( e: )
rx'
l:J R.A.
R
3
tLST) P
2
P
2
R
3
(tLST)
[ :J H.A.
R
3
(180°)
AMONG CELESTIAL COORDINATE
SYSTEMS (Krakiwsky and Wells, 1971) .•
TABLE 23
Horizon
R
3
(180°)
[:L.
'
,!:>.
1.0
so
Figure 219 shows the behavior of stars as they move in an apparent
east to west path about the earth, as seen by an observer (Z) situated some
where between the equator and the north pole Referring to Figure
219:
1. North Circumpolar Stars that (a) never cross the prime vertical,
(b) cross the prime vertical.
These stars, (a) and (b), are visible at all times to a
northern observer.
2. Equatorial stars rise above and set below the celestial horizon
(a) more time above the horizon than below,
(b) equal times above and below the horizon,
(c) more times below the horizon than above.
3. South Circumpolar Stars never rise for a northern observer.
For an observer in the southern hemisphere the explanations
of 1, 2, 3 above are reversed. Two special cases are (1) Z located on the
equator, thus the observer will see 1/2 the paths of all stars, and (2) Z
located at a pole, thus the observer sees all stars in that polar hemisphere
as they appear to move in circles about the zenith (:pole).
2.4.1 Rising and Setting of Stars
The ability to determine the visibility of any star is fundamental
to geodetic astronomy. To establish a star observing program, one must ensure
that the chosen stars will be above the horizon during the desired observation
period.
Declination
From Figure 220, we see that for an observer in the northern
hemisphere, a north star, to be on or above the horizon must have
a declination given by
0
'
(248)
51
Figure 219
Circumpolar and Equatorial Stars
52
I
I
I
I
I
I
CELESTIAL
EQUATOR
r II> .. 0 • • ••• • • .. •
.. • .. . Ill. . • • • •• • • • • . . . .
."' oll • • • • • • • • I . . • . . . . .. . .. .
· . so•:•TH . . . . · . · ..... "f
Ill • Ill .. • \1.1 • 8 • • • •
. . ·: .. :·
·. · .. · · 'ST J.Rs·. · . · .
" . . ""' . .· . . "'""'
: • •• • 1 • : : • •
I •
SCP
Figure 220
1 Declination for Visibility
53 .
and a south star that will rise at some time, must have a declination
(249)
Thus, the condition for rising and setting of a star is
0 0
(250)
For example, at Fredericton, where IP= 46°N, the declination of a star must
always satisfy the condition (250), namely
in order that the star will be visible at some time; that is, the star will
rise and set. If o>44°, the star will never set (it will always be a visible
circumpolar star), and if o<44°, the star will never rise (a south circumpolar
star).
Hour Angle
Now that the limits for the declinations of stars for rising and
setting have been defined, we must consider at what hour angle these events
will occur.
From the transformation of the Hour Angle to Horizon curvalinear
coordinates (Section 2.3.1, (222))
cosz = sino sin¢> + coso cosh cos4> •
For rising and setting,· z=90°, and the above equation reduces to
sino sin IP + coso cosh cos!P = 0, (251)
which, after rearrangement of terms yields
cosh = tano tan4> • (252)
The star's apparent motion across the celestial sphere is from east
to west. For a star that rises and sets, there are two solutions to equation
(252): the smaller solution designates setting, the larger solution designates
rising (Figures 221, 222). The following example illustrates this point.
Rising an
Figure 221
d Settl.n f a Star
. g 0
55
Figure 222
Hour Angles of a Star's Rise and Set
56
At we wish to investigate the possible use of two stars for
an observation program. Their declinations are o
1
=35°, o
2
=50°. From equation
(250),
44°<o
2
< 44°.
The first star, since it satisfies (250), will rise and set. The second star,
since o
2
> 44°, never sets it is a north circumpolar star to our observer.
Continuing with the first star, equation (252) yields
cosh
1
= tan35° tan46°
or
which is the hour angle for setting. The hour angle for rising is
hr = (24h£s) = 14h 54m
1 1
Azimuth
At what azimuth will a star rise or set? From the sine law in the
Hour Angle t:o Horizon system transfomi:ioll. (equation (215))
sinz sinA = coso sinh.
With z=90° for rising and setting, then
sinA = coso sinh. (253)
There are, of course, two solutions (Figures 223 and 224): one
using hr and one using hs. Using the previous example for star 1 (o
1
=35°,
= gh 05m = 14h 54m one gets
Similarly
= cos 35° sin
= 34 ° 20' 27'.'64.
As = 325° 39'
1
57
I
I NORTH\
I POIN"C
,
Figure 223
Rising and Sett' J.ng of a. Star
58
Figure 224
Azimuths of a Star's Rise and Set
59
The following set of rules apply for the hour angles and azimuths of rising
and setting stars [Mueller, 1969]:
Northern Stars .t<5>0°) Rise
12h<h<l8h
0°<A<90°
set
6h<h<l2h
270°<A<360°
Equatorial Stars (<5=0°) Rise
h=l8h
A=90°
Set
h= 6h
A=270°
Southern Stars Rise
18h<h<24h
90°<A<l80°
Set
Oh<h< 6h
180°<A<270°
2.4.2 Culmination (Transit)
When a star's hour circle is coincident with the observer's celestial
meridian, it is said to culminate or transit. Upper culmination (UC) is defined
as being on the zenith side of the hour circle, and can occur north or south
of the zenith (Figure 225a and 2.25b). When UC occurs north of Z, the zenith
distance is given as (Figure 25a)
z = • (254)
The zenith distance of UC south of Z is
z = 41<5 • (255)
Lower Culmination (LC) (Figure 225c) is on the nadir side of the hour circle,
and for a northern observer, always occurs north of the zenith. The zenith
distance at LC is
z = 180 ( <5+41) •
Recalling the examples given in 2.4.1
=35°, <5
2
=50°),
then for the first star
which is south of the zenith, and
(256)
60
Figure 225
(A) UPPER
CULMINATION
(B) UPPER
CULMINATION
(C) LOWER
CULMINATION
Culmination (Transit)
61
LC
zl = 180 = 99°
which means that the star will not be visible (Z>90°).
For the second star, one obtains
uc
z2 = = 40 '
both of which will be north of the zenith. The hour angle at culmination
is h = Oh for all upper culminations, and h = 12h for all lower culminations.
The azimuths at culmination are as follows: A= 0° for all Upper Culminations
north of Z and all Lower Culminations; A = 180° for all Upper Culminations
south of the zenith.
Recalling the Hour Angle  Right Ascension coordinate transformations,
we had (equation (230)
LST = h+a •
Since h = Oh for Upper Culminations and h = 12h for Lower Culminations,
2.4.3. Prime Vertical Crossing
LSTUC =
LC
LST =
(l '
For a star to reach the prime vertical (Figure 226)
(257)
(258)
(259)
To compute the zenith distance of a prime vertical crossing, recall
from the Horizon to Hour Angle transformation (via) the cosine rule, equation (226)
that
sino = cosz + sinz cosA
For a prime vertical crossing in the east, A=90° increasing), and
for a prime vertical crossing in the west, A=270° (altitude decreasing),
PRIME VERTICAL·
CROSSING (WEST)
62
Figure 226
Prime Vertical Crossine
63
we get
cosz
·sino
=
sin\l>
= (260)
The hour angle of a prime vertical crossing is computed as follows. From the
cosine rule of the Hour Angle to Horizon transformation (equation (222))
cosz = sino + coso cosh •
Substituting (260) in the above for cosine z yields
or
sino
= sino + coso cosh •
2
sino = sino sinw + coso cosh cosw •
Now, (261) reduces to
or
and finally
sino
cosh =
coso cqsll>
cosh =
cosh = tano
2
sino sin ill
coso
2
tano ( )
(261)
(262)
As with the determination of the rising and setting of a star, there are two
values for h  prime vertical eastern crossing (18h<h<24h) and prime vertical
western crossing (Oh<h<6h). Continuing with the previous examples (o
1
= 35°,
o
2
= 50°), it is immediately evident that the second star will not cross the
The first star will cross the prime vertical
(O<c5
1
< 46°), with azimuths A=90° (eastern) and A=270° (western). The zenith
distance for both ·crossings will be (equation 260)
sin 35°
cosz
1
=
sin 46°
z =
1
37° 07' 14':8.
The hour angles of western and eastern crossings are respectively (equation 262)
and
2.4.4. Elongation
64
w
cosh
2
= tan<S
= tan 35° cot 46° ,
= =
1
When the parallactic angle (p) is 90°, that is, the hour circle and
vertical circle are normal to each other, the star is said to be at elongation
(Figure 127). Elongation can occur on both sides of the observer's celestial
meridian, but only with stars that do not cross the prime vertical. Thus,
the condition for elongation is that
15>1%> • (263)
From the astronomic triangle (Figure 227), the sine law yields
or
sinA sinp
sin(90o)= '
sinA = sinp cos<S
cos!%>
Since at elongation, p=90°, (264) becomes
sinA = cos<S secw •
(264)
(265)
For eastern elongation, it is obvious that 0°<A<90°, and for western
elongation 270°<A<360° •.
To solve for the zenith distance and hour angle at elongation, one
proceeds as follows. Using the cosine law with the astronomic triangle
(Figure 127), one gets
cos(90w) = cos(90o)cosz+sinz sin(90o)cosp , (266)
65
CELES1 iAl 1 EQUATOR
Figure 2.27
Elongation
66
and when p=90°, cosp=O, then
cosz =
•
(267)
Now, substituting the above expression for cosz (267) in the Hour
Angle to Horizon coordinate transformation expression .(222), namely
cosz = + cosh
yields
sin&
= + cosh
which, on rearranging terms gives
cosh =
2
cos& sin&
Further manipulation of (268) leads to
lsin
2
& cos
2
o
cosh = ( ) = ( )
cos&sin& coso sino
and finally
cosh = •
'
,
'
:(268)
(269)
Note that as with the azimuth at elongation, one will have an eastern and
western value for the hour angle.
Continuing with the previous
o
2
=50°, and
we see that for the first star,
thus it does not elongate. For the second
thus eastern and western elongations will occur. The
azimuths, zenith. distance, and hour angles for the second star are as follows:
.nAE
81 2 =
AE ==
2
coso = cos 50° sec 46° ,
67° 43' 04':.'7 '
cosZ = coseco = sin 46° cosec 50°.,
z
2
= 20° 06' 37':.'3 ;
w
cosh
2
= coto = tan 46° cot 50°
= 29:66733 = lb 58m ,
hE = 24hh'W = 22b Olm •
2 2
3 • TIME SYSTEMS
In the beginning of Chapter 2, it was pointed out that the
position of a star on the celestial sphere, in any of the four coordinates
systems, is valid for only one instant of time T. Due to many factors
(.e.g. earth's motions, motions of stars), the celestial coordinates are
subject to change with time. To fully understand these variations, one
must be familiar with the time systems that are used.
To describe time systems, there are three basic definitions that
have to be stated. An epoch is a particular instant of time used to define
the instant of occurance of some phenomenon or observation. A time
interval is the time elapsed between two epochs, and is measured in some time
scale. For civil time (the time used for everyday purposes) the units of
a time scale (e.g. seconds) are considered fixed in length. With astronomic
time systems, the units vary in length for each system. The adopted unit
of time should be related to some repetitive physical phenomenon so that it
can be easily and reliably established. The phenomenon should be free, or
capable of being freed, from short period irregularities to permit
interpolation and extrapolation by manmade timekeeping devices.
There are three basic time systems:
(.1) Sidereal and Universal Time, based on the diurnal rotation of
the earth and determined by star observations,
(2) Atomic Time, based on the period of electro magnetic oscillations
produced by the quantum transition of the atom of Caesium 133,
(3) Ephemeris Time, defined via the orbital motion of the earth about
the sun.
Ephemeris time is used mainly in the field of celestial mechanics
and is of little interest in geodetic astronomy. Sidereal and Universal
67
68
times are the most useful for 9eodetic purposes. They are related to each
other via ri9orous formulae, thus the use of one or the other is purely
a matter of convenience. All broadcast time si9nals ·are derived from Atomi
time, thus the relationship between Atomic time and Sidereal or Universal
time is important for 9eodetic astronomy.
3.1 Sidereal Time
The fundamental unit of the sidereal time interval is the mean
sidereal day. This is defined as the interval between two successive upper
transits of the mean vernal equinox (the position of T for which uniform
precessional motion is accounted for and short period nonuniform nutation
is removed) over some meridian (the effects of polar motion on the
meridian are removed). The mean sidereal day is reckoned from Oh at upper
transit, which is known as sidereal noon. The units are lh = 60m ,
s s
lm = 60s • Apparent (true) sidereal time (the position of T is affected
s s
by both precession and nutation), because of its variable (nonuniform)
rate, is not used as a measure of time interval. Since the mean equinox
is affected only be precession (nutation effects are removed) , the mean
sidereal day is 0 ~ 0 0 8 4 shorter than the actual rotation period of the
s
earth.
From the above definition of the fundamental unit of the
sidereal time interval, we see that sidereal time is directly related to
the rotation of the earth  equal an9les of an9Ular motion correspond to
equal intervals of sidereal time. The sidereal epoch is numerically
measured by the hour an9le of the vernal equinox. The hour angle of the
true vernal equinox (position of T affected by precession and nutation)
is termed Local Apparent Sidereal Time (LAST). When the hour angle
69
measured is that at the Greenwich mean astronomic meridian (GHA), it is
called Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time (GAST). Note that the use of the
Greenwich meridian as .a reference meridian for time systems is one of
convenience and uniformity. This convenience and uniformity gives us
the direct relationships between time and longitude, as well as the
simplicity of publishing star coordinates that are independent of, but
directly related to, the longitude of an observer. The local hour angle
of the mean vernal equinox is called Local Mean Sidereal Time (LMST), and
the Greenwich hour a.ngle of the mean vernal equinox is the Greenwich Mean
Sidereal Time (GMST). The difference between LAST and LMST, or equivalently,
GAST and GMST, is called the Equation of the Equinoxes (Eq. E), namely
Eq.E = LAST ~ LMST = GAST  GMST. (31)
LAST, LMST, GAST, GMST, and Eq.E are all shown in Figure 31.
The equation of the equinoxes is due to nutation and varies
periodically with a maximum amplitude near ls (Figure 32). It is
f,;
tabulated for Oh U.T. (see 3.2) for each day of the year, in the Astromical
Almanac (AA), formerly called the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (AENA)
[U.S. Naval Observatory, 1980].
To obtain the relationships betweenLocal and Greenwich times,
we require the longitude (A) of a place. Then, from Figure 33, it can
be seen that
LMST = GMST + A ( 32)
LAST = GAST + A , (33)
in which A is the "reduced" astronomic longitude of the local meridian
(corrections for polar motion have been made) measured east from the
Greenwich meridian.
70
Figure 31
Sidereal Time Epochs
s
0.70
s
0.75
s
0.80
s
0.85
s
0.90
JAN.
71
MAR. MAY JULY SEPT.
Figure 32
Equation of Equinoxes (OhUT, 1966)
[Mueller, 1969]
NOV. JAN.
72
NCP
Figure 33
Sidereal Time and Lorigitude
73
For the purpose of tabulating certain quantities with arguements
of sidereal time, the concept of Greenwich Sidereal pate (G.S.D.) and
Greenwich Sidereal Day Number are used. The G.S.D. is the number of mean
sidereal days that have elapsed on the Greenwich mean astronomic meridian
since the beginning of the sidereal day that was in progress at Greenwich
noon on Jan. 1, 4713 B.C. The integral part of the G.S.D. is the Greenwich
Sidereal Day Number, and the fractional part is the GMST expressed as a
fraction of a day. Figure 34, which is part of one of the tables from
AA shows the G.S.D.
74
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES, 1981
G. SIDEREAL TIME Equation of U.T. at OhG.M.S.T.
Date: Julian
(G. H. A. of the Equinolt) Equinoxes
G. S.D.
(Greenwich Transit of
QhU.T, Date Apparent Mean atOhU.T. OhG.S.T. the Mean Equinox)
244 .h m I
•
I
245 h m I
Jan. 0 4604.5 6 38 17.1886 17.9594 0.7708 1299.Q Jan. 0 17 18 51.3829
I 4605.5 6 42 13.7431 14.5148 .7717 1300.0 1 17 14 55.4734
2 4606.5 6 46 10.2993 11.0702 .7708 1301.0 2 17 I 0 59.5639
3 4607.5 6 so 06.8515 07.6255 .7681 1302.0 3 17 07 03.6545
4 4608.5 6 54 03.4174 04.1809 .7635 1303.0 4 17 03 07.7450
s 4609.5 6 57 59.9787 60.7363 0.7576 1304.0 s 16 59 11.8356
6 4610.5 7 01 56.5407 57.2916 .7510 1305.0 6 16 55 15.9261
7 4611.5 7 OS 53.1023 53.8470 .7447 1306.0 7 16 51 20.0166
8 4612.5 1 09 49.6626 50.4024 .1398 1307.0 8 16 47 24.1072
9 4613.5 7 13 46.2201. 46.9571 .7310 1308.0 9 16 43 28.1971
10 4614.5 7 11 42.7763 43.5131 0.7368 1309.0 10 16 39 32.2882
11 461S.S 7 21 39.3291 40.0685 .1381 1310.0 11 16 35 3 6 . ~ 7 8 8
12 4616.5 1 25 35.8817 36.6238 .1421 1311.0 12 16 31 40.4693
13 4611.5 7 29 32.4335 33.1792 .7457 1312.0 13 16 21 44.5598
14 4618.5 7 33 28.9864 29.7346 .7481 1313.0 14 16 23 48.6504
IS 4619.5 7 37 25.5415 26.2899 0.7484 1314.0 15 16 19 52.7409
16 4620.5 7 41 22.0994 22.8453 .7459 1315.0 16 16. 15 56.8314
17 4621.5 7 45 18.6598 19.4006 .7409 1316.0 17 16 12 00.9220
18 4622.5 1 49 15.2219 15.9560 .7341 1317.0 18 16 08 05.0125
19 4623.5 7 53 11.7843 12.SII4 .7271 1318.0 19 16 04 09.1030
20 4624.5 7 51 08.3457 09.0667 0.7210 1319.0 20 16 00 13.1936
21 4625.S 8 01 04.9050 05.6221 .7171 1320.0 21 IS 56 17.2841
22 4626.5 8 OS 01.4618 02.177S .7157 1321.0 22 1S 52 21.3746
23 4627.S 8 08 58.0160 58.7328 .7168 1322.0 23 15 48 25.46S2
24 4628.5 8 12 54.5682 SS.2882. .1199 1323.0 24 IS 44 29.5557
2S 4629.5 8 16 51.1192 Sl.8436 0.7243 1324.0 2S IS 40 33.6462
26 4630.S 8 20 41.6698 48.3989 .7291 132S.O 26 1S 36 37.7368
21 4631.5 8 24 44.2208 44.9543 .7335 1326.0 21 15 32 41.8273
28 4632.5 8 28 40.7728 41.5091 .7368 1321.0 28 1S 28 45.9118
29 4633.5 8 32 31.3264 38.0650 .1386 1328.0 29 I 5 24 S0.0084
30 4634.5 8 36 33.8818 34.6204 0.1386 1329.0 30 IS 20 54.0989
31 4635.5 8 40 30.4389 31.1758 .7368 1330.0 31 1S 16 S8.1894
Feb. 1 4636.5 8 44 26.9975 21.7311 .7336 1331.0 Feb.· I IS 13 02.2800
2 4637.5 8 48 23.SS71 24.2865 .7294 1332.0 2 IS 09 06.3705
3 4638.5 8 52 20.1168 20.8418 .7251 1333.0 3 IS OS 10.4610
4 4639.5 8 56 16.6755 11.3972 0.1211 1334.0 4 IS 01 14.5516
s 4640.5 ·9 00 13.2323 13.9526 .7203 1335.0 s 14 51 18.6421
6 4641.5 9 04 09.7865 10.5079 .7215 1336.0 6 14 53 22.7326
1 4642.5 9 08 06.3381 07.0633 .7252 1337.0 1 14 49 26.8232
8 4643.S 9 12 02.8879 03.6187 .7301 1338.0 8 14 45 30.9137
9 4644.5 9 IS 59.4372 60.1140 0.1369 1339.0 9 14 41 35.0042
10 4645.5 9 19 55.9872 56.7294 .7422 1340.0 10 14 31 39.0948
11 4646.5 9 23 52.5392 53.2848 .14SS 1341.0 11 14 33 43.1853
12 4647.5 9 27 49.0938 49.8401 .7463 1342.0 12 14 29 47.27S8
13 4648.5 9 31 45.6509 "46.39SS .744S 1343.0 13 14 2S S1.3664
14 4649.5 9 3S 42.2098 42.9S09 0.7411 1344.0 14 14 21 SS.4S69
IS 46S0.5 9 39 38.1693 39.5062 0.7369 134S.O IS 14 17 59.S474
Figure 34. [M, 1981*]
(*This and other dates in figure titles refer to year of
application, not year of publication).
75
3.2 Universal (Solar) Time
The fundamental measure of the universal time interval is the
mean solar day defined as the interval between two consecutive transits
of a mean (fictitious) sun over a meridian. The mean sun is used in place
of the true sun since one of our prerequisites for a time system is the
uniformity of the associated physical phenomena. The motion of the true
sun is nonuniform due to the varying velocity of the earth in its
elliptical orbit about the sun and hence is not used as the physical
basis for a precise timekeeping system. The mean sun is characterized
by uniform sidereal motion along the equator. The right ascension (a )
m
of the mean sun, which characterizes the solar motion through which mean
solar time is determined, has been given by Simon Newcomb as {Mueller, 1969]
a
m
+ 0 ~ 0 9 2 9 t
2
m
+ •••
in which t is elapsed time in Julian centuries of 36525 mean solar days
m
which have elapsed since the standard epoch of UT of 1900 January 0.5 UT.
Solar time is related to the apparent diurnal motion of the sun
as seen by an observer on the earth. This motion is due in part to our
motion in orbit about the sun and in part to the rotation of the earth
about its polar axis. The epoch of apparent (true) solar time for any
meridian is (Figure 35)
TT = h
s
(35)
in which h is the hour angle of the true sun. The 12h is added for
s
h
convenience so that 0 TT occurs at night (lower transit) to conform with
civil timekeeping practice.
The epoch of mean solar time for any meridian is (Figure 35}
MT = h
m
(36)
(34)
76
Figure 35
Universal (S 1 ) . Lo. ar T1me
TRUE SUN .
MEAN SUN
77
in which h is the hour angle of the mean sun. If the hour angles of the
m
true and mean suns are referred to Greenwich (h G h G ) , the times are
s ' m
Greenwich True Time (GTT) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Universal Time (UT)
respectively (Figure 35).
The difference between true and mean solar times at a given
instant is termed the Equation of Time (Eq.T.). F.rom Figure 35
Eq.T. = TTMT (37)
and
Eq.T. = GTT  UT. (38)
m
The equation of time reaches absolute values of up to 16 • Figure 36
shows Eq.T. for a one year interval.
Mean and true solar times are related to the astronomic longitude
of an observer by (Figure 37)
MT=UT+A (39)
and
TT = GTT + A (310)
The time required by the mean sun to make two consecutive
passages over the mean vernal equinox is the tropical year. The time
required by the mean sun to make a complete circuit of the equator is
termed the sidereal year. These are given by
1 tropical year = 365.242 198 79 mean solar days,
1 sidereal year = 365.256 360 42 mean solar days.
Since neither of the above years contain and intergral number of mean
solar days, civil calendars use either a Julian y e a ~ in which
d d h
1 Juliam year = 365.25 mean solar days = 365 6 ,
or the presently used Gregorian calendar which has 365.2425 mean solar days.
For astronomic purposes, the astronomic year begins at Oh UT on 31
December of the previous calendar year. This epoch is denoted by the
d
astronomic date January 0.0 UT.
m
12
78
Figure 36
Equation of Time (Oh UT, 1966)
[Hueller, 1969]
79
Figure 37
Solar Time and L .
ong1tude
SUN
MEAN SUN
80
Corresponding to the Greenwich Sidereal Date (GSD) is the Julian
Date (JD). The.JD is the number of mean solar days that have elapsed
since 12h UT on January 1 (January UT) 4713 BC. For the standard
d
astronomic epoch of 1900 January 0.5 UT, JD = 2 415 020.0. The conversions
between GSD and JD are
GSD = 0.671 + JD , (311)
JD = 0.669 + 0.9972695664 GSD • (312)
3.2.1 Standard (Zone) Time
To avoid the confusion of everyone keeping the mean time of
their meridian, civil time is based on a "zone" concept. The standard
time over a particular region of longitude corresponds to the mean time
of a particular meridian. In general, the world is divided into 24 zones
of 15° (M\.) each. Zone 0 has the Greenwich meridian as its "standard"
0
meridian, and the zone extends 7J2 on either side of Greenwich. The time
zones are numbered 1, 2, •••• , 12 east, and +1, +2, ••• , +12 west.
Note that zone 12 is divided into two parts,
extent each, on either
side of the International Date Line (180°E). All of this is portrayed in
Figure 38.
Universal time is related to Zone Time (ZT) by
UT = ZT + liZ, (313)
in which liZ is the zonal correction. Care should be taken with liZ,
particularly in regions where summer time or daylight saving time is used
during the springsummerfall parts of the year. The effect is a lh
advance of regular ZT.
3.3 Relationships Between Sidereal and Solar Time Epochs and Intervals
We will deal first with the relationship between time epochs.
. '\
,,
... : ..
:/ ...... ::
.... , , ......
1
9 o o  # o t If$ 0
<... : • ,. • • f •••
::,:: ::::::
406H !:1 ::
to•H .. ::::::
'"'::
: : ::::: :
. ·:c: 1:::: .. ,
0 •• ' .. !... .. ... .
'"' .. t·· ..... .
::: );.'
11'"1 ....
•ro• .. ··· .. , ....
... . ...
• • • • • t
... . ...
... . ...
... . ...
tj' .... I Otto
•4C'H ' "'' . . ...
... ,
'X] '"'
c •• • •••
... . ...
T' ....
::: ::::
·•o•H .1.. .. ..
:r:: ::::
!'!2 •II tiO •9
too•
I I
• • &
....
·····
.....
••r••
. ....
I o o
....
.....
....
. ...
.... . ....
.... 1 r:
:::: (::
•T ·;;; •5
a1o• no•
•4 I +3
00f5o
.....
·····
.... , .
······
······
+2
ao•
: ::E:
; ::E;
:: ::
:::F
::c:
t:1t.o.., s
•I I o I·!
Q
;:.:::·:
'""'!
·2
Oil .
1
[, l
E
1:
r ·4
40
·5
. .....
......
. , .. ,.
......
. ... ,.
::::: :'
''''''! l•t.oto
······
. .. , ..
. • t. •
•••••·I
::::::,, , .. ..
...... . .. .
... . ... .
....
•6 I •T
C::J ADO O.S HOUR TO ZONAl. COilllCCTIONS AS INOICATEO.
IRI!EGVLAR ZONES
STANDARD TIME {Mueller, 1969].
FIGURE 38
...
:; I
• • • e
·····
.....
. . ' ..
...
,\f .
.. .
. :
...
::1
::!
•12'
Note: Since the preparation of this map, the standard time zones in Canada have
been changed so that all parts of the Yukon Territory now observe Pacific
Standard Time (Zone designation U or +8). See Appendix II.
to
1'
Equation (36) states
82
MT = l2h + h . ,
1ll
where hm is the hour angle of the mean sun while from· Figure 39
which yields
or
h
LMST = MT + (am  12 )
(314)
(315)
(316)
Equations (315) and (316) represent the transformations of LMST to MT and
viceversa respectively.
G
If we replace MT,hm' and LMST with GMT,hm , and.
GMST respectively, then
UT = GMST (317)
and· GMST= UT + (318)
..   
For practical computations we used tabulated quantities.
... .. h . 
For example" (am  .. 12 ). is tabulated in the Astronolllical Almanac (AA) ;·
and the quantity· (am >12h + Eq. ·E) is tabulated in the
Star Almanac for Land Surveyors (SALS). Thus for simplicity we should
always convert MT to UT and LMST to GMST. We should note. of course, that the
relationships shown (315), (316), (317), (318) relate mean solar and
mean sidereal times. To relate true solar time with apparent sidereal time:
(i) · compute mean solar time (MT = TT Eq.T or OT = GTT Eq.T.),
(ii) compute mean sidereal time ((316) or (318)),
(iii) compute apparent sidereal time (LAST = Eq.E + LMST or GAST =
•
Eq.E. + GMST).
To relate apparent sidereal time with true solar time, the inverse procedure
is used. For illustrative purposes, two numerical examples are used.
'
'
'
83
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
figure 39
a<'d lJ<'ive<sa:l. epochS
• • • •
84
(note that the
appropriate tabulated values can be found in Figures 311, 312,
and 313).
Example #1 (using SALS)
Given: MT = 18h 21m
Feb. 14, 1981
A = 66 ° 38 • 28 " w
Compute: LAST
MT 18h 21m
A (66 ° 38' 28' ')
UT (=MT  A)
h h h m s
R(a  12 + Eq.E.) at 18 UT:9 38 .39.6
m
for 4h 48m
h
(a  12 + Eq.E.)
m
GAST (=UT + ( am  12h) + Eq.E)
GAST
A (66° 38' 28' I)
LAST (GAST + A)

' ..: :.".:
•4h 26m
22h 48m
9h
3f'
32h
'2f
24h
8h
2fl
4h 26m
4h
.om
Example #2 (using AA)
h m s
Given: MT = 18 21 41.00
Feb. 14, 1981
A = 66° 38' 28"W
Compute: . LAST
MT
A (66° 38' 28")
UT (=MT  A)
(a  12h) (GMST) at Oh UT:
m
Add
Sidereal interval equivalent to
85
(multiply UT interval by 1.002 737 9093):
GMST at 22h 48m UT
GMST
Eq. E
GAST (= GMST + Eq. E)
A (66° 38' 28")
LAST (= GAST + A)
18h 21m
4h 26m
22h 48m
9h 35m
22h 5lm
32h 27m
24h
8h 27m

8h 27m
4h 26m
4h Olm
U.T.
d b
I 0
Sun. 6
lt2
18
2 0
Mon.6
X:.t
x8
3. 0
Tues.6
!2
r8
4 0
Wed.6
ll2
x8
5 0
Thur.6
X2
x8
. 6 0
Frl. 6
lC:t
x8
1 0
Sat. 6
X2
x8
8 0
Sun. 6
X:.t
x8
24
R
ta rn s
8 44 27·0
45 26·1
46 25•3
47 24•4
8 48 2J·6
49 22·7
so 21·8
51 21·0
. 8 52 20•1
53 19·3
54 X8·4
. 55 17·5
s s6 167 .
57 xs·S
ss rs·o
8 59 14·1
900 IJ•2
Ol 12•4
02 H•S
OJ I0•6
904 09·8
05 o8·9
o6 oS·l
Cfl Cf'/•2
9 o8 o6·3
09 os·s
1004·6
II OJ·8
9 1202•9
IJ 02•0
l4 01•2
.lf5 00•3
9 xs 59•4
Sun's S.D. x6!:e
Dec.
86
SUNFEBRUARY, 1981
·E U.T.
h m • d h
II 46 258 9 ~
46 23·7
21
Mon. 6
46 2I·7
20
46 19•7
20
19
12
x8
II 46 17·8 10 0
46 15•9
1
: Tues.6
46 14•1
1
:1:2
46 I2·4 : ~ x8
II 46 I 0•6
6
XX 0
4609·0
1
6
• Wed.6
46 0',74
1
6 12
46 os·8
1
x8
15
II 46 04·3' U o
46 02•8
15
Thur.6
46 01•4
14
46 OO•I 13
13
12
xS
II 45 s8·8 · x3 o
45 57·5 :! Fri. 6
45 56·3 xz
u 8
45 SS·X II . X
II 45 54•0 IO
45 53•010
. 45 sz·o 10
45 51•0 9
u 45 50•1 8
4.5 49•3 8
45 48s
8
45 47·7 7
u: 45 47•0 6
45 46·4 6
45 45·8 6
45 45•2
.II 45 44•7 S
X"f 0
Sat. 6
12
x8
xs 0
Sun. 6
12
x8
x6 o
Mon.6
SUNRISE
R
b m •
9 15 59·4
16 s86
17 57·7
rS 568
919 56o
20 55•1
21 54·3 .
22 53•4
9 23 52•5
24 51•7
25 50·8
z6 so·o
9 27 49·1
28 48·2
29 47·4
3046s
9 JI 45·7
. J2 44·8
33 43•9
34 43•1
9 35 42·2
36 41•3
37 40•5
38 39·_6
9 39 38·8
4037·9
41 37·0
42 36·2
9 43 35•3
44 34•5
45 33·6
46 32·7
9 47 31·9
Dec. E
b m a
II 45 44·7
45 44·3 :
45 43·9 4
45 43•5 3
II 45 43•2 .
45 43•0
2
45 42·8
1
45 42·6
2
I
lil 45 42•5
45 42.·5 °
45 42•5 °
45 42•5 °
I
:n 45 42·6
45 42·8
2
45 43·0
2
45 43·2
2
3
H 45 43·5
45 43·8
3
45 44•2 ...
45 44·7 :.
u 45 45•1 6'
45 45·7 6 i
45 46·3 6'
45 46·9 I
7
u 45 47·6
45 48·3
7
45 49·0 ~ f
45 49·8 !
9j
II 45 50•7
45 51·6
9
45 52·5
9
45 53•5
10
n 45 54·6
11
Date South Latitude North Latitude
Feb.
X
6
u
JX
oo• · 5!5 50" if!(' <fO" .'JO" 20" iO" o• 10" . :W"' Jo'' 40° •fS• 50" 55° (»"
I> h .. "'
3•9 IH 4•7 4•9
4·2 4·5 4B S·lt
4·4 4·7 s·o s·z
4·6 4·9 s·x s·J
4·8 S·I S·.J 5'4
s·o 5·3 5·4 s·s
s·J N s·5 s·1
II II 1> h h
s·z s·s 5·7 6o 6·2
s·z s·s s·S 6o 6z
s·J s·6 s·S 6o 6z
" h
6·4 6·6
6·4 66
6·3 6s
s·s
s·s
5•7
5·7 5·9 6o
5·7 5·9 6o
s·S 5·9 6o
62 63 6s
6·2 6·J 6·4
6·2 6·3 6·4
. "
68
6·8
6·7
6·7
66
6s
' b • "' •
7·Z 7·3 7·6 7·9 8z
7•1 7•2. 7·5 7•7 8·I
1·o 7·1 7·3 7·S 7·8
6·9 7·0 7•2. 7·3
6·8 6·9 1·0 7·2.
6·7 6·7 68 7•0
7·6
7·4
7•1
5·7 s·9 6o 61 6·2 6·2 63 6·4 6s 6·6 6·7 68 6·9
. Moon•s phases: new moon, 4"22"14"'; first quarter, n"x7''49"'·
Figure 310 [SALS, 1981]
87
INTERPOLATION TABLE :FOR R
MUTUAL CO?"OVERSION OF INTERVALS OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TI:\.JE
solar A R sidereal J solar LJR sidereal
4b 4b 4b 4b
solar LJR sidereal
sb sh
solar .dR sidereal
sh sb
In critiral tm<'S muntl .
.lldd LJR to solar time intt1"\'al (kfchand argument} to obtain sidtreal time intaval.
Subtract LlR from sidereal time interval (ri1:hth:md argument) to obtain sobr time inten·al.
FIGURE 311 [SALS,. 1981)
88
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES, 1981
G. SIDEREAL TIME Equation of I U.T. at OhG.M.S.T.
Date Julian
(G. H. A. of the Equinox) Equinoxes G. S.D. I (Greenwich Transit of
ObU.T. Date Apparent Mean atOhU.T. OhG.S.T. the Mean Equinox)
244
b m I
• •
245 h m
•
Jan. 0 4604.5 6 38 17.1886 17.9594 0.7708 1299.0 Jan. 0 17 18 51.3829
1 4605.5 6 42 13.7431 14.5148 .7717 1300.0 1 17 14 55.4734
2 4606.5 6 46 10.2993 11.0702 .7708 1301.0 2 17 10 59.5639
3 4607.5 6 so 06.8575 07.62SS .7681 1302.0 3 17 07 03.6545
4 4608.5 6 54 03.4174 04.1809 .7635 1303.0 4 17 OJ 07.7450
s 4609.5 6 .57 59.9787 60.7363 0.7576 1304.0 s 16 59 11.8356
6 4610.5 7 Ol 56.5407 57.2916 .7510 1305.0 6 16 ss 15.9261
7 4611.5 7 OS 53.1023 53.8470 .7447 1306.0 7 16 Sl 20.0166
8 4612.5 7 09 49.6626 50.4024 .7398 1307.0 8 16 47 24.1072
9 4613.5 7 l3 46.2207' 46.9577 .7370 1308.0 9 16 43 28.1977
10 4614.5 7 17 42.7763 43.5131 0.7368 1309.0 10 16 39 32.2882
11 461S.S 7 21 39.3297 40.0685 .7387 1310.0 11 16 35 36.3788
12 4616.5 7 2S 35.8817 36.6238 .7421 1311.0 12 16 31 40.4693
13 4617.5 7 29 32.4335 33.1792 .7457 1312.0 13 16 27 44.SS98
14 4618.5 7 33 28.9864 29.7346 .7481 1313.0 14 16 23 48.6504
IS 4619.5 7 37 2S.S41S 26.2899 0.7484 1314.0 IS 16 19 52.7409
16 4620.5 7 41 22.0994 22.8453 .7459 1315.0 16 16 15 56.8314
17 4621.5 7 45 18.6598 19.4006 .7409 1316.0 17 16 12 00.9220
18 4622.5 7 49 15.2219. tS.9S60 .7341 1317.0 18 16 OS 05.0125
19 4623.5 7 53 11.7843 12.5114 .7271 1318.0 19 16 04 09.1030
20 4624.5 7 57 08.3457 09.0667 0.7210 1319.0 20 16 00 13.1936
21 4625.5 8 01 04.9050 05.6221 .7171 1320.0 21 IS 56 17.2841
22 4626.5 8 OS 01.4618 02.1775 .7157 1321.0 22 IS 52 21.3746
23 4627.5 8 08 58.0160 58.7328 .7168 1322.0 23 IS 48 25.4652
24 4628.5 8 12 54.5682 55.2882 .7199 1323.0 24 IS 44 29.SSS1
25 4629.5 8 16 51.1192 51.8436 0.7243 1324.0 25 IS 40 33.6462
26 4630.5 8 20 47.6698 48.3989 .7291 1325.0 26 IS 36 37.7368
27 4631.5 8 24 44.2208 44.9543 .7335 1326.0 27 15 32 41.8273
28 4632.5 8 28 40.7728 41.5097 .7368 1327.0 28 IS 28 45.9178
29 4633.5 8 32 37.3264 38.0650 .7386 1328.0 29 IS 24 50.0084
30 4634.5 8 36 33.8818 34.6204 0.7386 1329.0 30 15 20 S4.0989
31 4635.5 8 40 30.4389 31.1758 .7368 1330.0 31 IS 16 58.1894
Feb. I 4636.5 8 44 26.9975 27.7311 .7336 1331.0 Feb. 1 15 13 02.2800
2 4637.5 8 48 23.5571 24.2865 .7294 1332.0 2 IS 09 06.3705
3 4638.5 8 52 20.1168 20.8418 .7251 1333.0 3 15 OS 10.4610
4 4639.5 8 56 16.6755 17.3972 0.7217 . 1334.0 4 IS 0 I 14.SSI6
s 4640.5 .9 00 13.2323 13.9S26 .7203 1335.0 s 14 57 18.6421
6 4641.5 9 04 09.7865 IO.S079 .7215 1336.0 6 14 53 22.7326
7 4642.5 9 08 06.3381 07.0633 .72S2 1337.0 7 14 49 26.8232
8 4643.5 9 12 02.8879 03.6187 .7307 1338.0. 8 14 45 30.9137
9 4644.5 9 15 59.4372 60.1740 0.7369 1339.0 9 14 41 35.0042
10 4645.5 9 19 5S.9872 56.7294 .7422 1340.0 10 14 37 39.0948
11 4646.5 9 23 52.S392 53.2848 .7455 1341.0 11 14 33 43.1853
12 4647.5 9 27 49.0938 49.8401 .7463 1342.0 12 14 29 47.2758
13 4648.5 9 31 4S.6509 46.3955 .7445 1343.0 13 14 2S 51.3664
14 4649.5 9 35 42.2098 42.9509 0.74tl 1344.0 14 14 21 55.4569
IS 4650.5 9 39 38.7693 39.5!)62 0.7369 1345.0 15 14 17 59.5474
Figure 312a [AA, 1981]
89
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES10 1981
G. SIDEREAL TIME Equation or U.T. at
Date Julian
(G. H. A. or the Equinox) Equinoxes
G.S.D.
(Greenwich Transit or
Date Apparent Mean at o•G.S.T. the Mean Equinox)
244
h m I I
•
245
•·
m
•
Feb. 15 4650.5 9 39 38.7693 39.5062 0.7369 1345.0 Feb. 1.5 14 17 59.5474
16 46.51.5 9 43 3.5.3282 36.0616 .7334 1346.0 16 14 14 03.6380
17 46.52.5 9 47 31.8854 32.6169 .7315 1347.0 17 14 10 07.728.5
.18 4653.5 9 51 28.4403 29.1723 .7320 1348.0 18 14 0611.8191
19 4654 . .5 9 55 24.9927 25.7277 .7350 1349.0 19 14 02 15.9096
20 4655.5 9 59 21.5429 22.2830 0.7401 1350.0 20 13 58 20.0001
21 46.56.5 10 03 18.0916 18.8384 .7468 1351.0 21 13 54
22 4657.5 10 07 14.6396 15.3938 .7541 1352.0 22 13 50 28.1812
23 4658.5 10 11 11.1878 11.9491 .7613 13.53.0 23 13 46 32.2717
24 4659.5 10 15 07.7369 08.504.5 .7676 1354.0 24 13 42 36.3623
25 4660.5 10 19 04.2874 05.0599 0.7725 1355.0 2S 13 38 40.4528
26 4661.5 10 23 00.8396 01.6152 .7756 1356.0 26 13 34 44.5433
27 4662.5 10 26 57.3936 58.1706 .7770 1357.0 27 13 30 48.6339
28 4663.5 10 30 53.9492 54.7260 .7768 1358.0 28 13 26 52.7244
Mar. 1 4664.5 10 34 50.5059 51.2813 .7754 1359.0 Mar. 1 13 22 56.8149
2 4665.5 10 38 47.0631 47.8367 0.7735 1360.0 2 13· 19 00.9055
3 4666.5 10 42 43.6199 44.3921 .7721 1361.0 3 13 IS 04.9960
4 4667.5 10 46 40.1753 40.9474 .7721 1362.0 4 13 11 09.0865
s 4668.5 10 50 36.7284 37.5028 .7743 1363.0 .s 13 07 13.1771
6 4669.5 10 .54 33.2790 34.0581 .• 7792 1364.0 6 13 03 17.2676
7 4670.5 10 .58 29.8272 30.613.5 0.7863 . 1365.0 7 12 59 21.3581
8 4671.5 11 02 26.3744 27.1689 .7945 1366.0 8 12 55 25.4487
9 4672.5 11 06 22.9220 23.7242 .8022 1367.0 9 12 .51 29.5392
10 4673.5 II 10 19.4715 20.2796 .8081 1368.0 10 12 47 33.6297
11 4674 . .5 11 14 16.0238 16.8350 .8112 1369.0 II 12 43 37.7203
J2 4675.5 11 18 12.5788 13.3903 0.8115 1370.0 12 12 39 41.8108
13 4676.5 11 22 09.1358 09.9457 .8099 1371.0 13 12 3.5 4.5.9013
14 4677.5 11 26 0.5.6937 06.5011 .8074 1372.0 14 12 31 49.9919
IS 4678.5 11 30 02.2512 03.0564 .8053 1373.0 15 12 27 54.0824
16 4679 . .5 11 33 .58.8072 .59.6118 .8046 1374.0 16 12 23 58.1729
17 4680 . .5 11 37 .55.3611 .56.1672 0.8060 1375.0 17 12 20 02.263.5
18 4681 . .5 II 41 51.9127 .52.7225 .8098 1376.0 18 12 16 06.3540
19 4682.5 II 4.5 48.4621 49.2779 .8158 1377.0 19 12 12 10.444.5
20 4683.5 II 49 45.0099 45.8333 .8234 1378.0 20 12 08 14 • .5351
21 4684 . .5 11 53 41..5568 42.3886 .8318 1379.0 21 12 04 18.6256
22 4685.5 11 57 38.1038 38.9440 0.8402 1380.0 22 12 00 22.7161
23 4686.5 12 01 34.6.515 35.4993 .8478 1381.0 23 Jl 56 26.8067
24 4687.5 12 OS 31.2006 32.0547. .854l 1382.0 24 11 52 30.8972
25 4688.5 12 09 27.7.515 28.6101 .8586 1383.0 2511 48 34.9877
26 4689.5 12 13 24.3042 25.1654 .8613 1384.0 26 Jl 44 39.0783
27 4690.5 12 17 20.8585 21.7208 0.8623 1385.0 2711 40 43.1688
28 4691.5 12 21 17.4142 18.2762 .8619 1386.0 28 Jl 36 47.2593
29 4692.5 12 25 13.9707 14.8315 .8609 1387.0 29 II 32 51.3499
30 4693.5 12 29 10.5270 11.3869 .8.599 1388.0 30 II 28.55.4404
31 4694 • .5 12 33 07.0825 07.9423 .8597 1389.0 31 II 24.59.5309
Apr. 1 469S.S 12 37 03.6363 04.4976 0.8614 1390.0 Apr. 1 11 21 03.6215
2 4696.5 12 41 00.1877 01.0530 0.8653 1391.0 2 11 17 07.7120
Figure 312b [AA, 1981]
90
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES. 1981
G. SIDEREAL TIME Equation of U.T. at ObG.M.S.T.
Date Julian
(G. H. A. of the Equinox) Equinoxes
G.S.D.
(Greenwich Transit or
0hU.T. Date Apparent Mean atOhU.T. OhG.S.T. the Mean Equinox)
244
b m I
• •
245 b ...
•
Apr. I 4695.5 12 37 03.6363 04.4976 0.8614 1390.0 Apr. I 11 21 03.6215
2 4696.5 12 41 00.1877 01.0530 .8653 1391.0 2 11 17 07.7120
3 4697.5 12 44 56.7368 57.6084 .8716 1392.0 3 II 13 11.8026
4 4698.5 12 48 53.2843 54.1637 .8795 1393.0 4 II 09 15.8931
5 4699.5 12 52 49.8316 50.7191 .8875 1394.0 s II OS 19.9836
6 4700.5 12 56 46.3804 47.2745 0.8941 1395.0 6 II 01 24.0742
7 4701.5 13 00 42.9320 43.8298 .8978 1396.0 7 10 57 28.1647
8 4702.5 13 04 39.4869 40.3852 .8983 1397.0 8 tO 53 32.2552
9 4703.5 13 OS 36.0443 36.9405 .8962 1398.0 9 10 49 36.3458
10 4704.5 13 12 32.6032 33.4959 .8927 1399.0 10 10 45 40.4363
11 4705.5 13 16 29.1620 30.0513 0.8893 1400.0 11 10 41 44.5268
12 4706.5 13 20 25.7194 ~ 6 . 6 0 6 6 .8872 1401.0 12 10 37 48.6174.
13 4707.5 13 24 22.2748 23.1620 .8872 1402.0 13 10 33 52.7079
14 4708.5 13 28 18.8277 19.7174 .8896 1403.0 14 10 29 56.7984
IS 4709.5 1l 32 15.3785 16.2727 .8942 1404.0 IS 10 26 00.889o
16 4710.5 13 36 11.9276 12.8281 0.9005 1405.0 16 10 22 04.9795
17 4711.5 13 40 08.4757 09.3835 .9077 1406.0 17 10 18 0.9.0700
18 4712.5 13 44 05.0237 05.9388 .9151 1407.0 18 10 14 13.1606
19 4713.5 13 48 01.5724 02.4942 .9218 1408.0 19 10 10 17.2511
20 4714.5 13 51 58.1224 59.0496 .9272 1409.0 20 tO 06 21.3416
21 4715.5 13 55 .54.6740 55.6049 0.9309 1410.0 21 10 02 25.4322
22 4716.5 13 59 51.2276 52.1603 .9327 1411.0 22 9 58 29.5227
23 4717.5 14 03 47.7830 48.7157 .9326 1412.0 23 9 54 33.6132
24 4718.5 14 07 44.3399 45.2710 .9311 1413.0 24 9 so 37.7038
25 4719.5 14 11 40.8977 41.8264 .9287 1414.0 2.S 9 46 41.7943
26 4720.5 14 IS 37.4556 38.3817 0.9261 1415.0 26 9 42 45.8848
27 472t.S 14 19 34.0130 34.9371 .9241 1416.0 27 9 38 49.9754
28 4722.5 14 23 30.5689 31.4925 .9236 1417.0 28 9 34 54.0659
29 4723.5 14 27 27.1229 28.0478 .9249 1418.0 29 9 30 58.1564
30 4724.5 14 31 23.6746 24.6032 .9286 1419.0 30 9 27 02.2470
May 1 4725.5 14 35 20.2245 21.1586 0.9340 1420.0 May I 9 23 06.3375
2 4726.5 14 39 16.7736 17.7139 .9403 1421.0 2 9 19 10.4280
3 4727.5 14 43 13.3235 14.2693 .9458 1422.0 3 9 IS 14.5186
4 4728.5 14 47 09.8758 10.8247 .9488 1423.0 4 9 II 18.6091
s 4729.5 14 51 06.4315 07.3800 .9485 1424.0 s . 9 07 22.6996
6 4730.5 14 ss 02.9904 03.9354 0.9450 1425.0 6 9 03 26.7902
7 4731.5 14 58 S9.5S16 60.4908 .9392 1426.0 7 8 59 30.8807
8 4732.5 15 02 56.1133 57.0461 .9328 1427.0 8 8 55 34.9712
9 4733.5 15 06 52.6741 53.6015 .9274 1428.0 9 8 51 39.0618
10 4734.5 IS 10 49.2327 50.1568 .9241 1429.0 10 8 47 43.1523
11 4735.5 IS 14 45.7888 46.7122 0.9234 1430.0 1l 8 43 47.2428
12 4736.5 IS 18 42.3425 43.2676 .9251 1431.0 12 8 39 51.3334
13 4737.5 IS 22 38.8942 39.8229 .9287 1432.0 13 8 3S 55.4239
14 4738.5 15 26 35.4447 36.3783 .9336 1433.0 14 8 31 59.5144
IS 4739.5 IS 30 31.9949 32.9337 .9387 1434.0 IS 8 28 03.60SO
16 4740.5 IS 34 28.5456 29.4890 0.9434 1435.0 16 8 24 07.6955
17 4741.5 IS 38 25.0974 26.0444 0.9470 1436.0 17 8 20 11.7861
Figure 312c [AA, 1981]
91
We nQW turn our attention to the relationship of the sidereal
and solar time intervals. The direction of the sun in space, relative to
the geocentre, varies due to the earth's orbital motion about the sun. T.he
result is that the mean solar day is longer than the mean sidereal day by
approximately 4 minutes. After working out rates of change per day, one
obtains
ld
(S)
=
23h 56m (M) ,
(M) = 24h 03m (S),
lh
{S)
=
59m {M) ,
lh
(M)
=
lh oom (S),
lm
{_S)
=
(M) ,
lm
(M)
=
Olm (S),
ls
(S)
s
(M)
ls
(M)· = (S),.
=
. 0.99727
'
in which S and M refer to mean sidereal· and mean solar times respectively.
These numbers are derived from the fact that a tropical (solar) year contains
366.2422 mean sidereal or 365.2422 mean days. The ratio's.are
then
mean solar time interval = (365.2422/366.2422) = 0.997 269 566 4x mean
sidereal time interval,
mean sidereal time interval = (366.2422/365.2422) = 1.002 737 909x
mean solar time interval.
The usefulness of a knowledge of the intervals is given in the following
numerical example.
92
Example #3 (using 'AA)
Given: LAST = 4h OOm
Feb. 14, 1981
A= 66° 38' 28''W
Compute: ZT
LAST 4h oom
A (66° 38' 28")
GAST (=LAST  A)
h
Eq.E. (0 U.T. Feb. 14, 1981)
GMST (=GAST Eq.E.)
GMST at oh u.T., Feb. 14, 1981 · 9h 3?' 42:95
Mean Sidereal Interval {_GMST ii GMSTl
.._(,LU. T.
U.T.(mean sidereal interval x 0.997 269 566 4)
ZT (= UT 
.. 4h 26m
8h 26m
8h 26m
4h
18h 47'1'fl
93
3.4 Irregularities of Rotational Time Systems
Sidereal and Universal time systems are based on the rotation of
the earth; thus, they are subject to irregularities caused by (i) changes
in the rotation rate of the earth, we' and (ii) changes in the position of
the rotation axis (polar motion). The differences are expressed in terms
of Universal time as follows:
UTO is UT deduced from observations, is affected by changes in w
e
and polar motion, thus is an irregular time system.
UTl is defined as UTO corrected for polar motion, thus it represents
the true angular motion of the earth and is the system to be
used for geodetic astronomy (note that it is an irregular time
system due to variations in w.).
e
UT2 is defined as UTl corrected for seasonal variations in w . This
e
time system is nonuniform because w is slowly decreasing due
e
to the drag of tidal forces and other reasons.
UTC Universal Time Coordinated is the internationally agreed upon
time system which is transmitted by most radio time stations.
UTC has a defined relationship to International Atomic Time
( IAT) , as well as .. to UT2 and to UTl.
More information on UTC, UTl, and UT2, particularly applicable
to timekeeping for astronomic purposes, is given in chapter 4.
3.5 Atomic Time System
Atomic time is based on the electromagnetic oscillations
produced by the quantum transition of an atom. In 1967, the International
Committee for Weights and Measures defined the atomic second (time interval)
as "the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of radiation corresponding to
94
the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the fundamental state
of the atom of Caesium l33"1Robbins, 1976]. Atomic frequency standards
are the most acurate standards in current use with stabilities of one or
. 10
12
d '1' . f . 10
14
b . d
two parts ~ n common, an s t a b ~ ~ t ~ e s o two parts ~ n o t a ~ n e
from. the mean of sixteen specially selected caesium standards at ·the US
Naval Observatory.
Various atomic time systems with different epochs are in use.
The internationally accepted one is called International Atomic Time,
which is based on the weighted means of atomic clock systems. throughout the
world. The work required to define IAT is carried out by BIH (Bureau
International de l'Heure) in Paris !Robbins, 1976]. IAT, through its
relationship with UTC, is the basis for radio broadcast time signals.
4. TIME DISSElUNATION, TIMEKEEPING, TIME RECORDING
4.1 Time Dissemination
As has been noted several times already, celestial coordinate
systems are subject to change with time. To make use of catalogued
positions of celestial bodies for position and azimuth determination at
any epoch, we require a measure of the epoch relative to the catalogued
epoch. In the interests of homogeneity, it is in our best interest if on
a worldwide bases everyone uses the same time scale.
Time signals are broadcast by more than 30 stations around the
world, with propagation frequencies in either the HF (1 to 50 MHZ) or LF
(10 to 100 KHz) ranges. The HF (high frequency) tend to be more useful
for surveying purposes as a simple commercial radio receiver can be used.
The LF (low frequency) signal are more accurate since errors due to
propagation delay can be more easily accounted for.
In North America, the two most commonly used time signals are
those broadcast by WWV, Boulder, Colorado (2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz,
20 MHz) and CHU, Ottawa (3.330 MHz, 7.335 MHz, 14.670 MHz).
The broadcast signal is called Universal Time Coordinated (UTC).
UTC is a system of seconds of atomic time, that is ls UTC is lsAT to the
accuracy of atomic time and it is constant •
h
'.At 1972 January 1 0 UT,
. . UTC was_ ..deUned . .to. be !AT .minus· lQs_ exact;Ly .•.... w.'Ihe quanti;t,y:
called DAT, will always be an integral number due to the introduction of
the "leap second" (see below).
The time we are interested in is UTl. The value, (UTlUTC) is
denoted DUTl and never exceeds the value The value DUTl is predicted
and published by BIH. Precise values are published one month in
95
96
In addition, DUTl can be disseminated from certain time signal transmissions
The code for transmission of DUTl by CHU is given in Figure 41.
TAI is currently gaining on UTl at a rate of about one
s
second per year. To keep DUTl within the specified 0.9, UTC is
decreased by exactly 1
8
at certain The introduction of this
"leap second" is illustrated in Figure 4 ... 2. Note that provisions for a
negative leap second are given, should it ever become necessary.
All major observatories of the world transmit UTC with an error
of less than , most with errors less than 3. The propagation
delay of high frequency signals reaches values in the order of O.Sms.
Since geodetic observations rarely have an accuracy of better than
s
0.01 or 10 ms, an error of 0.5 ms is of little consequence. For further
information on the subject of propagation delay, the reader is referred
to, for example, Robbins [1976]. The various time signals consist
essentially of:
(i) short pulses emitted every second, the beginning of the
pulse signalling the beginning of the second,
.Cii) each minute marked by some type of stress (eg. for CHU, the
zero second marker of each minute is longer; for WWV, the
59th second marker is omitted),
(iii) at periodic intervals, station identification, time, and date
are announced in morse code, voice, or both,
(iv) DUTl is indicated by accentuation of an appropriate number
of the first 15 seconds of every minute.
97
A positive value of DUTl will be indicated by emphasizing a number (n)
of consecutive seconds markers following the minute warker from seconds markers
one to seconds marker (n) inclusive; (n) being an integer from 1 to 8'inclusive.
DUTl = (n x O.l)s
A negative value of DUTl will be indicated by a'nurnber
(m) of consecutive seconds markers following the minute marker from seconds
marker nine to seconds marker (8 + m) inclusive; (m) being an integer from
1 to 8 inclusive.
DUTl =  (m x O.l)s
A zero value of DUTl will be indicated by the absence of emphasized
seconds markers.
The appropriate seconds markers may be emphasized, for example,
by lengthening, doubling, splitting, or tone modulation of the normal
seconds markers.
EXAMPLES
MINUTE
MARKER
MINUTE
M'ARKER
EMPHASIZED
SECONDS
MARKERS
DUTI = + 0.5s
DUTI =  0.2s
EMPHASIZED SECONDS MARKERS
I
I
I
I
LIMIT OF CODED SEQUENCE ,_I
I
Figure 41
Code for the Transmission of DUTl
98
A positive or negative leap second, when required, should be the
last second of a UTC month, but,.preferenceshould be.· given to the end of December
and June and second preference to the end of March and September. /(,. positive leap
second begins at 23h 59,m. 60
8
ends_ Qh Qm 0\of day of. the following
In the case of a negat1.ve leap second, 23 59 58 w:tll be followed one
second later by oh om Qs of the first day of the following month ..
. . . .
I
Taking account of what been said in preceding paragraph,
the dating of events in the vicinity of a leap second shall be effected in
the manner indicated in the following figures:
I I
POSITIVE lEAP SECOND
EVENT
t
._t(lEAP
I : I I
SECOND
I
DESIGNATION OF THE
DATE OF THE EVENT
. m s .
30 JUNE, 23 59 60.6 UTC
56 57 58 59 60 I 0 1 2 3 4s
30 JUNE,
23h59m
1 JULY
ohom
NEGATIVE LEAP SECOND
DESIGNATION OF THE
EVENT
DATE OF THE EVENT
t
L m s
I I
. I
a I I I I I
30 JUNE, 23 59 58.9 UTC
56 57 58 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
30 JUNE,
23h59m
1 JULY
ohom
Fieure 42
Dating of Events in the Vicinity of A Leap Second
99
4.2 and Recording
Time reception, before the advent of radio, was by means of the
telegraph. Since the 1930's, the radio receiver has been used almost
exclusively in geodetic astronomy. Time signals are received and amplified,
after which they are used as a means of determining the exact time of an
observation. Direct comparison of a time signal with the instant of
observation is not made in practice  a clock (chronometer) is used as an
intermediate means of timekeeping. Usually, several comparisons of clock
time with UTC are made during periods when direction observations are not
taking place. The direction are subsequently compared to
clock time.
The most practical receiver to use is a commercial portable
radio with a shortwave (HF) band. In areas where reception is difficult,
a marine or aeronautical radio with a good antenna may become necessary.
The chronometer or clock used should be one that is very stable,
that is, it should have a constant rate. There are three broad
categories of clock that may be used:
(1) Atomic clocks,
(2) Quartz crystal clock,
(3) Mechanical clock.
Atomic clocks are primarily laboratory instruments, are very
costly, and have an accuracy that is superfluous for geodetic purposes.
Quartz crystal clocks are the preferred clocks. They are portable, stable
7 12
(accuracy of 1 part in 10 to 1 part in 10 ) , but do require a source of
electricity. This type of timekeeper is normally used for geodetic
purposes, in conjunction with a timerecorder, (e.g. chronograph) where
an accuracy of or better is required. Mechanical clocks, with
100
accuracies in the order of 1 part in 10
6
, suffice for many surveying needs
(eg. where an accuracy of is required}. They are subject to
mechanical failure and sudden variations in rate, but· they are portable
and independent of an outside source of electricity. The most common and
useful mechanical clock is a stop watch, reading to with two sweep
seconds hands. One should note that many of the new watches  mechanical,
electronic, quartz crystal  combine the portablestable criteria and the
stop watch capabilities, and should not be overlooked. With any of these
latter devices, timerecording is manual, and the observing procedure is
audiovisual.
4.3 Time Observations
In many instances, the set of observations made for the astronomic
determination of position and azimuth includes the accurate determination
and recording of time. While in many cases,(latitudeand azimuth
mathematical models and associated star observing programs can be devised
to minimize the effects of random and systematic errors in time, the
errors in time always have a direct effect on longitude (e.g. if time is
s
in error by 0.1, the error in A will be
The timekeeping device that is most effective for general
surveying purposes is the stop watch, most often a stop watch with a mean
solar rate (sidereal rate chronometers are available} • The five desireable
elements for the stop watch are lRobbins, 1976]:
(i} two sweep seconds hands,
(ii} a startstopreset button which operates both hands together,
resetting them to zero,
101
(iii) a stopreset button which operates on the secondary seconds
hand only, resetting it to coincidence with the main hand
which is unaffected by the operation of this button,
(iv) reading to 0 ~ 1 ,
(v) a rate sufficiently uniform over at least one half an hour
to ensure that linear interpolation over this period does not
s
give an error greater than 0.1.
A recommended time observing procedure is as follows [Robbins, 1976]:
(i) start the watch close to a whole minute of time as given by
the radio time signal,
(ii) stop the secondary hand on a whole time signal second, record
the reading and reset. A mean of five readings of time
differences (see below) will give the 6T of the stop watch at
the time of comparison.
(iii) stop the secondary hand the instant the celestral body is in
the desired position in the telescope (this is done by the
observer). Record the reading and reset.
(iv) repeat (iii} as direction observations are made.
(v}
m
repeat (ii} periodically (at least every 30 } so that the
clock rate for each time observation· can be determined.
The clock correction (6T} and clock rate (6
1
T) are important
parts of the determination of time for astronomic position and azimuth
determination. Designating the time read on our watch as T, then the
zone time (broadcast, for example, by CHU) of an observation can be
stated as
ZT = ·T + 6T
(41)
102
In (4ll! it is assumed that is constant. will usually not be
constant but changes should occur.at a uniform rate, t.
1
T. Then b.T is
given by
where
are clock corrections at times T, T ,
0 0
is the change in per unit of time,
the clock (chronometer) rate.
(42)
The clock correction, for any time of observation, is determined via
a simple linear interpolation as follows:
(i) Using the radio and clock comparisons made before, during, and
after the observing program, compute for each by
= ZT .... T.
1 1 1
(43)
(ii) Compute the time difference, b.ZT. '+l between time comparisons
1,1
by
= ZTi+l ... ZTi
(44)
(iii) Compute the differences between successive clock corrections
corresponding to the differences '+l , namely
1,1.
b.T. .
1
= '+l b.T.
l.,l.+ l. 1
(iv) Compute the clock rate per mean solar hour by
b. T =
1
'+1
l.,l.
'+l
l.,l.
(v) Record the results in a convenient and usable form
(e.g. table of values, graph).
(45)
(46)
103
This time determination process is illustrated by the following example.
Clock Correction and Clock Rate
(i) Determination of ZT of stop watch
ZT (radio) Stop Watch (T) (RadioStop watch)
1
9h 13m
oh
oom 9h 13m
13m
oom
9h 13m
13m oom
9h 12m
9h
14m oh Olm 9h 13m
14m Olm 9h 13m
ZT of beginning= = 9h 13m
i=l
1
This procedure is to be repeated for each time comparison with
the radio time signal.
(ii) Record of time comparisons; determination of clock rate.
ZT Clock T
(radio) (stop watch)
'+l
'+1
TIME (T)
1,1 0 1,1
1.7
1.8
1.9
104
(iii) Graph of Clock (stop watch) Correction

t:i

.,...,
•
CLOCK TIME (T
0
)
(iv) Determination of the true zone time of a direction observation.
Observed Time (stop watch):
What is true ZT ?
From the graph:
h m s
at ZT observed = 9 13 01.6
ZT (true) = Oh 52m + 9h 13m
= 10h osm
Using =
+ (Ti+l  yields
6T = 9h 13m + 1.8 = 9h 13m
ZT(true) = Oh 52m + 9h 13m
= 1oh osm •
105
In closing this section, the reader is cautioned that the
methods described here for time determination are not adequate for precise
(e.g. firstorder) determinations of astronomic azimuth and position. Such
s
work requires an accuracy in time of 0.01 or better. For details, the
reader is referred to, for example, Mueller Il969] or Robbins 11976].
5. STAR CATALOGUES AND EPHEMERIDES
5.1 Star Catalogues·
Star catalo9Ues contain the listing of the positions of stars in
a unique coordinate system. The positions are generally given in the mean
right ascension coordinate system for a particular epoch T • Besides
0
listing the right ascensions and declinations, star catalogues identify
each star by number and/or name, and should give their proper motions.
Some catalogues also include annual and secular variations. Other
pertinent data sometimes given are estimates of the standard errors of the
coordinates and their variations, and star magnitudes. (Magnitude is an
estimate of a star's brightness given on a numerical scale varying from
2 for a bright star to +15 for a dim star).
There are two main types of catalogues: (i) Observation
catalogues containing the results of particular observing programs, and
(ii) compilation catalogues containing data from a selection of catalogues
(observation and/or other compilation catalogues). The latter group are
of interest to us for position and azimuth determination. Several
compilation catalogues contain accurate star coordinates for a well
distributed (about the celestial sphere) selection of stars. These
catalogues are called fundamental catalogues and the star coordinates
contained therein define a fundamental coordinate system. Three of these
catalogues are described briefly below.
The Fourth Fundamental Catalogue (FK4) !Fricke and Kopff, 1963]
was produced by the Astronomischen Rechen Institute of Heidelberg,
Germany in 1963. It was compiled from 158 different observation catalogues
and contains coordinates for 1535 stars for the epochs 1950.0 and 1975.0.
106
107
A supplement to :the FK4, with star coordinates for 1950.0, contains .!2!!2.
additional stars. These additions were drawn mainly form the N30
catalogue. It should be noted that the FK4 system ha's been accepted
internationally as being the best available, and all star coordinates
should be expressed in this system.
The General or Boss General Catalogue (GC, or BC) [Boss, 1937),
compiled from two hundred fifty observation catalogues, contains star
coordinates for 33 342 stars for the epoch 1950.0. The present accuracy
of the coordinates in this catalogue are somewhat doubtful. GCFK4
correction tables are available, but are of doubtful value due to the
errors in the GC coordinates.
The Normal System N30 (N30) !Morgan, 1952] is a catalogue of
5268 Standard Stars with coordinates for the epoch 1950.0. Although
more accurate than the GC, it is not of FK4 quality.
For geodetic purposes, the most useful catalogue is the
Apparent Places of Fundamental Stars (APFS) {Astronomische Rechen
Institutes, Heidelberg, 1979]• This is an annual volume containing the
apparent places of the FK4 stars, tabulated at 10day intervals. As the
name implies, the published coordinates have not been corrected for short
period nutation terms that must be applied before the coordinates are used
for position and azimuth determination. For all but latitude observations
there are sufficient stars in this publication. For the stringent star
pairing required for latitude determinations there are often insufficient
stars to fulfill a firstorder observation program. In such cases, the
FK4 supplement should be referred to and the coordinates rigorously updated
from 1950.0 to the date of observation.
108
5.2 . E;phemexides and Almanacs
Ephemerides and 1\lmanacs are annual volumes containing
information of interest to surveyors and others (e.g. mariners) involved
with "practical" astronomy. They contain the coordinates of selected
stars, tabulated for short intervals of time, and may also contain some or
all of the following information: motions of the sun, moon, and planets
of our solar system, eclipses, occultations, tides, times of sunrises and
sunsets, astronomic refraction, conversions of time and angular measures.
The Astronomical Almanac (AA) [U.S. Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac
. .
·Office, 1980]. ·(formerly. published .j;u. the lJnd:ted'· States ·as ·'the. American Ephemeris and
Nautical Almanac and in.the United Kingdom as the Astronomical Ephemeris) is the only
one of geodetic It· amongst· other the mean of 1475
s·tars· catalogued for the"beginning of the ye.ar· of'frtteres't. 19Si.O), plus the
information required to update the star coordinates to the time of
observation. All of the information given is fully explained in a
section at the end of each AA. Parts of three tables are given here 
Figures 5l, S2, S3,  that are of interest to us. Each table is self
explanatory since the information has been previously explained. An extra
note concerning Figure 5l is as follows. Recall from equation (318) that
(a  12h).
m
GMST = UT +
Now, since the tabulated values are for OhUT, and ST is the hour angle of
the vernal equinox, then
GAST at OhUT
=
=
+
Eq. E) ,
For more detailed information, the interested reader should study a recent
copy of AA.
109
UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES. 1981
G. SIDEREAL TIME Equation of U.T. at o•G.M.S.T.
Date Julian
(G. H. A. of the Equinox) Equinoxes
G.S.D.
(Greenwich Transit of
0hU.T. Date Apparent Mean atOhU.T. OhG.S.T. the ~ l e a n Equinox)
244 .II
"'
•
I
•
245 II m
•
Jan. 0 4604.5 6 38 17.1886 17.9594 0.7708 1299.0 Jan. 0 17 18 51.3829
1 4605.5 6 42 13.7431 14.5148 .7717 1300.0 1 17 14 55.4734
2 4606.5 6 46 10.2993 11.0702 .7708 1301.0 2 17 10 59.5639
3 4607.5 6 50 06.8575 07.6255 .7681 1302.0 3 17 07 03.6545
4 4608.5 6 54 03.4174 04.1809 .7635 1303.0 4 17 03 07.7450
5 4609.5 6 57 59.9787 60.7363 0.7576 1304.0 5 16 59 11.8356
6 4610.5 7 01 56.5401 57.2916 .7510 1305.0 6 16 55 15.9261
7 4611.5 7 OS 53.1023 53.8470 .7447 1306.0 7 16 51 20.0166
8 4612.5 7 09 49.6626 50.4024 .7398 1307.0 8 16 47 24.1072
9 4613.5 7 13 46.2207. 46.9577 .7370 1308.0 9 16 43 28.1977
/
10 4614.5 7 17 42.7763 43.5131 0.7368 1309.0 10 16 39 32.2882
11 4615.5 7 21 39.3297 40.0685 .7387 1310.0 11 16 35 36.3788
12 4616.5 7 25 35.8817 36.6238 .7421 1311.0 12 16 31 40.4693
13 4617.5 7 29 32.4335 33.1792 .7457 1312.0 13 16 27 44.5598
14 4618.5 7 33 28.9864 29.7346 .7481 1313.0 14 16 23 48.6504
15 4619.5 ·7 37 25.5415 26.2899 0.7484 1314.0 IS 16 1.9 52.7409
16 4620.5 7 41 22.0994 22.8453 .7459 1315.0 16 16 15 56.8314
17 4621.5 7 45 18.6598 19.4006 .7409 1316.0 17 16 12 00.9220
18 4622.5 7 49 15.2219 15.9560 .7341 1317.0 18 16 OS 05.0125
19 4623.5 7 53 11.7843 12.5114 .7271 1318.0 19 16 04 09.1030
20 4624.5 7 51 08.3457 09.066'r 0.7210 1319.0 20 16 00 13.1936
21 4625.5 . 8 01 04.9050 05.6221 .7171 1320.0 21 IS 56 17.2841
22 4626.5 8 OS 01.4618 02.1775 .7157 1321.0 22 IS 52 21.3746
23 4627.5 8 08 58.0160 58.7328 .7168 1322.0 23 IS 48 25.4652
24 4628.5 8 12 54.5682 55.2882 .7199 1323.0 24 IS ·44 29.5557
25 4629.5 8 16 51.1192 51.8436 0.7243 1324.0 25 IS 40 33.6462
26 4630.5 8 20 47.6698 48.3989 .7291 1325.0 26 IS 36 37.7368
27 4631.5 8 24 44.2208 44.9543 .7335 1326.0 27 15 32 41.8273
28 4632.5 8 28 40.7728 41.5097 .7368 1327.0 28 15 28 45.9178
29 4633.5 8 32 37.3264 38.0650 .7386 1328.0 29 IS 24 50.0084
30 4634.5 8 36 33.8818 34.6204 0.7386 1329.0 30 IS 20 54.0989
31 4635.5 8 40 30.4389 31.1758 .7368 1330.0 31 IS 16 58.1894
Feb. I 4636.5 8 44 26.9975 27.7311 .7336 1331.0 Feb. I IS 13 02.2800
2 4637.5 8 48 23.5571 24.2865 .7294 1332.0 2 I 5 09 06.3705
3 4638.5 8 52 20.1168 20.8418 .7251 1333.0 3 IS OS 10.4610
4 4639.5 8 56 16.6755 17.3972 0.7217 1334.0 4 IS 01 14.5516
s 4640.5 9 00 13.2323 13.9526 .7203 1335.0 .5 14 57 18.6421
6 4641.5 9 04 09.7865 10.5079 .7215 1336.0 6 14 53 22.7326
7 4642.5 9 08 06.3381 07.0633 .7252 1337.0 7 14 '49 26.8232
8 4643.5 9 12 "02.8879 03.6187 .7307 1338.0 8 14 45 30.9137
9 4644.5 9 IS 59.4372 60.1740 0.7369 1339.0 9 14 4 1 35.004.2
10 4645.5 9 19 55.9872 56.7294 .7422 1340.0 10 14 37 39.0948
II 4646.5 9 23 52.5392 53.2848 .1455 1341.0 11 14 33 43.1853
12 4647.5 9 27 49.0938 49.8401 .7463 1342.0 12 14 29 47.2758
l3 4648.5 9 31 45.6509 46.3955 .744S 1343.0 13 14 25 51.3664
14 4649.5 9 3S 42.2098 42.9509 0.7411 1344.0 14 14 21 55.4569
IS 4650.5 9 39 38.7693 39.5062 0.7369 1345.0 IS 14 17 59.5474
Figure 51 [AA, 1981]
110
BRIGHT STARS, 1981.0
Name B.S.
Right
Declination Notes v BV Spectral Type
Ascension
h Dl
•
0 . ..
B Oct 9084 0 00 38.2 77 10 14 F,V 4.78 +1.27 K2 III
30 Psc:: 9089 0 00 59.1  6 07 11 F,V 4.41 +1.63 M3 Ill
2 Cet 9098 0 02 46.0 17 26 30 F,V 4.55 0.05 B9 lV
33 Pse 3 0 04 21.7 54850 F 4.61 +1.04 Kl Ill
21 a And 15 0 07 24.1 +28 59 08 F 2.06 0.11 B9p
11 fJ Cas 21 0 08 09.3 +59 02 42 F,S 2.27 +0.34 F2 lliIV
E Phe 25 0 08 27.0 45 51 08 F 3.88 +1.03 KO III
22 And 27 0 09 19.6 +45 58 00 F 5.03 +0.40 F2 II
B Sci 35 0 10 46.1 35 14 22 F 5.25 +0.44 dF4
88 y Peg 39 0 12 15.3 +IS 04 41 F,S,V 2.83 0.23 B21V
89 x Peg 45 0 13 37.0 +20 06 04 F,S 4.80 +1.57 M2 Ill
7 Cet 48 0 13 40.5 19 02 17 4.44 +1.66 Ml 111
25 a And 68 0 17 19.8 +36 40 48 F 4.52 +0.05 A2 V
8 '
Cet 74 0 18 27.5  8 55 45 F 3.56 +1.22 Kl.S Ill
t
Tuc 77 0 19 05.3 64 59 11 F 4.23 +0.58 F9 V
41 Psc 80 0 19 37.1 + 8OS OS F 5.37 +1.34 gK3
27 p And 82 0 20 06.9 +37 51 49 F 5.18 +0.42 F6 IV
fJ Hyi 98 0 24 46.4 77 21 41 F 2.80 +0.62 Gl IV
K Phe 100 0 25 16.2 43 47 07 3.94 +0.17 AS Vn
a Phe 99 0 25 20.8 42 24 33 F 2.39 +1.09 KO Illb
118 0 29 25.7 23 53 34 F 5.19 +0.12 AS Vn
A' Phe 125 0 30 30.1 48 54 30 F 4.77 +0.02 AO V
f!'Tuc:: 126 0 30 40.8 63 03 46 4.37 0.07 B9 V
IS IC Cas 130 0 31 54.5 +62 49 38 F,S 4.16 +0.14 Bl Ia
29 'II' And 154 0 35 51.7 +33 36 54 F 4.36 0.14 BS V
17
t
Cas 153 0 35 54.3 +53 47 33 F 3.66 0.20 B2 IV
157 0 36 19.8 +35 17 43 s 5.48 +0.88 03 11
30 E And 163 0 37 32.8 +29 12 32 F 4.37 +0.87 08 Illp
31 8 And 165 0 38 18.5 +30 45 26 F,S 3.27 +1.28 K3 III
18 a Cas 168 0 39 25.2 +56 26 00 F,V 2.23 +1.17 KO Ilia
p. Phe 180 0 40 25.8 46 11 21 F 4.59 +0.97 08 III
'l Phe 191 0 42 30.2 57 34 02 F,D 4.36 +0.00 B9 Vp
16 p Cet 188 0 42 38.1 18 OS 27 F 2.04 +1.02 Kl JJl
22 o Cas 193 0 43 39.6 +48 10 so F 4.54 0,07 B5 III
34
'
And 215 0 46 19.7 +24 09 51 F,V 4.06 +1.12 Kill
63 8 Psc 224 0 47 41.7 + 7 28 55 F 4.43 +1.50 KS III
A Hyi 236 0 47 56.1 75 01 36 F 5.07 +1.37 K4 III
24
"' Cas
219 0 47 56.5 +57 42 55 s 3.44 +0.57 GO V
64 Psc:: 225 0 47 58.6 +16 so 18 F 5.07 +0.51 F8 V
35 "
And 226 0 48 45.6 +40 58 33 F 4.53 0.15 BS V
19 <f,
2
Cet 235 0 49 10.4 to 44 47 F 5.19 +0.50 F8 V
233 0 49 33.6 +64 08 40 F,C 5.39 +0.49 gOO + AS
20 Cet 248 0 52 02.1  I 14 50 F 4.77 +1.57 MO lila
A•Tuc 270 0 54 18.0 69 37 47 F 5.45 +1.09 K2 Ill
27 y Cas 264 0 55 33.0 +60 36 51 F,V 2.47 0.15 BO.S lvel
37 p. And 269 0 ss 41.6 +38 23 48 F 3.87 +0.13 AS V
38 'l And 271 0 56 11.3 +23 18 56 4.42 +0.94 GS 111IV
a Sci 280 0 57 41.4 29 27 36 F,S 4.31 0.16 B7 Ill (C II)
71 E Psc:: 294 I 01 57.3 + 7 47 17 F 4.28 +0.96 KO Ill
fJ
Phe 322 I 05 14.2 46 49 13 2 3.31 +0.89 G8 Ill
Figure 52 [AA, 1981]
111
BRIGHT STARS, 1981.0
Nama B.S.
Right
Declination Notes v BV Spectral Type
Ascension
.. In I
.
, ,
285 1 OS 54.1 +86 09 22 F 4.25 +1.21 K2III
'
Tuc 332 I 06 33.7 61 52 36 F 5.37 +0.88 GS Ill
v Phe 331 I 06 55.8 41 35 18 F,D 5.21 +0.16 ·A3 lV/V
30 p. Cas 321 1 06 59.8 +54 49 40 F 5.17 +0.69 GS Vp
C Phe 338 1 07 35.3 55 20 so v 3.92 0.08 "B7 V
31 "l Cet 334 I 07 38.0 10 16 58 F 3.45 +1.16 K3 III
42 <1> And 335 1 08 23.5 +47 08 27 4.25 0.07 87 III
43 fJ And 337 1 08 39.8 +35 31 13 F 2.06 +1.58 MO lila
33 8 Cas 343 1 09 56.2 +55 02 57 4.33 +0.17 A7 V
84 X Psc: 351 1 10 25.7 +20 56 02 F 4.66 +1.03 G8 III
83 T Psc: 352 1 10 36.6 +29 59 21 F 4.51 +1.09 KO IIIIV
86 C Psc 361 1 12 44.2 + 7 28 31 F 4.86 +0.32 FO Vn
rc Tuc 377 1 IS 07.6 68 58 37 4.86 +0.47 F6 IV
89 Psc 378 1 16 49.0 + 3 30 53 F 5.16 +0.07 A3 V
90 v Psc 383 1 18 25.1 +27 09 53 F 4.76 +0.03 A2 V
34 <1> Cas 382 1 18 52.5 +58 01 56 S,M 4.98 +0.68 FO Ia
46 ( And 390 1 21 12.9 +45 25 47 F 4.88 +1.08 KO IIIIV
45 8 Cet 402 1 23 04.3  8 16 52 F 3.60 +1.06 KO Illb
37 3 Cas 403 1 24 33.6 +60 08 13 F,S,V 2.68 +0.13 AS IIIIV
36 til Cas 399 1 24 34.4 +68 01 53 F 4.74 +1.05 KO II1
94 Psc: 414 I 25 39.9 +19 08 33 F 5.50 +1.11 gKJ
48 "'And 417 1 26 30.7 +45 18 33 F 4.83 +0.42 FS V
y Phe 429 I 27 32.5 43 24 55 F 3.41 +1.57 K5+ liblila
48 Cet 433 I 28 41.4 21 43 38 F,7 5.12 +0.02 AI V
3 Phe 440 1 30 27.7 49 10 16 F 3.95 +0.99 KO lllb
99 'I Psc: 437 1 30 27.8 +15 14 54 F,3 3.62 +0.97 G8 111
50 v And 458 1 35 40.5 +41 18 39 F 4.09 +0.54 FS V
51 And 464 1 36 49.1 +48 31 57 F 3.57 +1.28 K3 Ill
40 Cas 456 1 36 58.2 +72 56 38 F,D 5.28 +0.96 G8 ItIII
a Eri 472 1 37 00.5 57 19 59 F 0.46 0.16 83 Vp
106 v Psc: 489 1 40 26.4 + 5 23 31 F 4.44 +1.36 K3 Ill
490 1 40 57.3 +35 09 01 F 5.40 0.09 B9 JVV
1'f Sci 497 1 41 17.1 32 25 21 F,M 5.26 +1.04 gKO
soo I 41 45.8  3 47 08 F 4.99 +1.38 K3 IIIII
<1> Per 496 I 42 27.7 +50 35 37 F,V 4.07 0.04 B2 Ve4p
52 T Cet 509 I 43 11.1 16 02 14 F 3.50 +0.72 G8 Vp
110 0 Psc 510 1 44 23.3 + 9 03 45 F,S 4.26 +0.96 G8 Ill
E Sc:l 514 1 44 45.3 2S 08 50 F 5.31 +0.39 dFl
513 1 45 01.9  5 49 41 s 5.34 +1.52 K4 Ill
S3
X
Cet 531 1 48 39.0 10 46 48 F 4.67 +0.33 F2V
55
c
Cet 539 I 50 31.3 10 25 43 F 3.73 +1.14 K2 Ill
2 a Tri S44 1 51 59.6 +29 29 13 F 3.41 +0.49 F6 IV
Ill ( Psc 549 1 52 34.2 + 3 OS 39 F 4.62 +0.94 KO J1l
til Phe 555 I 52 53.1 46 23 43 F 4.41 +I.S9 M4III
45 • Cas S42 1 53 00.8 +63 34 38 F 3.38 0.15 B3 Vp
<I>_Phe 558 I 53 34.7 42 35 24 F 5.11 0.06 Ap
6 {J .Ari 553 I S3 35.2 +20 42 S6 F 2.64 +O.n AS V
'I" Hyi 510 I 54 27.1 67 44 26 F 4.69 +0.95 GS.S 111
X Eri 566 I 55 13.1 S1 42 11 F 3.70 +0.85 G8 Ulb CN2
a Hyi 591 1 58 10.3 61 39 43 F 2.86 +0.28 FO V
Figure 53 [AA, 1981]
112
The Star Almanac for Land Surveyor§ (SALS) IH.M. Nautical
Almanac Office, 1_980], published annually, is expressly designed to meet
the surveyor's requirements in astronomy. The main tables included are:
(i) the Sun, in which the right ascension, declination, and
equation of time are tabulated for 6hourly intervals (see
explanations below regarding Figure S4),
(ji) the Stars, in which the apparent right ascension and
declination of 685 stars are given for the beginning of each
h
~ o n t h (e.g. 0 UT, March 1, 1981),
{.iii) Northern and Southern Circumpolar Stars (five of each), are
listed separately, their apparent right ascensions and de
clinations being given at 10day intervals for the year,
(iv) the Pole Star Table, a special table for Polaris (a Ursae
Minoris) for use in specific math models for latitude and
azimuth determinations.
Also included in SALS are several supplementary tables, some of
which are companions to those noted above (for interpolation purposes).
Examples of three SALS tables are given in Figures S4, 5S, and S6.
Most of the information given has been explained previously, and the tables
are self explanatory. Regarding the terms R and E in Figure S4, one
should note that
R=
E =
h
(a  12 + Eq.E) =
m
h
Eq.T.  12 •
GAST at OhUT,
The reader is cautioned that SALS is not suitable for use where
firstorder standards mus·t be met. AA . may be used, but common practice
is to use one of the fundamental catalogues and compute the updated star
coordinates via proceduresoutlined in Chapter 6.
U.T.
d "
I 0
Sun. 6
12
18
2 0
Mon.6
12
18
3. 0
Tues.6
12
18
4 0
Wed.6
12
x8
5 0
Thur.6
X2
x8
6 0
Fri. 6
x:z
x8
7 0
Sat. 6
X2
x8
8 0
Sun. 6
X2
18
24
113
SUNFEBRUARY, 1981
U.T •.
d "
9 0
Mon.6
12 '
18
IO 0
Tues.6
X2
· 18
II 0
Wed.6
X2
x8
I:Z 0
Thur.6
12
18
IJ 0
Fri. 6
12
18
1f 0
Sat. 6
12
x8
IS 0
Sun. 6
12
18
16 o
Mon.6
X2
iS
24
R
919 56o
20 55• I
21 54•3
22 53·4
9 23 52•5
24 51•7
25 50·8
26 50•0
9 27 49•1
2848·2
29 47·4
3046·5
'9 31 45•7
32 44·8
33 43•9
34 43•1
9 35 42•2
36 41•3
37 40•5
3839·6
9 39 38·8
4037·9
41 37•0
42 36·2
9 43 35•3
44 34•5
45 33·6
46 32•7
947 31•9
Dec. E
II m 1
II 45 44•7 ·
45 44•3 :
45 43·9 4
45 43•5 3
II 45 43•2
45 43·0
2
45 42·8 2
45 42·6
2
I
Il 45 42•S
45 42•5 °
45 42•5 °
45 42•5 °
I
1145 42·6
45 42·8
2
45 43•0
2
45 43•2
2
3
II 45 43•5
45 43·8
3
45 44•2
4
s
45 44·7 4:
II 45 45•1
6
45 45•7 6
45 46·3 6
45 46·9 7
II 45 47•6
45 48·3
7
45 49•0 ~
45 49·8
9
II 45 50•7
45 51·6
9
45 52•5
9
45 53•5
10
11 45 54·6
11
Sun•s S.D. 16!2 SUNRISE
Date
Feb.
6o• ss•
• •
I 3·9 4•4
6 4•2 4•5
4•4 4•7
II
South Latitude North Latitude
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ¢ ~ ~ ~ w
. " " . . . . .. . . .. . . . .
4·7 4·9 52 5·5 5·7 6o 62 6·4 66 6·8 7·2 7·3 7·6 7·9 82
4·8 s·• 52 5·5 58 6o 6•2 6·4 66 68 7·I 7·2 7·5 7·7 81
5,o s2 s·J 5·6 s8 6o 62 6J 6·5 6·7 1·0 71 · 7·3 1·s 78
16 4·6 4·9 5·1 s·3 5·5 s·7 5·9 6o 62 6·3 6·s 67 6·9
z1 48 5·• 5·3 5·4 5·5 5·7 5·9 6o 62 6·3 6·4 66 6·8
26 s·o s·3 5·4 5·5 s·7 5·8 5·9 6o 62 63 6·4 6s 67
7·0 7·2 7·3 7·6
6·9 7•0 7·2 7·4
6·7 68 7·0 7•1
31 s·3 s·4 s·s 5·7 s·7 s·9 6o 6·1 62 62 63 6·4 65 66 6·7 68 6·9
Moon's phases: new moon, 4d22
11
14m; first quarter, 11d17
11
49"'·
Figure 54 [SALS, 1981]
114
RIGHT ASCENSION OF STARS, 1981
No. Mag. R.A. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan.
h m • s •
51 4•3 2 21 25•0 23•3 21·7
52 4·4 2 26 17•3 16·6 15·8
53 4•3 2 2.7 o8·6 o8·3 07·8
54 4•0 2 38 30•3 29·9 29•5
55 4·3 2 39 18·5 16·8 1S·2
56 4·1 2 39 s5·o 54·4 53·8
57 3·6 2 42 188 18·4 18·o
ss 4·2 2 42 54·1 53·4 52·7
59 4•4 2 43 12·9 12·5 12•1
6o 4·4 2 43 54·7 54•3 53·9
61
6z
6J
64
6s
51·8 51·4 so·8
18·8 17·9 17•0
54·1 54·0 53·1
29·8 29•5 29•0
32·6 32•0 31•3
66
6']
68
69
70
2•8 3 OX
3 OX
303
303
3o6
17•1 16·7 16•3
33•3 32·8 32•3
25·4 24·6 23·8
57·5 57·0 s6·4
s6·o 55·5 54·8
71
72
73
14
75
76
77
78
79
8o
4•2
3·9
3·9
4·3
1•9.
3·8
3·7
4•4
4•3
3·8
8x 4•3
8z . 4·4
8J J•I
84 3•7
ss 3·9
86
a,
88
89
90
3 07 41·8 ·P·2 40·4
3 u: 15•9 15•5 14•9
3 x8 40·4 40·0 39•5
3 X9 10•5 09·9 09•2
3 zz s82 s7·6 s6·8
3 23 47·4 47•1 46·6
3 :z6 o84 o8·o 07·6
3 27 J2•2 31•4 30.4
3 29 49• 5 49•1 48·7
3 32 · 02•2 01·8 01•3
3 32. s7·1 s6·7 s6·1
3 35 54•3 53•9 53•5
3 4X 34·6 34•1 33•3
3 42 20•4 20•1 19·6
3 43 07·8 07·4 o6·8
343
343
343
346
346
44·9 44•6 44•1
54•4 54•0 53•3
59·1 57·8 56·3
02•1 01•7 01•1
21·4 21•1 20·6
91 3•2 3 47 34•4 32•2 29·7
9Z 3·8 3 48 02•1 01•7 01•2
93 4•2 3 4f8 45·0 44•5 43·8
94 2·9 3 52 s6·4 s6·x 55·5
95 J·o 3 s6 3s·o 34·6 33·9
96 3·2 3 57 o88 o8·5 o8·o
97 4•0 3 57 44·1 43·8 43•2
CJ8 4·4 3 ss 28·1 27·o 25·7
99 3·9 3 59 37·8 37· 5 37•0
100 3·9 4 02 o8·9 o8·6 o8·1
• • •
20·6 20·2 20·8
15·3 15·2 15·6
07·5 07·6 o8·o
29·2 29·1 29• 5
14·0 13•5 13·9
53•3 53•2 53•5
17·6 17·6 18·o
. 52•1 52•1 52·6
II•7 II•7 12·0
53·6 53•5 53•9
so· 5 50•4 50•9
16·3 16·2 16·8
52•5 52·4 52•9
z8.6 28·6 28·9
30•7 30• 5 30;8
15·9 15·8 16·2
31·8 31·7 32•o
23•1 22•9 ~ 3 · 4
55·9 55·8 56·2
54•3 54·2 54·6
• • s
22•2 24·2 26·1
16·5 17·7 188
oS8 09•7 10·6
30•3 31•2 32•1
15.·2 17•0 19•0
54·3 55·4 s6·s
18·8 19·7 2o·6
53·7 55·o 56·3
12·8 13•7 14·6
54·7 ss·6 56·s
51·7 52·7 53·7
18·o 19·5 20·9
s4•o 55·4 s6·8
29•6 30·5 31•4
31·6 32·6 33•7
x6:9 17·8 18·7
32·7 33·6 34·6
24•5 25·9· 27•3
57·1 58·3 59·4
55·5 56·7 57·8
39·8 39·7 40·1 41•2 42•5 43·8
14•4 14•2 14•5 15•2 16•1 17•1
39•0 38·8 39•1 39·7 40·6 41·6
o8·5 o8·3 o8·5 09•2 10•3 II•4
56·1 55·9 56·3 . 57·3 586 59·9
46·2 46·1 46·4 47•1 48·0 48·9
07·2 07·0 07·3 o8·o o8·9 09·8
29•4 29·1 29·5 30•7 32•3 33•9
48·2 48·1 48·4 . 49·0 50•0 50•9
00•9 00•7 01•0 OI·6 02•5 03•3
55·6 55·4 55·6 56·2 s7·1 s8·x
53•0 52•9 53·1 53•7 54·6 55·5
32•7 32•4 32•7 33·6 34•8 36• I
19·1 18·9 19•1 19•7 20·6 21•5
o6•3 o6·I o6·4 07•1 o8·1 09•2
43·6 43·4 43•7 44•4 45•3 46·3
52·1 52·4 s2·1 53·5 s4·7 55·8
s5·o 54·1 54·1 54·8 s6·2 58·o
00·6 00•4 OO•S 01•1 01•9 02•9
20•1 19·9 20•1 20·8 21·8 22·7
27·4 25•9 25•6 26·6 28·6 31•1
00•7 00·5 00•8 01•5 02•4 03•4
43•2 42•9 43•0 43·6 44•5 45•5
55·o 54·8 55·o 55·7 s6·7 57·7
33•3 33•1 33•3 34•0 35·1 36·3
07·5 07·2 07·4 07·9 o8·7 09·6
42·6 42•4 42·6 43•3 44•3 45•4
24·4 23·6 23·5 24·1 25·4 26·9
36·6 36·4 36·5 37·I 38·o 389
07·7 07·4 ·07·6 o8•2 09·0 09·9
I I I
27· 5 28·0 276
19·7 20•1 20•0
ll•3 ll•7 11·8
32·8 33•2 33•3
20•5 21•1 20·8
57·3 57•7 57·7
21·2 21·7 21·8
57·2 s7·9 sB· x
xs·3 rs·7 xs·8
57·2 57·7 57·9
54·4 55·o s5·2
22•0 22•8 23•0
578 s8·6 s8·8
32•1 32·6 32•7
34·5 35·0 35·1
19·4 19•9 20•1
35•3 35·8 36·0
28·4 29•2 29·5
60·3 6o·9 61·2
s8·7 59·4 s9·7
44·9 45·6 46·0
17·9 18·4 18·6
42•3 42•9 43•1
12•4 I 3·0 13•2
6t•O 6I·8 62·2
49·6 50•2 50•5
10•6 11•1 Il•4
35•3 36·3 36·9
51·7 52•2 52·6
04•1 04·6 04•9
58·8 s9·4 59·7
s6·2 s6·8 s7· x
37·2 38·o 38·5
22•2 22·8 23•1
10·1 10·8 ll•2
47·1 47·8 48·2
s6·9 57·7 s8·2
59· 5 6o· 5 6o·7
03•7 04•3 04•6
23·6 24•3 24•7
33·5 34•9 35•1
04•2 04•9 05•3
46·4 47•0 47·3
587 59·4 59·9
37·3 38·1 38·6
10•4 11•1 II•4
46·4 47•2 47·7
28· 3 29· 3 29·6
39·7 40o4 40·8
10•7 11•4 II·8
•
26·4
19·6
11·6
33•2
·19·7
57·4
21"7
57·8
15•7
57·8
5S•I
22·7
s8·6
32·6.
34·8
20•0
3s·8
29·3
61·1
59·6
45·8
18·4
43•0
12·9
62•1
50·5
II•4
36·7
52·6
04•9
59·6
57·1
3B·s
2J•1
II•3
48·3
s8·.z
6o·I
04·6
24•7
33•9
05•4
47•2
59·9
38·7
Il•5
47·8
29•2
40•9
ll·9
The figures given refer to the beginning of the month. and should be interpolated to the
actual date by means of the table on page 73·
Figure 55a [SALS, 1981]
115
DECLINATION OF STARS, 1981
No. Name Dec. Jan. F. M. Apr. M. J. July A. s. Oct. N.D. Jan.
0
•
,
..
,
.. ..
,.
·"
, , , , , ,
51
8 Hydri S6844 70 71 66 s8 47 36 27 22 22 29 38 47 53
sz K Eridani
S4746
102 104 IOI
95 Bs 75 6s 6o
59
63 71 79 Bs
53
~ 2 Ceti N Szz 25 23
22 22 23 26 31 36 •P 43 44 43 42
54
8 Ceti N o 14 40 38 37 38 41 45 SI s6
61 62 61
59 57
55
E Hydri S68:zo 78 8o 76 68 s8 46 37
31 Jl 37 46 55
62
56 L Eridani
s 39 55 91 94 92 86 78 68
59
52 so 54
6o 68
75
57 'Y
Ceti N 309 14 12 II II 14 17 23 28 32 34 34
32 30
ss e Persei N49o8 61 62
59 54 49 45 44 46 52 s8 6s 72
77
59
'IT Ceti . S 1356 33 35 35 33
28 21
14
o8 04 os
o8 12 17
6o j.l. Ceti N xoox s8 s6 55
54'
55
s8 62 68 72 75
76 75 74
6x
41
Arietis N27 xo
57 57 55 52 so so 52' s6 .6o 6s 69 72 73
6:z
TJ
Persei
N ss..S 69 70 68 63 57 52 so sx s6 63 71 79. 84
63 T Persei N sz 40 73 75
72 68 62
57 55 57 6:z 69
76 83 88
64 TJ
Eridani s sss 36 38 39 37 33 27
20 14 II IO 13 17 20
6s* e Eridani• s 40 2.Z 69 73 71 66 ss 48
39
32 29 32 39 47 54
66 a Ceti N4oo 49 47
46 46 48 51 s6
6:z 66 68 68 66 64
67
Ta
Eridani S234X 70 73 73
70 64 s6 47 41 JS
39 43
so
55
68
'Y
Persei N 5325 63 6s 63 59 53
48 46 47 sz s8 6s 73
78
69
p Persei N J84S 64 6s 63 6o 56 53 53
s6 6o 66 71 76
79
70
Algol (13 Persei) N4052 62 63 61
57 53
so so 52 57
62 68 73 76
'JI
L Persei N4932 34 35 34 30 24
20 18 20 24 30 37 43 48
']2 a Fornacis S:zgo3 s8
62 6r
57
so 42
33
:z6 23 24 30 J7 43
'13
16 Eridani S2x 49 so 54 54
51 45
38 JO 23 19 . 20 24 30 36
74
BS toeS (Eri.) S43o8 so 54 53
48 40 30 20
13
10 13
20 28
35
75
a Persei
N4947 43 45 44 40 35
31 29 JO 33 39 45
52 57
76
0 Tauri N ss7 39 37 . 36 36 37 39 43 48 52 55 55
54.
53
77 ~
Tauri N 939 55 54 52 52 53 55 59 64 68 71 71 70
69
78
BS 1035 (Cam.) N 59 s:z 35 38 38 33 27
21 17 17 21 26
34
42
49
79 5
Tauri N 1252 14 IJ 12 II 12 13 17 21 25 28 29 29.
28
So E Eridani S 9JX 31 34 35 33 29 23 17 II
07
o6
09 lJ 17
8x
Til
Eridani s 2141 6o 64 6s
62 s6 49 41 34
30 31 35
41
47
8z 10 Tauri No:zo 22 20 19 19
21 25 JI 36 40 41 40 38
35
83 & Persei
N4743 42 44 44
40 36 31 29 30 33 38 43
so
55
84 & Eridani
S949 49 5
2 53
52 48 42 35 29 25 24 27 JI 36
Bs 0 Persei N 32 X3 43 43 43 40 38 36 36 38 42 46 so 53 . 55
86 17
Tauri N2.f03 13 13 12 IO 09o8 10 IJ 17 20 22
%4. 25
s, v Persei N 4231
II 13
12
09
os o.z 00 OJ
04 09
14 19 23
88
13
Reticuli S645x 81 86 Bs 8o 71 6o
49 41 39 42 so 6o 68
89
Tl
Eridani S23 x8 34 38 39 36 30 2J IS o804 04
09
15 21
90 TJ
Tauri N2.fo:& 46 46 45 44 43 42
44 47 so 54
s6 ss
59
91
'Y
Hydri s 7417 73 77 76 71 61 so 40 32 JO
33 42 52 6o
92 27 Tauri N2359 43 43 42 40
39 39
40
43 47 so 52 54 55
93
BS I 195 (Eri.) s J6 IS 43 48 49 45
38 29 19
12 o8
,09
IS 23 Jl
94 t
Persei N 3149 39 40 39 37 35 33 33 35 39 42 46 49 51
95
E Persei
N3957
22 24 23 21 17 14 13 14 17 21 25 JO
34
g6
'Y
Eridani S XJ33 55 59
6o ss 54 48 41 35 30 30 33 J8 43
97 ~
Persei
N3544 IJ 14 14 12 09 o6 o607
10
14 18 22 25
g8 a Reticuli S 6x :z6
94 99 99 94 86 75 64 56 53 55
63 73
82
99
"'
Tauri N X2 :z6 o8
07
o6 o6o6o8 II 15 19
21 22 21 20
100 v Tauri N ss6 07 os 04 04 os o8 12 17 21 23
22 20 18
* No., mag., dist. and p.a. of companion star: 6s, 4·4· 8". sso
Figure 5Sb [SALS, 1981]
L.S.T.
m
0
3
6
9
12
IS
18
21
24
27
JO
33
J6
39
42
45
·,.S
51
54
57
6o
Lat.
0
0
10
20
30
40
45
so
$5
6o
62
64
66
Month
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
, ,
26·5 41·6
26·0 42•0
25•4 42•3
24·8 42·7
24•3 43•0
23·7 43·3
23•2 43·6
22·6 43·9
22•0 44•2
21·4 44•5
20·8 44•7
20·3 45•0
19·7 45•3
I9·1 45•5
I8·5 45·8
17·9 46·0
17·3 46·2
I6·7 46·4
I6·I 46·6
15•4 46·8
14•8 47•0
·3
·3
·2
·2
··I
·I
•0
+·I
+·2
+·2
+·2
+·3
a,
·2
•0
•0
·0
·I
·2
·4
·5
·6
·6
·5
·4
•0
·I
·I
·2
·2
·3
·2
·3
3
·3
·2
•0
+•2
+·4
+·s
116
POLE STAR TABLE, 1981
,
14·8 47·0
I4·2 47·2
I3·6 47·4
I3•0 47·6
12·3 47·7
II·7 47•9
II•I 48·0
IO•S 48·2
9·8 48·3
9•2 48·4
 8·6 48s
7·9 48·6
7·3 48·7
66 48·8
6·0 48·9
, .
 2•2
I•5
0·9
 0•2
+ 0•4
49•2
49•2
49·2
49·2
49·2
+ I•I 49•2
I•7 49•2
2•4 49·I
3•0 49•1
3·6 49•0
+ 4•3 49·0
4•9 48·9
5·6 48·8
6·2 48·8
6·8 48·7
 s·4
4•7
4·1
3·4
2·8
49·0 . + 7·5 +8·6
49·0 8·1 48·s
 2•2
·4
·3
·3
·2
·I
·I
•0
+•I
+·2
+·2
+·3
+·4
·2
. ·I
•0
+·I
•0
·1
·3
·4
·s
.6
·6
·5
49•I 8·7 48·3
49• I 9·4 482
49•1 IO·O 48·I
49·2 +I0·6 48·0
•0
•0
•0
•0
·I
·I
·I
·I
•0
·I
·3
·4
·4
·3
·I
•0
+·2
+·4
·4
·4
·3
·2
·I
·I
•0
+•I
+·2
+·2
+·3
+·4
·3
·I
•0
+•I
+·I
•0
·2
·3
·5
.6
·6
·6
·I
·I
•0
•0
•0
•0
•0
•0
•0
•0
+·I
b,
+·1
+·I
•0
·I
+·1
+·2
ao
, .
+I0·6 +8·0
11•3 47·8
II·9 47·7
12•5 47•5
l3•I 47•3
+13·7 47·1
I4•4 46·9
I5•0 46·7
.156 46·5
I6·2 46·3
+I6·8 46·1
17•4 45•9
I8·o 45·7
18·6 45•4
19•2 45•2
+19·8 44•9
20•4 44·6
20•9 44•4
21•5 44•1
22•1 43·8
+22•7 43•5
·4 ·J
·3 ·2
·3 ·2
·2 ·I
·I ·I
·I •0
•0 •0
+•I +•I
+·2 +•I
+·2 +·2
+·3. +·2
+·3 +·2
a2 b2
·3 •0
·I +·I
•0 •0
+·I ·I
+•I ·2
+·I ·4
·I . ·s
·2 ·5
·4 ·4
·s ·3
·6 ·I
·6 +•I
Jdo
+22•7 43•5
23•2 43·2
i3·8 42•9
24•4 42·6
24•9 42•2
+25·5 41·9
26·0 4I·6
26·6 41•2
27·1 40•9
27·6 40•5
+28·2 40·2
28·7 39·8
29·2 39•4
29·7 39•0
30•2 38·6
+30•7 38·2
3I•2 37·8
3I•7 37•4
32•2 37·0
32·7 36·6
+33•2 36·1
3
2
·2
·I
I
oQ
+·I
+•I
+2
. +·2
+·3
a,
·3
·I
o()
+•I
+·2
·
+·2
+·I
·I
·3
·5
·6
6
·4
3
·J
·2
·I
·I
•0
+•I
+·2
+·2
+·3
+·3
b,
·I
•0
•0
·I
·2
·3
·5
·5
·s
·4
·2
·I
Latitude = Corrected observed altitude of Polaris + a0 +a, + a2
Azimuth of Polaris = (b0 + b1 + b2 ) sec (latitude)
Figure 56 [SALS, 1981]
, ,
+33•2 36·1
33·6 35·7
34•I 35•3
34·5 .34·8
35•0 34•4
+35•4 33·9
35•9 33·4
36·3 33•0
36·8 32•5
37·2 32•0
+37·6 JI•5
38·0 JI•O
J8·4 30·6
J8·8 30•I
39•2 29·5
+JE)·6 29•0
39·9 28·5
40•3 28·0
40·7 27•5
4I•O 26·9
+4I•4 26·4
·2
·2
·I
·I
1
•0
•0
•0
·2
·J
•0
+·2
+·2
+·3
+·2
•0
·2
·3
·s
·6
·4
·4
·3
·2
·I
·I
•0
+·I
+·2
+·2
+·3
+·4
b,
·I
•0
•0
•0
·I
·3
·4
·5
·5
·s
·4
·2
6. VARIATIONS IN CELESTIAL COORDINATES
The mathematical models for the determination of astronomic
latitude, longitude, and azimuth require the use of a celestial bodies
apparent (true) coordinates for the epoch of observation. The coordinates
(a,S) of the stars and the sun (the most often observed celestial bodies
for surveying purposes) are given in star catalogues, ephemerides, and
almanacs for certain predicted epochs that do not (except in exceptional
circumstances) coincide with the epoch of observation. To fulfill the
requirements stated previously, the coordinates must be updated. As
was indicated in Chapter 5, the updating procedure has been made very
simple for users of annual publications such as • SALS, and APFS. The
question is, how are the coordinates in the annual publications derived,
and how should one proceed when using one of the fundamental star
catalogues (eg. FK4). The aim of this chapter is to answer this
question.
In previous discussions in these notes, coordinates in the Right
Ascension system have been considered constant with respect to time, and
in the Hour Angle and Horizon systems, changes occurred only as a result
of earth rotation. In this chapter, we consider the following motions in
the context of the Right Ascension system:
(i) precession and nutation: motions of the coordinate system
relative to the stars;
(ii) proper motion: relative motion of the stars with respect to
each other;
(iii) refraction, aberation, parallax: apparent displacement of
stars due to physical phenomena;
117
118
(iv) polar motion: motion of the coordinate system with respect to the
solid earth.
Except for polar motion, the above factors are discussed in terms
of their effects on a and o of a celestial body. This leads to variations
in the Right Ascension coordinate system. The definition of the variations
are given below and Figure 61 outlines their interrelationships.
(i) Mean Place: heliocentric, referred to some specified mean
equator and equinox.
(ii) True Place: heliocentric, referred to the true equator and
equinox of date when the celestial body is actually observed.
(iii) Apparent Place: geocentric, referred to the true equator and
equinox of date when the celestial body is actually observed.
(iv) Observed Place: topocentric, as determined by means of direct
readings on some instrument corrected for systematic
instrumental errors (e.g. dislevellment, collimation).
The definitions are amplified in context in the following sections.
6.1 Precession, Nutation, and Proper Motion
The resultant of the attractive forces of the sun, moon, and
other planets on our nonsymmetrical, nonhomogeneous earth, causes a
moment which tries to rotate the equatorial plane into the ecliptic
plane. We view this as the motion. of the earth's axis of rotation about
the ecliptic pole. This motion is referred to as precession. The
predominant effect of lunisolar precession is a westerly motion of the
equinox along the equator of 5 0 ~ 3 per year. The period of the motion is
approximately 26000 years, and its amplitude (obliquity of the ecliptic)
is approximately 23?5. Superimposed on this planetary precession, which
119
MEAN @To . )
I
PROPER MOTION
PRECESSION
I
c
MEAN @ T
I
NUTATION
I
TRUE @ T
I
ANNUAL ·ABERATION
ANNUAL PARALLAX
I
APPARENT @ T
I
DIURNAL A!BERATION
GEOCENTRIC PARAllAX
REFRACTION
1
OBSERVED @ T
Figure 61
Variations of the Right Ascension S y s t e ~
120
causes a westerly motion of the equinox of per century, and a change
in the obliquity of the ecliptic of 47" per century. General precession is
then the sum of lunisolar and planetary precession.
Within the long period precession is the shorter period
astronomic nutation. The latter is the result of the earth's motion about
the sun, the moon about the earth, and the moon's orbit not lying in the
ecliptic plane. The period of this motion is about 19 years, with an
amplitude of 9" •
General precession, with astronomic nutation superimposed, is
shown in Figure 62.
Each star appears to have a small motion of its own, designated
as its proper motion. This motion is the resultant of the actual motion
of the star in space and of its apparent motion due to the changing
direction arising from the motion of the sun.
In Chapter 5, it was stated that certain epochs T have been
0
chosen as standard epochs to which tabulated mean celestial coordinates
(a ,o ) of celestial bodies refer. The mean celestial system is completely
0 0
defined by:
a heliocentric origin,
a primary (Z) pole that is precessing (not nutating), and is
called the mean celestial pole,
a primary axis (X) that is precessing (not nutating), following the
motion of the mean vernal equinox,
a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded.
Now, to define a set of coordinates for an epoch T, we must update
from T to T, since for every epoch T, a different mean celestial system
0
121
GENERAL PRECESSION
NT =NUTATION . AT
o To
T
0
PATH OF TRUE
CELESTIAL POLE
P =PRECESSION
1\JT= NUTATION
AT T
PATH OF MEAN
CELESTIAL POLE
Figure 62
Motion of the Celestial Pole
122
is defined. The relationship between mean celestial systems is defined in
terms of precessional elements ,e, Z) (Figure 63) and proper motion
0
a d
elements (p
0
,p
0
).
Expressions for the precessional elements were derived by Simon
Newcomb around 1900, and are [e.g. Mueller, 1969]
z; = +
0
z = z; +
0
) t +
+
0
+
e =  > t 

0
(61)
(62)
(63)
in which the initial epoch is T = 1900.0 + t , and the final epoch
0 0
T = 1900.0 + t + t, in which t and t are measured in tropical centuries.
0 0
The precessional elements
z,e) are tabulated fo;r o.f .the
current year in AA. From Figure 63, it can be seen that
X X
y
=
y
z z
or, setting
then
X X
y = p y
z z
·Me
T
0
(64)
(65)
(66)
Proper of a star is accounted for in the mean right
ascension system, and its effects on (a ,o ) are part of the update
0 0
from a mean place at T
0
to a mean place at T. The transformation (given
here without proof) is
}{MCT
¥(T)
123
Figure 63
Mean Celestial Coordinate SysteMs
124
X
y =
(67)
in which t = T  T (in years), and dv are the annual tangential component of
0
dt
proper motion and rate of change of that component, and W is the direction
0
(azimuth) of proper motion at T • The quantities tabulated in a Fundamental
0
a o
Catalogue such as the FK4 are
, v
0
, the annual components of proper
motion in right ascension and declination, and their rates of change per
d
a cS
one hundred years, v
0
I dt,
and W
0
are then
given by
dv/dt =
Setting
d a
 +
dt
a
( oosoo) =
1
cos
v
(67) is rewritten as
X X
y =M y
z
1
2
'
Now, combining (66) and (69), the complete update from a mean place at T
0
to a mean place at T is given by
(68)
(69)
X
Y = PM
z
125·
X
y
z
(610)
The effects of astronomic nutation, which must be accounted for
to update from the mean celestial system at T to the true celestial system
at T (Figure 61), are expressed as nutation in longitude and
nutation in the obliquity (Ae). Expressions for and 6e have been
developed, and for our purposes, values are tabulated (e.g. AA). The
true celestial system at T to which (a
0
,o
0
) are updated is defined by:
a heliocentric origin,
 a primary pole (Z) that is the true celestial pole following the
precessing and nutating axis of rotation,
 a primary axis that is the true precessing and nutating
vernal equinox,
 a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded.
The true and mean celestial systems are shown in Figure 64,
and from this, we can deduce the transformation
X
y
z
=
TCT
Designating
N =
r
X
y
z
(611)
(612)
ZTC
A
NCP\JMEAN) ·,NCP (TRUE)
~ ~ c
YTC
ECLIPTIC
PLANE
Figure 64
True and Uean Celestial Coordinate Systems
......
N
0\
127
(611) is written
X X
y
= N y (613)
z z
Combining ( 6 ~ 6 ) , ( 6 ~ 9 ) , and ( 6 ~ 1 1 ) , the update from mean celestial at T
0
to true celestial at T is given in one expression, namely
X X
Y = NPM
y
z z
6.2 Annual Aberration and Parallax
The apparent place celestial system is the one in which the astronomic
coordinates (41, h) are expressed, thus it is in this system that the
mathematical models (relating observables, known and unknown quantities) are
formulated. This requires that the (a
0
,o
0
) of a celestial body be updated to
the apparent place system, defined as having:
 an origin coincident with the earth's centre of gravity,
~ a primary pole (Z) coincident with the earth's instantaneous
rotation axis,
~ a primary axis (X) coincident with the instantaneous vernal equinox,
a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded.
Evidently, the main change is a shift in origin. This gives rise to two
physical effects (i) annual parallax due to the shift in origin, and (ii)
annual aberration due to the revolution of the new origin about the
heliocentre.
128
Aberration is the apparent displacement of a celestial body caused
by the finite velocity of light propagation combined with the relative
motion of the observer and the body. The aberration we are concerned with
here is a subset of planetary aberration, namely annual aberration. From the
general law of aberration depicted in Figure and our knowledge of the
earth's motion about the heliocentre, the changes in coordinates due to
annual aberration (_!iaA,MA) are given by Ie.g. Mueller, 1969]
!ia =  K seco
A
(cosa COSA
s
COS€ + sina
AO = .... K (COSh COS€ C:tane coso· .... s·ina sin·A ) •
A · s · s
sin>.. ) ,
. s
(615)
In and A is the ecliptic longitude of the sun, a,o are in
s
the true celestial system at T, and K is the constant of aberration for the
earth's orbit (assumed circular for our purposes), given numerically as
= In matrix form, the change in the position vector is given by
""'D
A= c (616)
c tane:
in which C and D are referred to as the aberrational (Besselian) 'day numbers
(Note: c = K cose cos>.. 1 D = K sinA ). These quantities are tabulated, for
s s
example in M:
Parallactic displacement is defined as the angle between the
directions of a celestial object as seen from an observer and from some
standard point of reference. Annual (Stellar) Parallax occurs due to the
separation of the earth and sun, and is the difference between a geocentric
direction and a heliocentric direction to a celestial body (Figure 66).
Expressed as changes to (a,o) we have
R
129
s•
•
s
I! S : POSITION OF STAR AT LIGHT EMISSION
Q' 0: POSITION OF OBSERVER AT LIGHT
9' DETECTION
od: OF OBSERVER MOTION
9." V
1
VELOCITY OF OBSERVER MOTION
SS: PARALLEL TO 00
1
SUCH THAT
ss•_ v _
socK
$.
g,(,j
0
WHERE. C VELOCITY OF LIGHT
IN A VACUUM, AND K =CONSTANT
OF ABERRATION
0
Figure 65
Aberration
I
I
\
\
'
'
130
""' /
 .......
\
I
I
9 : HELIOCENTRIC DIRECTION
9
1
: GEOCENTRIC DIRECTION
JI : ANNUAL (STELLAR) PARALLAX
Figure 66
Annual (Stellar) Parallax
131
flo. = II {coso. cosE sin}, ..... sino. cos). ) sectS
p . s s
{6""17)
flo = II {coso sinE sinA. .. coso. sino cosA.  sino. sino cosE sin). ) , {618)
p s s s
in which the new quantity II is the annual (stellar) p!=trallax. II is a small
quantity  for the nearest star it is 0 ~ 7 6 . As for the computation of the
effects of aberration, a,o in {617} and (618) are in the true celestial
system at T. Using the Besselian Day Numbers C and D, the changes in the
position vector are given by
c secE
R= D COSE (II/K)
D sinE
To update (a,o) from the True Celestial system at T to the Apparent Celestial
system at T, we write the expression
X X
y
= A+ R +
y
(620)
z z
Finally, the complete update from Mean Celestial system at T to Apparent
0
Celestial at T is given by the expression
X
X
y =A+ R + NPM y (621)
z z
A.P.T
This entire process is summarised in Figure 67, and all symbols used in
Figure 67 are explained in Table 61.
..
I
I
l
cATALOGUED
ao,tSo'
(To)

CATALOGUED
xo' yo'
z
0
PROPER MOTION
,
PRECESSION
NUTATION
ANNUAL ABERRATIONl
ANNUAL PARALLAX'
APPARENT
(X, Y, Z)
APPARENT
(Geocentric)
a', (T)
132
costS cosa
0 0
= costS sina
0 0
sintS
0
M = R
3
RJ
A=
ntanE]
R =
[ Csec< ]
 Deese:
Dsine:
X X
0
y
= R + A + NPM
y
0
z
zo
1
a' = tan y/x
= sin
1
z = tan
1
z;cx
2
+Y
2
)
1
/
2
FIGURE 67
POSITION UPDATING M.C.T
0
to A.P.T
133
Description of Terms
Symbol Description Where
Obtained
(a 1 0 ) Right ascension and From Fundamental
0 0
declination of the star Catalogue
at epoch T
0
(X I y lz ) Direction numbers of From (a 1 0
)
0 0 0 0 0
star at T
0
ll
Annual Tangential com From
ponent of proper motion
Fundamental
of star at T •
dll
0
Catalogue
Rate of change of proper
dt
motion
t Time interval in years t=TT
0
ljJO
Direction (azimuth) of From Fundamental
proper motion at T Catalogue
0
(l;;ol zl
8) Precessional Elements From Astronomical
(6ljJI 6e:) Nutational Elements Ephemeris
e: Obliquity of the eclip From Astronomical
tic
(C1 D) Aberrational Day Num Ephemeris
bers
II Stellar Parallax of From Fundamental
Star Catalogue
K Constant of annual K=20".4958
Aberration
(X 1 Y1 Z) Direction numbers of Computed from all the
the star at epoch T above parameters
! '•1 il
(a, o ) Right ascension and de
clination of the star
at epoch T 1 referred to Computed from
the Apparent (Geocen (X1 Y1 Z) at time T.
tric) System.
TABLE 61
134
6.3 Diurnal Aberration, Geocentric Parallax, and Astronomic Refraction.
At the conclusion of the previous section (6.2), we had
expressed in the Apparent Place system at T. At time T, an observer observes
a celestial body relative to the Observed Place system. The latter is defined
by
an origin defined by the observers position,
a primary pole (Z) parallel to the true instantaneous celestial
pole,
a primary axis (X) parallel to the true vernal equinox,
a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded.
Evidently, the Observed Place is simply a translated Apparent Place system.
Our task now is to move from the Observed Place to the Apparent Place where
our mathematical models for position determination are formulated. This
requires corrections for (i) diurnal aberration, (ii) geocentric parallax,
and (iii) astronomic refraction.
Diurnal aberration is the displacement of the direction to a
celestial body due to the rotation of the earth. The diurnal constant of
aberration, k, is expressed as a function of the earth's rotation (w ) , the
e
geocentric latitude of an observer and the length of the observer's
geocentric position vector (p). This yields [e.g. Mueller, 1969]
k = 0.320 p = 0.0213 p (622)
The changes in a celestial objects coordinates are given by
ks
cosh
1
=
, (623)
=
k" sinh
• (624)
135
The convention adopted here for signs is
=
aAP
aOP '
(625)
T . T
=
<SAP 15
oP •
(626)
T T
This same convention applies to the corrections for geocentric parallax and
astronomic refraction that are treated next.
Geocentric parallax is the difference between the observed
topocentric direction and the required geocentric direction (Figure 68).
The changes, expressed in terms of the celestial objects right ascension and
declination are
=  n sinh cosecz sec<5
1
(627)
n cosecz sec<5
1
 tan<5
1
cotz). (628)
It should be noted that for celestial bodies other than the sun,
are so small as to be negligible.
Astronomic refraction is the apparent displacement of a celestial object
lying outside our atmosphere that results from light rays being bent in passing
through the atmosphere. In general, the light rays bend downward, thus a
celestial object appears at a higher altitude than is really true
(Figure 69). The astronomic refraction angle is defined by
= z  Z
1
R
(629)
in whichz
1
is the observed zenith distance, z is the corrected zenith distance.
The effects on a,<S are
=  sinh cosec z' sec6
1
R R
(630)
= cosec z' sec<5
1
 tano' cot z'). (631)
values are usually tabulated for some standard temperature and pressure
(usually 760mm Hg, T = 10°c, relative humidity 60%) • Corrections to those
values are obtained through determinations of temperature, pressure, and
GEOCENTRE
136
Figure 68
STAR
1T: GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX
Z
1
: MEASURED DIRECTION
Z : GEOCENTRIC DIRECTION
Geocentric Parallax

 .......
""'"....
'
137
'
'
Figure 69
\
DIRECTION
\
\
\
\
\
\
'
Astronomic Refraction
to S
138
relative humidity at the time of observation (T).
Finally, we can write the expressions for the rightascension
and declination of a celestial body as
a =

A.P.T A.P.T
+ +
(632)
0 = o' 
+ + I
(633)
A.P.T A.P.T
in which a' and o' refer to the Apparent Place coordinates obtained from
equation (621). This process is summarized in Figure 610.
In closing this section, the reader should note the following. It
is common practice in lowerorder astronomical position and azimuth
determinations to correct the observed direction z• for both geocentric
parallax and refraction rather than use (632) and (633) above. Thus, in
our math models we use
z = z•  + )
R p
(634)
the correction to a zenith distance due .. to geocentric parallax,
is tabulated (e.g. SALS). Note that the effects of diurnal aberration are
neglected.
6.4 Polar Motion
The final problem to be solved is the transformation of astronomically
determined positional coordinates from the Apparent Place celestial
system to the Average Terrestrial coordinate system. This involves two
steps: (i) transformation of aAP , oAP (Apparent Place) to Instantaneous
Terrestrial and (ii) transformation of AIT (Instantaneous Terrestrial) to
Average Terrestrial.
In the first step, we are moving from a nonrotating system to a
coordinate system that is rotating with the The Instantaneous
139
APPARENT
PlACE
(GEOCENTRIC)
I
+Af:X. +Act)
AP A G D R
6 =6
1
+AS +AS )
AP AP G D R
"
DIURNAL
ABERRATION
AOh,11S
0
GEOCENTRIC
PARAllAX
ASTRONOMIC
REFRACTION
OBSERVED
PlACE
(TOPOCENTRIC)
Figure 610
Observed to Apparent Place
140
Terrestrial (IT) system is defined by
a geocentric origin,
a primary pole (Z) that coincides with the instantaneous terrestrial
pole,
a primary axis (X) that is the intersection of the Greenwich Mean
Astronomic Meridian and Instantaneous equatorial planes,
a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded.
Comparing the definitions of the A.P. and I.T. systems, we see that
the only difference is in the location of the primary axis, and futhermore,
that XIT is in motion. Recalling the definition of sidereal time, we see
that the A.P. and I.T. systems are related through GAST (Figure 611), namely
X X
y = R
3
(GAST) y (635)
z z
IT AP
in which
X c o s ~ co sex X cos<S cosa.
y = coso sin a y = coso sina. , (6. 36)
z
APT
sino
APT
z
sino
or, using a spherical approximation of the earth
X c o s ~ cosA
y
=
c o s ~ sinA
I.T.
z
IT
s i n ~
The reader should note that this transformation is usually (635)
carried out in an implicit fashion within the mathematical models for
position and azimuth determination rather than explicitly as is given here
(see, for example, Chapters 8 and 9). The results that one obtains are then
Figure 611
Transformation of Apparent Place
To Instantaneous Terrestrial
System
142
all expressed in an Instantaneous Terrestrial coordinate system. The
final step is to refer these quantities to the Average Terrestrial coordinate
system.
The direction of the earth's instantaneous rotation axis is moving
with respect to the earth's surface. Tbe motion, called polar motion, is counter
• amJ>litude .of' about· 5 m·; and· a period of
approximately 430 m.s.d. The motion is expressed in of the
position of the instantaneous rotation axis with respect to a reference point
fixed on the earth's crust. The point used is the mean terrestrial pole for
the interval 19001905, and is called the Conventional International Origin
{C.I.O.).
The Average Terrestrial {AT) coordinate system is the one which we
would like to refer astronomic positions This system differs in
definition from the I.T. system only in the definition of the primary pole 
the primary A.T. pole is the C.I.O. Referring to figure 612, we can easily
see that
X X
y
= R_ (x ) R (y )
2 p 1 p
y (637)
z
AT
z
I.T.
Using a spherical approximation for the earth which is adequate for this
transformation, one obtains [Mueller, 1969]
cosA
sinA
A.T.
= R_(x) R (y)
"2 p 1 p
cosA
sinA
(638)
I.T.
143
y ..... CIO y e CIO
I
I
. I
Xp I
I
I
I
~ ·
/ Yp
INSTANTANEOUS
TERRESTRIAL
POLE
TRANSFORMATION FROM INSTANTANEOUS ·To AVERAGE
TERRESTRIAL SYSTEM.
FIGURE 612
X
144
Specifically, one obtains after some manipulations, the two equations
[Mueller, 1969]
~ ~ = ~ A T  ~ I T = yp sinAIT  xp cosAIT
{639)
~ A = AAT  AIT = (xp sinAIT + yp cosA
1
T) t a n ~ I T
(640)
The effect of polar motion on the astronomic azimuth is expressed as
[Mueller, 1969]
(641)
The complete process of position updating, and the relationship
with all celestial coordinate systems is depicted in Figure 613. The
relationships amongst all of the coordinate systems used in geodesy, with
celestial systems in perspective, is given in Figure 614.
Ecliptic
Mean Celestial"
@To
Right Ascension
Mean Celestial
@ T .
Hour' Angle
,,
True Celestial
@ T
CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND POSITION UPDATING
[Krakiwsky and Wells, 1971]
FIGURE 613
Horizon
Apparent
@ T
Observed
@ T
1'
1::'
VI
CELESTIAL
SYSTEMS
TERRESTRIAL
SYSTEMS
DIURNAL
ABERRATION
GEOCENTRIC
PARALLAX
REFRACTION

EULER
ANGLES
CU, i, Jt
I
ORBITAL"
1
HELIOCENTRIC GEOCENTRIC
1
TOPOCENTRIC
COORDINATE SYSTEMS USED IN GEODESY
FiBure 6ll..
......
.
0'\
7. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC AZIMUTH
In Chapter 1, the astronomic azimuth was defined as the angle
between the astronomic meridian plane of a point i and the astronomic normal
plane of i through another point j. In Chapter 2 (Section 2.2.1), this
angle was defined with respect to the Horizon celestial coordinate system
in which the point j was a celestial object. Obviously, to determine the
astronomic azimuth of a line ij on the earth, we must (i) take sufficient
observations to determine the azimuth to a celestial body at an instant of
time T, and (ii) measure the horizontal angle between the star and the
terrestrial reference object (R.O.).
In these notes, two approaches.to astronomic azimuth determination
are studied: (i) the hour angle method, in which observations of Polaris
(a Ursae Minoris) at any hour angle is treated as a special case, and
(ii) the altitude method, in which observation of the sun is treated as a
special case. Several alternative azimuth determination methods are treated
extensively in Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].
The instruments·used for azimuth determination are a geodetic
theodolite, a chronometer (e.g. stop watch), a HF radio receiver, a
thermometer and a barometer. To obtain optimum accuracy in horizontal
direction measurements, a striding level should be used to measure the
inclination of the horizontal axis.
Finally, the reader should note that the astronomic azimuth
determination procedures described here yield azimuths that are classified
as being second or lower order. This means that the internal standard
deviation of several determinations of the astronomic azimuth would be, at
best, 0 ~ 5 to 1 ~ 5 [e.g. Mueller, 1969]. Most often, using a 1" theodolite
147
148
with a striding level attachment, the standard deviation of the astronomic
azimuth of .a terrestrial line would be of the order of 5" to 10" [e.g.
Robbins, 1976].
7.1 Azimuth by Star Hour Angles
From the transformation of Hour Angle celestial coordinates
(h,o) to Horizon celestial coordinates (A,a), we have the equation (220)
tan A=
sinh.
(71)
cosh  tano
To solve this equation for A, we must know the latitude of the place of
observation. The declination of the observed star, o, can be obtained from
a star catalogue, ephemeris, or almanac (e.g. FK4, SALS) and updated
to the epoch of observation T. The hour angle of a star, h, can not be
observed, but it can be determined if time is observed at the instant the
star crosses the vertical wire of the observer's telescope. Assuming one
observes zone time (ZT), then the hour angle is given by (combining
equations (230), (311), (33), (313), (318))
h
h = ZT + AZ + (a  12 ) + Eq.E. + A  a ,
m
(72)
in which ZT is observed, AZ and A are assumed known, a,nd _a, .Eq. E and ·12h)
m
are catalogued in A.A. ·(or +.Eq·.E) is catalogued in SALS), and must
be updated to the epoch of observation T.
The minimization of the effects of systematic errors are important
for any azimuth determination. This can be done, in part, through the
selection of certain stars for an observing program. Assuming that the
sources of systematic errors in (71) occur in the knowledge of latitude
and the determination of the hour angle, we can proceed as follows.
149
Differentiation of (71) yields.
dA = sinA cotz +  cosA cotz)dh. (73)
Examination of (73) yields the following:
(i)
0 0
when A = 0 or 180 , the effects of are
(ii) when = cosA cotz, the effects of dh are ·eliminated.
Thus, if a star is observed at transit (culmination), the effects of are
minimized, while if a star is observed at elongation (parallactic angle
0
p = 90 ), the effects of dh are minimized. Of course, it is not possible
to satisfy both conditions simultaneously; however, the effects will be
elliminated if two stars are observed such that
sinA
1
cotz
1
,;, = sinA
2
cotz
2
(74)
 (cosA
1
cotz
1
+ cosA
2
cotz
2
) = 0 (75)
As a general rule, then, the determination of astronomic azimuth using the
hour angle method must use a series of star pairs that fulfill conditions
(74) and (75). This procedure is discussed in detail in, for example,
Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].
A special case can be easily made for cicumpolar stars, the most
wellknown of which in the northern hemisphere is Polaris (a. Ursae·Minoris).
When > 15° Polaris is easily visible and directions to it are not affected
unduly by atmospheric refraction. Since A= 0°, the error is
eliminated. Furthermore, since in (73), the term [Robbins, 1976]
 cosA cotz) = coso cosz cosp, (76)
then when o = 90° , the effects of dh are elliminated. Then Polaris can be
observed at any hour angle for the determination of astronomic azimuth by
the hour angle method.
150
A suggested observing sequence for Polaris is as follows
[Mueller, 1969]:
(i) Direct on R.O., record H.C.R.,
(ii) Direct on Polaris, record H.C.R. and T,
(iii) Repeat (ii),
(iv) Repeat ( i ) ~ .
(v) Reverse telescope and repeat (i) through (iv).
The above observing sequence constitutes one azimuth determination;
eight sets are suggested. Note that if a striding level is 'used, readings
of both ends of the level (e.g. e and w for direct, e•· and w' for reverse)
should be made and recorded after the paintings on the star. An azimuth
correction, for each observed set, is then given by [Mueller, 1969]
I:J.A"
=
d"
( (w + w')  (e + e') ) cotz (77)
4
in which d is the value in arcseconds of each division of the striding
level.
Briefly, the computation of astronomic azimuth proceeds as
follows:
(i) for each of the mean direct and reverse zone time (ZT) readings
of each set on Polaris, compute the hour angle (h) using (72),
(ii) using (71), compute the astronomic azimuth A of Polaris for
each of the mean direct and reverse readings of each set,
(iii) using the mean direct and mean reverse H.C.R.'s of each set on
Polaris and the R.o., compute the astronomic azimuth of the
terrestrial line,
(iv) the mean of all computed azimuths (two for each observing sequence,
eight sets of observations) is the azimuth of the terrestrial line,
151
(v) computation_of the standard deviation of a single azimuth
determination and of the mean azimuth completes the computations.
Computations may be shortened somewhat by (i) using the mean
readings direct and reverse for each set of observed times and H.C.R.'s
(e.g. only 8 azimuth determinations ) or (ii) using the mean of all time and
H.C.R.'s, make one azimuth determination. If either of these approaches
are used, an azimuth correction due to the nonlinearity of the star's
path is required. This correction (6A ) is termed a second order
c
curvature correction [Mueller, 1969]. It is given by the expression
"
A
c
=
n
I
i=l
m.
~
(78)
in which n is the number of observations that have been meaned (e.g. 2
for each observing sequence (direct and reverse), 16 for the total set of
observations (8 direct, 8 reverse)). The term CA is given by
=
tanA
. 2h
s ~ n
2 2
COS h  COS, A
2
cos A
(79)
in which the azimuth A is the azimuth of the star (Polaris) computed
without the correction. The term m. is given as
~
2
mi = ~ ri sin 2" ,
where
"[i = (Ti  To)
,
and
Tl + T2
+ .... + T
T
n
=
0 n
(710)
(711)
(712)
If, when observing Polaris, the direct and reverse readings are
made within 2m to 3m , the curvature correction 6A will be negligible and
c
152
Observer: A. GonzalezFletcher
Computer: A. GonzalezFletcher
Local Date: 3311965
Instruments: Kern DKM3A
theodolite (No. 82514);
Hamiltonsidereal chro
nometer (No. 2E12304);
Favag chronograph with
manual key; Zenith
transoceanic radio.
Location: OSU old astro pillar
tit e! 40°00'00
11
Ae!
Star Observed: FK4 No. 907
(a Ursae Minoris
[Polaris])
Azimuth Mark: West Stadium
1. Level Corrections (Sample)
d [ , , J
AA = 4 . (w+w )  (e+e ) cot z
Determination No.
1 2 3
d/4 cot z 0'!347 0'!347 0'!347
w+vl 41.8 41.7 41.9
e+ff 43.3 43.3 42.8
AA 0'!52 0'!59 0'!31
d = 1 '!6/division
2. Azimuth Computation (Sample)
tan A = sin h/ (sin 1ft cos h  cOS c;l> tan 6) ..
1 :i\Iean chronometer reading
j direct and reverse point
mas
12 Chronometer correction
(computed similar to
Example 8.4)
3 AST
4 a: (8J?parent; J
·'
5 h = AST a
6 h (arc)
7 {j (apparent } ·
8 cosh
9 tan 6
10 sin ·q, cos h
11 cos 6
12 (10)  (11)
13 sinh
14 tan A= (13)/(12)
15 A (at the average h)
Determination No.
1 2 3
10
11
11 16
5"51!28
10 57
113°07'16'!65 121°58'20'!55
89°06'12'!92 89°06'12'!92 89°06'12'!92
0.33501582 0.39267890 0.529510321
63.91162817 63.91162817 63.91162812
0.21534402 0.25240913 0.3403626i I
48.95914742 48':95914742 48.95914742
49.17449144 49.21155655 49.299510091'
0.94221251 0.91967535 0.84830350
0.01916059 0.01868820 0.01720714 i
358°54'08'!33 358°55'45'!73 359°00'51'!121
AZIMUTH BY THE HOUR ANGLE OF POLARIS [Mueller, 1969]
FIGURE 71
("\
'· ..
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
153
Time difference between
direct and reversed
(21) 7"12.'4
Curvature correction
{equation (9;17)) 0'!5 0'!1 0'!1
A (Polaris) = (15) + (1 7) 358°54 •os •:a 358°55 '45'!8 359°00'51'!2
Circle read
ing on Polaris 2580..Z5 '48':9 258°27'28'!2 258°32'39'!0
Correction for dislevel
ment (AA) 0'!5 0'!6 0'!3
Corrected circle reading =
(19) + (20) '27':6 258°32'38'!7
Circle reading on Mark 00°01 '14'!7 00°01'17'!5
Angle between Mark and
Polaris = (22)  (21) 101°35'25'!3 101°28'38'!8.
Azimuth of Mark = (18) +
(23)
.•
3. Final Observed Azimuths from Eight Determinations
Determination No. Azimuth of Marlt v
 .
1 100°29 '34 '!1 2'.'39
2 32.9 1.19
3 30.0 1.71
4 31.3 0.41
5 32.0 0.29
..
6 30.3 1.41
7 31.6 0.11
8 31.5 0.21
Final {mean) 100°29'31'!71
[v]=0'!02
Standard deviation of an azimuth determination:
= rr;;] = J 12.35 = 1"33
m" .J ";:1 81 .
Standard deviation of the mean azimuth:
m. 1':33
M .......... = 0'.'47
,.=rn =IS
Result:
vv
5.71
1.42
2.92
0.17
0.08
1.99
0.01
0.04
[vv]=12.35
Ar(West Stadium) = :1: 0'!5
FIGURE 7l(continued)
I
!
i
154
could therefore be neglected [Robbins, 1976]. An example of azimuth
determination by the hour angle of Polaris is given in Figure 71.
Azimuth by hour angles is used for all orders of astronomic work.
The main advantages of this method are that the observer has only to
observe the star as it coincides with the vertical wire of the telescope
and since no zenith distance measurement is made, astronomic refraction has
no effect. The main disadvantages are the need for a precise timekeeping
device and a good knowledge of the observer's longitude.
Table 71 summerizes, for several situations, the sources of
errors and their magnitudes in the determination of astronomic azimuth by
stars hour angles.
7.2 Azimuth by Star Altitudes
Azimuth by star altitudes yields less accurate results than
azimuth by star hour angles. The two reasons for this are (i) the star
must be observed as it coincides with both the horizontal and vertical wires
of the telescope, and (ii) the altitude observation is subject to the
effects of astronomic refraction. The method does have the advantage,
however, that a precise knowledge of the observer's longitude is not
required and an accurate timekeeping device is not needed. Azimuths
determined by star altitudes are not adequate for work that requires crA
to be 5" or less.
155
Stars at Elongation Polaris Prime Vertical Lower
Transit
a . . . . . . .. . . 35°
If»
15° 22°.5 15°
0 . . . . . . . . .. 60° 75°
03
sec a (vertical wire
on star) 2".4 2".3 2".6 2".7 2".6
04
( Ill:!asurement of
horizontal angle) 2".5 2".5 2".5 2".5 2".5
OS
tan a (reading of
plate level) 3".5 2".9 1".3 2".1 1".3
OT
(time) . . . . .. 0".0 0" .1 1".5 1
11
.5 0".8
~ u m
(plate level) •• .. 4".9 4".5 4".1 4".5 3".9
06
tan a (reading of
striding level) 0".9 0".7 0".3 0".5 0".3
Sum (striding level) .. 3".6 3".5 3',' .9 4".0 3".7
Azimuth by hour angle: random errors in latitude 30°
Stars at Elongation Polaris Prime Lower Transit
Vertical
a . . . . .. 64°
If»
22°.5 20°
0 . . . . .. 75° 50°
03
sec a(vertical
wire on star) 4".6 4".0 2".7 2".7
04
(measurement
of horizontal
angle) 2".5 2".5 2".5 2".5
OS
tan a(reading
of plate level) 10".2 8".7 2".1 1".8
OT
(time . . . 0".0 0" .1 2".6 2".1
Sum (Plate level) 11".5 9".9 5".0 4".6
06
tan a (reading
of striding
level 2".6 2".2 0".5 0".5
Sum (Striding
level) 5". 9 5".2 4".5 3".3
Azimuth by hour angle: random errors in latitude 60°
Table 71 [Robbins, 1976]
30° 40°
60° 70°
2". 9 ' 3".3
2".5 2".5
2".9 4".2
1".7 1". 3
5" .1 6". 0
0".7 1".0
4".2 4".5
156
From a relationship between the Horizon and Hour Angle coordinate
systems (egn. (226), rearranged)
cosA =
or with z = 90  a,
cosA =
sino  cosz sin4'>
sinz cos4'>
sino  sina sin4'>
cosa cos4'>
(713)
(714)
To solve either (713) or (714) for A, the latitude 4'> of the observer must
be known. The declination, o, of the observed celestial body is obtained
from a catalogue, ephemeris, or almanac and updated to the time of
observation. The zenith distance (or altitude) is the measured quantity.
The main sources of systematic ·error with this method include
error in latitude (assumed) and error in the reduced altitude due to
uncorrected refraction. Differentiating (714) yields
dAsinA = (tana  cosA tan4'>) d4'> +
(tan4'>  cosA tana) da (715)
The effects of d4'> are zero when
tana = cosA tan4'> (716)
• 0 h 0 h
wh1ch occurs when h = 90 (6) or 270 (18 ). The effects of da are zero
when
tan4'> = cosA tana (717)
which occurs when the observed celestial body is at elongation. To
minimise the effects of systematic errors, two stars are observed such that
a1 = a2 '
(718)
A
1
= 360°  A
2
(719)
157
Further details on the selection of star pairs observing procedure and the
computation of azimuths, can be found in, for example, Mueller [1969] and
Robbins [1976]. Using Polaris, observations should be made at elongation.
Note that no star should have an altitude of less 15° when using this
method, thus for Polaris, Estimates of achievable accuracy are given
in Table 72.
The method of azimuth determination by altitudes is often used in
conjunction with sun observations. Using a 1" theodolite and the
observation and computation procedures described here, oA will be of the
order of 20". When special solar attachments are used on an instrument, such
as a Roelofs solar prism [Roelofs, 1950], and accuracy (oA) of 5" may be
attained.
A complete azimuth determination via sun observations consists of
two morning and two afternoon determinations. It is best if
30° 40°, and it should never be outside the range 20° 50°.
Figure 71 illustrates, approximately, the optimum observing times. A
suggested observing procedure for one azimuth determination is as follows
[Robbins, 1976):
(i) Direct on RO, record H.C.R. and level (plate or striding)
readings,
(ii) Direct on Sun, record H.C.R. and v.c.R., and time to nearest
m
1 (for methods of observing the sun, see, for example,
Roelofs [1950]), record level readings,
(iii) Reverse on Sun, record H.C.R. and v.c.R., and time to nearest
m
1 , record level readings,
158
Stars at Elongation h
= 90°
Ia
. . . . . . .. 40° 25°
0 . . . . . . .. 51° 58°
0'1
(pointing of horizontal wire
II
on star) 0 1".0
"
0'2
(measuring of altitude) 0 1".3
O'R
(determination of refraction) O" 0".7
0'3
sec a (pointing of vertical wire) 2".6 3".3
0'4
(horizontal angle measurement) 2".5 2".5
0'5
tan a (reading plate level) 4".2 2".3
~ u m
(Plate level) .. 5". 5 5".1
o
6
tan a (reading striding level) 1".0 0".6
pum (Striding level) 3".7 4".5
Azimuth by altitude: random errors in latitude 30°
a
15
0'1
0'2
O'R
0'3
0'4
0'5
Sum
(16
Sum
Stars at Elongation h = 90°
. . .. . . . . 64° 35°
. . .. . . . . 75° 41°
(pointing of horizontal wire
on star) + 0" + 4".8
 
(measuring of altitude) + 0" + 6".2
 
(determination of refraction) + 0" + 3".2
 
sec a (pointing of vertical wire) + 4".6 + 3".7
 
(horizontal angle measurement) + 2".5 + 2".5
 
tan a (reading plate level) + 10".3 + 3".5
 
(plate level) .. + 11".6 + 10".2
tan a (reading striding level) + 2".6 + 0".9

(striding level) +

5". 8 + 9".6
Azimuth by altitude: random errors in latitude 60°
Table 72 [Robbins, 1976]
Prime vertical
35°
17°
1".7
2".3
1".2
3".7
2".5
3".5
6".5
0".9
5".5
Prime vertical
35°
30°
+ 5".2

+ 6".8

+ 3".5

+ 3".7

+ 2".5
+ 3".5

+ 10".8

+ 0".9

+ 10".3
I
I
1 REFRACTION
TOO GREAT
159
__
 ·¥ .......
.,.. ...... , .....
SUN MOVING '
TOO FAST '
APPROX.
'\0 AM2 PIV/
Figure 72
by the Sun's Altitude
'
'
'
\
\
REFRACTION t
TOO GREAT ·
is:
160
(iv) Reverse on R.O., record H.C.R., record level readings,
(v) Record temperature and pressure.
The computation procedure resulting from the above observations
(i) Mean Direct and Reverse horizontal readings to the R.O. and to the
Sun,
(ii) correct the horizontal directions in (i) for horizontal axis
dislevelment using equation (77) ,
(iii) compute the angle Sun to R.O.,
(iv) mean direct and reverse zenith distance (or altitude) measurements
to the Sun, then correct the mean for refraction and parallax,
(v) determine the time of observation in the time system required to
obtain a tabulated value of 0 of the sun,
(vi) compute the updated value of o for the time of observation
(tabulated o plus some correction for time),
(vii) using either (713) or (714), compute the azimuth to the sun,
(viii) using the angle determined in (iii), c o ~ p u t e the azimuth to the
R.O.
The following example illustrates the observing and computation
procedures for an azimuth determination via the altitude of the sun.
161
Azimuth via Sun's Altitude (using SALS).
Instrument: A Date: May 6, 1977
R.O.: B Time: Central Daylight Time (90°W)
Obs. Procedure: Sun observed in quadrants. Latitude 38° 10' 10"
Inst. Sight
H.C.R. v.c.R. Time
B
00
00'
Direct Sun 157° 54' 56° 12' 00"
lSh 40m
Reverse Sun 339° OS' 57° 10' 00"
l5h 46m
B 180° 00'
Note: No level readings required.
Means: H.C.R. Sun: 30' v.c.R. 56° 41' . 00"
.Sketch:
H.C.R. B:
0
Horiz. Angle: 158
Reduction of Altitude
00
1
30'
Mean Altitude (a)
=
90° 56°
t1ean Refraction (r )
=
88"
0
Correcting factor (f)
=
0.95
Refraction
=
r xf = 88" x0.95
0
Parallax
Corrected Altitude
8 (R.o)
41' 00"
=
33°
=
=
+
=
33°
Remarks
Temp. 20°C
Pres. 1000 mb.
19' 00"
1' 24"
06"
17' 42"
162
Computation of Sun's Declination
Observed (Mean) Time
Clock Correction
Correction for Daylight Time
Time Zone
U.T.
Sun's o at 6 May 18h u.T.
Change in o since 18h U.T. (2h42m)
Sun's o at 6 May 20h
Azimuth Computation
cos A
cosA = sin o  sin a sin ~
cosa c o s ~
= sin(l6° 40!9)  sin (33°
cos (38°
 0.52191
= =
+ 0.657391
U.T.
17' 42")
17' 42")
 0.0794215
sin
cos
Azimuth of Sun
1
=cos A = 360° 94° 33' 19"
Mean Horiz. Angle
Azimuth to B (R.O.)
15h 43m
Olm
lb. oom
+
6h
oom
20h 42m
(N) 16° 3 9 ~ 0
+ 1!9
16° 40!9
(714)
(38° 10' 10")
(38° 10' 10")
= 265° 26' 41"
=
158° 30' 10"
= 106° 56' 31"
8. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LATITUDE
Astronomic latitude was defined in Chapter 1. To deduce procedures
for determining astronomic latitude from star observations, we must examine
an expression that relates observable, tabulated, and known quantities.
Equation (222), involving the transformation of Hour Angle coordinates to
Horizon coordinates, namely
cosz = sino + coso cosh ,
requires that zenith distance (z) and time (h) be observed, that declination
(o) and right ascension (a) be tabulated, and that longitude (A) be known to
solve for an unknown latitude The effects of systematic errors in
zenith distance and time, dz and dh·respectively, are shown via the total
derivative of (222), namely
=  secAdz tanA dh (81)
0
When A= 0, then = dz (secA = 1, tanA = 0), and when A= 180 , then = dz
(secA = 1, tanA =0). For this reason, most latitude determinations are
based on zenith distance measurements of pairs of stars (one north and one
south of the zenith such that zn = as they transit the observer's
s
meridian.
The for latitude determination are the same as those
for azimuth determination: a geodetic theodolite with a striding level
attachment, a chronometer, an HF radio receiver, a thermometer and a barometer.
Two astronomic latitude determination procedures are given in these
notes: (i) Latitude by Meridian Zenith Distances, (ii) Latitude by Polaris
at any Hour Angle. The accuracy of a latitude determination by either
method, using the procedures outlined, is 2" or better [Robbins, 1976]. For
alternative latitude determination procedures, the reader is referred to, for
163
164
example, Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].
8.1 Latitude by Meridian Zenith Distances
Equations (254)., (255), and (256), rewritten with subscripts to
refer to north and south of zenith stars at transit are
~ =
oN
 z
N
(UC north of zenith) , (82)
~ = z 
s
oS
(UC south of zenith), (83)
~ = 180° 0  z (LC north of zenith).
N N
(84)
If a star pair UC north of zenith  UC south of zenith are observed, then a
combination of (82) and (83) yields
(85)
while a star pair LC north of zenith uc south of zenith gives
~ = ~ (o  o > + ~ (z  z > + 90 o
S N S N
(86)
Equations (85) and (86) are the mathematical models used for latitude
determination via meridian zenith distances.
An important aspect of this method of latitude determination is the
apriori selection of starpairs to be observed or the selection of a
star programme. Several general points to note regarding a star programme
are as follows:
(i) more stars should be listed than are required to be observed (to
allow for missed observations due to equipment problems, temporary
cloud cover, etc.),
(ii) the two stars in any pair should not dit'fer in zenith. distance by more
0
than about 5 ,
(iii) the stars in any pair, and star pairs, should be selected at time
intervals suitable to the capabilities of the observer.
165
For details on star programmes for latitude determination by meridian zenith
distances, the reader is referred to, for example, Robbins [1976].
A suggested observing procedure is:
(i) set the vertical wire of the instrument in the meridian (this may
be done using terrestrial information e.g. the known azimuth of a
line, or one may determine the meridian via an azimuth determination
by Polaris at any Hour Angle),
(ii) set the zenith distance for the first north star; when the star
enters the field of view, track it with the horizontal wire until it
reaches the vertical wire,
(iii) record the v.c.R., temperature, and pressure,
(iv) repeat (i) to (iii) for the south star of the pair.
This constitutes one observation set for the determination of
Six to eight sets are required to obtain CJ 4> = 2" or less. The computations
are as follows:
(i) correct each observed zenith distance for refraction, namely
(ii) for each star pair, use either equation (85) or (86) and
compute
(iii) compute the final as the mean of the six to eight determinations.
An example of this approach can be found, for instance, in Mueller [1969].
8.2 Latitude by Polaris at any Hour Angle
Since Polaris is very near the north celestial pole, the polar
distance (P = 90o, Figure 81) is very small (P<l
0
), and the azimuth is
0
very close to 0 • Rewriting equation (222) (Hour Angle to Horizon
coordinate transformation) with z = (90  a) and p = 90  o yields
sina = cosP + sinp cosh (87)
166
Now, (a+ in which oa
and P are differentially small, and
'substituting in (87) gives
Figure 81
Astronomic Triangle for Polaris
sin a = sin (a + c5a) cosP + cos (a + oa) sinP cosh
.'
= sina cosoa cos.P + cosa sino a cos P
+ cosa cosoa sinP cosh  sina sinoa sinP cosh. (88)
Then, replacing the small angular quantities (o and P) by their power
. a
series (up .to and including 4th order terms), namely
sine
=
e  e3 + ..... ,
3!
cos a 1
e2
+
e4
= 

,
2! 4!
(88) becomes
sina = (sina(l
+
. 3 p2
+ cosa (oa  oa )) (1
+
2! 4! 3! 2!
+ (cosa (1
3 p3
sina (oa  )) (P  l! ) cosh.
(89)
Now, taking only the firstorder terms of (89) into account yields
sina = sina + oa cosa + Pcosa cosh (810)
or
c5a = Pcosh ·•
(811)
Replacing the secondorder oa terms in (89) with (811) above, and
neglecting all terms of higher order gives
oa =  Pcosh +
167
. 2h
tana sJ.n {812)
Repeating the above process for third and fourth order terms yields the final
equation
~ = a + oa = a  Pcosh +
p . 2 h . 2h
3 sJ.n P cos SJ.n +
P sinP tana sin
2
h
2
p . 3 . 4h 3
8 sJ.n P sJ.n tan a
{813)
Except in very high latitudes, the series {813) may be truncated at the
third term.
A suggested observation procedure is as follows:
{i) observe polaris {horizontal wire) and record v.c.R., time,
temperature and pressure; repeat this three times.
{ii) reverse the telescope and repeat {i).
This constitutes the observations for one latitude determination.
It should be noted that if azimuth is to be determined simultaneously
{using Polaris at any hour angle), then the appropriate H.C.R.'s must be
recorded {such a programme requires that the observer place Polaris at the
intersection of the horizontal and vertical wires of the telescope).
The computation of latitude proceeds as follows:
(i) compute mean zenith distance measurement for six measurements,
{ii) correct mean zenith distance for refraction and compute the mean
altitude {a= 90 z),
{iii) compute the mean time for a, then using (72), compute the mean
h {note that mean a and {a  12h) must be computed for this part
m
of the latitude determination),
168
(iv) compute a mean ~ ' then P = 90  o
(v) compute lp
A mean of 12 to 20 determinations will yield an astronomic latitude
with alp= 2" or less [Robbins, 1976].
The reader should note that the use of a special SALS table (Pole
Star Tables) leads to a simple computation of latitude using this method,
namely
(814)
in which a is the corrected, meaned altitude, and a
0
, a
1
, a
2
are tabulated
values. Using this approach results will not normally differ from those using
(813) by more than o . : ~ · 2 (12"), while in most cases the difference is within
O!l (6") [Robbins, 1976]. Both computation procedures are illustrated in the
following example taken from Robbins [1976].
Example: Latitude from Observations of Polaris at any Hour Angle
(i) with SALS tables
Date: 23 August 1969
cj>=57°03'
A.= 7° 27' w =  oh 29m 48s
Mean of Observations: a= 56° 57' 24"
Computations:
R(a 12h+Eq.E)
rn
Press. = 1009mb.
=
169
GAST
::::::
UT + R + R
=
20h 09m
A.
oh 29m
48
5
LAST
19h 39m
a =
56° 57
8
24"
"
r (mean refraction)
::::
38
0
f (refraction factor)
:::::
1..00
a
::::::
a  (r x f) == 56° 56' 46"
corr 0
= a + a
+ al +
a2
=
56° 56
1
46" + 5'48" + 09"
corr 0
:::: 57
0
02
1
43"
(ii) with equation (813) (first three terms only)
as in (.i.) plus:
a = 2h 03m 09
5
a.
a= 56° 56'
p ::::::
31.63"
!}?
·
56° 56' 46"
46"
+
17"
+
41 =
57° 02
1
+ 00"
9. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LONGITUDE
In chapter 3, we saw that is related directly with sidereal
time, namely {egn. 33 )
A = LAST  GAST {91)
From the Hour Angle  Right Ascension systems coordinate transformations
{egn. 231)
LAST = a + h • {92)
Replacing LAST in {91) with {92) yields the expression
A = a + h  GAST {93)
This equation {93) is the basic relationship used to determine astronomic
longitude via star observations. The right ascension {a) is catalogued, and
the hour angle (h) and GAST are determined respectively via direction and time
observations.
Let us first examine the determination of GAST. Setting TM as the
observed chronometer time {say UTC), and 6T as the total chronometer
correction, then
GAST = TM + 6T
The total correction (6T) consists of the following:
{i) the epoch difference 6T at the time of synchronization of
0
UTC and TM times,
{ii) chronometer drift 6
1
T,
{iii) DUTl, given by DUTl = UTl UTC (see Chapter 4),
{94)
{iv) the difference between UTl and GAST at the epoch of observation
given by
LMST
LAST
h
= MT + (aM  12 )
= LMST + Eq.E.
Finally, equation (93) reads
A = a + h  (TM + 6T)
170
(95)
171
The determination of the hour angle (h) is dependent on the
astronomic observations made. From the Hour Angle  Horizon systems
coordinate transformation (eqn. 222),
cosh =
cosz  sino
coso
(96)
can be used for the determination of a star's hour angle. Now, taking z
and TM as the observed quantities, as a known quantity, and o as
catalogued, the sources of systematic errors affecting longitude determination
will be in zenith distance (dz), the assumed latitude the observed
time (TM) and the chronometer correction (d6T). Replacing h in (95) by
(96), and taking the total derivative yields
dA =  cotA + cosecAdz + dT + d6T). (97)
Examining (97), it is obvious that the errors dT and d6T contribute directly
to dA and can not be elliminated by virtue of some star selections. On the
other hand, and dz can be treated as follows:
(i) when the observed star is on the prime vertical
0 0
(A = 90 or 270 ) , then = 0
(ii) the effects of dz can be elliminated by observing pairs of stars
such that z
1
=z
2
•
As with azimuth and latitude determination procedures in which pairs of stars
have to be observed under certain conditions, a star program (observing
list) must be compiled prior to making observations. For details, the
reader is referred, for example, to Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].
The primary equipment requirements for secondorder ( cr). = 3" or
less) longitude determination are a geodetic theodolite, a good mechanical
or quartz chronometer, an HF radio receiver, and a chronograph equipped with
a hand tappet.
172
Finally, before describing a longitude determination procedure, the
reader should note the following. Since the GAST used is free from polar
motion, LAST must be freed from polar motion effects. This is accomplished
by adding a polar motion correction (6A : see Chapter 6) to the final
p
determined longitude (not each observation), such that the final form of
equation (95) becomes
A = a + h + 6Ap  (TM + 6T)
9.1 Longitude by Meridian Transit Times
(98)
When a star transits the meridian, h = Oh (or 12h) and a = LAST.
If pairs of stars are observed such that z
1
= z
2
, then the effects of dz in
(97) are elliminated. The observation of time (TM) as a star transits the
meridian enables longitude computation using (98). The main sources of
error will be d ~ and the observation of the stars transit of the meridian
(due partly to inaccurate meridian setting and partly to coll:i.Iiiation). The
,·
latter errors cause .. :.a timing error. A correction for this effect is computed
from [Mueller, 1969]
dA
15 cosec z
=
cos
dh
sin z
or dh=
cos
.
8
·dA
where dA is the rate for the
yielding dh in seconds.
Example
For dA = 1' = 4s
dhN = 5 ~ 8 5
star to travel 1'
dh = 0 ~ 8 0 .
s
(99)
(910)
(4s)
of arc in azimuth,
Then, if the longitude difference determined from north and south stars is
S·
2.0, the correctionsto A are as follows:
(2.0 X 5. 85)
5.85 + 0.80
=
173
A (2.0 X 0.80) S
4
dn = .!.=:..::.....;:;;:.....;:;..;;....::.=.:._ = 0 • 2
s
(5.85 + 0.80)
A suggested field observation procedure for the determination of
longitude by meridian transit times is [Mueller, 1969]:
(i) make radiochronometer comparisons before, during, and after each
set of observations on a star pair,
(ii) set the instrument (vertical wire) in the meridian for the north
star and set the zenith distance for the star; when the star
enters the field of view, track it until it coincides with the
vertical wire and record the time (hand tappet is pressed),
(iii) set the instrument for the south star of the pair (do not
reverse the and repeat (ii),
(iv) repeat (ii) and (iii) for 1216 pairs of stars.
The associated computation procedure is as follows:
(i) compute the corrected time for each observed transit (e.g. TM +
(ii) compute the apparent right ascension for each transit,
(iii) compute the longitude for each meridian transit using (98),
(iv) compute dh for each star; compute .hA =:AN A
8
for each star pair;
(v)
(vi)
11.2].
compute the correction to longitude (dA) for each star of a pair
(see example),
compute the mean longitude from the 1216 pairs,
apply the correction 6A to get the final value of longitude.
p
An example of this procedure is given in Mueller [1969; Example
174
In closing, the reader should be aware that there are several other
methods for second order longitude determination. For complete coverage of
this topic, the reader is referred to Mueller [1969) and Robbins [1976).
175
REFERENCES
Astronomisches RechenInstitut, Heidelbe_rg [1979]. AJ?parent Places of
Fundamental '.1.981 :containing "the :1535 .. Fourth
Ftindame.tibil (APFS) · Verlag Braun; ;Karlsruhe.
Boss, B. [1937]. General Catalogue of 33342 stars for the epoch 1950.0,
(GC). Publications of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 468.
Reissued by Johnson Reprint Co., New York.
Eichorn, ·H. [1974]. Astronomy of Star Positions. Frederick Ungar Publishing
Co., New York.
Fricke, w. and A. Kopff [1963]. Fourth Fundamental catalogue resulting from
the revision of the Third Fundamental Catalogue (FK3) carried out
under the supervision of w. Fricke and A. Kopff in collaboration
with w. Gliese, F. Gondolatsch, T. Lederke, H. ·Nowacki, w. Strobel
and P. Stumpff, (FK4). Veroeffentlichungen des Astronomischen Recken
Instituts, Heidelberg, 10.
H.M. Nautical Almanac Office The Star Almanac for Land Surveyors for
the year 1981. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. (in canada:
Pendragon House Ltd. 2525 Dunwin Drive, Mississauga, Ontario·,
L5L 1T2.)
Heiskanen, W.A. and H. Moritz [1967]. Physical Geodesy. W.H. Freeman and
Company, San Francisco.
Krakiwsky, E.J. and D.E. Wells [1971]. Coordinate Systems in Geodesy.
Department of Surveying Engineering Lecture Notes No. 16, University
of New Brunswick, Fredericton.
Morgan, H.R. [1952]. Catalog of 5268 Standard Stars, 1950.0. Based on the
Norman System N30. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of
the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, 13, part 3.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Morris, William (editor) [1975]. The Heritage Illustrated Dictionary of the
English Language. American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc.
Mueller, Ivan I. [1969]. Spherical and Practical Astronomy as Applied to
Geodesy. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., New York.
Robbins, A.R. [1976]. Military Engineering, Volume XIIIPart IX, Field and
Geodetic Astronomy. School of Military Survey, Hermitage, Newbury,
Berkshire, U.K.
Roelofs, R. _[1950]. Astronomy Applied to Land Surveying. N.V. Wed. J.
Ahrend & Zoon, Amsterdam.
u.s. Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac Office [19"801. The Astronomical Almanac
for the Year 19.81; U.s· •. · Printing Office, Washii1.gton,
. D.C.
176
APPENDIX A
REVIEW OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY
In this Appendix the various relationships between the six
elements of a spherical triangle are derived, using the simple and
compact approach of A.R. Clarke, as given in Todhunter and Leathem
("Spherical Trigonometry", Macmillan, 1943).
The 27 relations derived are listed at the end of the
Appendix.
A.1 Derivation of Relationships
In Figure A1, the centre of the unit sphere, 0, is joined to
the vertices A, B, C of the spherical triangle. Q and R are the
projections of C onto OA and OB, hence OQC and ORC are right angles.
P is the projection of C onto the plane AOB, hence CP makes a right
angle with every line meeting it in that plane. Thus QPC, RPC, and
OPC are right angles. Note that the angles CQP and CRP are equal to
the angles A and B of the spherical triangle.
We show that OQP is also a right angle by using right
triangles COP, COQ, CQP to obtain
Co
2
= OP
2
+ PC
2
C0
2
= OQ
2
+ QC
2
QC
2
= QP
2
+ PC
2
Equating (A1) and (A2), and substituting for QC
2
from (A3)
OP
2
= OQ
2
+ QP
2
(A1)
(A2)
(A3)
that is OQP is a right angle. Similarly it can be shown ORP is also a
right angle.
177
c
A
Figure A1
178
In Figure A2, on the plane AOB, S is the projection of Q on
OB and T is the projection of R on OA. Note that the angle AOB is
equal to the side c of the spherical triangle, and that angles AOB =
SQP = TRP. Then from Figure A1
PC = RC sin B = QC sin A (A4)
and from Figure A2
OR = OS + QP sin c
RP = SQ  QP cos c
QP = TR  RP cos c
We can now make the substitutions
OR = cos a
RC = sin a
OQ = cos b
QC = sin b
QP = QC cos A = sin b cos A
RP = RC cos B = sin a cos B
OS = OQ cos c = cos b cos c
SQ = OQ sin c = cos b sin c
OT = OR cos c = cos a cos c
TR = OR sin c = cos a sin c
to obtain from (A4) to (A7)
sin a sin B = sin b sin A
cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A
sin a cos B = cos b sin c  sin b cos c cos A
sin b cos A = cos a sin c  sin a cos c cos B
(A5)
(A6)
(A7)
(A8)
(A9)
(A10)
(A11)
Equation (A8) is one of the three Laws of Sines. Equation (A9) is
one of the three Laws of Cosines for Sides. Equations (A10) and
179
0
8
c
Figure A2
180
(A11) are two of the twelve FiveElement Formulae.
The FourElement Formulae can be derived by multiplying
Equation (A10) by sin A, and dividing it by Equation (A8) to obtain
sin A cot B = sin c cot b  cos A cos c
rearranged as
cos A cos c = sin c cot b  sin A cot B (A12)
Similarly multiplying Equation (A11) by sin B and dividing by the
transposed Equation (A8) we obtain
cos B cos c = sin c cot a  sin B cot A (A13)
Equations (A12) and (A13) are two of the six FourElement Formulae.
It can be shown that all the above Laws remain true when the
angles are changed into the supplements of the corresponding sides and
the sides into the supplements of the corresponding angles. Applying
this to Equations (A8), (A12), and (A13) will not generate new
equations. However, when applied to Equation (A9)
cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A
it becomes
cos(nA) = cos(nB)cos(nC)+sin(nB)sin(nC)cos(na)
or
cos A =  cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a
which is one of the three Laws of Cosines for Angles.
Equations (A10) and (A11) become
sin A cos b = cos B sin C + sin B cos C cos a
sin B cos a = cos A sin C + sin A cos C cos b
which are two more of the twelve FiveElement Formulae.
(A14)
Similarly
(A15)
(A16)
Equations (A8) to (A16) represent onethird of the
relationships. The other twothirds are obtained by simultaneous
181
cyclic permutation of a, b, c and A, B, C. For example, from Equation
{A8)
sin a sin B = sin b sin A
we obtain
sin b sin C = sin c sin B
sin c sin A = sin a sin C
The entire set of 27 relations obtained this way are stated below.
A.2 Summary of Relationships
A.2.1 Law of Sines
sin a sin B
=
sin b sin A
sin b sin c
=
sin c sin B
sin c sin A
=
sin a sin c
A.2.2 Law of Cosines (sides)
cos a
=
cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A
cos b
=
cos c cos a + sin c sin a cos B
cos c
=
cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos c
A.2.3 Law of Cosines (angles)
cos A
=
 cos B cos c + sin B sin c cos a
cos B
=
 cos c cos A + sin c sin A cos b
cos c
=
 cos A cos B + sin A sin B cos c
A.2.4 FourElement Formulae
cos A cos c
=
sin c cot b  sin A cot B
cos B cos a
=
sin a cot c  sin B cot c
cos c cos b
=
sin b cot a  sin c cot A
cos B cos c = sin c cot a  sin B cot A
A.2.5
182
cos c cos a
=
sin a cot b sin c cot B
cos A cos b
=
sin b cot c  sin A cot c
FiveElement Formulae
sin a cos B
=
cos b sin c 
sin b cos c cos A
sin b cos c
=
cos c sin a  sin c cos a cos B
sin c cos A
=
cos a sin b sin a cos b cos c
sin b cos A = cos a sin c  sin a cos c cos B
sin c cos B = cos b sin a  sin b cos a cos C
sin a cos C = cos c sin b sin c cos b cos A
sin A cos b = cos B sin C + sin B cos C cos a
sin B cos c = cos C sin A + sin C cos A cos b
sin C cos a = cos A sin B + sin A cos B cos c
sin B cos a = cos A sin C + sin A cos C cos b
sin C cos b = cos B sin A + sin B cos A cos c
sin A cos c = cos C sin B + sin C cos B cos a
110
I
183
APPENDIX B
CANADIAN TIME ZONES
/ I I
I<J 120
100
I
(Canada Year Book 197879, Dept. of Supply and Services, Ottawa)
No.
I
1253
1254
uss
]68
370
us6
371
373
1257
372
374
375
377
376
378
uss
1259
uGo
1261
. 379
JSo
:;Sr
:;ss
)82
]lSJ
a6z
1:G3
1:6.;
uG,;
i
184
APPENDIX C
EXCERPT FROM THE FOURTH FUNDAMENTAL CATALOGUE (FK4)
EQUINOX AND EPOCH I950.0 AND X975·0
Name
I "···I
Sp.
dx i:!•ct J,.
t:r.(x) ct
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9 46 59021 + 38.;.;61  2.1!)0 + 2.156 o.o:6
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:o 3 54·340 + 292.187 + 0.()93  0.289 0.000
11 Leo 3·58
Aop 10 4 ]6·533 + 327.034  o.637  0.012 0.000 16.51
10 S s8.252 + J26.jli  o.632  0.012 0.000
cz Leo 134
BS 10 s 42.647 + 319·462  0.489  1.6g6 +0.003 OS. 52
10 7 2.482 + 319219  o ... s ..  r.695 +0.003
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10 IS 1S.107 + 333·'84  u.ss: .+ 0.134 0.001
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+ :;s.o.;9 + t' • .;!S  0.116 0.001>
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9·5
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1.4 9
j.6 40
1.4 6
2.1 13
2 .. ; 16
4·6 2l
:z.o 10
s6 JO
:;.6 2J
1.9 II
1.2
5
2.5 rr
3·9 19
2.9 18
r.S 10
1.4 6
1.0 4
1.,:
7
9·3 49
·H
20
14 7
1.9 s
.;.s rS
1.;
9
39
:;.: IS
I
185
EQUINOX AND EPOCH 1950.0 AND 1975·0
·
li
tlll tl:6
, ..
dJ•'
Ep. (J) 711 (r))
'n (I•'>
GC N30
"d"T"
! ii:io! "ri7'
USJ +JS
0
5.;' 16,;8!91 IJ!JI

J!;6. 0!01 26.oo "4·0 :6 2335
+IS 47 57.86 1665·53 13.17

l.j6 0.01
62 16 Jli .. p 16oo.65  6.J6 + O.JJ +C.02 11.6J
5·9 25 IJ162 233'>
62 23 31.9S 166].82  6.JJ + O.JJ +0.0.!
+46 IS JS.IJ 1677.8:' 15·36  952
o.JS 19.20 J.Z IZ 13497 2345
+46 8 lj.j.Z 1685·44 1514
 9·56 o.l7
u.ss
+59 J6 3031 169J.85 16.48·  1555 +0.30
09·5'
2.2 8 13.)40 2355
+59 9 25.82 1702.02 16.zo
 '5·48
+0.?9
( 0 2952 168748 11.59

3.18 o.oo
17·74 2.4 13 13558 2357
4 7 32.11 169325 1148

3.18 o.oo
370
45 Si 33·54 168448  8.j6 + J•03 +O.OJ zo.6g 72 40 13574 ZJ6Z
46 4 3521 1688.84  8.71 + J.04 +O.OJ
+26 14 :;6.oS 1696.01 12.94
 5·99
+0.12 oS.OJ 2.1 8 13590 :lJ64
+26
7
J1.2j 170.:1.44 u·i9  5·96
+O.IZ
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373
as 46 18.u ljo6.39 1051

422 +0.03 21.81 3·8
21 136.&4 2,367
18 53 2534 171152 10,42

421 +0.03
 7 24 26.90 170741 11.01

0.11 +0.01 24·43 4·1 z6 13674 2J71
 7 Jl 34·44 1712.89 10.!)0

O.ll .. 0.01
1257
.. 73 7 i17 1712.77 1998 
405 +O.IJ 1487 2.5 12 13684 2373
+7:a 59 5i·i4 1722.6J 1945 
40:Z .. 0.13
372
..... 17 40.83 171469 135:1

:Z91 +O.oS 1642
=·7
u: IJjOO :1376
+41 JO JI.J2 1721.40 IJ33

2.8g .. o.oS
S.J 19 4486 . 171348  7·59 + 0.46 +O.OI 10.61 4·6 22 13711 2377
54 26 5370 1717.26
 7·55 + 0.46 +O.OI
375
35 39
J.66 lj2J.6.j  921 
2.41 +o.o6 1937 45
:z6 13741 2387
35 46 15.14 1728.23 915 
2.J9 +O.o6
377
+ 3 37 28.41 1721.3J 11.20 + 1.6<) +0.03 19.14 3·3
16 13746 2389
+ 3 30 17.38 1726.91 n.oS + t.jo +O.OJ
+8 lj 576 1727.67 ll39 
:z.G.J +0.02
09·7'
'·9
7 13755 2390
+8
9 53·'3 1733·33
n.26

:r.64 +0.02
+32 10 13.66 1770.84 12.25  4332 +0.32 li73 32 13 13763 2391
+32 2 50.19 1776.gz 1209  4324 +0.32
+54
8
4·53
1742.04 I.J.OO

0.66 +0.02 26.17 44
r6 13827 1397
.+54
o 48.15 174S.g8 1376 
0.66 +0.0:!
1259
24 2 34·25 174275  9·54
+ I.SJ +O.o6 18.20 40
:6 138.;8 :1402
24 9 50·53 1747·50  946 + 1.ss +O.o6
u6o
1261 12 49 li50 17464::: ro.os + 095
+O.OZ l.z.og 27 14 13861 :z¥>8
12 ,56 3473 1751·42  9·95 + o.g6 +O.O:Z
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9
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+16 53 645 1761.65 10.99

o.,;S o.oo
379
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•·7 5
13926 2414
+Ill 5 :ZJ90 1765.23 10.57 + 0.29 +0.12
12 6 22.55 1779·73  9·57 
9·46 +0.10 14.05 2.3 II 13982 2424
12 13 48.o8 178.!49  9·47 : 9·44
+O.IO
69 47 :!I.J5 178770  4.30 + 0.29 +o.o.; 1297 4·6 23 14074 2434
69 54 4'>·54 1789.84  427 + O.JO +o.o.o
41 52 25.23 178447  786 + 384 +009 14.27 4·7
22 14076 ::1435
41 59
51.84 1788.39 ;.So + 3.86 +009
+2J 40
'·94 179l55 10.48

1.21 o.o1 1537
2.2 10 14107 2440
+2J 32 32.65 1799·75 10.33

1.21 o.ot
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lj9ll.29 11.32

4.26 +O.IO o6.91 2.4 8 14113 2442
+u
2 :ZJ.:Zii ·18oJ.90 II.IJ

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· i 49
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186
APPENDIX D
EXCERPT FROM APPARENT PLACES OF FUNDAMENTAL STARS
APPARENT PLACES OF STARS, 1981
AT UPPER TRANSIT AT GREENWICH
No.
Name
Mag.Speet.
U.T.
d
1 7.8
1 2.1
1 12.1
1 22.1
2 1.1
:2. 11.0
2 21.0
3 3.0
3 12.9
3 22.9
4· 1.9
4 11.9
4 21.8
5 1.8
5 11.8
5 21.8
5 31.7
G 10.7
6 20.7
6 30.6
1 10.6
7 20.6
1 30.6
8 9.5
8 19.5
8 29.5
9 8.5
9 18.4
9 28.4
10 8.4
10 18.3
10 28.3
11 7.3
11 17.3
11 272
1261 379 380 381
II Hydrae 11leonis
a Leonis
(Regulus)
i. Hydrae
4.7.2 88 3.58 AOp 1.34 88 3.83 KO
R.A. Dec. R.A. Dec. R.A. Dec. R.A. Dec.
b m o , h m o , h m o , h m o ,
10 04 12 58 10 06 + 16 50 10 07 + 12 03 10 09 12 15
s + 300
11.861 •
12.145 • 252
12.397 + 2C9
12.600 .. 166
12.772
.. 116
12.888 + 67
12.955 • 21
12.976  24
12.952  61
12.001
 89
12.802  115
12.687  128
12.559 137
12.422 
12.282 
140
12.148 
134
 128
12.020  115
11.905  99
11.806  83
11.723
 63
11.660  39
11 621  17
11.604 + 9
11.613 • 38
11.651
.. 66
11.717 .. 89
11.816 • 131
11.947 • 165
12.112 + :<Dl
12.313
• 232
12.545 + 264
12.009 .. ZlO
13.ceg + 309
13.408 .. 323
13.731
14.55
16.94
19.34
21.67
23.87
25.90
27.70
29.27
30.57
31.59
23) s + 323
m 17.535 ..
304
·240
233
220
203
100
157
130
17.839 • 273
18.112 + 232
1 S".344 • 187
18.531
+ 136
• 84
18. i51 + 35
18.786
18.774 
12
102 18.722  52
""  n
.J.£.36 • 49
32.85  24
33.09  1
33.10
32.86
 64
18.638  111
18.527  126
18.401  134
18.267  139
18.128
32.40
31.74
30.88
29.86
28.70
27.42
26.09
24.71
23.36
22.00
20.94
19.99
19.29
18.87
18.80
.. 24
+46
•fa
•S6
•102
+116
17.997 =
17.874  110
17.764
17.674 
90
17.601 
73
+128  50
+133 17.551  26
•138 17.525  4
•135 17.521 ... 24
•1.27 17.545 • 50
17.595
•115 • 78
• 9S 17.673 + 111
• i'O 17.784 • 141
• 42 17.925 • 173
18.098 • 200
18.306
+ 7
76.96
75.60
74.48
73.64
73.08
72.82
72.84
73.08
73.54
74.14
·157 21.350 • 317
136 . • 297
112 2
1
.64
7
• 267
 64 21.914 226
56 22.140 • 182
22.322
 26 • 1!2
.. 2 22.454 ... 81
• 22.535 • 35
• .:0 22.570  13
+ &l 22.557  50
22.507
74.85 :
75.63 .. 79
76.42
77.20
•73
+ 74
 82
22.425  100
22.317  123
22.194  131
22.063 135
21.928  77.94
78.60
79.18
79.66
80.03
80.30
80.44
80.44
80.32
80.04
79.60
79.00
78.21
77.23
76.07
74.72
·• 66 .. i28
.. 58 21.800  120
• 48 .21 .680  107
+ 37 21.573  00
• 2, 21.483  72
21.411
•
14
21.361  50
+ 0  27
.. 12 21.334  6
 28 21.328 • 21
 44 21.349 • 49
21.397
a:: + 75
 79 21 .472 • '00
.. 93 21.578 • ;30
116 21.7
14
+ 1@
135 21.883 + 202
22.085
35.65
34.10
32.75
31.65
30.81
30.26
29.97
29.92
30.10
30.44
30.92
31.51
32.16
32.83
33.51
34.16
34.78
35.34
35.84
36.27
171 s  :m
155 39.573 237
135 39.800 : 2"Ji
110 40.ll5 • 215
 64 40.330 • 170
40.ECO
"'  40.622 • lZI
 oj. 72
 s 40.694 • 27
• 18 40.721  19
• 3' 40.702  $
40.647
·48 . 84
• sg 40.563  110
 €C 40.453  l:i:!i
• 67 40.328  134
• ea 40.194 _
138
40.0"...6
• 65  133
• 62 39.923  127
• 55 39.796  116
• EC 39.680  100
• t' 39.E80 • "'
, 39.496 ""'
•34
36.61 • 23
36.84 + 13
36.97  l
36.96
36.80
39.431 = :
39.388 22
39366.
36.48
35.97
35.26
34.34
33.21
..
39372 :
6
39.404
32
 !2 39.465 • 61
 51 39 s::ss • !i4
"" 7! . ..,J .. 126
 92 39.685 •
39.844
113 40 040 • 11?6
29.85
32.21
34.59
36.89
39.07
41.07
42.84
44.37
45.65
46.65
47.40
47.88
too
m
1!;.3
128
1JJ
49
23
48.11 • 0
48.11 + 23
47.88
•63
• ill
47.43
46.80
45.96 •
93
44.98 •11!
43.87
42.63
41.35
40.<X3
38.73
37.52
•110
36.42
35.52
34.80 • 33
34.43 •
34.44
•00
•€/'i
19.10
19.77
20.84
22.26
24.01
• 239 ·151 • 231 ·IZ:: , • 228  32
_
67
18.545 •
271
73.21 _
166
22.319 •
264
31.88
... 0.268 •
200
34.76 _ ea
_
107
18.816 •
298
71.55 m 22.583 •
293
30.35 :ea 40.528 •
288
35.45 _
100
19.114 • 69.78 182 22.876 • 311 28.67 ·178 40.816 • X6 36.53 143
19.43.'3 • 334 67.96 185 23.187 • 328 26.89 :a:: 41.122 • 323 37.96 17!
19.767 66.11 23.515 25.00 41.445 39.70
142
·175
• 326 202 • 341 179 • 334 185 • 326 2:2
12. 7.2 14057 • 319 26.0.'3. 222 20.108 • 335 64.32 167 23.849 • 328 23.18 179 41.771 • 319 41.72 2:.'0
12 17.2 14.375 + :m 28.25 230 20.443 • 322 62.65 •152 24.177 • 315 21.39 16;' 42.000 • u; 43.92
12 27.2 14.678
274
30.61 ..
241
20.765 +
296
61.13 •
1
28 24.492 •
288
19.72 42395 •
273
46.26 _
2
:0
12 37.1 14.952 :
239
33.02 _
238
21061 • 59.85 _
102
24.781 •
255
18.23 _
127
42.673 •
43 66 .;,;s
11.872 19.85 17.852 80.71 21.633 37.95 39622 35 iS
oecS,tano •1.026 Q.230 •1.045 •0.303 •1.023 Q.214 ·1 023 Q.217
<>0"....8
da(t). di(<) o. 013
Dbte.Trans.
o.35 o.coo o.35 o.064 o.35 o.oss o 35
·OAB oms o.48 oo13 ·0.47 oo13 o.46
february21 February21 February 22 Febwarv22
INTRODUCTION TO GEODETIC ASTRONOMY
Donald B. Thomson
Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering University of New Brunswick P.O. Box 4400 Fredericton, N .B. Canada E3B 5A3
September 1978 Reprinted with Corrections and Updates December 1981 Latest Reprinting January 1997
PREFACE In order to make our extensive series of lecture notes more readily available, we have scanned the old master copies and produced electronic versions in Portable Document Format. The quality of the images varies depending on the quality of the originals. The images have not been converted to searchable text.
the reader should be aware of the fact that much of the information contained herein has been extracted from three primary references. and several other's. Thomson. and Krakiwsky and Wells [1971]. time systems. ii . namely celestial coordinate systems and their relationships with terrestrial coordinate systems. and time dissemination.PREFACE These notes have been written for undergraduate students in Surveying Engineering at the University of New Brunswick. several major topics are covered. variations in the celestial coordinates of a celestial body. timekeeping. the development of models. It should be noted here that the emphasis in these notes is placed on the socalled secondorder geodetic astronomy. namely Mueller [1969].B. are referenced extensively throughout these notes. Robbins [1976]. These. latitude and longitude that utilize observations made to celestial objects. D. This fact is reflected To facilitate in the treatment of some of the subject matter. The overall objective is the development of a set of practical models for the determination of astronomic azimuth. Finally.
2 Culmination (Transit) 2.3. TIMEKEEPING..3 2.5.2 Hour Angle System ••••••••• 2.Hour Angle • • • • • 2.Ecliptic •• 2.2 TimeKeeping and Recording • 4.1 Sidereal Time • • • • • • 3..1 Basic Definitions CELESTIAL 2.4.4 Summary • • • • • • • Special Star Positions 2.2 Hour Angle .3 Time Observations • • • • . 2.3 Right Ascension System • • ••• 2.1 Standard(Zone) Time 3.4.3 Relationships Between Sidereal and Solar Time Epochs and Intervals • • • • • • • 3.4 Irregularities of Rotational Time Systems • 3.2.2.4.2 Universal (Solar) Time • • • 3. 2. TIME RECORDING 4.1 Rising and Setting of Stars 2.. 5 Summary • • • • • • • • Transformations Amongst Celestial Coordinate Systems • 2.Right Ascension • 2.2 Ephemerides and Almanacs •• .3 Prime Vertical Crossing • 2.5 Atomic Time System • • • • • 67 75 80 80 93 93 4. STAR CATALOGUES AND EPHEMERIDES 5.. • • • • 95 95 99 • • • • 100 5.1 Horizon.TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE • • • • LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES 1.4..3 Right Ascension.4 Elongation • • • • • • • 29 32 34 36 42 44 47 47 50 59 61 64 3. 4 Ecliptic System • • • • 2. TIME SYSTEMS 3.4 The Celestial Sphere • • • • • Celestial Coordinate Systems • • • • • • • 2.3. • • • 106 • 108 iii . TIME DISSEMINATION. 2.3. INTRODUCTION • • • • • 1.3.1 2.1 Horizon System • • • • • • • • • • • • .1 Time Dissemination • • • •• 4.2.2.1 Star Catalogues •••• .2 COORDINAT~ ii v vi 1 2 SYSTEMS 14 14 20 20 23 26 2. 2.
ton • • • • • • • • 6.. • • • 184 117 118 127 134 138 147 148 154 163 164 165 170 . VARIATIONS IN CELESTIAL COORDINATES· • • • • • • • • • • 6..2 Latitude by Polaris at any Hour Angle· • 9. • • • • .4 Polar Motion • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7. Nutation.1 Azimuth by Star Hour Angles •• 7.1 Longitude by Meridian Transit Times• • REFERENCES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D Review of Spherical Trigonometry •• Canadian Time Zones Excerpt from the Fourth Fundamental Catalogue (FK4) • • • • • • • • • • • • . DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LATITUDE • 8.. and Proper Motion• 6..Page 6.2 Azimuth by Star Altitudes 8. • • 9.2 Annual Aberration and Parallax • • • • • • • • • • 6. and Astronomic f'.1 Precession.1 Latitude by Meridian Zenith Distances •• 8.~:.. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC AZIMUTH 7.~(~~.3 Diurnal Aberration.. • 172 • 175 176 183 Excerpt from Apparent Places of Fundamental Stars • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 186 iv . Geocentric Parallax. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LONGITUDE...
Table 61 Table 71 Description of Terms • . • Cartesian Celestial Coordinate Systems [Mueller. Azimuth by Hour Angle:Random Errors in Latitude 60° [Robbins. 1976] • • • • • • 158 155 49 33 33 133 v . 1978J . 1969] . 1969] Transformations Among Celestial Coordinate Systems [Krakiwsky and Wells. 1976] Table 72 Azimuth by Altitude: Random Errors in Latitude 60° [Robbins.LIST OF TABLES Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Celestial Coordinate Systems [Mueller.
.LIST OF FIGURES Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Biaxial Ellipsoid • .. .... Figure 211 Ecliptic System • Figure 212 Astronomic Triangle • Figure 213 Local Sidereal Time • vi . .. . Components of the Deflection of the Vertical Geodetic Azimuth • • Astronomic Azimuth Cele. .. .. . . 19 21 22 24 25 27 28 30 31 35 37 Horizon System Hour Angle System • Hour Angle System Right Ascension System Right Ascension System . Sun's Apparent Motion Horizon . and Ellipsoidal Height Orthometric Height Astronomic Latitude (~) 4 5 6 and Longitude (A) 8 Geoid Height & Terrain Deflection of the Vertical • . . • • • • Geodetic Latitude... .. Longitude.. . . Figure 210 Ecliptic System . ... .. System .stial Sphere Astrono~ic 9 10 12 13 16 17 •• Triangle.
1966) [Mueller. 1969] Relationships Between Sidereal and Universal Time Epochs .. • • • • • Equation of Time (OhUT.6 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Circumpolar and Equatorial Stars • Declination for Visibility •• Rising and Setting of a Star • • Hour Angles of a Star's Rise and Set Rising and Setting of a Star Azimuths of a Star's Rise and Set • Culmination (Transit) • • Prime Vertical Crossing • Elongation • • Sidereal Time Epochs • Equation of Equinoxes (OhUT.Right Ascension Systems • Right AscensionEcliptic Systems • • Celestial Coordinate System Relationships [Krakiwsky and We.. 1969] Sidereal Time and Longitude Universal and Sideral Times [AA.lls. . 57 58 60 62 65 70 71 72 74 76 78 79 81 83 vii .... . 1969] • Solar Time and Longitude • • • Standard (Zone) Time [Mueller. 1981] • Universal (Solar) Time • • • ..List of Figures Cont'd Figure 214 Figure 215 Figure 216 Figure 217 Figure 218 Horizon and Hour Angle System Transformations • Horizon and Hour Angle Systems • • • • • • • 39 41 43 45 Hour Angle .. . 1966) [Mueller... 1971] •• 48 51 52 54 55 Figure 219 Figure 220 Figure 221 Figure 222 Figure 223 Figure 224 Figure 225 Figure 226 Figure 227 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 3.
T to A. .. . . ... . . [SALS.February.. . .. .. . . . 1981 cont'd...February. .List of Figures Cont'd Figure 310 Sun . . 86 Figure 311 Mutual Conversion of Intervals of Solar and .. . ·1981 [AA.6 Figure 67 Figure 68 Bright Stars. 1981 cont'd.Dating. 1981 [SALS. . .. ...C. .l981. 19811 • Figure 312a Universal and Sidereal Times. .. . . . . .· Pole Star Table. Systems . .. 113 114 115 116 119 121 123 126 129 130 132 136 Right Ascension of Stars. . 1981J • Figure 3l2b Universal and Sidereal Times. J Bright Stars. .... ..T Geocentric Parallax • .. . .0 cont'd. . 1978 [SALS~ ..... Annual (Stellar) Parallax •• .. .Sidereal Time [SALS.. 1981. . 1281] Sun .··r98I] . . ... . . . [AA.. 1981... . . 1981] •· Variations of the Right Ascension System • Motion of the Celestial Pole Mean Celestial Coordinate . . .i98if . .0 [AA. .. 90 Figure 41 Code for the Transmission of DUTl ~econd.. Position Updating M. 1981 [AA ' 1981. . 1981 [SALS' 1981 L . ... . . 1981] Declination of Stars.P. . of Events in the Vicinity of A Leap Figure 51 Figure 52 Universal and Sidereal Times. ... . . 1981]. . . .. True and Mean Celestial coordinate Systems Aberration • . .. [AA.. 1981 ] • • • • • • • • • Figure 312c Universal and Sidereal Times. 1981 [SALS... . .. 87 88 89 97 • 98 109 Figure 42 ·:·. . 0 viii . . . . 110 111 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55a Figure 55b Figure 56 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 65 Figure 6.::.
1969] Cont' d • • Azimuth by the Sun's Altitude • • • • • • • • • • • . • ix . ••• 145 146 152 153 159 143 137 139 141 Azimuth by the Hour Angle of Polaris [Mueller. 1971] • Figure 6:14 Figure 71 Figure 71 Figure 72 Coordinate Systems Used in Geodesy • • • • • . Observed to Apparent Place Transformation of Apparent Place Transformation from Instantaneous to Average Terrestrial System • • • • Figure 613 Celestial Coordinate Systems and Position Updating [Krakiwsky. Wells.List of Figures cont'd Figure 69 Figure 610 Figure 611 Figure 612 Astronomic Refraction • • • • • • • • • • .
(ii) celestial coordinate systems define the "link" between satellite and terrestrial coordinate systems. (iii) the concepts of time for geodetic purposes are developed. the naked eye was used for measurements. on the other hand. when the phenomena". dimensions. and variations in each of them. telescope was invented. distribution~ motion. When referring to its use in surveying. and evolution of celestial bodies and Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences dating back to Prior to 1609. and were well established by the 2nd century A. by astronomical observations. which is the basis for geodetic astronomy. and theoretical interpretation of the positions. the positions of points on the earth and the azimuths of the geodetic lines connecting such points. To emphasise the needs. transformations amongst them. (iv) tidal studies require a knowledge of geodetic astronomy.1. composition. is described as [Mueller. ancient Chinese and Babylonian civilizations. Geodetic astronomy. were developed principally by the Greeks. listed below are ten reasons for studying this subject matter: (i) a knowledge of celestial coordinate systems. the terms The fundamental concepts practical or positional astronomy are often used.D. The treatment of geodetic astronomy in these notes is aimed at the needs of undergraduate surveying engineers. INTRODUCTION [Morris~ earth~ Astronomy is defined as study of the universe beyond the 1975] "The scientific especially the observation. calculation. and basic principles of "spherical astronomy". 1 . 1969] the art and science for determining.
that surface less complex and modelable surface. which are expressed in a "natural" coordinate system. on or from which all terrestrially based observations are made. The physical surface of the earth is one that is extremely difficult to model analytically. and (iii) the geoid. are important when studying 3D terrestrial networks. (x) geodetic astronomy is essential for. which in turn may be required for the rigorous treatment of terrestrial observations such as distances. directions. 1. (ix) geodetic astronomy is useful for the determination of the origin and orientation of independent surveys in remote regions.the demarcation of astronomically defined boundaries. (ii) surfaces when referring to the figure of the earth: an ellipsoid. we commonly deal with three different (i) the terrain.1 Basic definitions In our daily work as surveyors. and angles. It is common practice to do survey computations on a The terrain is. (viii) the determination of astrogeodetic deflections of the vertical are useful for geoid determination. (vi) astronomic coordinates of terrain points. It is a purely . inertial survey systems) an understanding of the local astronomic coordinate system is essential. since it best approximates the earth's size and shape is a biaxial ellipsoid. of course.g. The most common figure of the earth in use.2 (v) when dealing with new technologies (e. (vii) astrondmically determined azimuths provide orientation for terrestrial networks.
can be represented mathematically.1\. by definition. and rotation. it is a spatial curve. where f=(ab)/a (Figure 11). Conventional orientation is to have parallel~m of the tertiary (:Z) axis with the mean rotation axis of the earth. astronomic longitude (. Obviously. thus. its position and orientation within the earth body is chosen at will. the astronomic latitude orthometricheight (H). mass distribution.and h (ellipsoidal height) (Figure 12).3 mathematical figure. (~). it has been positioned nongeocentrically. The common equipotential and are "real" or physical surfaces of the earth. defined by the parameters a (semimajor axis) b (semiminor axis) or a and f (flattening). since.dian. (Figure Associated with these equipotential surfaces is the plumbline 1~3). The use of a biaxial ellipsoid gives rise to the use of curvilinear geodetic coordinates <P (latitude). of which there are an infinite They account for the axis with the plane of the Greenwich Mean Astronomic number for the earth. We now turn to definitions of some fundamental quantities in geodetic astronomy namely. surface used is the geoid. 1969] "that equipotential surface that most nearly coincides with the undisturbed mean surface of the oceans". It is a line of force that is everywhere normal to the equipo tential surfaces.). Conventionally. but one should note that there are many of these for the whole earth or parts thereof. since this ellipsoid is a "mathematical" figure of the earth. they are given in terms of the . defined as [Mueller. but the trend is now to have a geocentric datum (reference ellipsoid). Equipotential surfaces (Figure 13). This figure is commonly referred to as a "reference ellipsoid". A(longitude). physical properties of the earth such as mass. and referred to as These quantities are sometimes "natural" coordinates. and parallelism • of the primary (X) Mer:J.
·4 p z pi Figure 11 Biaxial Ellipsoid .
. z. Longitude.llipsoidal Height .5 . and r. ELLIPSOIDAL NORMAL ~~r~~v (A=90) o· Figure 12 Geodetic Latitude.
6 PLUMBLINE EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES TERRAIN GEOID r ELL~ Figure l3 Orthometric lleieht .
Observations are made in the natural system. astronomic coordinates are expressed in the same natural system.) is the angle between the Greenwich Mean Astronomic Meridian and the astronomic meridian plane measured in the plane of the instantaneous equator (Figure 1. the "reduced" astronomic coordinates A.. The astrogeodetic (relative) deflection of the vertical (e) at a point is the angle between the astronomic normal at that point and the normal to the reference ellipsoid at the corresponding point (the point may be on the terrain (et) two components. as obtained from spirit leveling and en route gravity observations (Figure 13).above the geoid. H) referring to the geoid and the mean rotation axis of the earth (more will be said about this last point in these notes). therefore..4). (11) $. measured along the plumbline.4). after some and A for polar motion and plumbline curvature. (~. g ~meridian e is normally split into Mathema and n prime vertical (Figure 16).t the point of interest) and the plane of the instantaneous equator measured in the astronomic meridian plane (Figure 1. The orthometric height (H).7 11 t"ea1" (physical) properties of the earth. We are now in a position to examine the relationship between the Geodetic and Astronomic coordinates. is the height of the point of interest . the components are given by ~=~If>. the relationships must be known. reductions of ~ Finally. Astronomic longitude (II. This is an important step for surveyors. or on the geoid(e) (Figure 15). (12) n = (AA) cos . to use this information for computations in a geodetic system. tically. Astronomic latitude (~) is defined as the angle between the astronomic normal (gravity vertical) (tangent to the plumbline a. one obtains .
ZIT" ROTATION ·AXIS INSTANTANEOUS POLE PLUMBliNE GRAVITY VERTICAl Figure 14 Astronomic Latitude (~) and Longitude (A) .8 TRUE.
9 ELLIPSOIDAL NORMAL~ PLUMBLINE GEOID ELLIPSOID Ficure 15 Geoid Heieht & Terrain Deflection of the Vertical .
z
uz
10
uz ·
ELLIPSOIDAL
NORMAL
UNIT SPHERE
7J =<A A.> cos <P
Figure 16 Components of the Deflection of the Vertical
11
which yields the geodeticastronomic coordinate
relationships we were seeking.
The geoidal height (N) is the distance between the geoid and a reference ellipsoid, measured along an ellipsoidal normal (Figure 15). Mathematically, N is given by (with an error of less than lmm) tfe:isianen and Moritz, 1967]
N = hH.
(13)
Finally, we turn our attention to the azimuths of geodetic lines between points. A geodetic azimuth (a), on the surface of a reference
ellipsoid, is the clockwise angle from north between the geodetic meridian of i and the tangent to the ellipsoidal surface curve of shortest distance (the geodesic) between i and j (Figure 17). The astronomic azimuth (A)
is the angle between the astronomic meridian plane of i and the astronomic normal plane of i through j (Figure 18), measured clockwise from north. The relationship between these A and a
Moritz~
is given by the 1967]
Laplace Azimuth equation [e.g. Heiskanen and (Aa)
= ntan~ +
(~sina
 ncosa) cot z,
(14)
in which z is the zenith distance.
Note that the geodetic azimuth, a, must
also be corrected for the height of target (skewnormal) and normal section geodesic separation.
12
ZG
#4'4
GEODESIC
kc::t___.::~l~l
YG
XG
Figure 17 Geodetic Azimuth
ASTRONOMIC· MERIDIAN Figure 1R Astronomic Azimuth . LA NORMAL NORMAL PLANE OF THROUGH j VLA.13 z CIO ZLA ~ASTRONOMIC AT X .
the relationship between the earth and stars can be closely approximated by considering the stars all to be equidistant from the earth and lying on the surface of a celestial sphere.the ecliptic. 14 Although this point may be . Therefore.1 The Celestial Sphere The distance from the earth to the nearest star is more than 10 9 earth radii. hour angle. and indeed the solar system. The second differenceisthat celestial geometry is spherical rather than ellipsoidal which simplifies the mathematical relationships involved. 'tight ascension. and horizon of which are examined in detail in this chapter. coordinate sytems. This means only directions are considered in celestial that all vector quantities dealt with can be considered to be unit vectors. There are four main celestial coordinate each systems . For example. the dimension of which is so large that the earth. There are two fundamental differences between celestial coordinate systems and terrestrial and orbital coordinate systems. Our sun is only 8. thus the dimensions of the earth can be considered as negligible compared to the distances to the stars. 2. As a consequence of those great distances. others are VEGA at 30 light years..2. considered to be moving at near the velocity of light. a USAE MINORIS (Polaris) at 50 light years. the closest star is estimated to be 4 light years (40xlo 12 km) from the earth (a CENTAUR!}. while .25 light minutes (155xl0 6 km) from the earth. as·a consequence of the great distances involved. can be considered to be a dimensionless point at its centre. CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS Celestial coordinate systems are used to define the coordinates of celestial bodies such as stars. are perceived by an observer on earth to be moving very little. stars. First.
the zenith. The observer's vertical plane. the prime vertical and the celestial horizon are the and west points. If at any instant we select a point S on the celestial sphere (a star). Due to the rotation of the earth. The earth's equitorial plane extented outwara intersects the celestial sphere at the celestial equator (Figure 21). it is the The plane normal to the horizon passing A small circle parallel to the The vertical plane normal to the The intersection points of ~ through the zenith is the vertical plane. and a point beneath. almucantars. relationships between directions on the earth and in the solar system can be extended to thecelestial sphere. celestial horizon (Figure 21). Another very important plane is that which is normal to the local astronomic vertical and contains the observer (centre of the celestial sphere). A great circle containing the poles. the zenith (nadir). . and the hour and vertical circles form a spherical Its verticies are the zenith then the celestial meridian triangle called the astronomic triangle of S. is called an hour circle (Figure 21). The vertical (localastronomic normal) intersects the celestial sphere at a point above the observer. the effects of which will be studied later.15 considered dimensionless. the celestial horizon and meridian continuously change their positions on the celestial sphere. the observer. celestial horizon is called an almucantar~ celestial meridian is called the prime vertical. vertical planes. A small circle parallel to the celestial equator is called a celestial parallel. is the hour circle through the zenith and is the observer's·celestial meridian (~igure 21). containing the poles. the nadir (Figure 21). and is thus perpendicular to the celestial equator. The instantaneous rotation axis of the earth intersects the celestial sphere at the north and south celestial poles (NCP and SCP respectively) (Figure 21).
I .I .16 NCP I . SCP Figure 21 Celestial S Lphere . .
17 . Figure 22 Astronomic Triangle .
the earth is displaced from the centre of the celestial sphere (which is taken as the centre of the sun) and the observer is displaced from the mass centre of the earth (parallax). 90° from either equinox are the points where the sun reaches its greatest angular distance from the celestial equator. The ecliptic The intersects the celestial equator in a line connecting the equinoxes. In closing this section we should note that the celestial sphere is only an approximation of the true relationship between the stars and an observer onthe earth's surface. the earth is in motion around the centre of the celestial sphere (aberration). equinox. All of these effects are discussed in . and they are the summer solstice (north) and winter solstice (south). a number of corrections These are required to give a precise representation of the true relationship. The most important of these is the ecliptic. 1969])apparent path of the sun about the earth. the earth's rotation axis is not stationary with respect to the stars (precesion. the apparent motion of the sun about the earth. vernal equinox is that point intersection where the apparent sun crosses the celestial equator from south to north. nutation).(Figure 23). the north celestial pole (NCP) and S (Figure 22).18 (Z). or in the reversed concept. There are also some important features on the celestial sphere related the revolution of the earth about the sun. and directions measured through the earth's atmosphere are bent by refraction. corrections represent the facts that: the stars are not stationary points on the celestial sphere but are really moving (proper motion). Like all approximations. which may be described as the approximate (within 2" [Mueller. The other equinox is the autumnal The acute angle between the celestial equator and the ecliptic is The points at termed the obliquity of the ecliptic (e:=23°27') (Figure 23).
.....19 AUTUMNAL 1 . . _ E_QLEN~X\_f _ _ I  SUMMER SOLSTICE .. "' "' " I  ·~ 1\ · Figure 23 Sun's Apparent Motion .... .
and in fact can be considered equal thus allowing us to treat the celestial sphere as a unit sphere. two methods of describing positions are given. Remembering that the distances to the stars are very great. 2. positions are defined by directions only.1 Horizon System The primary reference plane is the celestial horizon.20 detail in these notes. 2.2. the second by a unit vector in three dimensional space expressed as a function of the curvalinear coordinates. zenith distance. The direction to the celestial body S is defined The altitude is the angle by the altitude(a) and azimuth (A) (Figure 24). the other from a secondary reference plan~ and is measured in the primary plane.360°). The complimentary angle z =90a.ugh S measured in a clockwise direction (north to east) in the plane of the celestial horizon (0° . between the celestial horizon and the point S measured in the plane of the vertical circle (0° . is called the The azimuth A is the angle between the observer's celestial meridian and the vertical circle thro. One component or curvalinear coordinate is reckoned from a primary reference plane and is measured perpendicular to it. the secondary is the observer's celestial meridian (Figure 24). This system is used to describe the position of a celestial body in a system peculiar to a topographically located observer. .90°). The In these notes. first is by a set of curvalinear coordinates.2 Celestial Coordinate Systems Celestial coordinate systems are used to define the positions of stars on the celestial sphere.
21 Figure 24 Ilorizon System .
22 ZH NCP I I I X y Z H A=X/COS a COS a ·COS a COS A SIN A SIN a Figure 25 l!orizon System .
2. we make' the valid approximation heliocentre barycentre of our solar system.23 To determine the unit vector of the point S in terms of a and A. measured from 0° to 90° in the plane of the hour circle through S.g.2 Hour Angle System The primary refer~nce plane is the celestial eguator. A = tan ( /X). the secondary The is the hour circle containing the zenith (obserser's celestial meridian). The complement of the declination is called the The hour angle is the angle between the hour circle of S * Throughout these notes. the system is heliocentric and not topocentric.Y. Eichorn. 1974]~. polar distance. Note that although the horizon system is used to describe the position of a celestial body in a system peculiar to a topographically located observer. we must first define the origin and the three axes of the coordinate system. direction to a celestial body S on the celestial sphere is given by the declination (o) and hour angle (h). = . The origin is the heliocentre (centre of mass of the sun [e. The primary axis (X) is directed towards the north point. The unit vector describing the position of S is given by cosa [ cosa cosAJ sinA (21) sina Conversely.2. The secondary (Y) axis is chosen so that the system is lefthanded (Figure 25 illustrates this coordinate system). The primary pole (Z) is the observer's zenith (astronomic normal or gravity vertical). in terms of [X. a and A.Z] a T are (Figure 25) (22) (23) = sin1 Z 1 y . The declination is the angle between the celectial equator and the body S.
24 NCP Figure 26 Ilour Angle System .
25 ZHA . LLJ u XHA m X Y Z = HA COS 6 COS h COS 6 SIN h SIN 6 Figure 27 Hour Angle System .:: .....
It also serves as the connection between terrestrial. XL [Y • Z and ~ [cosO: cosh] cos& sinh sin5 ' {24) and h are given by o = sin. in a clockwise direction {west. celestial. The unit vector is The hour angle system rotates with the observer. The direction to a star Sis given by the right ascension (a) and declination (o). To define the unit vector of S in the hour angle system.2. the latter of which . The Yaxis is chosen so that the system is lefthanded.3 Right Ascension System The right ascension system is the most important celestial system as it is in this system that star coordinates are published. and orbital coordinate systems. The primary reference plane is the celestial equator and the secondary is the equinoctal colure {the hour circle passing through the NCP and SCP and the vernal and autumnal equinoxes)(Yigure 28).1 z . in the direction of the star's Figure 26 h apparent daily motion) in the plane of the celestial equator. we define the coordinate system as follows {Figure 26). the secondary plane is the celestial meridian plane of the observer.26 and the observer's celestial meridian {hour circle). The primary plane is the equatorial plane. and is measured from 0 h to 24 . h = tan 1 {25) {Y/x>· {26) 2. the primary axis {Xaxis) is the intersection of the equatorial and observer's celestial meridian planes. The origin is the heliocentre. illustrates the hour angle system's curvalinear coordinates. The primary pole {Z) is the NCP.
27 NCP Figure 28 Right Ascension System .
EQUATOR XRA ~ z = cos 66 COS RA Fi8ure 29 SIN SIN 6 cos <X OC RiBht Ascension System .28 ZRA YRA CELE51"\~\..
29
has already been defined (HA system).
The right ascension is the angle
between the hour circle of S and the equinoctal colure, measured from the vernal equinox to the east (counter clockwise) in the plane of the celestial equator from 0
h
to 24 •
h
The right ascension system coordinate axes are defined as having a heliocentric origin, with the equatorial plane as the primary plane, the primary pole (Z) is the NCP, the primary axis (X) is the vernal equinox, and theYaxis is chosen to make the system righthanded (Figure 29). The
unit vector describing the direction of a body in the rightascension system is
X
y
cos' o cos·~
: ...
RA
coso sino. sino
'
(27)
z
and a and
o are
expressed as a o • tan
1 ;·
(Y/X),
(28)
= sin 1z
(29)
2.2."4
Ecliptic System The ecliptic system is the celestial coordinate system that is closest
to being inertial, that is, motionless with respect to the stars.
However,
due to the effect of the planets on the earthsun system, the ecliptic plane is slowly rotating (at '0".5 per year) about a slowly moving axis of rotation. The primary reference plane is the ecliptic, the secondary reference plane is the ecliptic meridian of the vernal equinox (contains the north and south ecliptic poles, the vernal and autumnal equinoxes) (Figure 210). The direction
30
Figure 210
Ecliptic System
31
X Y Z
E
COS~
COS A. COS~ SIN h. SIN ~
Figure 2il :. Ecliptic System
32 to a point S on the celestial sphere . The most important characteristics of the cartesian coordinate systems are shown in Table 22 (Note: ~ and o in Table 22 denote the curvilinear coordinates measured in the primary reference plane and perpendicular to it respectively). The ecliptic longitude is measured eastward in the ecliptic plane between the ecliptic meridian of the vernal equinox and the ecliptic meridian of S (Figure 210). are given in Table 21. axis (X) is the normal equinox. The primary plane is the ecliptic The primary plane and the primary pole (Z) is the NEP (north ecliptic pole).2.5 Summary The most important characteristics of the coordinate systems. and the Yaxis is chosen to make the system righthanded. between the ecliptic and the normal OS (Figure 2~10). The origin is heliocentric. The ecliptic system coordinate axes are specified as follows (Figure 211). The unit vector to S is X y cos6 COSA sinA = cosS sinS ' (210) z while B and A are given by 1 B = sin Z. A (211) (212) = tan 1 (y/x) 2. expressed in terms of curvalinear coordinates. measured in the ecliptic meridian plane of S.is given by the ecliptic latitude (6) and ecliptic longitude (A). . The ecliptic latitude is the angle.
<24h 0°~0. = 90°= 6h North celestial a.33 Reference Plane System Primary Horizon Celestial horizon Secondary Parameters Measured from the Primary Secondary Azimuth 0°<A<360° <+east> Hour an~le Celestial meridian (half Alti. 1969] TABLE 22 . A == 90° Left or Right handed left A a Hour angle h = 90°= 6h North celestial h pole 0 left Right ascension Vernal equinox Ecliptic Vernal equinox a.<360° (+~a~t) CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS [Mueller. 1969] TABLE 21 Orientation of the Positive Axis System X y z (Primary pole) Zenith )J u (Secondary pole) Horizon North point Intersection of the zenith's hour circle with the celestial equator on the zenith's side.ng north pole) (+toward zenith) Hour circle of observer's zentth (half containing zenith) Equinoctical colure (half containing vernal equinox) Declination 90°<15< +90° (+north) Declination 90°S.I5S.tude 9o~!:a s+9o 0 containi.+90° (+north) Hour Angle Celestial equator oh~h~24h 0°~hS360° (+west) Right Ascension Celestial equator \ Right Ascen sion oh<a. 15 f3 right right = 90° CARTESIAN CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS [Mueller. pole North ecliptic pole A.~360° (+east) Ecliptic Ecliptic Ecliptic meridan equinox (half containing vernal equinox) (Ecliptic) Latitude 90°<6<+90° (+n~rth) (Ecliptic) Longitude 0°<A.
the hour angle h or its compliment 24h. (ii) from the hour angle system.3 Transformations Amongst Celestial Coordinate Systems Transformations amongst celestial coordinate systems is an important aspect of geodetic astronomy for it is through the transformation models that we arrive at the math models for astronomic position and azimuth determination. the astronomic azimuth A and the altitude a or its compliment the zenith distance z=90a. With these math models. Two approaches to coordinate systems transformations are dealt with here: (i) the traditional approach. the already known quantities relating to the astronomic triangle are (Figure 212): (i) from the horizon system.A (=24h). any one system can then be related to any other system (e. the declination o. and (ii) a· more general approach using matrices that is particularly applicable to machine computations. Before developing the transformation models. The relationships that are developped here are between (i) the horizon and hour angle systems. or its compliment. The new quantities required to complete the astronomic triangle are the astronomic latitude longitude s z ~ or its compliment 90~. and the parallactic angle p defined as the angle between the vertical circle and hour circle at S (Figure 212). the difference in astronomic 6A =A.34 2. using spherical trigonometry. The last quantity needed is Local Sidereal Time. (Note: this is . right ascension and horizon systemS).g. (iii) from the hour angle or right ascension systems. the polar distance 90o. (ii) the hour angle and right ascension systems. To begin with. several more quantities must be defined. and (iii) the right ascension and ecliptic systems.
35 Figure 212 Astronomic Triangle .
(ii) the hour circle Viewing the celestial sphere A complete discussion of sidereal time is presented through S. the Local Sidereal Time (LST) measured clockwise from the celestial meridian to the equinoctal colure.36 not a complete definition. To obtain a definition of Local Sidereal Time. the law of sines yields sin(24h) sinz or sinh sinz and finally sinA sinz = sinh cos& (215) sinA = cos~ (214) = ~~~~ sinA sin(906) (213) . but is introduced at this juncture to facilitate coordinate transformations. From the spherical triangle (Figure 214). we look at three meridians: (i) the observer's celestial meridian. a (or z) and A. (ii) the right ascension (a) between the equinoctal colure and the hour circle (measured counter clockwise).Hour Angle Looking first at the Hour Angle to Horizon system transformation. we know that from the hour angle system we are given h and ~' and we must express these quantities as functions Implicit in this trans of the horizon system directions. and (iii) a new quantity. from the NCP. LST is defined as the hour 2.1 Horizon .3. angle of the vernal equinox. formation is a knowledge of ~. the following angles (Figure (i) the hour angle (h) between the celestial meridian and the hour circle (measured clockwise). 213): on the equatorial plane. in Chapter 4). and (iii) the equinoctal colure. we see. using a spherical trigonometric approach.
.37 ...JZ ~9 wl:t: u W:E ...... w <! Figure 213 Local Sidereal Time .
tano cos~ (220) Finally. ~) is done in a similar way using spherical trigonometry. The transformation Horizon to Hour Angle system {given a (=90z). we have the desired results . the cosine law gives cosz or cost = sin~ = cos(90~)cos(909) + sino sin(90~)sin(909)cos(24h).the quantities a (z) and A expressed as functions of o and h and a known latitude ~. after cancelling and collecting terms and dividing the numerator and denominator of the righthandside by coso yields tanA = tan~ cos~ sin~ sinh cosh ' (219) or tanA = sin~ sinh cosh .38 The five parts formula of spherical trigonometry gives cosA sinz or cosA sinz = sin6 cos~ = cos(90~)sin(90~)cos(90~)sin(90~)cos(24h). A. The sine law yields cos6 sinh = sinz sinA and five parts gives. (221) + cos~ coso cosh (222) Thus. sin~ (216) cos6 cosh (217) Now. through equations (220) and (222). sinz cosA sinz "" sinh cos~ sin6 cos~ sin~ coso cosh (218) which. ~' compute h. coso cosh "" cosz cos~ ' sin~ (223) sinz cosA (224) . dividing (215) by (217) yields siru\.
39 Figure 214 Horizon and Hour Angle System Transformations .
215. expressed Another approach to the solution of these transformations is to use rotation matrices. R2 (90«>). handed.h and solely as functions of a(=90z). ZH ~. we can see that YHA is coincident with YH (or YH Also from Figure coincident with YHA). ZH' ZHA' and ~ all lie in the plane of the celestial meridian. thus they are different by 180°. (228) z H ZHA The effect of the first rotation.inl80° cosl80° 0 0 0 sin(90~) 0 cos(90«>) y . and~. First. thus completing the transformation. with~ The second and YH rotation. (90~) an~~ are also separated by and are different by 180°. The transformation. both systems are heliocentric and left From Figure 215. R3 (180°). is to bring ZHA into coincidence with ZH. then.40 After dividing (223) by (224). and~ into the same plane brings~ as~ (the horizon plane). the result is tanh • ~s7i=nA~~ cosA sin~ cotz cos~ Finally. of HA to H is given simply by X X y = z HA (227) Z H or giving the fully expanded form of each of the rotation matrices X cosl80° sinl80° = 0 0 1 cos(90~) 0 1 0 sin(90~) X y s.A. and YHA into coincidence respectively. the cosine law yields sineS (225) = cosz sin~ + sinz cosA cos~ (226) c5 Equations (225) and (226) are the desired results . .
.41 NCP EAST POINT Figure 215 Horizon and Hour Ang 1e Systems .
which are orthogonal.2 Hour Angle .42 The reverse transformation .Right Ascension Dealing first with the spherical trigonometric approach. we again examine Figure 216. the hour angle system coordinates expressed as functions of right as. the declination o is one of the star coordinates.' ~' and YRA all lie in the plane *Note: For rotation matrices. are heliocentric. To transform the Hour Angle coordinates to coordinates in the Right Ascension system (assuming LST is known) we have a = LSTh (231) (232) o=o Similarly. the foflowing rules ap~l. then y=Rlx.y.Horizon to Hour Angle . and 'R 1 ce> = R(e). zHA: ZRA' and ~' YHA. in both the Hour Angle and Right Ascension systems. namely = H (229) 2.cension system coordinates are simply h = LSTa (233) (234) Note that both systems c5=c5 For a matrix approach.is simply the inverse* of (227). If x=Ry. (230) Furthermore. also (RiRj)1 = ~~1R~ . .3. it is evident from Figure 216 that LST = h + a.
43 Figure 216 Hour Angle·.Right Ascension Systems .
changes the handedness of the hour angle system (from left to right).44 of the celestial equator.Ecliptic For the spherical trigonometric approach to the Right Ascension  Ecliptic system transformations.1. trans~ormation The inverse (237) 2. P2 . with R3 (LST) and the . the RA system righthanded. NCP. 6 (E assumed known) to the Right Ascension coordinates a. and the rotation R3 (LST) brings cidence with ~ XJJ. The transformationof the Ecliptic coordinates a.Figure 2~11.reflection matrix P2 expanded.3.A and YHA into coin and YRA respectively. utilizes the same procedure as in 2. The differences are that the HA system is left handed. o.3 Right Ascension . is given by (235) or. in terms of the hour angle system. we look at the spherical triangle with vertices NEP. and LST. XJJ. and Sin . X] [ [ cos(LST) sin(LST) ~ ~ sin(~LST) cos(~LST) ~] [~ is simply 0 1 (236) 0 The reflection matrix. .3.A and ~ are separated by the The Right Ascension system.
_  ~ Figure 217 Right AscensionEcliptic Systems .45 zRA SUMMER SOLSTICE YE 0 h:. .
. the inverse transformation (Right Ascension to Ecliptic) is given by cosS co. E. 46 The sine rule of spherical trigonometry yields coso cosa • and the five parts rule coso sina cos~ cosA (238) = cos~ sinA cos£ . fiveparts.sA == coso cosa cosS sinA ' (242) = coso sina cose + sino sinE . which separates the ZE and ZRA. Using the same rules of spherical trigonometry (sine.. (243) which.sinS sinE (239) Dividing (239) by (238) yields the desired result tana From the cosine rule sind = sinA cos£ COSA tanS sinE (240) = cos~ sinA sinE + sinS cosE ' (241) which completes the transformation of the Ecliptic system to the Right Ascension system. cosine). and YE· and YRA axes. after dividing (243) by (242) yields tanA and sinS = sina cose + tano sine cos a (244) = coso sina sinE + sino cosE • (245) From Figure 217. the pairs of which lie in the same planes. it is evident that the difference between the E and RA cartesian systems is simply the obliquity of the ecliptic.
Chapter 3.4 Special Star Positions Certain positions of stars on the celestial sphere are given "special" names. . the quantities that In addition. some of the math models for astronomic position and azimuth determination are based on some of the special positions that stars attain. Note that in Figure 218. we must know to effect the various transformations are highlighted.4 Summary Figure 218 and Table 23 summarize the transformations amongst celestial coordinate systems. As shall be seen later.47 The transformations then are given by r:Jll and = R1 (e:) [~L [~1 AA (246) [:] E = Rl(e:) (247) 2.3. Figure 218 highlights the expansion of the Right Ascension system to account for the motions of the coordinate systems in time and space as mentioned the introduction to this chapter. Table 23 highlights the matrix approach to the transformations amongst celestial coordinate systems. These effects are covered in detail in in 2.
1971] FIGURE 218 .Ecliptic . CD CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM RELATIONSHIPS [Krakiwsky and Wells. RightA~cension I ··'· ~~ I Hour Angle I Horizon I ___ _j _ _ ___.::. Mean Celestial @T 0 Mean Celestial True Celestial @T Apparent @T @T .
A. .0 R3 tLST) P 2 R. ' l:J Rl ( e: ) E ">j 1'• t:l Pl I' (I) Right Ascension Rl ( ~) ~ Ul l:J rx' .' Original System Ecliptic Right Ascension Hour Angle Horizon Ecliptic I rxl .!:>. 1.A. Ill c+ a Hour Angle P 2 R3 (tLST) [:J R3 (180°) R 2 (~90°) R3(180°) H.• TABLE 23 . I Horizon R 2 (90°~) [:L. 1971) . TRANSFO~~TIONS AMONG CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS (Krakiwsky and Wells.
North Circumpolar Stars that (a) never cross the prime vertical. equal times above and below the horizon. Referring to Figure South Circumpolar Stars never rise for a northern observer. 3 above are reversed. 2. For an observer in the southern hemisphere (0~~~. thus the observer sees all stars in that polar hemisphere as they appear to move in circles about the zenith (:pole).1 Rising and Setting of Stars The ability to determine the visibility of any star is fundamental to geodetic astronomy.so Figure 219 shows the behavior of stars as they move in an apparent east to west path about the earth. to be on or above the horizon a declination given by c5~90~ 0 must have ' (248) . (b) cross the prime vertical. and (2) Z located at a pole. Equatorial (a) (b) (c) 3. Two special cases are (1) Z located on the equator. thus the observer will see 1/2 the paths of all stars. are visible at all times to a northern observer. Declination From Figure 220.4. 2. more times below the horizon than above. To establish a star observing program. 2. (a) and (b). a north star.:9_oi. the explanations of 1. as seen by an observer (Z) situated somewhere between the equator and the north pole (O~~s9d). 219: 1. one must ensure that the chosen stars will be above the horizon during the desired observation period. stars rise above and set below the celestial horizon more time above the horizon than below. we see that for an observer in the northern hemisphere. These stars.
51 Figure 219 Circumpolar and Equatorial Stars .
"'u~ . .: . ~\r""' ~ "' 1 : • I • C'E. . ."f .52 I I I I I CELESTIAL EQUATOR I r. . . • • • •• •• • • . :· ·.. . • •• • ""' • : .. • · oll • • Ill .Rs·.:: ·: . •.~t. · .. " . .... · · 'ST J. • . I ....S SCP Figure 220 1 Declination for Visibility . . . ~~ ~' ~ ~ . • • • • • • Ill .:·::~ ::~I~CU~POL~R."' II> .. · • \1. . . .1 • 8 • • • • . 0 • • ••• • • . Ill. . • so•:•TH . . .· • . · . · . . · .
53 .
and a south star that will rise at some time, must have a declination (249) Thus, the condition for rising and setting of a star is
90~P>o>lf>90.
0 0
(250)
For example, at Fredericton, where IP= 46°N, the declination of a star must always satisfy the condition (250), namely
in order that the star will be visible at some time; that is, the star will rise and set. If o>44°, the star will never set (it will always be a visible
circumpolar star), and if o<44°, the star will never rise (a south circumpolar star). Hour Angle Now that the limits for the declinations of stars for rising and setting have been defined, we must consider at what hour angle these events will occur. From the transformation of the Hour Angle to Horizon curvalinear coordinates (Section 2.3.1, (222)) cosz = sino sin¢> + coso cosh cos4> •
For rising and setting,· z=90°, and the above equation reduces to sino sin IP + coso cosh cos!P = 0, which, after rearrangement of terms yields cosh = tano tan4> • (252) (251)
The star's apparent motion across the celestial sphere is from east to west. (252): For a star that rises and sets, there are two solutions to equation the smaller solution designates setting, the larger solution designates The following example illustrates this point.
rising (Figures 221, 222).
Figure 221
. Rising an d Settl.n g
0f
a Star
55
Figure 222 Hour Angles of a Star's Rise and Set
56 At ~=46°.'64. There are. From equation 44°<o 2<. then sinA = coso sinh.44°. one gets = cos 35° sin 223~5241. o1=35°. we wish to investigate the possible use of two stars for an observation program. With z=90° for rising and setting. The second star. since o2 > 44°. (253) one Using the previous example for star 1 (o 1=35°. Their declinations are (250). two solutions (Figures 223 and 224): using hr and one using hs. never sets. The first star. ~=46°. o2=50°. h~ = gh 05m 54~22. (equation (215)) sinz sinA = coso sinh. h~ = 14h 54m 05~78). Continuing with the first star. will rise and set. . since it satisfies (250). Azimuth At what azimuth will a star rise or set? From the sine law in the Hour Angle t:o Horizon system transfomi:ioll.it is a north circumpolar star to our observer. of course. = 34 ° Similarly 1 20' 27'. equation (252) yields cosh1 or = tan35° tan46° which is the hour angle for setting. hr 1 The hour angle for rising is 1 = (24h£s) = 14h 54m 05~78. As = 325° 39' 32~36.
Figure 223 J.57 I I NORTH\ I POIN"C .ng of a. Star Rising and Sett' .
58 Figure 224 Azimuths of a Star's Rise and Set .
it is said to culminate or transit. the zenith = <5~ = 41<5 • (254) The zenith distance of UC south of Z is z • (255) Lower Culmination (LC) (Figure 225c) is on the nadir side of the hour circle. Recalling the examples given in 2.25b). Upper culmination (UC) is defined as being on the zenith side of the hour circle. distance is given as (Figure 25a) z When UC occurs north of Z. 1969]: Northern Stars .<5 1 (256) =35°.4.59 The following set of rules apply for the hour angles and azimuths of rising and setting stars [Mueller. and .t<5>0°) Rise 12h<h<l8h set Equatorial Stars (<5=0°) Rise Set Southern Stars 6h<h<l2h h=l8h h= 6h 0°<A<90° 270°<A<360° A=90° A=270° 90°<A<l80° 180°<A<270° Rise 18h<h<24h Set Oh<h< 6h 2. distance at LC is z The zenith = 180.( <5+41) • (~=46°. and for a northern observer. and can occur north or south of the zenith (Figure 225a and 2. always occurs north of the zenith.1 then for the first star which is south of the zenith.2 Culmination (Transit) When a star's hour circle is coincident with the observer's celestial meridian. <5 2=50°).4.
60 (A) UPPER CULMINATION (B) UPPER CULMINATION (C) LOWER CULMINATION Figure 225 Culmination (Transit) .
61 LC zl = 180 (ol+~) = 99° which means that the star will not be visible (Z>90°).Right Ascension coordinate transformations. A=90° ~ltitude increasing). .3.4. we had (equation (230) LST = h+a • = 12h (l ' Since h = Oh for Upper Culminations and h LSTUC LC LST for Lower Culminations. recall from the Horizon to Hour Angle transformation (via) the cosine rule. A=270° (altitude decreasing). and for a prime vertical crossing in the west. Recalling the Hour Angle . Prime Vertical Crossing For a star to reach the prime vertical (Figure 226) (259) To compute the zenith distance of a prime vertical crossing. and h = 12h for all lower culminations. equation (226) that sino = cosz sin~ + sinz cosA cos~ For a prime vertical crossing in the east. (257) (258) = = 2. A = 180° for all Upper Culminations south of the zenith. is h The hour angle at culmination = Oh for all upper culminations. The azimuths at culmination are as follows: A= 0° for all Upper Culminations north of Z and all Lower Culminations. one obtains z2 uc = o2~ = 40 ' both of which will be north of the zenith. For the second star.
62 PRIME VERTICAL· CROSSING (WEST) Figure 226 Prime Vertical Crossine .
there are two values for h . distance for both ·crossings will be (equation 260) cosz 1 z The zenith = sin 35° sin 46° = 37° 07' 14':8.sin\l> = sin~ cosec!~> (260) From the The hour angle of a prime vertical crossing is computed as follows. (261) reduces to sino cosh = ~~~~~~ coso cqsll> sin!~> or cosh and finally cosh = sinw + coso cosh cosw 2 2 sin!~> • (261) sino sin ill coso cos!~> sin!~> 2 tano ( cos~~> sin!~> cos!~> ) = tano cot!~> (262) As with the determination of the rising and setting of a star.63 we get ·sino cosz = . cosine rule of the Hour Angle to Horizon transformation (equation (222)) cosz = sino sin!~> + coso cosh cos!~> • Substituting (260) in the above for cosine z yields sino sin!~> = sino = sino sin!~> + coso cosh cos!~> • or sino Now. o2 = Continuing with the previous examples (o 1 = 35°. it is immediately evident that the second star will not cross the The first star will cross the prime vertical (O<c5 1 < 46°). 1 The hour angles of western and eastern crossings are respectively (equation 262) . 50°).prime vertical eastern crossing (18h<h<24h) and prime vertical western crossing (Oh<h<6h). with azimuths A=90° (eastern) and A=270° (western).
Elongation When the parallactic angle (p) is 90°. but only with stars that do not cross the prime vertical.64 cosh 2 w = tan<S cot~ = tan 35° cot 46° . the sine law yields sinA sinp sin(90o)= ~s~in~(9~0~~l%>~) ' or sinA = sinp cos!%> cos<S (264) Since at elongation. one proceeds as follows. (264) becomes sinA = cos<S secw • (265) For eastern elongation. the star is said to be at elongation (Figure 127).4. and for western elongation 270°<A<360° •. meridian. To solve for the zenith distance and hour angle at elongation.4. (266) . it is obvious that 0°<A<90°. ~ = 47~45397 = 3h09m48~9 1 and 2. Elongation can occur on both sides of the observer's celestial Thus. Using the cosine law with the astronomic triangle (Figure 127). one gets cos(90w) = cos(90o)cosz+sinz sin(90o)cosp . the condition for elongation is that 15>1%> • (263) From the astronomic triangle (Figure 227). that is. p=90°. the hour circle and vertical circle are normal to each other.
27 Elongation .65 CELES1 iAl 1 EQUATOR Figure 2.
one will have an eastern and western value for the hour angle. o2=50°.'3 . z2 = 20° cosh2 = 06' 37':. distance. Continuing with the previous we see that for the first star. examples~ ~ 1=35°.~ sin~ 2 cos& sin& cos~ . AE == 67° 43' 04':. :(268) Further manipulation of (268) leads to cosh = and finally cosh = tan~ cot~ tan~ ( lsin 2& ) = cos&sin& tan~ ~ ( cos 2o ) coso sino • ' (269) Note that as with the azimuth at elongation. o 1 <~. star~ o 2 >~ (50°~46°). and ~=46° thus it does not elongate. substituting the above expression for cosz (267) in the Hour Angle to Horizon coordinate transformation expression .'7 ' 2 cosZ = sin~ coseco = sin 46° cosec 50°. then cosz = sin~cosec~ • (267) Now. cosp=O. zenith.(222). and hour angles for the second star are as follows: 81 .66 and when p=90°. on rearranging terms gives cosh = sin~. hE = 24hh'W = 22b Olm 19~8 • 2 2 h~ .sin. namely cosz yields sin~ = sin~ = sin~ sin~ + cos~ cosh cos~ ' sin& sin~ + cos~ cosh cos~ which. coto w tan~ = tan 46° cot 50° = 29:66733 = lb 58m 40~2 .nAE = coso 2 sec~ = cos 50° sec 46° . azimuths.. For the second The thus eastern and western elongations will occur.
earth's motions. (2) Atomic Time. There are three basic time systems: (. Ephemeris time is used mainly in the field of celestial mechanics and is of little interest in geodetic astronomy. time systems. interval is the time elapsed between two epochs. in any of the four coordinates systems. the units vary in length for each system. one must be familiar with the time systems that are used. An epoch is a particular instant of time used to define A time the instant of occurance of some phenomenon or observation. The adopted unit of time should be related to some repetitive physical phenomenon so that it can be easily and reliably established. For civil time (the time used for everyday purposes) the units of With astronomic a time scale (e. To describe time systems. there are three basic definitions that have to be stated. defined via the orbital motion of the earth about the sun. is valid for only one instant of time T.3• TIME SYSTEMS In the beginning of Chapter 2. the celestial coordinates are subject to change with time. based on the diurnal rotation of the earth and determined by star observations. it was pointed out that the position of a star on the celestial sphere.g. The phenomenon should be free.g. or capable of being freed. Sidereal and Universal 67 . To fully understand these variations. based on the period of electro magnetic oscillations produced by the quantum transition of the atom of Caesium 133. and is measured in some time scale.e. (3) Ephemeris Time. motions of stars). from short period irregularities to permit interpolation and extrapolation by manmade timekeeping devices. seconds) are considered fixed in length.1) Sidereal and Universal Time. Due to many factors (.
which is known as sidereal noon. because of its variable (nonuniform) rate. They are related to each use of one or the other is purely All broadcast time si9nals ·are derived from Atomi time. thus the a matter of convenience. 3. s s transit.68 times are the most useful for 9eodetic purposes. The mean sidereal day is reckoned from Oh at upper The units are lh = 60m . thus the relationship between Atomic time and Sidereal or Universal time is important for 9eodetic astronomy. This is defined as the interval between two successive upper transits of the mean vernal equinox (the position of T for which uniform precessional motion is accounted for and short period nonuniform nutation is removed) over some meridian (the effects of polar motion on the meridian are removed). Since the mean equinox is affected only be precession (nutation effects are removed) . lm s = 60s s • Apparent (true) sidereal time (the position of T is affected by both precession and nutation). From the above definition of the fundamental unit of the sidereal time interval.equal an9les of an9Ular motion correspond to equal intervals of sidereal time. true vernal equinox (position of T affected by precession is termed Local Apparent Sidereal Time (LAST). When the hour angle . the mean sidereal day is 0~0084 shorter than the actual rotation period of the s earth. other via ri9orous formulae. we see that sidereal time is directly related to the rotation of the earth . is not used as a measure of time interval. The sidereal epoch is numerically The hour angle of the and nutation) measured by the hour an9le of the vernal equinox.1 Sidereal Time The fundamental unit of the sidereal time interval is the mean sidereal day.
but directly related to.a reference meridian for time systems is one of convenience and uniformity. it is called Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time (GAST). or equivalently. GMST. as well as the simplicity of publishing star coordinates that are independent of. To obtain the relationships betweenLocal and Greenwich times.. namely Eq.69 measured is that at the Greenwich mean astronomic meridian (GHA). be seen that LMST LAST Then. 1980]. E). (see 3.ngle of the mean vernal equinox is the Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time (GMST). Note that the use of the Greenwich meridian as . is called the Equation of the Equinoxes (Eq. formerly called the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (AENA) [U. (31) LAST. it can = GMST + A ( 32) (33) = GAST + A . The local hour angle of the mean vernal equinox is called Local Mean Sidereal Time (LMST). The difference between LAST and LMST. GAST.T. the longitude of an observer. and Eq. in the Astromical Almanac (AA).2) for each day of the year. This convenience and uniformity gives us the direct relationships between time and longitude. . It is tabulated for Oh U.S. in which A is the "reduced" astronomic longitude of the local meridian (corrections for polar motion have been made) measured east from the Greenwich meridian.GMST. we require the longitude (A) of a place.E are all shown in Figure 31. from Figure 33. LMST. GAST and GMST.E = LAST ~ LMST = GAST . The equation of the equinoxes is due to nutation and varies periodically with a maximum amplitude near ls (Figure 32). f. Naval Observatory. and the Greenwich hour a.
70 Figure 31 Sidereal Time Epochs .
71
0.70
s
0.75
s
0.80
s
s 0.85 s 0.90
JAN.
MAR.
MAY
JULY
SEPT.
NOV.
JAN.
Figure 32 Equation of Equinoxes (OhUT, 1966) [Mueller, 1969]
72
NCP
Figure 33 Sidereal Time and Lorigitude
73
For the purpose of tabulating certain quantities with arguements of sidereal time, the concept of Greenwich Sidereal pate (G.S.D.) and Greenwich Sidereal Day Number are used. The G.S.D. is the number of mean
sidereal days that have elapsed on the Greenwich mean astronomic meridian since the beginning of the sidereal day that was in progress at Greenwich noon on Jan. 1, 4713 B.C. The integral part of the G.S.D. is the Greenwich
Sidereal Day Number, and the fractional part is the GMST expressed as a fraction of a day. AA shows the G.S.D. Figure 34, which is part of one of the tables from
5 4634.0667 05. not year of publication).7294 .5557 40 33.0 1313. 0 1 2 3 4 17 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16.S 4631.5 4643.4389 26.7368 .2201.5 4629.7243 .2098 9 39 38.8401 "46.6598 15.2865 20.7203 .0 132S.S 4628.7409 .7450 59 55 51 47 43 s 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 s 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2S 26 21 28 29 30 31 Feb.S 4644.9220 08 05.O U.5 4630.5079 07.7368 .0 1316.2208 40.6221 02. I G.5 Equation of Equinoxes atOhU.5 4611.0 1308.3989 44.6255 04.4693 21 44.7168 .3664 20 21 22 23 24 2S 26 21 28 29 30 31 Feb.7368 32 41.8470 50.5 4624.3457 04.7457 .5 4645.5062 • 0.5131 40.7681 .5 4637.6545 03 07. 0 I 2 3 4 Julian Date 244 4604.5 4607.· I 2 3 11.0 1342.9050 01.7369 9 3S 42. 16 16 16 16 IS 1S 15 IS IS 1S 15 1S I5 IS 1S IS IS IS 18 51.2993 so 06.1853 47.5091 38.8879 59.0650 34.5 4618.9526 10.5 4635.9787 01 56.~788 31 40.4S69 IS 14 17 59.7422 .6509 39 32.5 4622. SIDEREAL TIME (G.6462 36 37.T.7157 .0 1320.9975 23.1386 .5 4646.0702 07.7463 .7447 .0 1318.5 4625.4610 01 51 53 49 45 41 31 33 29 2S 14.6755 13.2841 52 21.7252 .3264 33.0 1340.27S8 S1.1211 .M.7171 .2882. Sl.5 4608.5 4609.5 4649.1936 56 17.4372 55.7484 .Q 1300.5516 18.0 1317.3705 OS 10.0 1338.5 4606.9543 41.5 4627.3746 48 25.4618 58.2323 09.0 1310.7728 31.6187 60.5 4611.1199 0.0 1321.5407 OS 53.5 4621.1971 42.7291 .7251 0.6698 44.5 4614.D. 1 2 3 4 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 00 04 08 12 IS 19 23 27 31 s 6 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 8 ·9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 IS s 14 6 14 1 14 8 14 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 14 14 14 0.5392 49.0 1301. Jan.0 1324.8818 30.6421 22.1369 .S 4616.0 1339.1140 56.5 4632.T.0 1312.0166 24.7294 53.0 1315.1381 .1809 60.0042 39.0 1333.5 4620.0994 18.5 4640.S.T.6504 19 52.0 134S.1072 28.7431 46 10.5 4639.0084 20 54.5148 11.SII4 09. 11 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 51 01 OS 08 12 17. (Greenwich Transit of the Mean Equinox) h m I 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 1 7 7 7 1 7 7 7 7 7 1 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 38 17.5 4647.8436 48.4174 57 59.0 1343.8232 30.5682 51.7635 0.5 4612.0 1303.7763 39. of the Equinolt) Apparent Mean .1192 41.8273 28 45. 1981*] (*This and other dates in figure titles refer to year of application.0 1314.8817 32.0 1329.9261 20. A.7843 08.744S 0.4006 15.0 1305.9571 43.5 4619.0160 54.4734 I 0 59.S 4626.8314 12 00.2219 11.1398 .1023 09 49.7346 26.5 4636.0 1328.S474 Figure 34.5 4633.5 4642.1894 13 02.0938 45.9137 35.7328 SS. [M.4024 46.7215 .5 4610.0125 04 09.1030 00 13.0 1341.8356 15.6626 13 46.0 1306.3381 02.5 4641.7708 .h m I Date: QhU.0 1311.0633 03.2916 53.0 1331.0 1307.7409 15 56.7271 0. .8515 54 03.8418 11.0 1322.7336 . OhG.2848 49.0 1319.0685 36.1693 14 14 21 SS.0 1337.7210 .7341 .7459 .7510 .7311 24.2800 09 06.2899 22.1386 0.0 1309.0 1304.5 4605.1792 29.9560 12.3972 13.7411 0.5 4613.7335 .0 1334.1758 21.7310 0.5598 23 48.7865 06.SS71 20.9S09 39.1168 16.5 4648.0 1302.9594 14.5415 22.8453 19.7481 0.7301 Jan.7368 .3829 14 55.7717 .0948 43.0 1344.74 UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES.7708 .T.7363 57.14SS .5 46S0.5 4623.9864 25.5639 07 03.9118 24 S0.0989 16 S8.0 1335.7326 26.6204 31.2882 35 36. 245 1299. H.1421 .46S2 44 29.4335 28.6238 33.0 1332.0 1336.5 4638.S.T.0 1330.177S 58.9872 52.0 1323. S.O 1326.3291 35.7576 .39SS 42. 1981 G.0 1321. at OhG.5 461S.1886 42 13.
This motion is due in part to our motion in orbit about the sun and in part to the rotation of the earth about its polar axis. which characterizes the solar motion through which mean solar time is determined. The mean sun is used in place of the true sun since one of our prerequisites for a time system is the uniformity of the associated physical phenomena. The epoch of apparent (true) solar time for any meridian is (Figure 35) TT in which h s = hs (35) The 12h is added for is the hour angle of the true sun. 1969] a m m + 0~0929 t m2 + ••• is elapsed time in Julian centuries of 36525 mean solar days (34) in which t which have elapsed since the standard epoch of UT of 1900 January 0.5 UT. Solar time is related to the apparent diurnal motion of the sun as seen by an observer on the earth. The mean sun is characterized The right ascension (a ) m by uniform sidereal motion along the equator. has been given by Simon Newcomb as {Mueller. of the mean sun.75 3. The epoch of mean solar time for any meridian is (Figure 35} MT = hm (36) . The motion of the true sun is nonuniform due to the varying velocity of the earth in its elliptical orbit about the sun and hence is not used as the physical basis for a precise timekeeping system. h convenience so that 0 TT occurs at night (lower transit) to conform with civil timekeeping practice.2 Universal (Solar) Time The fundamental measure of the universal time interval is the mean solar day defined as the interval between two consecutive transits of a mean (fictitious) sun over a meridian.
MEAN SUN Figure 35 Lo. .76 TRUE SUN . Universal (S 1 ar ) T1me .
F. The time required by the mean sun to make a complete circuit of the equator is termed the sidereal year.). d This epoch is denoted by the .2425 mean solar days.rom Figure 35 Eq. If the hour angles of the s ' true and mean suns are referred to Greenwich (h G h G ) . or the presently used Gregorian calendar which has 365. m The equation of time reaches absolute values of up to 16 • shows Eq. Figure 36 Mean and true solar times are related to the astronomic longitude of an observer by (Figure 37) MT=UT+A and TT (39) = GTT + A (310) The time required by the mean sun to make two consecutive passages over the mean vernal equinox is the tropical year.T.256 360 42 mean solar days.UT.25 yea~ in which mean solar days = 365d 6 h . = 365. 1 tropical year 1 sidereal year These are given by = 365. and Eq.77 in which h m is the hour angle of the mean sun. the times are m Greenwich True Time (GTT) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Universal Time (UT) respectively (Figure 35). the astronomic year begins at Oh UT on 31 December of the previous calendar year.T. = TTMT (37) (38) = GTT . for a one year interval. Since neither of the above years contain and intergral number of mean solar days.T.0 UT. For astronomic purposes. civil calendars use either a Julian 1 Juliam year d = 365.242 198 79 mean solar days. astronomic date January 0.T. The difference between true and mean solar times at a given instant is termed the Equation of Time (Eq.
1969] . 1966) [Hueller.78 12 m Figure 36 Equation of Time (Oh UT.
79 SUN MEAN SUN Figure 37 Solar Time and Long1tude . .
+2.00273790~3 JD . 2.9972695664 GSD • Standard (Zone) Time To avoid the confusion of everyone keeping the mean time of their meridian. 7~0 in extent each. civil time is based on a "zone" concept. advance of regular ZT. 12 east. Universal time is related to Zone Time (ZT) by UT = ZT + liZ.1 d = 2 415 020. The standard time over a particular region of longitude corresponds to the mean time of a particular meridian.671 + 1. on either side of the International Date Line (180°E). (313) All of this is portrayed in in which liZ is the zonal correction.5 UT. +12 west. •••• . In general. = 0.3 Relationships Between Sidereal and Solar Time Epochs and Intervals We will deal first with the relationship between time epochs. Figure 38. Care should be taken with liZ. of 15° (M\.JD is the number of mean solar days that have elapsed For the standard The conversions since 12h UT on January 1 (January 1~5 UT) 4713 BC.0.669 + 0. astronomic epoch of 1900 January 0. ••• . (311) (312) = 0. and +1. particularly in regions where summer time or daylight saving time is used during the springsummerfall parts of the year.80 Corresponding to the Greenwich Sidereal Date (GSD) is the Julian Date (JD). The time zones are numbered 1.2.) each. and the zone extends 7J2 on either side of Greenwich. 3. JD between GSD and JD are GSD JD 3. the world is divided into 24 zones Zone 0 has the Greenwich meridian as its "standard" 0 meridian. Note that zone 12 is divided into two parts. The effect is a lh . The.
.. ·~·~ • • t ~ Otto ....r........ l•t.. . . •4C'H '"' . .!. 1969]... ••r•• I ~ o o • ••• :::: !'!2 •II tiO •9 . ..... .\f . IRI!EGVLAR ZONES STANDARD (ZO~~) TIME {Mueller.. . . ..... :::::: .. ::::1 •T (:: ~o.. .o. '::: ] X . . • ... .. ..... •••••·I ..S HOUR TO ZONAl. "'' ....... ~: 1 .  # .. . 1 9 o o L~::. ... c T' :r:: . . r:..:.. . .. ......:: • .... ~llll1 : • • '"':: 1:::: ..:..::::~ o t If$ 0 <... ·.... '"' :::: . ....... :~: :: Oil .. •• ·•o•H . tj'' I ····· ~ .... ::::: :' ''''''! .. . :: ....:!~ . FIGURE 38 Note: Since the preparation of this map.. l E 1: r ·4 • ~ ..... ....... ... I • ~I I • & ~ 1' to ........ .. . i~:!!lii ...1.. ... ~: 0 •• ::: ). ... :: 1:::::~ • f ••• . I ····· .. ...... ... •5 •4 I +3 +2 t"on~t:1t. • :::::: 406H !:1 :: to•H ......... the standard time zones in Canada have been changed so that all parts of the Yukon Territory now observe Pacific Standard Time (Zone designation U or +8)...... 11'"1 .. ~ ~ =~:: ~=:::. :.. ······ ::::::. '\ . .... .. . • • ~ . l~~. :.. .::E. . ···...~ .. . .. .. . :::F ····· ······ ······ ~f.. ....... .. ::1 ' ::! •12' too• a1o• no• ao• 40 C::J ~ ADO O... See Appendix II..... .' •ro• . t·· ::~:.....~ .. COilllCCTIONS AS INOICATEO.. ·:c: ~ ~~ : ' .......:::·: ·2 . ::~....... K~i • e . ::::: .... ..oto . to1r:~ :/ ~:: ....... s •I I o I·! Q ~ONGITU~t '""'! ~z [. : ::.. . ·5 •6 I •T . ... .: ....llti~· ~·d:: ::c: 00f5o :::E: . • t.
is tabulated in the Astronolllical Almanac (AA) . GMST respectively. For example". then UT If we replace MT. two numerical examples are used. (318) relate mean solar and mean sidereal times. G = GMST (317) (318) and· . relationships shown (315)... Thus for simplicity we should We should note.12 ) h (316) Equations (315) and (316) represent the transformations of LMST to MT and viceversa respectively. (317). and. For illustrative purposes. that the . compute mean sidereal time ((316) or (318)).  . + GMST)... the inverse procedure is used.hm' and LMST with GMT. 1ll where hm is the hour angle of the mean sun while from· Figure 39 (314) which yields (315) or LMST = MT + (am . compute apparent sidereal time (LAST Eq.E + LMST or GAST = • To relate apparent sidereal time with true solar time.. = Eq.. . (316).hm . h .T or OT = GTT Eq.E. 12 ). . .T. GMST= UT + For practical computations we used tabulated quantities.82 Equation (36) states MT = l2h +h . always convert MT to UT and LMST to GMST. ·E) is tabulated in the Star Almanac for Land Surveyors (SALS). of course.(am .). To relate true solar time with apparent sidereal time: (MT (i) · compute mean solar time (ii) (iii) = TT Eq.·and the quantity· (am >12h + Eq.
' 83 ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' figure 39 5~de<ea1 a<'d lJ<'ive<sa:l.at~o<'shiP• ~et~••" . ~ilU" epochS • Re:l.
) at 18 38 m .) 9h 3f' 27~0 GAST (=UT + ( am .6 ' .: :~' s ~R for 4h 48m 14~87: (a m 47~4 ~~:_ :.om 8~00 . Example #1 (using SALS) Given: MT 3~10. 312.12h) + Eq.12 h + Eq.: ~ .E.". = 18h 21m 41~00 Feb..E.84 (note that the appropriate tabulated values can be found in Figures and 313). 14. A 1981 28 " w = 66 ° 38 • Compute: MT LAST 18h 21m 41~00 •4h 26m 33~87 22h 48m 14~87 h UT:9 h A (66 ° 38' 28' ') UT (=MT  A) R(a m .39. 311.12 h + Eq.E) 32h '2f 41~87 24h GAST 8h 2fl 41~87 A (66° 38' 28' I) LAST (GAST 4h 26m 33~87 4h + A) .
E GAST (= GMST + Eq.85 Example #2 (using AA) Given: MT = 18 h 21 m s 41. 1981 A = 66° 38' 28"W Compute: . 14. LAST MT A (66° 38' 28") 18h 21m 41~00 4h 26m 33~87 22h 48m 14~87 9h 35m 42~95 UT (=MT .002 737 9093): GMST at 22h 48m 14~87 UT 22h 5lm 59~64 32h 27m 42~59 24h GMST 8h 27m 42~59 .A) (a Add Sidereal interval equivalent to m .0~74 8h 27m 41~85 4h 26m 33~87 4h Olm 07~98 Eq. E) A (66° 38' 28") LAST (= GAST + A) .12h) (GMST) at Oh UT: (multiply UT interval by 1.00 Feb.
X 50" if!(' <fO" II iO" h o• h 10" . 6 12 . 22 53•4 9 23 52•5 24 51•7 25 50·8 z6 so·o 45 43•5 3 I I 45 43•2 .6 46 0'.D. 4"22"14"'.6 xS 9 27 49·1 28 48·2 29 47·4 3046s 9 JI 45·7 .II 45 44•7 S 45 48·3 7 45 49·0 ~ f 45 49·8 ! 9j II 45 50•7 45 51·6 9 45 52·5 9 45 53•5 10 n 45 54·6 11 Sun's S. 45 sz·o 10 x8 45 51•0 9 0 u 45 50•1 8 xs 4. 45 43•0 2 45 42·8 45 42·6 lil 1 2 I 45 42•5 45 42. 8 52 20•1 53 19·3 !2 54 X8·4 r8 .6 9 35 42·2 36 41•3 37 40•5 38 39·_6 9 39 38·8 4037·9 45 42•5 45 42•5 :n 45 42·6 45 42·8 45 43·0 45 43·2 H 45 43·5 45 43·8 45 44•2 45 44·7 u 45 45•1 45 45·7 45 46·3 45 46·9 u 45 47·6 ° ° ° I 2 2 2 3 3 .·5 x8 U o 12 Wed.T. :W"' Jo'' .6 . 9 ~ Mon.t 8 44 27·0 45 26·1 46 25•3 47 24•4 46 258 46 23·7 21 46 2I·7 20 46 19•7 20 19 9 15 59·4 16 s86 17 57·7 rS 568 II 45 44·7 45 44·3 : 45 43·9 4 x8 10 0 Mon. 6 x8 24 l4 01•2 ..6 ll2 4 s s6 167 . 1981 U.. 6 12 d h b R m • Dec. 7•0 7·8 7·6 6o 6·7 6·9 66 6o 6o 6s 6·4 6·8 6·7 6s 7·4 7•1 6·6 6·7 68 6·9 Figure 310 [SALS.74 16 12 46 os·8 1 II 46 04·3' 15 46 I2·4 :~ 46 I 0•6 6 46 14•1 1 x8 XX 0 919 56o 20 55•1 21 54·3 . 40° •fS• 50" 55° (»" 3•9 I> IH h 4•7 . b 7·6 7·5 • 7·9 7•7 "' 8z 8·I • 7·1 7·0 6·9 6·7 7·3 7•2. x6!:e Date SUNRISE North Latitude . 6 lC:t 904 09·8 05 o8·9 o6 oS·l Cfl Cf'/•2 9 o8 o6·3 09 1004·6 I I OJ·8 x8 1 0 Sat.. J2 44·8 33 43•9 34 43•1 45 s8·8 · Thur.6 X2 x8 12•4 I0•6 II 02 H•S OJ 45 57·5 45 56·3 u 45 SS·X II :! x3 o Fri. Moon•s phases: new moon.T. first quarter.J 5'4 s·s 5·7 5·9 5·4 s·s 5•7 s·S 5·9 s·5 s·1 5·7 s·9 6o 4B S·lt s·z s·s 5·7 s·z s·s s·S 6o 6o 6o 6·2 6z 6z 62 6·2 6·2 6·4 6·4 6·3 63 6·J 6·3 " 6·6 66 6s 6s 6·4 6·4 h 68 " 6·8 6·7 7·Z 7•1 1·o ' 7·3 7•2. 6 xz . 6 X2 os·s x8 8 0 X:.5 49•3 8 Sun. 4•9 "' 6 u 4·2 4·5 4·4 4·6 4·8 4·7 4·9 S·I JX 61 6·2 6·2 63 N .6 8 48 2J·6 49 22·7 II 46 17·8 46 15•9 1: x8 51 so 21·8 21·0 Tues.'JO" II 20" 1> oo• · 5!5 Feb. 57 xs·S x8 ss rs·o II 5 0 8 59 14·1 900 IJ•2 Ol 46 02•8 15 46 01•4 14 46 OO•I 13 13 Thur. h II ·E m • U. 1·0 68 7·S 7·3 7·2. 6 18 2 0 X:.lf5 00•3 45 54•0 IO X"f 0 45 53•010 Sat. d I b 0 lt2 R ta rn s Dec. 6 0 Frl.t 9 1202•9 IJ 02•0 Sun.6 :1:2 3. :. 6 12 45 48s 8 x8 45 47·7 7 u: 45 47•0 6 x6 o 45 46·4 6 Mon. b m E a Sun. Tues.86 SUNFEBRUARY. 1981] . 6' 6 7 i I 6' 41 37·0 42 36·2 9 43 35•3 44 34•5 45 33·6 46 32·7 9 47 31·9 9 xs 59•4 South Latitude 45 45·8 6 45 45•2 . 55 17·5 0 0 II 4609·0 16 • Wed. n"x7''49"'· s·o s·J 5·3 s·o s·z s·J s·6 s·S s·x s·J s·s 5·7 5·9 S·.X 8 .
Subtract LlR from sidereal time interval (ri1:hth:md argument) to obtain sobr time inten·al. FIGURE 311 [SALS. 1981) ..JE solar 4b A R sidereal J solar LJR sidereal 4b 4b 4b solar LJR sidereal solar .dR sidereal sb sh sh sb In critiral tm<'S muntl.lldd LJR to solar time intt1"\'al (kfchand argument} to obtain sidtreal time intaval. .87 INTERPOLATION TABLE :FOR R MUTUAL CO?"OVERSION OF INTERVALS OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TI:\.
0 1318.6238 33. H.0 1309.0633 03.0 1340.2899 22.1886 42 13.7291 .0 1336.S.0702 07.5 4629.7681 .2208 40.9S26 IO.7157 .7311 24.5571 20.0 1310.5114 09.7708 .0 1338.5!)62 • • Jan.7481 0.0 1326.5 4646.3381 02.5 4647.9975 23.1809 60.9261 Sl 20.2865 20.6187 60.7865 06.8356 ss 15.0 1328.8575 54 03. SIDEREAL TIME (G.T. A.3829 14 55.1853 47.5148 11.0 1301.5 Equation of Equinoxes atOhU.5 4612.3989 44.6221 02.7387 .5 4640.74tl 0.0650 34.D.0125 04 09.S392 49.5 4614.8273 28 45. (Greenwich Transit of the Mean Equinox) h m 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 .0994 18.7363 57.S41S 22.0160 54.5 4630.7386 0.7447 .5 4607.7717 .9220 OS 05.4006 tS. S.2800 09 06.2848 49.7294 .7369 G.7445 0.T.8314 12 00.9178 24 50.4372 5S.0 1343.0 1319.5 4623.0 .1030 13.6755 13.7217 .0 1324.2841 21.1792 29.9050 01.7693 14 14 21 55.0 1344.7398 .9137 35.5 4610.4618 58.5474 Figure 312a [AA. Jan.5 4631.3297 35.9594 14.4569 15 14 17 59.0 1306. I 2 3 4 16 00 IS 56 IS 52 IS 48 IS 44 IS IS 15 IS IS 15 IS 15 IS 15 40 33.6504 19 52.0084 20 S4.6462 36 37.1775 58.7328 55.5 4605.2882 35 36.5 4609.0 1333.0948 43.5 4641.0 1329.0 1313.7251 0.7168 .5 4636.7368 .4335 28.0667 05.7171 .5 4620.7455 .7409 15 56.8453 19.0 1320.0 1304.0989 16 58.7510 .5 4611.SSI6 18.8470 50. 1339.4693 27 44.2207' 42.7210 .7576 .0685 36.S 4616.9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 38 17.5097 38.5 4632.7368 .7409 .7370 0.0 1322.7335 .7457 .5 4642.5 4649.T.0 1312. 245 1299.7635 0.3264 33.5 4626.5 4633.4734 10 59.4610 0I 57 53 49 45 41 37 33 29 2S 14.5 4621.7459 .4024 46.S079 07.1894 13 02.0 1330. 0 1 2 3 4 17 17 17 17 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 18 51.0 1342.T.0 I I U.8436 48.5 4634.4389 26.1740 56.0 1307.0 1317.9577 43.6626 46.M.7368 .3955 42.1192 47.5682 51.7708 .7484 .8232 30.7326 26.0 1323.5 4645.3705 OS 10.7203 .0 1325.0 1302.0042 39.0 1303.5 4637.9509 39.0 1316.5 4624.9872 52. at OhG.5 4643.5 4627.2758 51.5 4613.5131 40.0166 47 24.2916 53.6509 17.6545 OJ 07.5 4608. 0 1 2 3 4 Julian Date 244 4604. 1981 G.5 4648.7243 .7215 .7336 .5 4618.7346 26.1072 43 28.6698 44.3746 25.5 4628.0 1311.7368 32 41.3457 04.SS98 23 48.S.5 4625. 1981] .7341 . OhG.0 1321.5407 53.8418 17.8879 59.7294 53.9787 56.5 4635.0 1332.5 4619.0 1331.1758 27.0 1337.0 1305.T. 11.5639 07 03.5 4606.0 1335.0938 4S.3788 31 40.7421 .9S60 12.2219.7728 37.1977 39 32.5 461S.0 1308.7763 39.5 4638.0 1345.7386 .9543 41.7271 0.7199 0.4652 29.1936 17.57 Ol OS 09 l3 17 21 2S 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 01 OS 08 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 59.0 1327.1168 16. 1334.7431 46 10. 0.0.5 4644.6204 31.0 1341.7843 08.62SS 04.0 1315.7422 .0 1300.4174 .5 4617.8401 46. of the Equinox) Apparent Mean b m I Date ObU.2323 09.88 UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES.1023 49.3664 s 6 7 8 56 00 04 08 12 15 19 23 27 31 4 IS s 14 6 14 7 14 8 14 9 10 11 12 13 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 14 14 14 14 14 9 35 42.SSS1 • s 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS s 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Feb.7450 59 11.6598 15.8818 30.7463 .5 4650.2882 51.5 4639.72S2 .8817 32.2098 9 39 38.0 1314.7307 0.3972 13.2993 so 06.9864 2S.7369 . 1 2 3 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Feb.6421 22.5 4622.
6199 40.6297 43 37.4621 II 49 45.8046 0.9096 58 20.54 38.8854 28.4993 32.5 4674.7401 .7260 51. 245 1345.9919 27 54.7350 0.0 1378.8315 11.0530 • • •· 17 59.9492 50.5 46..5 4.7768 .M.7721 .0916 14.6169 29.6.7721 .2717 42 36.S.0 13.5 05.8067 30.7541 .1358 11 26 0.6380 10 07.1688 36 47.0 1368.5429 18.263.0616 32.8613 0.0 1366.6118 .0 1352.8333 42.5 4666.56.0 1383.5474 m 14 03.504.3581 55 25. Julian Date 244 4650.5.7945 .2676 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 59 21. or the Equinox) Apparent Mean h m I I Date o~>u.7242 20.7613 .7369 04.0 1356.0 1373.1689 23. 1 14 14 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 Feb.0 1384.0238 39.7284 33.2813 47.5 4680 .55.2762 14.8318 0.7203 39 41.0783 10 .7754 0.0 1363.4403 24.0 .8149 s 2 13· 19 00.6101 25.0 1390.8098 .2830 18.5309 4696.5 4654 .8623 .8367 44.5 4687.0631 43.1753 36.8191 02 15.9440 35.T.5 4694 •.5 4669.0099 11 53 41.59.0001 54 24.2006 09 27.0 1376.0 1386.5 4690.8272 26.9707 29 10.515 13 24.7770 .5 4673.5 4679 .2796 16.5 46.0 1348.0 1351.8585 21 17.3938 11.8402 .7334 ..0 1385.0 1349.8099 .1878 07.0 1382.7208 18.3282 31.5 4664.58 11 02 11 06 II 10 11 14 J2 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 11 18 12.8072 11 37 .5 4661.3744 22.5028 34. 0.0 1357.1723 25.8158 .1771 6 13 03 17.8.9423 04.5 4668.0 1372.0 1387.1672 .7277 22.9013 31 49.599 .5 4667.0824 23 58.8022 .0865 ..3936 53.5 469S.0 1370.0 1359. 1 2 12 12 12 12 12 40 43.5062 36.D.0 1358.8074 .4404 24.0 1361.5 4677.0 1362.5 4659..3499 28..51.7725 .0 1391.9055 3 13 IS 04.7693 3.4487 .5 4689.8112 0. 15 16 17 .9457 06.58. SIDEREAL TIME (G.4142 25 13.2512 11 33 .3921 40.5 4678.7863 .5 4672.9474 37.7743 .5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2S 26 27 28 Mar.3611 II 41 51.5 4653.0 1377.1654 21.7756 .6363 12 41 00.7120 Figure 312b [AA.1877 1 11 21 03.6937 11 30 02.6396 11.9877 39..S.5 4663.0 1350.5 27.5270 33 07.5 46.5 4688.5 16 06.2593 32 51.5 4684. 1.0 1364. 1365.5568 11 12 12 12 12 25 26 27 28 29 57 38.T.5 4665.4715 16.5 4675. o•G.1038 01 34.728.7. 28.5011 03.8384 15.4528 34 44.8350 13.5 12 37 03..18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Mar.6339 26 52.3869 07.0 1374.55.0 1379.5 4655.6152 58.1706 54. (Greenwich Transit or the Mean Equinox) Feb.8597 0.1729 20 02.9927 21.5 4670.•7792 0.0~07 50 28.8108 3.1812 46 32.5 4691.3623 38 40.5 0611.5 4693. 1981] .5 08 14•.0 1347.3540 12 10.7161 26.6256 00 56 52 48 44 22.8586 .8614 0.56.7735 .5 4681 .52.0 U.0 1371.5.0581 30.6215 2 11 17 07.3042 17 20.5 4692.8972 34.52.T.5 4682.53.2874 00.51 29.7676 0.7369 .0 1388.444.5788 11 22 09.8619 .59.8609 . 30 31 Apr.0599 01.7320 .9220 19.0 1354. H.613. A.7315 .4976 01.2790 29.3886 38.89 UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES 10 1981 G.5 4658.854l .0 1360.5 4660.5 4662.8115 .8081 .3903 09.8234 .5 4671.5 4686.5 4676.7225 49.S.T.0564 .T.5392 47 33.0 1375. 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 39 43 47 51 55 59 03 07 11 15 19 23 26 30 34 38 42 46 50 .0 1389.5433 30 48.5 48.9491 08.0 1380.515 OS 31. at o~>G.7468 .7244 22 56.8060 .8653 G.5059 47.8053 .0 1367.9960 4 13 11 09.5 4685.s 13 07 13.5.5 4657.0 1346.0 1381.5351 04 18.8396 57.0547.0825 22 12 23 Jl 24 11 2511 26 Jl 2711 28 Jl 29 II 30 II 31 II Apr.0 1355.0 1369.8478 .9127 II 4.5 4683.2779 45.S Equation or Equinoxes at o~u.
4869 36.6955 8 20 11.8893 .5 4714.6084 54.8872 .2727 12.0 1403.2745 43.0974 16 17 8 24 07.5 4725.7736 13.8758 06.5268 23.5S16 56.8983 . (Greenwich Transit or the Mean Equinox) b 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 37 41 44 48 52 56 00 04 OS 12 03.1586 17.5 4732.9241 0.5 4724. A.0 1427.1637 50.9488 .1229 23.0 1413.0 1411.5 4734.T.9287 .7038 2. of the Equinox) Apparent Mean b m I Date 0hU.0 1398.4315 02.1224 .7139 14.1133 52.4959 30.90 UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES.6066 • • Apr.8281 09.4447 30 31. 1981] .4890 26.8941 .8247 07.8614 .7902 30.0 1431.5 4738.2748 18.6741 49.5 4699.8264 38.9340 .7943 26 27 28 29 30 May I 2 3 4 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 .1620 25.3416 21 10 02 25.2245 16.5 4698.0618 43.7122 43.9326 .2276 47.8229 36.0 U.0237 01.5 4720.0 1401.S.5 Equation of Equinoxes atOhU.2693 10.8316 46.9450 .6091 07 22.9387 0.0700 14 13. I 2 3 4 s 11 11 II II II 21 17 13 09 OS 01 57 53 49 45 37 33 29 26 .0513 ~6.9261 .6996 03 59 55 51 47 26.. Apr.0 1434.889o 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 II 10 tO 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 tO 13 13 13 13 1l 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 IS IS IS IS 15 IS 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 55 59 03 07 11 11 10 41 44.4757 05.T.S.5 4723.0 1422.T.0742 28.3852 36.5 4709.3375 19 10.9470 G.4322 22 9 58 29.0 1432. OhG.0 1423.7191 47. 0.6740 51.7120 11.5 4713.0 1426.4239 31 59.3458 40.9272 0.5 4701.0 1410. I Julian Date 244 4695.9904 S9.5 4696.9354 60.9309 .3334 3S 55.1568 46.5 4704.8931 19.8927 0.3835 05.5 472t.9218 .3804 42.1606 10 17.9274 .9327 .8277 15.6363 00.0 1436. 1981 G.5 4703. 52.5 4717.9241 .0 1402.6132 24 9 so 37.5724 51 58.0 1395.2511 06 21.5 4731.8795 .9337 29.5 4729.7888 18 42.9392 .0 1405.9712 39.7830 44.8978 .7194 22.9077 .5 4697.9458 .8026 15.8896 .3800 03.0444 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 May 1 11.5 4735.9795 18 0.0 1397.6215 07.0 1419.M.8848 49.1620 19.5 4716.1523 6 7 8 9 10 11 ss 58 02 06 10 12 13 14 IS 16 17 14 45.3783 32.9151 .0 1399.0 1417.9320 39.3235 09.5 4711.2843 49.4908 57.9836 24.8875 0.5 4739.5456 IS 38 25.0 1433.0478 24.5 4707.4363 48.S.2470 2 3 4 s s 6 7 8 9 10 1l 12 13 14 IS 23 06.1603 48.0 1429.9485 0.3785 04.6746 20.0 1420.0 1416.9276 08.0461 53.D.9328 .6032 21. 245 1390.8653 .7368 53.0659 58.5227 23 9 54 33.8942 26 35.8716 .9336 .5 4730.5 4740.7174 16.0 1425.9403 .9.0 1414.6032 29.5186 II 18.4280 IS 14.8977 37.0 1400.9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 42 38 34 30 27 45.0130 30.0 1394.5 4706.5 4700.0 1393.0 1406.5 4728.0530 57.6015 50.9949 43 47.T.60SO IS 34 28.T.8298 40.0 1421.7079 56.4976 01.9434 0.5 4718.1877 56.S 9 46 41.3425 22 38.9286 0.9234 .6174.9388 02.7861 Figure 312c [AA.7984 00.5 4705.1647 32.0 1428. • 03.2552 36.0443 32.1564 02.5 4715.0 1396.9754 IS 19 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 51 54.9311 .9005 . H.4925 28.5 4712.5 4727.8872 .5 4736.3399 40.8962 .0 1392.5144 28 03.5 4719.9405 33.0 1409.0 1418..5 4726.3817 34.0496 55.0 1435.0 1408.2428 39 51. at ObG.2710 41.5 4737.9251 .5689 27.9249 .2327 22 04.0 1430.9371 31.7157 45.S 4722.0 1415.8942 0.0 1412.0 1407.5 4708.5 4733.0 1404.5 4702.8807 34.4556 34.0 1391.5 4710.9236 .5 4741. SIDEREAL TIME (G.6049 52.4942 59.2676 39.9287 0.54.0 1424.
' lh (M) lm (M) ls (M)· lh oom 09~85647 (S). The usefulness of a knowledge of the intervals is given in the following numerical example. The direction of the sun in space.2422) = 0. These numbers are derived from the fact that a tropical (solar) year contains 366.2422/365. in which S and M refer to mean sidereal· and mean solar times respectively.2422) = 1.2422 mean sidereal then mean solar time interval sidereal time interval. ~d (M) = 24h = = 03m 56~S5536 (S). mean sidereal time interval mean solar time interval.2422/366. . relative to T. day~ or 365.he the geocentre. obtains ld (S) lh {S) lm {_S) ls (S) After working out rates of change per day.002 737 909x . = = 59~83617 (M) s ..91 We nQW turn our attention to the relationship of the sidereal and solar time intervals.are = (365.2422 mean so~ar days. one = 23h 56m 04~09054 (M) 59m 50~17044 {M) . 0.99727 (M) . = = 01~00273 (S).997 269 566 4x mean = (366. result is that the mean solar day is longer than the mean sidereal day by approximately 4 minutes. Olm 00~16427 (S). varies due to the earth's orbital motion about the sun. The ratio's.
. 14.LU.Eq.997 269 566 4) 4h ZT (= UT ~Z) 18h 47'1'fl 11~37 .4h 26m 33~87 8h 26m 38~17 Feb._(.92 Example #3 (using 'AA) Given: LAST = 4h OOm 04~30 Feb. 14.(mean sidereal interval x 0. (0 h U.) GMST at oh u.T. T. 1981 · 38~91 Mean Sidereal Interval {_GMST ii GMSTl . 14.E..T.A) Eq. 1981 A= 66° 38' 28''W Compute: LAST ZT 4h oom 04~30 . U.T.E. Feb. 1981) A (66° 38' 28") GAST (=LAST .. 0~74 8h 26m 9h 3?' 42:95 GMST (=GAST.
is given in chapter 4. we' and (ii) changes in the position of the rotation axis (polar motion). thus is an irregular time system. UTC has a defined relationship to International Atomic Time ( IAT) .93 3. More information on UTC. they are subject to irregularities caused by (i) changes in the rotation rate of the earth. to UT2 and to UTl. is affected by changes in w and polar motion. as well as . UTC Universal Time Coordinated is the internationally agreed upon time system which is transmitted by most radio time stations.). and UT2. thus it represents the true angular motion of the earth and is the system to be used for geodetic astronomy (note that it is an irregular time system due to variations in UT2 w. thus. of Universal time as follows: UTO is UT deduced from observations. particularly applicable to timekeeping for astronomic purposes.4 Irregularities of Rotational Time Systems Sidereal and Universal time systems are based on the rotation of the earth.5 Atomic Time System Atomic time is based on the electromagnetic oscillations produced by the quantum transition of an atom. The differences are expressed in terms e e is defined as UTl corrected for seasonal variations in w e . the International Committee for Weights and Measures defined the atomic second (time interval) as "the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of radiation corresponding to . 3. UTl. UTl is defined as UTO corrected for polar motion.. In 1967. This time system is nonuniform because w is slowly decreasing due e to the drag of tidal forces and other reasons.
The work required to define IAT is carried out by BIH (Bureau l'Heure) in Paris !Robbins. which is based on the weighted means of atomic clock systems. throughout the world. stab~ ~t~es .94 the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of the atom of Caesium l33"1Robbins. 1976]. through its International de relationship with UTC. Atomic frequency standards are the most acurate standards in current use with stabilities of one or . two parts ~n 10 12 common. Various atomic time systems with different epochs are in use. o f two parts ~n 1014 ob ta~ne d from. The internationally accepted one is called International Atomic Time. . is the basis for radio broadcast time signals. 1976]. IAT. the mean of sixteen specially selected caesium standards at ·the US Naval Observatory. an d '1' . .
deUned .1 TIME DISSElUNATION.to. h . TIME RECORDING Time Dissemination As has been noted several times already.UTC was_ ..At 1972 January 1 0 UT. called DAT. Boulder. it is in our best interest if on a worldwide bases everyone uses the same time scale. Ottawa (3. UTC is a system of seconds of atomic time...335 MHz. The LF (low frequency) signal are more accurate since errors due to propagation delay can be more easily accounted for. that is ls UTC is lsAT to the accuracy of atomic time and it is constant • '.4. TIMEKEEPING. Precise values are published one month in 95 . 20 MHz) and CHU. 14. be !AT .t. 10 MHz.w. we require a measure of the epoch relative to the catalogued epoch..minus· lQs_ exact.'Ihe quanti. denoted DUTl and never exceeds the value 0~9.AT":"UTC). In North America. The time we are interested in is UTl. . with propagation frequencies in either the HF (1 to 50 MHZ) or LF (10 to 100 KHz) ranges. 7. (UTlUTC) is The value DUTl is predicted arear~. 15 MHz. Colorado (2.Ly. The value.y: ~.•. The HF (high frequency) tend to be more useful for surveying purposes as a simple commercial radio receiver can be used. celestial coordinate systems are subject to change with time. In the interests of homogeneity. the two most commonly used time signals are those broadcast by WWV. 4. To make use of catalogued positions of celestial bodies for position and azimuth determination at any epoch.670 MHz).5 MHz. will always be an integral number due to the introduction of the "leap second" (see below). Time signals are broadcast by more than 30 stations around the world.330 MHz.(l. The broadcast signal is called Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). 5 MHz. and published by BIH.
UTC is decreased by exactly 1 8 at certain time~. .9. the zero second marker of each minute is longer. for CHU. essentially of: (i) short pulses emitted every second. for example. s To keep DUTl within the specified 0.. the 59th second marker is omitted). For further information on the subject of propagation delay. DUTl can be disseminated from certain time signal transmissions The code for transmission of DUTl by CHU is given in Figure 41. TAI is currently gaining on UTl at a rate of about one second per year. time.01 or 10 ms. (iii) at periodic intervals. The introduction of this Note that provisions for a negative leap second are given. (iv) DUTl is indicated by accentuation of an appropriate number of the first 15 seconds of every minute.96 In addition. Since geodetic observations rarely have an accuracy of better than s 0.. voice. or both. most with errors less than 0~000 3. for WWV. and date are announced in morse code. an error of 0. The propagation delay of high frequency signals reaches values in the order of O. the reader is referred to.Cii) each minute marked by some type of stress (eg. All major observatories of the world transmit UTC with an error of less than 0~001 . 2. station identification. Robbins [1976]. the beginning of the pulse signalling the beginning of the second.5 ms is of little consequence.Sms. "leap second" is illustrated in Figure 4. should it ever become necessary. The various time signals consist .
splitting._I I Figure 41 Code for the Transmission of DUTl . EXAMPLES DUTI EMPHASIZED SECONDS MARKERS = + 0. or tone modulation of the normal seconds markers. DUTl = (m x O. doubling.l)s A zero value of DUTl will be indicated by the absence of emphasized seconds markers.0. DUTl = (n x O.5s MINUTE MARKER ~~~~~ I DUTI = .97 A positive value of DUTl will be indicated by emphasizing a number (n) of consecutive seconds markers following the minute warker from seconds markers one to seconds marker (n) inclusive. The appropriate seconds markers may be emphasized.2s MINUTE M'ARKER EMPHASIZED SECONDS MARKERS ~ I I I LIMIT OF CODED SEQUENCE . for example. by lengthening. (m) being an integer from 1 to 8 inclusive. (n) being an integer from 1 to 8'inclusive.l)s A negative value of DUTl will be indicated by e~phasizing a'nurnber (m) of consecutive seconds markers following the minute marker from seconds marker nine to seconds marker (8 + m) inclusive.
but.9 UTC EVENT 56 I 57 I .6 UTC ~h 4s 30 JUNE.98 A positive or negative leap second.. 23h59m ~I· ohom Fieure 42 Dating of Events in the Vicinity of A Leap Second .. 23 59 58 w:tll be followed one second later by oh om Qs of the first day of the following month . /(. 60 8 a~d ends_ ~t Qh Qm 0\of ~he ~ir~t day of.m.· given to the end of December and June and second preference to the end of March and September. the dating of events in the vicinity of a leap second shall be effected in the manner indicated in the following figures: POSITIVE lEAP SECOND EVENT . the following month~ In the case of a negat1. . . positive leap second begins at 23h 59. 23 59 58.ve leap second. 23h59m 1 JULY ohom NEGATIVE LEAP SECOND DESIGNATION OF THE DATE OF THE EVENT m s 30 JUNE. 23 59 60. when required..I 58 t a 0 1 1 I I 2 JULY 3 I 4 I 5 6 I L 30 JUNE. 30 JUNE. Taking account of what h~s been said in t~e preceding paragraph.preferenceshould be. m s . . should be the last second of a UTC month. ._t(lEAP SECOND t DESIGNATION OF THE DATE OF THE EVENT 56 I I 57 58 59 I 60 I 0 I :I ~ 1 I 2 3 I .
2 Time~Keeping and Recording Time reception. The chronometer or clock used should be one that is very stable. several comparisons of clock time with UTC are made during periods when direction observations are not taking place. Mechanical clocks. and have an accuracy that is superfluous for geodetic purposes. (accuracy of 1 part in 10 electricity. stable to 1 part in 10 12 ) . but do require a source of This type of timekeeper is normally used for geodetic purposes. exclusively in geodetic astronomy. Since the 1930's. 7 There are three broad They are portable. categories of clock that may be used: (1) (2) (3) Atomic clocks.99 4. Direct comparison of a time signal with the instant of observation is not made in practice . in conjunction with a timerecorder. Atomic clocks are primarily laboratory instruments. Quartz crystal clock. it should have a constant rate. the radio receiver has been used almost Time signals are received and amplified. (e. In areas where reception is difficult. that is.g. The most practical receiver to use is a commercial portable radio with a shortwave (HF) band. was by means of the telegraph. Mechanical clock. The direction obs~rvations are subsequently compared to a marine or aeronautical radio with a good antenna may become necessary.a clock (chronometer) is used as an intermediate means of timekeeping. after which they are used as a means of determining the exact time of an observation. Quartz crystal clocks are the preferred clocks. clock time. before the advent of radio. chronograph) where an accuracy of 0~001 or better is required. are very costly. Usually. with .
The most common and useful mechanical clock is a stop watch. resetting them to zero. and should not be overlooked. a startstopreset button which operates both hands together. the set of observations made for the astronomic determination of position and azimuth includes the accurate determination and recording of time. and the observing procedure is audiovisual. quartz crystal . . the errors in time always have a direct effect on longitude (e. The timekeeping device that is most effective for general surveying purposes is the stop watch.3 Time Observations In many instances. most often a stop watch with a mean solar rate (sidereal rate chronometers are available} • The five desireable elements for the stop watch are lRobbins.100 accuracies in the order of 1 part in 10 6 .(latitudeand azimuth mathematical models and associated star observing programs can be devised to minimize the effects of random and systematic errors in time. the error in A will be 1~'5). reading to 0~1. One should note that many of the new watches . if time is s in error by 0. timerecording is manual. where an accuracy of 0~1 is required}. electronic. but· they are portable and independent of an outside source of electricity. with two sweep seconds hands. suffice for many surveying needs (eg.mechanical. With any of these latter devices.1. While in many cases.g. They are subject to mechanical failure and sudden variations in rate. 4.combine the portablestable criteria and the stop watch capabilities. 1976]: (i} (ii} two sweep seconds hands.
Designating the time read on our watch as T. repeat (iii} as direction observations are made. resetting it to coincidence with the main hand which is unaffected by the operation of this button. then the zone time (broadcast. (iv) (v} Record the reading and reset. (iv) (v) reading to 0~1. The clock correction (6T} and clock rate (6 1T) are important m parts of the determination of time for astronomic position and azimuth determination. A mean of five readings of time differences (see below) will give the 6T of the stop watch at the time of comparison. by CHU) of an observation can be stated as ZT =·T + 6T (41) . 1976]: (i) start the watch close to a whole minute of time as given by the radio time signal. for example.1. a rate sufficiently uniform over at least one half an hour to ensure that linear interpolation over this period does not s give an error greater than 0. A recommended time observing procedure is as follows [Robbins.101 (iii) a stopreset button which operates on the secondary seconds hand only. (ii) stop the secondary hand on a whole time signal second. record the reading and reset. (iii) stop the secondary hand the instant the celestral body is in the desired position in the telescope (this is done by the observer). repeat (ii} periodically (at least every 30 } so that the clock rate for each time observation· can be determined.
and after the observing program. T ~T 0 .102 In (4ll! it is assumed that ~T is constant. '+l 1. ~T will usually not be Then b. namely (45) (iv) Compute the clock rate per mean solar hour by b.i+l = ZTi+l . given by (42) where ~T.b. t.g..at a uniform rate. . (46) (v) Record the results in a convenient and usable form (e. 1= ~T l. T = 1 ~T.ZT.l.T is constant but changes should occur.. during.1 (ii) Compute the time difference. ~T for each by (43) 1 = ZT . the clock (chronometer) rate.. The clock correction. l.. is determined via a simple linear interpolation as follows: (i) Using the radio and clock comparisons made before.1. 1 1 1. table of values.T.T..l. '+l between time comparisons by ~ZTi. compute ~T. is the change in per unit of time. ... T.. ZTi (44) (iii) Compute the differences between successive clock corrections corresponding to the differences b. '+l l.~T ~ 1T 0 are clock corrections at times T. '+1 l. b. ~ZT. '+l.+ 1 ~ZT. . 1 T.l. graph). ~T for any time of observation.
Clock (stop watch) ~ZT. '+1 1. Clock Correction and Clock Rate (i) Determination of ZT of stop watch ZT (radio) 9h 13m 00~0 13m 15~0 13m 45~0 9h 14m 00~0 14m 30~0 Stop Watch (T) oh oom oo~o oom 14~8 oom 45~2 oh Olm oo~o Olm 29~9 ~T.7 1. '+l 1.)/i = 1 9h 13m 00~0 i=l This procedure is to be repeated for each time comparison with the radio time signal. 1 (RadioStop watch) 9h 13m 00~0 9h 13m 00~2 9h 12m 59~8 9h 13m 00~0 9h 13m 00~1 ZT of beginning= (i~T.1 (~/h) T 9hl3m00~0 9h4lm00~0 ohoomoo~o Oh27m59~2 lhl6m57~7 Oh28m00~0 Oh49m00~0 lh03m00~0 9hl3m00~0 9hl3m00~8 00~8 01~5 1.103 This time determination process is illustrated by the following example.9 10h30m00~0 llh33m00~0 9hl3m02~3 9hl3m04~3 2hl9m55~7 02~0 .8 1. (ii) Record of time comparisons. determination of clock rate.1 TIME (T) ~ ZT (radio) ~T 0 ~T.
8 = ~T 0 = 9h + (Ti+l .104 (iii) Graph of Clock (stop watch) Correction ~T t:i • ... CLOCK TIME (T0 ) (iv) Determination of the true zone time of a direction observation.Ti)~lT 13m 00~8 + 52m (0~40803} 30~3 • = 9h 13m 01~5 ZT(true) = Oh 28~8 + 9h 13m 01~6 = 1oh osm .6 ZT (true) = Oh 52m 28~8 + 9h 13m 01~6 = 10h Using ~T 6T osm 30~4 yields 1.... Observed Time (stop watch): What is true ZT ? From the graph: ~T s at ZT observed = 9 h 13m 01.
g. For details. for example. firstorder) determinations of astronomic azimuth and position. s work requires an accuracy in time of 0. Mueller Il969] or Robbins 11976].105 In closing this section. the Such reader is referred to. . the reader is cautioned that the methods described here for time determination are not adequate for precise (e.01 or better.
There are two main types of catalogues: (i) Observation catalogues containing the results of particular observing programs.0. and should give their proper motions. star catalogues identify each star by number and/or name.1 Star Catalogues· STAR CATALOGUES AND EPHEMERIDES Star catalo9Ues contain the listing of the positions of stars in a unique coordinate system. catalogues are described briefly below. and (ii) compilation catalogues containing data from a selection of catalogues The latter group are Several (observation and/or other compilation catalogues). The positions are generally given in the mean 0 right ascension coordinate system for a particular epoch T • Besides listing the right ascensions and declinations. 1963] was produced by the Astronomischen Rechen Institute of Heidelberg. (Magnitude is an estimate of a star's brightness given on a numerical scale varying from 2 for a bright star to +15 for a dim star). Some catalogues also include annual and secular variations. of interest to us for position and azimuth determination. Other pertinent data sometimes given are estimates of the standard errors of the coordinates and their variations.5. 106 . It was compiled from 158 different observation catalogues Three of these and contains coordinates for 1535 stars for the epochs 1950. The Fourth Fundamental Catalogue (FK4) !Fricke and Kopff. 5.0 and 1975. These catalogues are called fundamental catalogues and the star coordinates contained therein define a fundamental coordinate system. compilation catalogues contain accurate star coordinates for a welldistributed (about the celestial sphere) selection of stars. Germany in 1963. and star magnitudes.
name implies. The Normal System N30 (N30) !Morgan. with star coordinates for 1950. and all star coordinates should be expressed in this system. more accurate than the GC. correction tables are available.0 to the date of observation.107 A supplement to :the FK4. It should be noted that the FK4 system ha's been accepted internationally as being the best available. the FK4 supplement should be referred to and the coordinates rigorously updated from 1950. In such cases.!2!!2. contains additional stars. the most useful catalogue is the Apparent Places of Fundamental Stars (APFS) {Astronomische RechenInstitutes. 1979]• This is an annual volume containing the As the Although apparent places of the FK4 stars. The present accuracy GCFK4 of the coordinates in this catalogue are somewhat doubtful. catalogue.0. pairing required for latitude determinations there are often insufficient stars to fulfill a firstorder observation program. The General or Boss General Catalogue (GC. For all but latitude observations For the stringent star there are sufficient stars in this publication. compiled from two hundred fifty observation catalogues. For geodetic purposes. the published coordinates have not been corrected for short period nutation terms that must be applied before the coordinates are used for position and azimuth determination. These additions were drawn mainly form the N30 .0. it is not of FK4 quality. or BC) [Boss. . Heidelberg. contains star coordinates for 33 342 stars for the epoch 1950.0. tabulated at 10day intervals. but are of doubtful value due to the errors in the GC coordinates. 1952] is a catalogue of 5268 Standard Stars with coordinates for the epoch 1950. 1937).
and may also contain some or all of the following information: motions of the sun.phemexides and Almanacs Ephemerides and 1\lmanacs are annual volumes containing information of interest to surveyors and others (e. E) . occultations. explanatory since the information has been previously explained. The Astronomical Almanac (AA) [U. Nautical Almanac . plus the information required to update the star coordinates to the time of observation. the interested reader should study a recent copy of AA.u. and ST is the hour angle of the vernal equinox.the United Kingdom as the Astronomical Ephemeris) is the only one of geodetic inte.g. ·Office.J]S~ amongst· other things~ the mean plac~s of 1475 s·tars· catalogued for the"beginning of the ye. (e~g~ 19Si.S. All of the information given is fully explained in a Parts of three tables are given here Each table is selfAn section at the end of each AA.that are of interest to us. . They contain the coordinates of selected stars. moon. tides. note concerning Figure 5l is as follows. tabulated for short intervals of time. = For more detailed information.O). times of sunrises and sunsets. then GAST at OhUT = + Eq. eclipses. the lJnd:ted'· States ·as ·'the.j. since the tabulated values are for OhUT. American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac and in. . E.2 . and planets of our solar system. 1980].e~t:·· It· contai. S3. published . .108 5.ar· of'frtteres't. Naval Observatory. Now. ·(formerly. S2. mariners) involved with "practical" astronomy. conversions of time and angular measures. GMST extra Recall from equation (318) that = UT + (a m  12h). Figures 5l. astronomic refraction.
6238 33.7171 .4569 IS 14 17 59.6626 46.5401 53.0633 03.5 4629.5 4607.4618 08 58.8418 17.7335 .4610 4 IS 01 14.0 1334.2848 49.1853 29 47.8453 19.0 1313.7865 9 08 06.T.6204 31.5 4618.7431 10.0 1324.3664 14 IS 14 14 21 55.004.5079 07.5 4615.D.4006 15.7635 0.7369 .5 4646. I IS 13 02.7409 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 16 16 16 16 15 56.3788 12 16 31 40.1023 49.0994 7 45 18.0 1327.5 4648.5682 16 00 IS 56 IS 52 IS 48 IS ·44 IS IS 15 15 IS 40 36 32 28 24 8 16 51.0 1330.5 4611.0 1341.5 4605.5 4632.0650 34. OhG.0 1311.5516 s 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 l3 .0 atOhU.4372 9 19 55.5 4634. 4626.5598 14 16 23 48.T.8470 50.7481 0.5 4617.0 1308.5 4619.7693 14 14 14 14 13 14 4 1 35.0 1338.7708 .7843 7 8 8 8 8 IS 16 1.5 4635. 1981 G.7157 .2207.0 1300.5 4620.9543 41. 0.5 4633.3264 8 36 33.3297 25 35.7510 .2899 22.8817 29 32.7450 • 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Feb.7203 .4652 29.7421 .0 1335.5 4639.3989 44.0 1316.0 1337.2865 20.4389 8 44 26.2800 2 I 5 09 06.0 1343.5 4612.7294 53.5 4608.0 1345.5131 40.5 4638.1072 9 16 43 28.0 1317.6755 9 00 13.2882 51. at o•G.9509 39.5 4641.5 4621.5 4628.1758 27.0 1336.7271 0.5148 11. I 5 16 59 11.5 4610.1192 8 20 47.7728 8 32 37.8314 12 00.9975 8 48 23.0 1323.2219 7 53 11.1792 29.0125 04 09.0989 31 IS 16 58.0 1344.7252 .5 17 42.9526 10.7328 55.7363 57.5 4645. 1981] .0 1342.9864 ·7 37 25.0702 07.7398 .0 1328.5639 07 03.5392 9 27 49.2098 9 39 38.7368 .9577 43.6187 60. 245 1299.0 1331.5 4613.9137 9 IS 59.7459 .9594 14.0 1321.3955 42.0938 9 31 45.0 1314.9220 OS 05. H.0 1326.3972 13.5 4644.7199 0.6221 02.5 4630.2882 11 16 35 36.7336 .6462 37. (Greenwich Transit of the ~lean Equinox) II m 2 3 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 38 42 46 50 54 57 01 OS 09 13 "' 17.2916 53.2208 8 28 40.7368 .7763 21 39.5 4627.M.0 1325.0 1339.5 4650.6504 4614.9872 9 23 52.1455 .0 1302.7346 26.0 1322.6545 03 07.5 4624.6255 04.4693 13 16 27 44.7717 . Jan.0 1319.7311 24.5 4649.5 .0084 51 08.0 1305.5 4622.0 1312.7386 0.6698 8 24 44.7217 .3829 1 2 3 4 17 17 17 17 14 55.5 / Equation of Equinoxes G.7251 0.2993 06.7386 .9178 50.8401 46.0 1310.4024 46.1775 58.4335 33 28.7457 .3705 3 IS OS 10.7307 0.3381 9 12 "02.5 4647.7369 U.7168 .5571 8 52 20.5 4606.5 4623.0 1332.T.2758 25 51.8232 30.7576 .7708 .7291 .8818 8 40 30.7409 .7368 .5 4616.8356 6 16 55 15.S.7447 .9787 56.7370 0.0166 8 16 47 24. 0 1 Julian Date 244 4604.3746 25.1809 60.744S 0.7326 26. SIDEREAL TIME (G.5557 33.7294 .4734 10 59.7341 .0 1340.5415 7 41 22.6598 7 49 15.5 4609.0 1315.5 4640.7210 .7681 .0 1303.2 37 39.4174 59.7463 .0 1309.2841 21.1894 Feb.6509 9 3S 42.7243 .2323 9 04 09. of the Equinox) Apparent Mean .7484 .6421 22.5474 Figure 51 [AA.T.II Date 0hU.7215 .0 1306.0 1333.5 4643.5097 38.5 4642.8575 03.5 4631.7387 .0 1307.0 1301.0948 33 43.1886 13.109 UNIVERSAL AND SIDEREAL TIMES.7411 0.8436 48.T.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 14 14 14 57 53 '49 45 18.9 52.0 1329.0 1304.9261 7 16 51 20.7422 .1977 10 16 39 32.5 4625.0 1318.5062 • Jan.5 4636.3457 01 04.7368 41.0 1320.0160 12 54.1168 8 56 16.1936 17. • I 17.8273 45.S. A.066'r 05.5114 09.9560 12.1030 13.9050 OS 01. 0 17 18 51.0685 36.8879 2 3 4 30 IS 20 54.S.1740 56.5 4637.
0 21.4 16.S lvel AS GS B7 KO G8 ss 56 11.20 5.22 +0.59 4.44 4.2 +56 26 33 43 32 26 00 t Cas s F 30 E And 31 8 And 18 a Cas p.7 24. 1981] .03 5.02 0.37 4.S F.16 4.V F F F.5 58.V F.40 5.50 +0.37 5.66 +0.0 41.3 27.34 3.17 4.1 56.7 +24 09 51 F.88 +1.56 4.05 +1.58 +1.3 +53 47 19.44 2.63 0.41 4.6 45.8 • .6 + 7 75 +57 +16 +40 28 55 F 01 36 F 42 55 s so 18 F 58 33 F 44 08 14 37 36 23 18 27 47 49 47 40 50 47 51 48 56 36 17 13 F F.8 +35 17 32.66 0.00 +1.77 5.S F F F F.39 4.0 33.57 +1.I 69 +60 +38 +23 29 + 7 46 F F F. 1981.55 4.27 +1.80 4.5 +62 49 38 F. 2 Cet 20 Cet A•Tuc 27 y Cas 37 p.07 +1.39 5.2 59.42 +0.87 3.27 +1.3 05 14.S.8 46 11 21 F 30.11 Spectral K2 III M3 Ill B9 lV Kl Ill B9p F2 lliIV KO III F2 II dF4 B21V M2 Ill Ml 111 A2 V Kl.1 48 54 30 F 40.78 4.S F 2 F8 V gOO + AS MO.V 41.49 +1.23 +1.52 3.V F.6 02.34 +0.lila K2 Ill BO.3 57 41.94 2.S 51.48 +0.17 +1.8 64 02 51 58 14 04 06 02 40 55 59 F.110 BRIGHT STARS. .23 4.9 46.8 27.S Ill F9 V gK3 F6 Gl AS KO AS AO B9 Bl BS Type 77 10 14 .0 40.1 46.42 +0.88 4.2 3.80 3. 9084 9089 9098 Right Ascension h Dl Declination Notes 0 Psc:: Cet Pse 33 21 a And 30 2 11 fJ Cas E Phe 22 And B Sci 88 y Peg 3 15 21 25 27 35 39 45 48 68 74 77 80 82 98 100 99 118 125 126 130 154 153 157 163 165 168 180 191 188 193 215 224 236 219 225 226 235 233 248 270 264 269 271 280 294 322 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I I 00 00 02 04 07 08 08 09 10 12 13 13 17 18 19 19 20 24 25 25 29 30 30 31 35 35 36 37 38 39 40 42 42 43 46 47 47 47 47 48 49 49 52 54 55 38.57 5.3 37.16 4.15 5.61 2.C Psc Hyi Cas Psc:: And 4.97 +0.14 89 x Peg 7 Cet 25 a And 8 ' Cet t Tuc 41 Psc 27 p And fJ Hyi K Phe a Phe A' Phe f!'Tuc:: IS IC Cas 29 'II' And 17 + 8OS +37 51 77 21 43 47 42 24 F F F IV IV Vn Illb Vn V V Ia V 25.6 46.4 33.13 4.6 +48 10 so F 19.12 B2 IV 03 11 08 Illp K3 III KO.19 5.83 0.23 5.94 4.07 +0.50 5.37 +0.28 2.1 15.45 2.S F F F F 2.04 4.Ilia 08 III B9 Vp Kl JJl B5 III Kill KS K4 GO F8 BS III III V V V 16 p Cet 22 o Cas 34 And 63 8 A 24 "' 64 35 " ' 25.37 3.V 3.03 +0.19 4.77 4. 42 08 00 22 41 04 17 48 45 11 OS 49 41 07 33 v 4.7 +33 36 54 F 54.12 +0.5 05.6 10.1 18 OS 27 F 39.07 +0.8 63 03 46 54.89 V 111IV Ill (C Ill Ill II) Figure 52 [AA.36 +1.18 2. Phe 'l Phe F F.02 0.25 +0. And 38 'l And a Sci 71 E Psc:: fJ Phe to +64 .8 +29 12 18.96 3.V F.1 09.43 +1.2 20.09 0.1 06.05 +1.47 +0.3 37.09 +0.36 2.57 +1.28 +0.2 57 34 02 F.51 4.1 18.07 +1.14 0.D 38..7 23 53 34 F 30.44 +0.06 BV +1.62 +0.06 +0.V F F.5 +30 45 25.27 +0.7 56.S.31 +0.31 0.4 01 57.54 4.15 19 <f.04 0.5 19.87 +0.6 07 11 17 26 30 54850 +28 59 08 +59 45 +45 35 +IS +20 19 +36 .0 Name B Oct B.0 19.53 0.
49 +0.V F F F F F.2 +20 42 S6 F I 54 27.68 4.V F F.25 5.8 35.3 61 39 43 F Figure 53 [AA.50 4.S F F F F F F F 52 110 T 0 E s S3 X Cet 55 Cet 2 a Tri Ill ( Psc til Phe 45 • Cas <I>_Phe 6 {J ..57 5.0 31.04 +0.31 5.04 +1.95 +0.1 S1 42 11 F 1 58 10.3 59.64 4.3 45.3 01.46 4.86 5.94 +I.21 5.111 BRIGHT STARS.25 2.38 5.S.06 +O.6 49.47 +0.5 10 10 +29 + 3 46 +63 09 52 35 49 20 16 08 31 02 56 59 28 58 30 09 01 25 16 08 01 08 18 24 43 10 14 18 31 56 19 23 09 25 47 35 02 03 08 49 46 25 29 OS 23 34 22 36 18 40 F F F.69 0.62 4.96 +0.60 +1.86 4.5 12.08 3.1 52. v 4.0 Nama B.57 +0.4 39.32 +0.0 25.96 0.8 56.7 42 35 24 F I S3 35.8 so v 58 F 27 13 F 57 02 F 21 31 37 53 53 56 47 52 13 53 33 33 55 38 16 54 39 57 38 59 31 01 21 08 37 14 45 50 41 48 43 13 39 43 38 F F F F S.34 4.2 25.17 3.S9 0..07 +1.5 49.17 +1..6 34.11 +0.0 23.03 +1.6 44.21 +0.6 34.16 +0.12 3.4 57.03 Spectral K2III GS Ill ·A3 lV/V GS Vp "B7 V K3 III 87 III MO lila A7 V G8 III KO FO F6 A3 A2 IIIIV Vn IV V V Type Tuc Phe 30 p.1 00.41 5.69 3. 1981.26 5.7 55.05 5.1 45.8 59.5 41.07 3.99 +0.88 +1.06 4.7 11.92 3. 1981] .74 +1.1 23.08 +1.06 2.S 111 G8 Ulb CN2 FO V c I 53 34.09 +1.Ari 'I" Hyi X Eri a Hyi G8 Vp G8 Ill dFl K4 Ill F2V K2 Ill F6 IV KO J1l M4III B3 Vp Ap AS V GS.7 32.8 27.7 F F.D F F F 31 42 43 33 84 "l Cet And fJ And 8 Cas X Psc: <1> 83 T Psc: 86 C Psc rc Tuc 89 Psc 90 v Psc 34 46 45 37 36 <1> ( 8 3 til Cas And Cet Cas Cas 4.83 3.38 0.72 +0.51 4.28 +0.1 67 44 26 F I 55 13.58 +0.86 +1.73 3.28 0.9 39.8 40.S.M F F F.4 27.n +0.16 4.88 +0.42 +1.39 +1.26 4.28 FO Ia KO IIIIV KO Illb AS IIIIV KO II1 gKJ 94 Psc: 48 "'And y Phe 48 Cet 3 Phe 99 'I Psc: 50 v And 51 And 40 Cas a Eri 106 v Psc: 1'f FS V K5+ liblila AI V KO lllb G8 FS K3 G8 83 K3 B9 gKO K3 B2 111 V Ill ItIII Vp Ill JVV IIIII Ve4p Sci Per Cet Psc Sc:l soo 496 509 510 514 513 531 539 S44 549 555 S42 558 553 510 566 591 <1> F.5 26.67 3.99 4. Cas C Phe ' v 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 OS 54.16 +1.33 4. In I .09 3.7 36.66 4.70 2.1 58.33 +1.07 +0.68 +0.2 53.9 04.16 0.98 +0.62 4.09 +0.1 06 06 06 07 07 08 08 09 10 10 12 IS 16 18 18 21 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 30 30 35 36 36 37 40 40 41 41 42 43 44 44 45 48 50 51 52 52 53 33.50 4.76 BV +1.8 +60 +68 +19 +45 43 21 49 +15 +41 +48 +72 57 + 5 +35 32 .3 33.52 +0.95 3.44 5.3 F F F.54 +1.2 00.97 +0.3 17.45 4.7 27.41 3.37 5.41 4.3 38.2 07.D F .14 +0.M F F.9 30.5 39.36 0.02 +0.85 +0.13 4.11 2. 285 332 331 321 338 334 335 337 343 351 352 361 377 378 383 382 390 402 403 399 414 417 429 433 440 437 458 464 456 472 489 490 497 Right Ascension Declination Notes +86 61 41 +54 55 10 +47 +35 +55 +20 +29 + 7 68 + 3 +27 +58 +45 .15 0.40 5.3 +50 16 + 9 2S .
iii) Northern and Southern Circumpolar Stars (five of each).T.12 • The reader is cautioned that SALS is not suitable for use where firstorder standards mus·t be met. may be used. should note that Regarding the terms R and E in Figure S4. in which the apparent right ascension and declination of 685 stars are given for the beginning of each ~onth (e.E) h = GAST at OhUT. a special table for Polaris (a Ursae Minoris) for use in specific math models for latitude and azimuth determinations. = Eq. published annually. (ji) the Stars. 0 UT. 1981). declination.112 The Star Almanac for Land Surveyor§ (SALS) IH. h {. but common practice is to use one of the fundamental catalogues and compute the updated star coordinates via proceduresoutlined in Chapter 6. . (i) The main tables included are: the Sun. 5S. and equation of time are tabulated for 6hourly intervals (see explanations below regarding Figure S4). some of which are companions to those noted above (for interpolation purposes). in which the right ascension. Examples of three SALS tables are given in Figures S4. 1_980].M. is expressly designed to meet the surveyor's requirements in astronomy. Also included in SALS are several supplementary tables. . and S6. Most of the information given has been explained previously. their apparent right ascensions and declinations being given at 10day intervals for the year. AA .g. one R= (a . Nautical Almanac Office. are listed separately.12 m E h + Eq. (iv) the Pole Star Table. March 1. and the tables are self explanatory.
6 X2 x8 IS 0 7 0 Sun. " " 4·9 52 s·• s2 s·3 5·4 5·5 5·7 52 s·J 5·5 5·5 s·7 ~ ~ ~ 5·5 5·5 5·6 . 4d2211 14m. .T•. . 6 12 x:z x8 Sat.6 12 II · 18 0 Wed. . 6 X2 Mon. d I " 0 U. . 1981 U.o 5·1 5·3 5·4 .6 X2 18 x8 I:Z 0 919 56o 20 55• I 21 54•3 22 53·4 9 23 52•5 24 51•7 25 50·8 26 50•0 9 27 49•1 2848·2 29 47·4 3046·5 '9 31 45•7 4 0 Wed. I 6 II 3·9 4•2 4•4 • 4•4 • 4·7 4·8 5.. II m II 45 E 1 Sun.D.. 6 Sat.6 12 x8 5 0 Thur. . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ¢ ~ ~ ~ w 5·7 58 s8 6o 6o 6o 62 6•2 62 62 62 62 62 6·4 6·4 6J 66 66 6·5 6·8 68 6·7 7·2 7·I 1·0 6·9 6·8 67 65 7·3 7·6 7·2 7·5 71 · 7·3 1·s 7·9 7·7 82 81 78 16 z1 26 4·6 48 s·o s·3 s·7 5·7 5·8 s·9 5·9 5·9 5·9 6o 6o 6o 6o 6·1 6·3 6·3 63 62 6·s 6·4 6·4 63 67 66 6s 6·4 7·0 6·9 6·7 66 7·2 7•0 68 6·7 7·3 7·2 7·0 68 7·6 7·4 7•1 6·9 31 s·4 s·s s·7 Moon's phases: new moon.6 X2 18 3.6 iS 24 16!2 ~ 18 24 Sun•s S. 6 12 12 ' 18 2 0 18 IO 0 Mon. . 11d171149"'· Figure 54 [SALS.6 X2 IJ 18 0 Fri. . .T. . 1981] .6 12 Thur. . d " 9 0 Mon. 0 Tues.113 SUNFEBRUARY. first quarter. . Date 6o• 44•7 · 45 44•3 : 45 43·9 4 45 43•5 3 II 45 43•2 45 43·0 2 45 42·8 2 45 42·6 2 I I l 45 42•S 45 42•5 ° 45 42•5 ° 45 42•5 ° I 1145 42·6 45 42·8 2 45 43•0 2 45 43•2 2 3 II 45 43•5 45 43·8 3 45 44•2 4 s 45 44·7 4: II 45 45•1 6 45 45•7 6 45 46·3 6 45 46·9 7 II 45 47•6 45 48·3 7 45 49•0 ~ 45 49·8 9 II 45 50•7 45 51·6 9 45 52•5 9 45 53•5 10 11 45 54·6 11 SUNRISE South Latitude ss• 4•5 4•7 4·9 5·• s·3 Feb.6 12 Tues. 6 12 x8 8 0 18 16 32 44·8 33 43•9 34 43•1 9 35 42•2 36 41•3 37 40•5 3839·6 9 39 38·8 4037·9 41 37•0 42 36·2 9 43 35•3 44 34•5 45 33·6 46 32•7 947 31•9 North Latitude o X2 Sun. 6 12 x8 6 0 1f 18 0 Fri.6 R Dec.
A.8 31·6 32·6 33•7 34·5 16•3 15·9 15·8 16·2 x6:9 17·8 18·7 19·4 32•3 31·8 31·7 32•o 32·7 33·6 34·6 35•3 23·8 23•1 22•9 ~3·4 24•5 25·9· 27•3 28·4 s6·4 55·9 55·8 56·2 57·1 58·3 59·4 60·3 54·8 54•3 54·2 54·6 55·5 56·7 57·8 s8·7 40·4 39·8 39·7 40·1 41•2 42•5 43·8 44·9 14•9 14•4 14•2 14•5 15•2 16•1 17•1 17·9 39•5 39•0 38·8 39•1 39·7 40·6 41·6 42•3 09•2 o8·5 o8·3 o8·5 09•2 10•3 II•4 12•4 s6·8 56·1 55·9 56·3 . Sept. 3 35 3 4X 3 42 3 43 343 343 343 346 346 3 47 3 48 3 4f8 3 52 3 s6 3 57 3 57 3 ss 3 59 4 02 54·4 18·4 53·4 12·5 54•3 51·4 17·9 54·0 29•5 32•0 16·7 32·8 24·6 57·0 55·5 ·P·2 15•5 40·0 09·9 s7·6 47•1 o8·o 31•4 49•1 01·8 s6·7 53•9 34•1 20•1 07·4 44•6 54•0 57·8 01•7 21•1 • • • 21·7 20·6 20·2 20·8 22•2 24·2 26·1 27· 5 15·8 15·3 15·2 15·6 16·5 17·7 188 19·7 07·8 07·5 07·6 o8·o oS8 09•7 10·6 ll•3 29•5 29·2 29·1 29• 5 30•3 31•2 32•1 32·8 1S·2 14·0 13•5 13·9 15.7 2 38 2 39 25•0 17•3 o8·6 30•3 18·5 • 23•3 16·6 o8·3 29·9 16·8 s ss 6o 56 57 59 61 6z 6s 69 6J 64 2•8 66 6'] 68 70 71 72 73 39 s5·o 42 188 2 42 54·1 2 43 12·9 2 43 54·7 51·8 18·8 54·1 29·8 32·6 3 OX 17•1 3 OX 33•3 303 25·4 303 57·5 3o6 s6·o 2 2 4•2 14 75 76 78 79 8x 8z 3·9 3·9 4·3 1•9.114 RIGHT ASCENSION OF STARS. 1981 No.z 6o·7 6o·I 04•6 04·6 24•7 24•7 a. 1981] . 89 90 91 9Z 93 94 95 96 CJ8 97 99 100 3•2 3·8 4•2 2·9 J·o 3·2 4•0 4·4 3·9 3·9 44•4 53·5 s5·o 54·1 54·1 54·8 00·6 00•4 OO•S 01•1 20•1 19·9 20•1 20·8 32•2 29·7 27·4 25•9 25•6 26·6 01•7 01•2 00•7 00·5 00•8 01•5 44•5 43·8 43•2 42•9 43•0 43·6 s6·x 55·5 55·o 54·8 55·o 55·7 34·6 33·9 33•3 33•1 33•3 34•0 o8·5 o8·o 07·5 07·2 07·4 07·9 43·8 43•2 42·6 42•4 42·6 43•3 27·o 25·7 24·4 23·6 23·5 24·1 37· 5 37•0 36·6 36·4 36·5 37·I o8·6 o8·1 07·7 07·4 ·07·6 o8•2 43·6 43·4 43•7 52·1 52·4 s2·1 47·1 47·8 s6·9 57·7 59· 5 6o· 5 03•7 04•3 23·6 24•3 31•1 33·5 34•9 35•1 33•9 03•4 04•2 04•9 05•3 05•4 45•5 46·4 47•0 47·3 47•2 57·7 587 59·4 59·9 59·9 36·3 37·3 38·1 38·6 38·7 09·6 10•4 11•1 II•4 Il•5 45•4 46·4 47•2 47·7 47·8 26·9 28· 3 29· 3 29·6 29•2 389 39·7 40o4 40·8 40•9 09·9 10•7 11•4 II·8 ll·9 The figures given refer to the beginning of the month.4 29•4 48·7 48·2 01•3 00•9 s6·1 55·6 53•5 53•0 33•3 32•7 19·6 19·1 o6·8 o6•3 44•1 53•3 56·3 01•1 20·6 46·1 07·0 29·1 48·1 00•7 46·4 47•1 07·3 o8·o 29·5 30•7 48·4 . May June July Aug. Feb. R. 49·0 01•0 OI·6 55·6 53·1 32•7 19•1 o6·4 56·2 53•7 33·6 19•7 07•1 48·0 o8·9 32•3 50•0 02•5 s7·1 54·6 34•8 20·6 o8·1 45•3 s4·7 s6·2 01•9 21·8 28·6 02•4 44•5 s6·7 35·1 o8·7 44•3 25·4 38·o 09·0 48·9 49·6 09·8 10•6 33•9 35•3 50•9 51·7 03•3 04•1 s8·x 55·5 36• I 21•5 09•2 46·3 55·8 58·o 02•9 22·7 58·8 s6·2 37·2 22•2 10·1 84 8J ss 86 88 55·4 52•9 32•4 18·9 o6·I 50•5 50·5 Il•4 II•4 36·9 36·7 52·6 52·6 04•9 04•9 59·7 59·6 s7· x 57·1 38·5 3B·s 23•1 2J•1 ll•2 II•3 48·2 48·3 s8·2 s8·. 51 52 53 54 55 4•3 4·4 4•3 4•0 4·3 4·1 3·6 4·2 4•4 4·4 h m 2 21 2 2 26 2. Mag.6 28·6 28·9 29•6 30·5 31•4 32•1 31•3 30•7 30• 5 30. Oct. Nov. Apr. and should be interpolated to the actual date by means of the table on page 73· Figure 55a [SALS. Dec. 4·4 J•I 3•7 3·9 3 07 41·8 3 u: 15•9 3 x8 40·4 3 X9 10•5 3 zz s82 3 23 3 :z6 3 27 3 29 3 32 · 3 32.·2 17•0 19•0 20•5 53·8 53•3 53•2 53•5 54·3 55·4 s6·s 57·3 18·o 17·6 17·6 18·o 18·8 19·7 2o·6 21·2 52·7 . Mar. 52•1 52•1 52·6 53·7 55·o 56·3 57·2 II•7 II•7 12·0 12·8 13•7 14·6 xs·3 12•1 53·9 53·6 53•5 53•9 54·7 ss·6 56·s 57·2 so·8 so· 5 50•4 50•9 51·7 52·7 53·7 54·4 17•0 16·3 16·2 16·8 18·o 19·5 20·9 22•0 53·1 52•5 52·4 52•9 s4•o 55·4 s6·8 578 29•0 z8. 3·8 3·7 4•4 4•3 3·8 4•3 . 34·8 20•0 3s·8 29·3 61·1 59·6 45·8 18·4 43•0 12·9 62•1 77 8o 47·4 o84 J2•2 49• 5 02•2 s7·1 54•3 34·6 20•4 07·8 44·9 54•4 59·1 02•1 21·4 34•4 02•1 45·0 s6·4 3s·o o88 44·1 28·1 37·8 o8·9 46·6 46·2 07·6 07·2 30. 57·3 586 59·9 6t•O • • • s I I I 28·0 20•1 ll•7 33•2 21•1 57•7 21·7 s7·9 rs·7 57·7 276 26·4 20•0 19·6 11·8 11·6 33•3 33•2 20·8 ·19·7 57·7 21·8 sB· x xs·8 57·9 s5·2 23•0 s8·8 32•7 35·1 20•1 36·0 29·5 61·2 s9·7 46·0 18·6 43•1 13•2 62·2 • 55·o 22•8 s8·6 32·6 35·0 19•9 35·8 29•2 6o·9 59·4 45·6 18·4 42•9 I 3·0 6I·8 50•2 11•1 36·3 52•2 04·6 s9·4 s6·8 38·o 22·8 10·8 57·4 21"7 57·8 15•7 57·8 5S•I 22·7 s8·6 32·6. Jan. Jan.
l..09 IS 23 Jl 33 35 39 42 46 49 51 13 14 17 21 25 JO 34 41 35 30 30 33 J8 43 o607 10 14 18 22 25 64 56 53 55 63 73 82 21 22 21 20 II 15 19 12 17 21 23 22 20 18 22 ·" 27 . sso ss e 57 'Y "' S6844 70 71 66 S4746 102 104 IOI N Szz 25 23 22 N o 14 40 38 37 S68:zo 78 8o 76 s 39 55 91 94 92 N 309 14 12 II N49o8 61 62 59 . July A. s.S 69 70 68 N sz 40 73 75 72 s sss 36 38 39 s 40 2..36 N 939 55 54 52 N 59 s:z 35 38 38 N 1252 14 IJ 12 S 9JX 31 34 35 s 2141 6o 64 6s No:zo 22 20 19 N4743 42 44 44 S949 49 52 53 N 32 X3 43 43 43 N2..z 8o 71 6o 88 13 Reticuli 36 30 2J 89 Tl Eridani 44 43 42 90 TJ Tauri 71 61 so 91 'Y Hydri 40 39 39 92 27 Tauri 45 38 29 93 BS I 195 (Eri. . 47 Bs 23 41 s8 78 14 49 28 . 25 00 OJ 04 09 14 19 23 49 41 39 42 so 6o 68 IS o804 04 09 15 21 44 47 so 54 s6 ss 59 40 32 JO 33 42 52 6o 40 43 47 so 52 54 55 19 12 o8 . 68 86 36 75 26 45 46 68 22 29 38 47 53 6s 6o 59 63 71 79 Bs 31 36 •P 43 44 43 42 62 61 59 57 SI s6 61 37 31 Jl 37 46 55 62 59 52 so 54 6o 68 75 23 28 32 34 34 32 30 44 46 52 s8 6s 72 77 14 o8 04 os o8 12 17 62 68 72 75 76 75 74 52' s6 . Jan. 55 10 IJ 17 20 22 %4.a.115 DECLINATION OF STARS. 4·4· 8". 84 55 57 6:z 69 76 83 88 20 14 II IO 13 17 20 39 32 29 32 39 47 54 s6 6:z 66 68 68 66 64 47 41 JS 39 43 so 55 46 47 sz s8 6s 73 78 53 s6 6o 66 71 76 79 so 52 57 62 68 73 76 18 20 24 30 37 43 48 33 :z6 23 24 30 J7 43 JO 23 19 .6o 6s 69 72 73 so sx s6 63 71 79. F. . v Persei 09 os o. 0 51 sz 53 54 56 ~2 8 E L 55 Hydri Eridani Ceti Ceti Hydri Eridani Ceti Persei Ceti Ceti 17 45 54 21 33 59 'IT 6o j. . M. mag.. N.f03 13 13 12 N 4231 II 13 12 S645x 81 86 Bs S23 x8 34 38 39 N2. Name 8 K Dec. dist. Jan. 28 17 II 07 o6 09 lJ 17 41 34 30 31 35 41 47 JI 36 40 41 40 38 35 29 30 33 38 43 so 55 35 29 25 24 27 JI 36 36 38 42 46 so 53 . J.fo:& 46 46 45 s 7417 73 77 76 N2359 43 43 42 s J6 IS 43 48 49 N 3149 39 40 39 N3957 22 24 23 S XJ33 55 59 6o N3544 IJ 14 14 S 6x :z6 94 99 99 N X2 :z6 o8 07 o6 N ss6 07 os 04 • ..) 48 40 30 74 40 35 31 75 a Persei 0 Tauri 36 37 39 76 52 53 55 77 ~ Tauri 78 BS 1035 (Cam.) 33 27 21 II 12 13 Tauri 79 5 So E Eridani 33 29 23 62 s6 49 8x Til Eridani 8z 10 Tauri 19 21 25 40 36 31 83 & Persei 52 48 42 84 & Eridani 40 38 36 Bs 0 Persei IO 09o8 86 17 Tauri s. Figure 5Sb [SALS.. Apr. . 20 24 30 36 20 13 10 13 20 28 35 29 JO 33 39 45 52 57 43 48 52 55 55 54. s8 95 22 38 II . and p. 53 59 64 68 71 71 70 69 17 17 21 26 34 42 49 17 21 25 28 29 29. 54' 55 s8 6x 41 Arietis 52 so so 6:z TJ Persei 63 57 52 68 62 57 63 T Persei 64 TJ Eridani 37 33 27 66 ss 48 6s* e Eridani• 66 a Ceti 46 48 51 70 64 s6 67 Ta Eridani 68 'Y Persei 59 53 48 6o 56 53 69 p Persei 70 Algol (13 Persei) 57 53 so 30 24 20 'JI L Persei Fornacis ']2 a 57 so 42 51 45 38 '13 16 Eridani BS toeS (Eri. S 1356 33 35 35 N xoox s8 s6 55 N27 xo 57 57 55 N ss. Oct.. 1981] . of companion star: 6s. 1981 No. .) Persei 37 35 33 94 t 21 17 14 95 E Persei g6 'Y Eridani ss 54 48 12 09 o6 97 ~ Persei g8 a Reticuli 94 86 75 o6o6o8 Tauri 99 100 v Tauri 04 os o8 * No.Z 69 73 71 N4oo 49 47 46 S234X 70 73 73 N 5325 63 6s 63 N J84S 64 6s 63 N4052 62 63 61 N4932 34 35 34 S:zgo3 s8 62 6r S2x 49 so 54 54 S43o8 so 54 53 N4947 43 45 44 N ss7 39 37 . .D. . . M.
May +·I •0 ·I •0 +·I •0 ·I ·2 ·J •0 •0 •0 •0 ·I ·2 ·0 ·I ·2 ·2 +·I •0 ·1 ·I June July Aug. 3 6 9 12 26·5 41·6 14·8 47·0 . ·I •0 b.6 ·6 ·5 +·s ·I +•I Latitude = Corrected observed altitude of Polaris + a 0 +a. + a 2 Azimuth of Polaris = (b0 + b 1 + b2 ) sec (latitude) +·2 +·4 ·3 ·5 . ·2 ·I •0 •0 Feb. ao . . ·3 3 ·3 ·2 •0 ·3 +•I +·I •0 ·2 ·4 ·5 ·6 ·6 ·5 ·3 ·4 ·4 ·4 ·3 ·I •0 +·I +•I +·I ·I ·2 . Jdo m 0 .2•2 49•2 +I0·6 +8·0 +22•7 43•5 +33•2 36·1 26·0 42•0 I•5 49•2 I4·2 47·2 11•3 47·8 23•2 43·2 33·6 35·7 25•4 42•3 0·9 49·2 I3·6 47·4 II·9 47·7 i3·8 42•9 34•I 35•3 24·8 42·7 I3•0 47·6 . 0 0 10 20 ·3 ·3 ·2 ·2 ·4 ·3 ·3 ·2 ·4 ·4 ·3 ·2 •0 •0 ·I ·I •0 ·4 ·3 ·3 ·2 ·J ·2 3 2 ·2 ·4 3 30 40 45 ·2 ·I ·J ·2 ·I ·I •0 ·I I oQ ·2 ·2 ·I ·I ·4 ·4 ·3 ·2 so ··I ·I •0 •0 ·I ·I •0 ·I ·I •0 •0 •0 •0 •0 •0 •0 ·I ·I •0 ·I •0 •0 1 •0 •0 •0 ·I ·I •0 $5 6o 62 64 66 Month Jan.34·8 24•3 43•0 12·3 47·7 + 0•4 49·2 l3•I 47•3 24•9 42•2 35•0 34•4 23·7 43·3 II·7 47•9 + I•I 49•2 +13·7 47·1 +25·5 41·9 +35•4 33·9 II•I 48·0 23•2 43·6 I•7 49•2 I4•4 46·9 26·0 4I·6 35•9 33·4 IO•S 48·2 I5•0 46·7 26·6 41•2 2•4 49·I 22·6 43·9 36·3 33•0 22•0 44•2 3•0 49•1 .6 ·6 ·4 ·I ·4 ·3 ·I ·6 +·1 +·2 ·6 ·6 ·s ·3 ·5 ·6 6 ·s ·4 ·2 ·5 ·5 +·2 +·2 +·3 +·2 •0 •0 ·I ·3 ·4 ·5 ·2 ·5 ·4 ·3 ·6 ·s ·s ·2 Figure 56 [SALS. .156 46·5 27·1 40•9 36·8 32•5 9·8 48·3 I6·2 46·3 27·6 40•5 9•2 48·4 37·2 32•0 21·4 44•5 3·6 49•0 20·8 44•7 . .0•2 49·2 12•5 47•5 24•4 42·6 34·5 . 1981] . 1981 L.. ·4 ·s ·5 +•I +·2 · +·2 +·I ·I ·3 ·s Oct. IS 18 21 24 27 JO 33 J6 39 42 45 ·. +·3 a2 ·3 +•I +·2 +·2 +·2 b2 •0 +·I +•I +2 . .8·6 48s + 4•3 49·0 +I6·8 46·1 +28·2 40·2 +37·6 JI•5 20·3 45•0 7·9 48·6 17•4 45•9 28·7 39·8 38·0 JI•O 4•9 48·9 5·6 48·8 I8·o 45·7 29·2 39•4 J8·4 30·6 19·7 45•3 7·3 48·7 66 48·8 6·2 48·8 18·6 45•4 29·7 39•0 J8·8 30•I I9·1 45•5 19•2 45•2 30•2 38·6 6·8 48·7 I8·5 45·8 6·0 48·9 39•2 29·5 17·9 46·0 . ·I •0 ·I ·I ·I ·I +·2 +·2 +·3 +·4 ·3 •0 +·I +·2 +·2 +·3.T. Dec. . ·2 •0 b. ·4 +•2 +·4 . Sept. Mar. +·1 ·I •0 a. Nov. ·3 ·I o() b. Apr.S. .s·4 49·0 . + 7·5 +8·6 +19·8 44•9 +30•7 38·2 +JE)·6 29•0 8·1 48·s 20•4 44·6 3I•2 37·8 17·3 46·2 4•7 49·0 39·9 28·5 20•9 44•4 3I•7 37•4 40•3 28·0 4·1 49•I 8·7 48·3 I6·7 46·4 21•5 44•1 32•2 37·0 I6·I 46·6 9·4 482 40·7 27•5 3·4 49• I 2·8 49•1 IO·O 48·I 22•1 43·8 32·7 36·6 4I•O 26·9 15•4 46·8 14•8 47•0 . +·I +·2 +·2 +·2 +·3 ·I ·I ·2 ·2 +•I •0 •0 +•I +•I +•I ·3 +·2 +·2 +·3 +·4 ·2 .2•2 49·2 +I0·6 48·0 +22•7 43•5 +33•2 36·1 +4I•4 26·4 . +·2 +·3 +•I +·2 +·2 +·3 +·3 +·I +·2 +·2 +·3 +·4 a.116 POLE STAR TABLE.S 51 54 57 6o Lat.
we consider the following motions in The aim of this chapter is to answer this the context of the Right Ascension system: (i) precession and nutation: relative to the stars. aberation. VARIATIONS IN CELESTIAL COORDINATES The mathematical models for the determination of astronomic latitude. SALS. motions of the coordinate system 117 . The question is. and azimuth require the use of a celestial bodies apparent (true) coordinates for the epoch of observation.~) To fulfill the must be updated. how are the coordinates in the annual publications derived. The coordinates (a. coordinates in the Right Ascension system have been considered constant with respect to time. (iii) refraction.6. parallax: apparent displacement of stars due to physical phenomena. (ii) proper motion: relative motion of the stars with respect to each other. longitude. and almanacs for certain predicted epochs that do not (except in exceptional circumstances) coincide with the epoch of observation. and how should one proceed when using one of the fundamental star catalogues (eg. In previous discussions in these notes.S) of the stars and the sun (the most often observed celestial bodies for surveying purposes) are given in star catalogues. and APFS. As was indicated in Chapter 5. the coordinates (a. In this chapter. changes occurred only as a result of earth rotation. ephemerides. the updating procedure has been made very simple for users of annual publications such as '"'"~•. question. requirements stated previously. FK4). and in the Hour Angle and Horizon systems.
and other planets on our nonsymmetrical. predominant effect of lunisolar precession is a westerly motion of the equinox along the equator of 50~3 per year. motion of the coordinate system with respect to the Except for polar motion. (iii) Apparent Place: geocentric. and Proper Motion The resultant of the attractive forces of the sun. (ii) True Place: heliocentric. The definitions are amplified in context in the following sections.g. This leads to variations in the Right Ascension coordinate system. collimation). Nutation. (iv) Observed Place: topocentric. and its is approximately 23?5. referred to the true equator and equinox of date when the celestial body is actually observed. We view this as the motion. as determined by means of direct readings on some instrument corrected for systematic instrumental errors (e. referred to some specified mean equator and equinox. (i) Mean Place: heliocentric. causes a moment which tries to rotate the equatorial plane into the ecliptic plane. The period of the motion is approximately 26000 years.1 Precession. The the ecliptic pole.118 (iv) polar motion: solid earth. of the earth's axis of rotation about This motion is referred to as precession. which . referred to the true equator and equinox of date when the celestial body is actually observed. nonhomogeneous earth. 6. amplitude (obliquity of the ecliptic) Superimposed on this planetary precession. moon. dislevellment. the above factors are discussed in terms of their effects on a and o of a celestial body. The definition of the variations are given below and Figure 61 outlines their interrelationships.
119 MEAN @To . ) I PROPER MOTION PRECESSION c MEAN @ T I I NUTATION I TRUE @ T I ANNUAL ·ABERATION ANNUAL PARALLAX I APPARENT @ T I DIURNAL A!BERATION GEOCENTRIC PARAllAX REFRACTION 1 OBSERVED @ T Figure 61 Variations of the Right Ascension Syste~ .
and is called the mean celestial pole. Now. and the moon's orbit not lying in the ecliptic plane. it was stated that certain epochs T have been 0 chosen as standard epochs to which tabulated mean celestial coordinates (a 0 . a different mean celestial system . The latter is the result of the earth's motion about the sun. amplitude of 9" • General precession. In Chapter 5.120 causes a westerly motion of the equinox of 12~5 per century. then the sum of lunisolar and planetary precession. a primary axis (X) that is precessing (not nutating). since for every epoch T. Each star appears to have a small motion of its own. with astronomic nutation superimposed.o 0 ) of celestial bodies refer. The mean celestial system is completely defined by: a heliocentric origin. is shown in Figure 62. to define a set of coordinates 0 (a.~) for an epoch T.apparent motion due to the changing The period of this motion is about 19 years. This motion is the resultant of the actual motion its. with an of the star in space and of direction arising from the motion of the sun. we must update from T to T. following the motion of the mean vernal equinox. the moon about the earth. Within the long period precession is the shorter period astronomic nutation. a primary (Z) pole that is precessing (not nutating). designated as its proper motion. and a change General precession is in the obliquity of the ecliptic of 47" per century. a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded.
AT o T 0 To PATH OF TRUE CELESTIAL POLE P =PRECESSION 1\JT= NUTATION AT T PATH OF MEAN CELESTIAL POLE Figure 62 Motion of the Celestial Pole .121 GENERAL PRECESSION NT =NUTATION .
r . 0 and t are measured in tropical centuries. and are [e. 0 .o 0 ) are part of the update The transformation (given from a mean place at T0 to a mean place at T. .f The precessional elements current year in AA. setting z ·Me T 0 (65) then X X y =p y (66) z z Proper ~otion of a star is accounted for in the mean right 0 ascension system. Z) (Figure 63) and proper motion Expressions for the precessional elements were derived by Simon Newcomb around 1900.e) are tabulated fo.i~g o.p 0 ). and its effects on (a . The relationship between mean celestial systems is defined in (~ terms of precessional elements a d elements (p 0 . here without proof) is . in which t L~0 . it can be seen that X = y (64) z or.g.122 is defined.o~'426t2 .b~gipp.0 + t . 0 = = z. Mueller. 1969] z.t}:l~ . and the final epoch = 1900.o~a53t > t .o~o42t 3 0 0 in which the initial epoch is T = 1900. (2304~'250 + 1~396t0 ) t + 0~302t 2 + 0~018t 3 0~'00lt 3 0 (61) (62) (63) z 0 + 0~'79lt2 + e = (2004~'682 T .the From Figure 63.e. X y z.0 + t 0 + t.
123 }{MCT ¥(T) Figure 63 Mean Celestial Coordinate SysteMs .
and W are then 0 d a dv/dt = . Catalogue such as the FK4 are ~0 a v0 o. the annual components of proper motion in right ascension and declination. given by cS d~ 0 /dt. the complete update from a mean place at T to a mean place at T is given by 0 . and W is the direction ~ in which t =T . 0 0 (azimuth) of proper motion at T • 0 The quantities tabulated in a Fundamental . d v0 I dt.~nual ~' d~/dt.124 X y = (67) and dv are the annual tangential component of dt proper motion and rate of change of that component.T (in years). and their rates of change per a one hundred years. combining (66) and (69). The.+ dt ~0 ' a ( ~o oosoo) = cos 1 v Setting 1 (68) 2 (67) is rewritten as X y =M X y (69) z Now.
and from this. and for our purposes. are expressed as nutation in longitude nutation in the obliquity (Ae).g. which must be accounted for to update from the mean celestial system at T to the true celestial system at T (Figure 61). AA).a primary axis vernal equinox. The true and mean celestial systems are shown in Figure 64. . (a 0 .a primary pole (Z) that is the true celestial pole following the precessing and nutating axis of rotation.o 0 ) are updated is defined by: .125· X Y X = PM y (610) z z The effects of astronomic nutation. Expressions for 6~ (6~) and and 6e have been The developed. true celestial system at T to which a heliocentric origin. we can deduce the transformation X y ~) that is the true precessing and nutating X = y (611) z TCT Designating N z = ~(E6E)R3 (6~)R1 (e) r (612) .a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded. . values are tabulated (e.
.ZTC A NCP\JMEAN) ·... Figure 64 True and Uean Celestial Coordinate Systems .NCP (TRUE) ~ ECLIPTIC PLANE ~c YTC N 0\ ...
. defined as having: ~ an origin coincident with the earth's centre of gravity. a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded. This gives rise to two physical effects (i) annual parallax due to the shift in origin. the update from mean celestial at T 0 to true celestial at T is given in one expression.o 0 ) of a celestial body be updated to the apparent place system. thus it is in this system that the mathematical models (relating observables. and (ii) annual aberration due to the revolution of the new origin about the heliocentre. a primary pole (Z) coincident with the earth's instantaneous rotation axis. z (6~9). known and unknown quantities) are formulated. namely X X Y = NPM y z 6.2 z Annual Aberration and Parallax The apparent place celestial system is the one in which the astronomic coordinates (41. the main change is a shift in origin. This requires that the (a 0 . ~ a primary axis (X) coincident with the instantaneous vernal equinox. Evidently. h) are expressed.127 (611) is written X y X = N y (613) z Combining (6~6). and (6~11).
Annual (Stellar) Parallax occurs due to the separation of the earth and sun. Expressed as changes to (a. s·ina sin·A ) • · s · s (6~16). given numerically as ~ = 20~4958.MA) are given by Ie. . namely annual aberration. Mueller. These quantities are tabulated.o) we have .. s 1 D = K sinA s ).. 1969] !ia AO A == .. In matrix form. and is the difference between a geocentric direction and a heliocentric direction to a celestial body (Figure 66). (615) A (COSh COS€ C:tane coso· ... and our knowledge of the earth's motion about the heliocentre. In (6~15) A is the ecliptic longitude of the sun. s ) . the change in the position vector is given by ""'D A= c c (616) tane: in which C and D are referred to as the aberrational (Besselian) 'day numbers (Note: c = K cose cos>.. and K K seco (cosa COSA s COS€ + sina sin>. the changes in coordinates due to annual aberration (_!iaA. a.128 Aberration is the apparent displacement of a celestial body caused by the finite velocity of light propagation combined with the relative motion of the observer and the body. The aberration we are concerned with From the here is a subset of planetary aberration. and is the constant of aberration for the earth's orbit (assumed circular for our purposes).o are in s K the true celestial system at T... general law of aberration depicted in Figure 6~5. for example in M: Parallactic displacement is defined as the angle between the directions of a celestial object as seen from an observer and from some standard point of reference.g.
(." f. AND K =CONSTANT OF ABERRATION ss•_ v _ ~·· 0 Figure 65 Aberration . ~ ~ 9' I! Q' ~ o~ s ~ ~ od: 9.j 0 $.129 ~=A~S• s• R ~~<. C VELOCITY OF LIGHT IN A VACUUM.:>~ S : POSITION OF STAR AT LIGHT EMISSION 0: POSITION OF OBSERVER AT LIGHT DETECTION DIREC~ION OF OBSERVER MOTION V 1 VELOCITY OF OBSERVER MOTION SS: PARALLEL TO 001 SUCH THAT g. ~ socK WHERE.
.... / 9 : HELIOCENTRIC DIRECTION 9 1 : GEOCENTRIC DIRECTION JI : ANNUAL (STELLAR) PARALLAX Figure 66 Annual (Stellar) Parallax ..130 I I \ I I \ \ ' ' ""'  ..
p = II {coso.. sino. cos). a. s in which the new quantity II is the annual (stellar) p!=trallax.. s {6""17) . sino cosA.P. the complete update from Mean Celestial system at T Celestial at T is given by the expression X 0 X y =A+ R + NPM y (621) z A. {618) s II is a small flo p = II . we write the expression X y X = A+ R + y (620) z z to Apparent Finally. s . cosE sin}. {coso sinE sinA.T z This entire process is summarised in Figure 67. As for the computation of the and (618) are in the true celestial Using the Besselian Day Numbers C and D. 0~76. coso. ) .o in {617} system at T. sino cosE sin). ..o) from the True Celestial system at T to the Apparent Celestial system at T.131 flo. s ) sectS . quantity . the changes in the position vector are given by c R= D D secE COSE (II/K) sinE To update (a.sino.. and all symbols used in Figure 67 are explained in Table 61..for the nearest star it is effects of aberration.
1 z.T to A.C. Z) y z + A + NPM y 0 0 zo 1 APPARENT (Geocentric) a'.tSo' (To) .P.T 0 . Y. tS~ (T) a' = tan y/x = sin.1 z = tan.132 cATALOGUED ~Heliocentric) ao.cx 2+Y 2 ) 1 / 2 FIGURE 67 POSITION UPDATING M. M = R3 (a 0 )R 2 (tS 0 90)R 3 (~ 0 )R 2 (~t+l/2~~t 2 ) RJ (~ 0 )R 2 (90t5 0 )R 3 (a 0 ) PRECESSION NUTATION I ANNUAL ABERRATIONl A= ntanE] .[ Csec< ] Deese: Dsine: = R l ANNUAL PARALLAX' R = ~/k X X APPARENT (X.  CATALOGUED xo' yo' z 0 = costS cosa 0 0 costS sina 0 0 sintS 0 I PROPER MOTION ..
.ol zl 8) Precessional Elements Nutational Elements Obliquity of the ecliptic Aberrational Day Numbers Stellar Parallax of Star Constant of annual Aberration Direction numbers of the star at epoch T Right ascension and declination of the star at epoch T 1 referred to the Apparent (Geocentric) System. TABLE 61 (6ljJI 6e:) e: (C 1 D) II K (X 1 Y 1 Z) ! (a. '•1 i l o) Computed from (X 1 Y1 Z) at time T.133 Description of Terms Symbol (a Description Right ascension and declination of the star at epoch T 0 Where Obtained From Fundamental Catalogue 1 0 0 ) 0 (X I y lz ) 0 0 0 Direction numbers of star at T 0 From (a 0 1 0 ) 0 ll dll dt Annual Tangential component of proper motion of star at T • 0 From Fundamental Catalogue Rate of change of proper motion Time interval in years t t=TT 0 ljJO Direction (azimuth) of proper motion at T 0 From Fundamental Catalogue From Astronomical Ephemeris From Astronomical Ephemeris From Fundamental Catalogue K=20". .4958 Computed from all the above parameters (l.
the e geocentric latitude of an observer geocentric position vector (p). k.2). At time T. by an origin defined by the observers position. and Astronomic Refraction.~) expressed in the Apparent Place system at T. 1969] p cos~ = 0. is expressed as a function of the earth's rotation (w ) . k (~). (ii) geocentric parallax.g.3 Diurnal Aberration. a primary pole (Z) parallel to the true instantaneous celestial pole. an observer observes The latter is defined a celestial body relative to the Observed Place system. (623) (624) A~D sinh sin~ 1 • . the Observed Place is simply a translated Apparent Place system. Geocentric Parallax. a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded. aberration.134 6. and (iii) astronomic refraction. a primary axis (X) parallel to the true vernal equinox. Mueller. At the conclusion of the previous section (6. and the length of the observer's This yields [e. This requires corrections for (i) diurnal aberration. Our task now is to move from the Observed Place to the Apparent Place where our mathematical models for position determination are formulated. Evidently.320 = ks = k" p cos~ = 0. we had (a. Diurnal aberration is the displacement of the direction to a The diurnal constant of celestial body due to the rotation of the earth.0213 1 (622) The changes in a celestial objects coordinates are given by ~aD cosh sec~ .
thus a celestial object appears at a higher altitude than is really true (Figure 69). values are usually tabulated for some standard temperature and pressure (usually 760mm Hg. T = 10°c.135 The convention adopted here for signs is ~aD = = aAP <SAP T T ~lSD aOP ' .<S are ~a R = ~z R sinh cosec z' cos~ sec6 1  (630) (631) ~6R ~zR = ~zR (sin~ cosec z' sec<5 1 tano' cot z'). The astronomic refraction angle is defined by ~z R =z  Z 1 (629) in whichz 1 is the observed zenith distance. the light rays bend downward. expressed in terms of the celestial objects right ascension and declination are ~aG = n sinh cosecz n (sin~ cos~ sec<5 1  (627) (628) ~aG. The effects on a. pressure. The changes. z is the corrected zenith distance. Geocentric parallax is the difference between the observed topocentric direction and the required geocentric direction (Figure 68). and . T 15 oP • T (625) (626) This same convention applies to the corrections for geocentric parallax and astronomic refraction that are treated next. cosecz sec<5 1 tan<5 1 cotz). It should be noted that for celestial bodies other than the sun. Astronomic refraction is the apparent displacement of a celestial object lying outside our atmosphere that results from light rays being bent in passing through the atmosphere. In general. relative humidity 60%) • Corrections to those values are obtained through determinations of temperature. ~<SG are so small as to be negligible.
136 STAR 1T: GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX Z1 : MEASURED DIRECTION Z : GEOCENTRIC DIRECTION GEOCENTRE Figure 68 Geocentric Parallax .
""'". ' ' ' \ DIRECTION to S \ \ \ \ \ \ ' Figure 69 Astronomic Refraction .. .....137 .....
in = z•  (~z R + ~z p ) (634) the correction to a zenith distance due .P.T = o' A.. is common practice in lowerorder astronomical position and azimuth determinations to correct the observed direction z• for both geocentric parallax and refraction rather than use (632) and (633) above.P.P.P.138 relative humidity at the time of observation (T). we can write the expressions for the rightascension and declination of a celestial body as a A. SALS). This process is summarized in Figure 610. In the first step.T and o'  (~aD (~o 0 + + ~ap ~op + ~~ + ~oR) I (632) (633) 0 in which a' ~ ~ refer to the Apparent Place coordinates obtained from equation (621).T A. ~IT' AIT (Instantaneous Terrestrial) to The Instantaneous . Finally. neglected. It In closing this section. our math models we use z ~zp. we are moving from a nonrotating system to a coordinate system that is rotating with the ~arth. steps: (i) transformation of aAP . Thus.T = ~A. Note that the effects of diurnal aberration are is tabulated (e.4 Polar Motion The final problem to be solved is the transformation of astronomically determined positional coordinates (~. the reader should note the following. oAP (Apparent Place) to Instantaneous Terrestrial and (ii) transformation of Average Terrestrial.g.to geocentric parallax. 6.A) from the Apparent Place celestial This involves two system to the Average Terrestrial coordinate system.
+Act) AP A G D R I 6 AP =61 (~6 +AS +AS ) AP G D R " DIURNAL ABERRATION AOh.A6R ~ OBSERVED PlACE (TOPOCENTRIC) Figure 610 Observed to Apparent Place .A6G ~ ASTRONOMIC REFRACTION A~.139 APPARENT PlACE (GEOCENTRIC) ~ =rep(A~ +Af:X.11S0 ~ GEOCENTRIC PARAllAX A~.
= = coso sin a sino APT coso sina. systems are related through GAST (Figure 611).T. (6. sino . The results that one obtains are then . Recalling the definition of sidereal time. we see that the only difference is in the location of the primary axis. 36) z APT z or.P. and futhermore. Comparing the definitions of the A.T.140 Terrestrial (IT) system is defined by a geocentric origin. a primary axis (X) that is the intersection of the Greenwich Mean Astronomic Meridian and Instantaneous equatorial planes. a primary pole (Z) that coincides with the instantaneous terrestrial pole.P. and I. Chapters 8 and 9). using a spherical approximation of the earth X cos~ cosA sinA I. (635) y = IT cos~ z sin~ The reader should note that this transformation is usually carried out in an implicit fashion within the mathematical models for position and azimuth determination rather than explicitly as is given here (see. systems.T. namely X y X = R3 (GAST) y (635) z in which X y IT z AP cos~ co sex X y cos<S cosa. we see that the A. for example. that XIT is in motion. a Yaxis that makes the system righthanded. and I.
Figure 611 Transformation of Apparent Place To Instantaneous Terrestrial System .
and is called the Conventional International Origin {C. called polar motion. The final step is to refer these quantities to the Average Terrestrial coordinate system. pole is the C. see that X y X Referring to figure 612.). (638) = R_(x) "2 p R1 (y) p cos~ sin~ sin~ .I. we can easily = R_ 2 AT (x ) R (y ) p 1 p y (637) z z I.lar. Tbe motion. cos~ cosA sinA I. ha~··•:m amJ>litude .O.A.T. Using a spherical approximation for the earth which is adequate for this transformation.I. and· a period of of the approximately 430 m.T.of' about· 5 m·. The Average Terrestrial {AT) coordinate system is the one which we would like to refer astronomic positions (~. system only in the definition of the primary pole the primary A. one obtains [Mueller. The point used is the mean terrestrial pole for the interval 19001905. all expressed in an Instantaneous Terrestrial coordinate system. The motion is expressed in te~ position of the instantaneous rotation axis with respect to a reference point fixed on the earth's crust.T.142 ~.T.A).A. is counter clockWise~'quas±fr:t·egU. The direction of the earth's instantaneous rotation axis is moving with respect to the earth's surface.s.O. 1969] cos~ cos~ cosA sinA A.T. This system differs in definition from the I.d.
. FIGURE 612 ..143 y .......I I Xp I I I I ~ / ·Yp I INSTANTANEOUS TERRESTRIAL POLE X TRANSFORMATION FROM INSTANTANEOUS ·To AVERAGE TERRESTRIAL SYSTEM.... . ..... CIO y e CIO .
one obtains after some manipulations. 1969] (641) The complete process of position updating.xp cosAIT sinAIT + yp cosA1 T) tan~IT {639) (640) = (xp The effect of polar motion on the astronomic azimuth is expressed as [Mueller. and the relationship with all celestial coordinate systems is depicted in Figure 613. The relationships amongst all of the coordinate systems used in geodesy.~IT . 1969] ~~ ~A = ~AT = AAT . is given in Figure 614. . the two equations [Mueller. with celestial systems in perspective.AIT = yp sinAIT .144 Specifically.
True Celestial @T Apparent @T Observed @T 1' 1::' VI CELESTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND POSITION UPDATING [Krakiwsky and Wells.. Hour' Angle Horizon Mean Celestial" @To Mean Celestial @T .Ecliptic Right Ascension . 1971] FIGURE 613 .
.. 0'\ EULER ANGLES  DIURNAL ABERRATION GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX REFRACTION CU..... HELIOCENTRIC ~ GEOCENTRIC 1 TOPOCENTRIC 1 COORDINATE SYSTEMS USED IN GEODESY FiBure 6ll. Jt I ORBITAL" SYSTEI\~. i.TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS CELESTIAL SYSTEMS . .~ .
a HF radio receiver. Mueller. to determine the astronomic azimuth of a line ij on the earth. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC AZIMUTH In Chapter 1. and (ii) the altitude method. 1969]. the astronomic azimuth was defined as the angle between the astronomic meridian plane of a point i and the astronomic normal plane of i through another point j.g.g. a striding level should be used to measure the inclination of the horizontal axis.to astronomic azimuth determination are studied: (i) the hour angle method.1). Several alternative azimuth determination methods are treated extensively in Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].). the reader should note that the astronomic azimuth determination procedures described here yield azimuths that are classified as being second or lower order. In these notes.O. in which observations of Polaris (a Ursae Minoris) at any hour angle is treated as a special case. This means that the internal standard deviation of several determinations of the astronomic azimuth would be. stop watch). at best. 0~5 to 1~5 [e. two approaches. Finally. a chronometer (e.2. using a 1" theodolite 147 . this angle was defined with respect to the Horizon celestial coordinate system in which the point j was a celestial object. Most often. The instruments·used for azimuth determination are a geodetic theodolite. a thermometer and a barometer. and (ii) measure the horizontal angle between the star and the terrestrial reference object (R. In Chapter 2 (Section 2. in which observation of the sun is treated as a special case.7. Obviously. we must (i) take sufficient observations to determine the azimuth to a celestial body at an instant of time T. To obtain optimum accuracy in horizontal direction measurements.
we must know the latitude observation. 7. ~Mr SALS) and updated to the epoch of observation T. or almanac (e. ·(or \(~m~l2h: +.a). we can proceed as follows.148 with a striding level attachment.E. but it can be determined if time is observed at the instant the star crosses the vertical wire of the observer's telescope. can not be observed. o. E and (~~ ·12h) m are catalogued in A. the standard deviation of the astronomic azimuth of . The hour angle of a star. (311). then the hour angle Assuming one is given by (combining equations (230).nd _a. errors are important This can be done. through the Assuming that the selection of certain stars for an observing program. (313). in part. we have the equation (220) tan A= sin~ sinh. + A  h a . Robbins. . (318)) h = ZT + AZ + (a m . observes zone time (ZT).g. (33).A.Eq. can be obtained from a star catalogue.o) to Horizon celestial coordinates (A. a. AZ and A are assumed known. FK4. h.Eq·. The minimization of the effects of systematic for any azimuth determination. .1 Azimuth by Star Hour Angles From the transformation of Hour Angle celestial coordinates (h. sources of systematic errors in (71) occur in the knowledge of latitude and the determination of the hour angle.tano cos~ ~ (71) of the place of To solve this equation for A.g. (72) in which ZT is observed. 1976]. cosh . ephemeris. and must be updated to the epoch of observation T.E) is catalogued in SALS). The declination of the observed star.12 ) + Eq.a terrestrial line would be of the order of 5" to 10" [e.
if a star is observed at transit (culmination). (ii) tan~ = cosA cotz.cosA cotz)dh. 2tan~ =sinA2 cotz 2 (74) . Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976]. eliminated. for example. Ursae·Minoris). . the effects of dh are ·eliminated. (76) Then Polaris can be then when o = 90° . 1976] . the most wellknown of which in the northern hemisphere is Polaris (a. When ~ > 15° Polaris is easily visible and directions to it are not affected unduly by atmospheric refraction. (73) Examination of (73) yields the following: (i) when A when = 00 or 180 . A special case can be easily made for cicumpolar stars. d~ Thus. the effects of 0 d~ are ~Qliminated. it is not possible p = 90 ).(cosA1 cotz 1 + cosA2 cotz 2 ) =0 (75) As a general rule. however. the term [Robbins. the determination of astronomic azimuth using the hour angle method must use a series of star pairs that fulfill conditions (74) and (75). the effects of dh are elliminated. cos~ Since A= 0°. the effects of minimized.149 Differentiation of (71) yields.. while if 0 are a star is observed at elongation (parallactic angle Of course. the effects of dh are minimized. to satisfy both conditions simultaneously. the error d~ is Furthermore.. This procedure is discussed in detail in. observed at any hour angle for the determination of astronomic azimuth by the hour angle method. dA = sinA cotz d~ + cos~ (tan~ . the effects will be elliminated if two stars are observed such that sinA1 cotz1.cosA cotz) (tan~ = coso cosz cosp. then. since in (73).
(e + e') ) cotz 4 (77) in which d is the value in arcseconds of each division of the striding level. and T. Note that if a striding level is 'used. (ii) using (71). 1969] I:J. The above observing sequence constitutes one azimuth determination.C. An azimuth correction. e•· and w' for reverse) should be made and recorded after the paintings on the star. is then given by [Mueller.O.R.R.. compute the astronomic azimuth A of Polaris for each of the mean direct and reverse readings of each set.g. compute the hour angle (h) using (72).C.150 A suggested observing sequence for Polaris is as follows [Mueller. the computation of astronomic azimuth proceeds as follows: (i) for each of the mean direct and reverse zone time (ZT) readings of each set on Polaris. Repeat (i)~ (iii) (iv) (v) . readings of both ends of the level (e. . eight sets of observations) is the azimuth of the terrestrial line. Repeat (ii). Reverse telescope and repeat (i) through (iv).A" = d" ( (w + w') .R. e and w for direct.. record H.o.'s of each set on Polaris and the R. (iii) using the mean direct and mean reverse H. record H. (iv) the mean of all computed azimuths (two for each observing sequence.C. Direct on Polaris. Briefly. eight sets are suggested. 1969]: (i) (ii) Direct on R. for each observed set. compute the astronomic azimuth of the terrestrial line..
i=l ~ (78) in which n is the number of observations that have been meaned (e.'s.g. A . make one azimuth determination. an azimuth correction due to the nonlinearity of the star's path is required.R. only 8 azimuth determinations ) or (ii) using the mean of all time and H. 16 for the total set of observations (8 direct. is given as ~ = 2 ~ ri sin 2" . the direct and reverse readings are made within 2m to 3m . (711) and T 0 Tl + T2 + n . 1969]. If either of these approaches are used. when observing Polaris.C. 2h (79) cos A in which the azimuth A is the azimuth of the star (Polaris) computed without the correction.'s (e. This correction (6A ) is termed a second order c It is given by the expression curvature correction [Mueller.. 8 reverse)). n A" c = I m.g.R. The term CA is given by 2 2 = tanA s~n COS h 2 COS. Computations may be shortened somewhat by (i) using the mean readings direct and reverse for each set of observed times and H. 2 for each observing sequence (direct and reverse). + Tn (712) If. mi The term m.C.. (710) where "[i = = (Ti  To) . the curvature correction 6A will be negligible and c ..151 (v) computation_of the standard deviation of a single azimuth determination and of the mean azimuth completes the computations.
1969] FIGURE 71 .3 0'!59 3 0'!347 41.01916059 358°54'08'!33 89°06'12'!92 0. 907 (a Ursae Minoris [Polaris]) Instruments: Kern DKM3A theodolite (No.a 6 h (arc) 7 {j (apparent } · 8 cosh 9 tan 6 109~4'24'!60 113°07'16'!65 121°58'20'!55 10 11 12 13 14 15 sin ·q.01868820 358°55'45'!73 89°06'12'!92 0.25240913 48':95914742 49.94221251 0.(11) sinh tan A= (13)/(12) A (at the average h) 89°06'12'!92 0.. GonzalezFletcher Computer: A.~ ·' l 1157'"53~46 8"o7=s3~37 5h =AST. 1 d/4 cot z w+vl e+ff 0'!347 41. 2 3 1 :i\Iean chronometer reading j ~f direct and reverse pointmas 9 1122:.152 Observer: A.17449144 0. .91162817 0.3 0'!52 2 0'!347 41.3403626i 48. J (e+e ) cot z Determination No..21155655 0. Zenith transoceanic radio.39267890 63. Favag chronograph with manual key. '· Determination No.cOS c.8 43.95914742 49.91162817 0.7 43.4) 3 AST 911 16"11~ 10 1 1157"53~46 7 11 18"17~64 5"51~25 5"51!28 9"30"22~ 57 1 1157"53~46 7~2"29~11 5'"51~33 10 1105 1146~83 4 a: (8J?parent.84830350 0.21534402 48.8 0'!31 AA d = 1 '!6/division 2. Hamiltonsidereal chronometer (No. GonzalezFletcher Local Date: 3311965 Location: OSU old astro pillar tit e! 40°00'00 11 Ae! 5 1132~0· Star Observed: FK4 No. )  .529510321 63.01720714 i 359°00'51'!121 I AZIMUTH BY THE HOUR ANGLE OF POLARIS [Mueller.02~35 9~6=13~85 101111 "38~ 16 12 Chronometer correction (computed similar to Example 8.91162812 0.9 42.33501582 63.91967535 0. J "·.(w+w.299510091' 0.95914742 49. Azimuth Computation (Sample) tan A = sin h/(sin 1ft cos h 1 . cos h cos ~tan 6 (10) . Azimuth Mark: West Stadium ("\ 1. Level Corrections (Sample) AA d =4 [. 2E12304). 82514).l> tan 6) .
30.] ".71 1.9 30. 1 2 .3 31.35 81 = 1"33 .29 1.0 31.08 1. 100~9'30'!0 258~7 '27':6 00°01 '14'!7 101~3'47'!1 100~9'32'!9 = 101°35'25'!3 100~9'34'!1 3.3 32.:1 = J 12.21 [v]=0'!02 vv 5. ..0 .41 0. Standard deviation of the mean azimuth: M m.'39 1.5 100°29'31'!71 v 2'. 3 4 5 6 7 8 Final {mean) Azimuth of Marlt 100°29 '34 '!1 32.'47 Result: Ar(West Stadium) = 100~29'31'!7 :1: 0'!5 FIGURE 7l(continued) .04 [vv]=12.(21) 24 Azimuth of Mark = (18) + (23) .19 1..• I 7"12.17 0.71 0..01 0... Final Observed Azimuths from Eight Determinations Determination No.Z5 '48':9 2D44~5 2~6~5 = 0'!1 358°55 '45'!8 258°27'28'!2 0'!6 0'!1 359°00'51'!2 258°32'39'!0 ! i = 0'!5 258~5'48'!4 00~1'13'!7 0'!3 258°32'38'!7 00°01'17'!5 101°28'38'!8.42 2...92 0.=rn =IS 1':33 = 0'..17)) 18 A (Polaris) (15) + (1 7) 19 Circle (hor~zontal) reading on Polaris 20 Correction for dislevelment (AA) 21 Corrected circle reading (19) + (20) 22 Circle reading on Mark 23 Angle between Mark and Polaris (22) . .99 0..11 0.35 Standard deviation of an azimuth determination: m" =...41 0.'4 0'!5 358°54 •os •:a 2580..6 31.Jrr.153 16 Time difference between direct and reversed ~>ointings (21) 17 Curvature correction {equation (9..
The two reasons for this are (i) the star must be observed as it coincides with both the horizontal and vertical wires of the telescope. 1976]. the sources of errors and their magnitudes in the determination of astronomic azimuth by stars hour angles. An example of azimuth determination by the hour angle of Polaris is given in Figure 71. The method does have the advantage. for several situations. Table 71 summerizes. however. that a precise knowledge of the observer's longitude is not required and an accurate timekeeping device is not needed. Azimuths determined by star altitudes are not adequate for work that requires crA to be 5" or less. . Azimuth by hour angles is used for all orders of astronomic work. The main disadvantages are the need for a precise timekeeping device and a good knowledge of the observer's longitude.2 Azimuth by Star Altitudes Azimuth by star altitudes yields less accurate results than azimuth by star hour angles.154 could therefore be neglected [Robbins. 7. The main advantages of this method are that the observer has only to observe the star as it coincides with the vertical wire of the telescope and since no zenith distance measurement is made. and (ii) the altitude observation is subject to the effects of astronomic refraction. astronomic refraction has no effect.
3 1".6 5".5 2"..5 3".6 Polaris Prime Vertical 22°.1 4". .7 2"... 06 tan a (reading of striding level) Sum (striding level) 3".5 8"..155 Stars at Elongation Polaris Prime Vertical Lower Transit 15° 75° a 0 .5 4".9 0".. If» 03 sec a(vertical wire on star) 04 (measurement of horizontal angle) OS tan a(reading of plate level) OT (time 4"..3 3".9 2".7 0" .9 1". . .9 0" .5 03 sec a (vertical wire on star) 04 ( Ill:!asurement of horizontal angle) OS tan a (reading of plate level) OT (time) ~um 2". . . .5 20° 50° Lower Transit 30° 60° 2".0 2". 1976] .. .7 2"..6 Azimuth by hour angle: random errors in latitude 30° Stars at a 0 Elongation 64° 75° 4".5 3".5 2".2 0".2 1"..9 0". ..5 4". level) •• .3 3'. .7 5" .1 4".7 2".' .2 1".1 2". 9 2".2 5".8 2".3 0".5 1".5 1". Sum (Plate level) 06 tan a (reading of striding level Sum (Striding level) 2".0 11". .1 0".5 4".4 2".8 3". .3 . .1 1 11 ..3 0". 35° 60° If» 15° 22°.0 4".0 4".5 0".6 5".7 4".9 2".5 1".5 2".5 0".5 4".6 2".5 0"..5 0".0 2"..5 10". ..6 2".. . .. 0 .5 4". 3 6".5 Azimuth by hour angle: random errors in latitude 60° Table 71 [Robbins.0 2".5 2".. .5 2". .. 9 ' 40° 70° 3"..6 2".2 0".9 2"..1 9".3 2". . .7 3".1 2"..5 2".7 (plate .
of the observed celestial body is obtained be known. To minimise the effects of systematic errors. sino . ephemeris.a. The zenith distance (or altitude) is the measured quantity.A2 .cosA tana) da The effects of d4'> are zero when tana wh1ch occurs when h when tan4'> • = cosA h tan4'> 0 (716) (18 ). The main sources of systematic ·error with this method include error in latitude (assumed) and error in the reduced altitude due to uncorrected refraction. two stars are observed such that a1 = a2 A1 ' (718) (719) = 360° . o. or almanac and updated to the time of observation.sina sin4'> cosa cos4'> (714) To solve either (713) or (714) for A. h = 90 0 (6) or 270 The effects of da are zero = cosA tana (717) which occurs when the observed celestial body is at elongation. (226). rearranged) cosA or with z = . the latitude 4'> of the observer must The declination. dAsinA Differentiating (714) yields + (715) = (tana . from a catalogue.156 From a relationship between the Horizon and Hour Angle coordinate systems (egn.cosz sin4'> sinz cos4'> (713) = 90 cosA = sino .cosA tan4'>) d4'> (tan4'> .
R. A complete azimuth determination via sun observations consists of two morning and two afternoon determinations.R. ~>15°. Note that no star should have an altitude of less th~ 15° when using this method. Roelofs [1950]).c. for example. such as a Roelofs solar prism [Roelofs.C.C. m .c.. (ii) Direct on Sun.. Using Polaris. observations should be made at elongation. see. in Table 72. and time to nearest 1 m (for methods of observing the sun. and v. approximately.157 Further details on the selection of star pairs observing procedure and the computation of azimuths. It is best if 30° ~a~ 40°. 1976): (i) Direct on RO.R. record level readings. record H. for example. Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976]. Using a 1" theodolite and the Estimates of achievable accuracy are given observation and computation procedures described here.C. 1950].R. oA will be of the order of 20". (iii) Reverse on Sun. record H. A suggested observing procedure for one azimuth determination is as follows [Robbins. The method of azimuth determination by altitudes is often used in conjunction with sun observations. record level readings. Figure 71 illustrates. and level (plate or striding) readings. and accuracy (oA) of 5" may be attained. and v. thus for Polaris. can be found in. and time to nearest 1 .R. and it should never be outside the range 20° ~a< 50°. the optimum observing times. When special solar attachments are used on an instrument. record H.
. .1 0".9 5"..3".3 + 11". o 6 tan a (reading striding level) pum (Striding level) Azimuth by altitude: random errors in latitude 30° Stars at a 15 Elongation 64° 75° + + + +  h = 90° 35° 41° + + + + + +  Prime vertical 35° 30° + 5".9 + 9".6 5".3 0".8 6".10". .5 0". .5 + .5 6".5 3".9 (16 tan a (reading striding level) Sum (striding level) 2".7 0'3 sec a (pointing of vertical wire) 0'4 (horizontal angle measurement) 0'5 tan a (reading plate level) ~um (Plate level) .5 2".. + 10".5 Prime vertical 35° 17° 1". 8 + 10".6 4".5 4".2 + 0".3 Azimuth by altitude: random errors in latitude 60° Table 72 [Robbins. .3 1".6 10".. .3 2". 5 1".0 1"..2 5".2 . .6 2"..5 Ia 0 ... . .158 Stars at Elongation 40° 51° II h = 90° 25° 58° 1".7 2"...7 2". . ...5  + +  3". .5 + +  .6 + +  + 2".2 3".2".. ..6 4". 1976] .8 + ..6".7 0'3 sec a (pointing of vertical wire) 0'4 (horizontal angle measurement) 0'5 tan a (reading plate level) Sum (plate level) + . .3 5". ..7 2". 0'1 (pointing of horizontal wire on star) 0'2 (measuring of altitude) O'R (determination of refraction) 0 0" O" 2".2 3".5 + .5 3".0 3". . 0'1 (pointing of horizontal wire on star) 0'2 (measuring of altitude) O'R (determination of refraction) 0" 0" 0" 4".8 0"..5 3".7 3".2 3".
.. .. '\0 AM2 PIV/ .. .....·¥ SUN MOVING TOO FAST APPROX. .159 __Yv_~ .. .. . .. ' ' '' ~ ' I \ I 1REFRACTION TOO GREAT \ REFRACTION t TOO GREAT · Figure 72 Azi~uth by the Sun's Altitude ...
using the angle determined in (iii).O.R. compute the azimuth to the sun. record level readings.. The computation procedure resulting from the above observations is: (i) Mean Direct and Reverse horizontal readings to the R. using either (713) or (714)..O. (ii) correct the horizontal directions in (i) for horizontal axis dislevelment using equation (77) . . (iii) (iv) compute the angle Sun to R. mean direct and reverse zenith distance (or altitude) measurements to the Sun. (vi) compute the updated value of (tabulated (vii) (viii) o for the time of observation o plus some correction for time).C.. (v) determine the time of observation in the time system required to obtain a tabulated value of 0 of the sun. The following example illustrates the observing and computation co~pute the azimuth to the procedures for an azimuth determination via the altitude of the sun. R. Record temperature and pressure.O.160 (iv) (v) Reverse on R. record H. then correct the mean for refraction and parallax.O. and to the Sun.
00" B: Horiz. 56° 41' . Sun: H.R. Note: Means: No level readings required.C. Sight B Latitude (~): 38° 10' 10" v. 30' 00 1 0 13~0 03~0 10~0 v. H.: B May 6.161 Ex~~ple: Azimuth via Sun's Altitude (using SALS).R.R. Date: Time: Sun observed in quadrants.95 Parallax 1' 24" 06" 42" Corrected Altitude . 00 157° 339° 180° 00' 54' OS' 00' 02~0 Instrument: A R. Procedure: Inst.R. H.c.R. 20°C Pres. Time Remarks Direct Reverse Sun Sun B 56~0 30~0 04~0 56° 57° 12' 10' 00" 00" lSh l5h 40m 46m Temp.C. 1000 mb.O.C.95 = = = + 33° 17' = r 0 xf = 88" x0.Sketch: 30' 8 (R.o) Reduction of Altitude Mean Altitude (a) = 90° 56° 41' 00" = 33° 19' 00" t1ean Refraction (r ) 0 Correcting factor (f) Refraction = 88" = 0.c. Angle: 158 . 1977 Central Daylight Time (90°W) Obs.
657391 + Azimuth of Sun =cos 1A = 360°. + 16° 1!9 40!9 o at 6 May 20h Azimuth Computation cosA = sin ocosa sin a sin cos~ ~ (714) cos A = sin(l6° 40!9) .T.T.162 Computation of Sun's Declination Observed (Mean) Time Clock Correction Correction for Daylight Time Time Zone U. (N) 39~0 Change in Sun's o since 18h U. Sun's lb. (2h42m) U. 15h 43m Olm oom oom 42m + 6h 20h 16° o at 6 May 18h u.0.) = = .0.T.52191 = 265° 158° 106° 26' 30' 56' 41" 10" 31" Mean Horiz.0794215 0.O.94° 33' 19" = . Angle Azimuth to B (R.T.sin (33° cos (38° 17' 17' 42") sin (38° 42") cos (38° 10' 10' 10") 10") = .
then d~ When A= 0. alternative latitude determination procedures. involving the transformation of Hour Angle coordinates to Horizon coordinates. requires that zenith distance (z) and time (h) be observed. namely d~ = . = dz (secA = 1. Two astronomic latitude determination procedures are given in these notes: (i) Latitude by Meridian Zenith Distances. then d~ = dz (secA = 1. The effects of systematic errors in zenith distance and time. Equation (222). DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LATITUDE To deduce procedures Astronomic latitude was defined in Chapter 1. tabulated. an HF radio receiver. the reader is referred to. tanA = 0). The instrumen~used = z~) s as they transit the observer's for latitude determination are the same as those for azimuth determination: a geodetic theodolite with a striding level attachment. we must examine an expression that relates observable.8. The accuracy (o~) of a latitude determination by either For method. a thermometer and a barometer. that declination (o) and right ascension (a) be tabulated. is 2" or better [Robbins. tanA =0). 1976]. for 163 . namely cosz = sin~ sino + cos~ coso cosh . a chronometer. are shown via the total derivative of (222). using the procedures outlined. and known quantities. For this reason. and that longitude (A) be known to solve for an unknown latitude (~).secAdz cos~ tanA dh and when A= 180 0 (81) . most latitude determinations are based on zenith distance measurements of pairs of stars (one north and one south of the zenith such that zn meridian. for determining astronomic latitude from star observations. (ii) Latitude by Polaris at any Hour Angle. dz and dh·respectively.
An important aspect of this method of latitude determination is the apriori selection of starpairs to be observed or the selection of a star programme. distance by more than about 5 . 8. (UC south of zenith).z > N = ~ (o S . are as follows: (i) more stars should be listed than are required to be observed (to allow for missed observations due to equipment problems. Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976].oN > + ~ (z + 90 o (86) Equations (85) and (86) are the mathematical models used for latitude determination via meridian zenith distances. (iii) the stars in any pair.164 example. and (256). 0 Several general points to note regarding a star programme . then a combination of (82) and (83) yields (85) while a star pair LC north of zenith ~ uc S south of zenith gives . rewritten with subscripts to refer to north and south of zenith stars at transit are ~ = oN .0 .). (ii) the two stars in any pair should not dit'fer in zenith.1 Latitude by Meridian Zenith Distances Equations (254).z N (LC north of zenith). should be selected at time intervals suitable to the capabilities of the observer. (82) (83) (84) ~ s . etc. temporary cloud cover.z N = z (UC north of zenith) . and star pairs. (255).. If a star pair UC north of zenith .UC south of zenith are observed.oS N ~ = 180°.
use either equation (85) or (86) and compute ~' ~ (iii) compute the final as the mean of the six to eight determinations. for example. (iii) (iv) record the v. repeat (i) to (iii) for the south star of the pair. and the azimuth is Rewriting equation (222) (Hour Angle to Horizon very close to 0 • coordinate transformation) with z sina = (90 . track it with the horizontal wire until it reaches the vertical wire. This constitutes one observation set for the determination of Six to eight sets are required to obtain are as follows: (i) correct each observed zenith distance for refraction. The computations (ii) for each star pair. 0 Figure 81) is very small (P<l 0 ). An example of this approach can be found.c. in Mueller [1969]. A suggested observing procedure is: (i) set the vertical wire of the instrument in the meridian (this may be done using terrestrial information e. or one may determine the meridian via an azimuth determination by Polaris at any Hour Angle).g.165 For details on star programmes for latitude determination by meridian zenith distances. for instance.. the reader is referred to.a) and p = 90 . (ii) set the zenith distance for the first north star.o yields (87) = sin~ cosP + cos~ sinp cosh . Robbins [1976]. namely CJ 4> ~ = 2" or less. the polar distance (P = 90o.2 Latitude by Polaris at any Hour Angle Since Polaris is very near the north celestial pole. temperature. the known azimuth of a line. 8.R. and pressure. when the star enters the field of view.
and neglecting all terms of higher order gives (811) oa cosa + Pcosa cosh (810) . + (cosa (1 sina (oa  ~~ )) (P  (89) Now. series (up .166 Now.' = sina cosoa cos.. 3 (sina(l2! + 4! + cosa (oa  p2 )) (12! 3 oa 3! + p3 l! ) cosh. and 'substituting in (87) gives Figure 81 Astronomic Triangle for Polaris sin a = sin (a + c5a) cosP + cos (a + oa) sinP cosh . setting~= (a+ ~a). namely sine =e . replacing the small angular quantities (o a and P) by their power . becomes sina = . Then.. in which oa and P are differentially small. cos a (88) = 1  . taking only the firstorder terms of (89) into account yields sina = sina + or c5a = Pcosh ·• Replacing the secondorder oa terms in (89) with (811) above..sina sinoa sinP cosh. + e4 4! .to and including 4th order terms).P + cosa sino a cos P (88) + cosa cosoa sinP cosh .e3 + 3! e2 2! ..
Pcosh + P 2 sinP tana sin2 h p . 3 sJ.n 3P sJ. tana sJ.n 4h tan 3 a {813) Except in very high latitudes. The computation of latitude proceeds as follows: (i) {ii) compute mean zenith distance measurement for six measurements. . compute the mean h {note that mean a and {a m .c. This constitutes the observations for one latitude determination. .C. p . correct mean zenith distance for refraction and compute the mean altitude {a= 90. . temperature and pressure. time. repeat this three times. {ii) reverse the telescope and repeat {i). It should be noted that if azimuth is to be determined simultaneously {using Polaris at any hour angle).n 2P cosh SJ. then the appropriate H.167 oa = . then using (72). the series {813) may be truncated at the third term. A suggested observation procedure is as follows: {i) observe polaris {horizontal wire) and record v.n2h + 8 sJ.z)..R. {iii) compute the mean time for a.R.n2h {812) Repeating the above process for third and fourth order terms yields the final equation ~ = a + oa = a .Pcosh + .12h) must be computed for this part of the latitude determination).'s must be recorded {such a programme requires that the observer place Polaris at the intersection of the horizontal and vertical wires of the telescope).
168 (iv) (v) compute a mean compute lp ~' then P = 90  o A mean of 12 to 20 determinations will yield an astronomic latitude with alp= 2" or less [Robbins.= 7° 27' 23 August 1969 w = . 1976]. Computations: R(a rn 12h+Eq. namely (814) in which a is the corrected. The reader should note that the use of a special SALS table (Pole Star Tables) leads to a simple computation of latitude using this method. = 1009mb.:~·2 (12"). while in most cases the difference is within O!l (6") [Robbins. and a 0 . Both computation procedures are illustrated in the following example taken from Robbins [1976]. a 1 . Using this approach results will not normally differ from those using (813) by more than o. Example: (i) Latitude from Observations of Polaris at any Hour Angle with SALS tables Date: cj>=57°03' A.oh 29m 48s Mean of Observations: a= 56° 57' 24" Press.E) = . meaned altitude. 1976]. a 2 are tabulated values.
i.(r + a 0 x f) == 56° 56' 46" = a corr 0 + al + a2 ~ = 0 56° 56 1 46" + 5'48" + 09" + 00" :::: 57 02 1 43" (ii) with equation (813) as in a (. a= p !}? :::::: 56° 31.00 a ~ a .) (first three terms only) plus: = 2h 03m 09 5 17" a.56° 56' 46" + 319~5 + 36~'9 42~4 41 = 57° 02 1 .63" 56' 46" ·..169 GAST A. :::::: UT + R + R = 20h oh 19h 09m 29m 45~4 48 5 LAST a r f 0 39m 57~4 = 56° 57 8 24" (mean refraction) :::: 38 " ::::: (refraction factor) corr :::::: 1.
12 ) + Eq. DUTl.9. we saw that time. equation (93) reads A =a + h .GAST {91) From the Hour Angle .E. the difference between UTl and GAST at the epoch of observation given by LMST = MT + (aM . then GAST = TM + 6T {94) The total correction (6T) consists of the following: {i) the epoch difference 6T UTC and TM times. The right ascension {a) is catalogued. DETERMINATION OF ASTRONOMIC LONGITUDE l~ngitude In chapter 3. and 6T as the total chronometer correction.GAST {93) This equation {93) is the basic relationship used to determine astronomic longitude via star observations. h LAST = LMST Finally.Right Ascension systems coordinate transformations {egn. given by DUTl = UTl UTC (see Chapter 4).(TM + 6T) (95) 170 . 0 at the time of synchronization of {ii) {iii) {iv) chronometer drift 6 1 T. Setting TM as the observed chronometer time {say UTC). Let us first examine the determination of GAST. and the hour angle (h) and GAST are determined respectively via direction and time observations. 231) LAST =a + h • {92) Replacing LAST in {91) with {92) yields the expression A = a + h . namely {egn. 33 ) is related directly with sidereal A = LAST .
(i) d~ On the and dz can be treated as follows: when the observed star is on the prime vertical (A = 90 0 or 270 0 ) . (96). For details. the observed Replacing h in (95) by = (sec~ cotA d~ + sec~ cosecAdz + dT + d6T). it is obvious that the errors dT and d6T contribute directly to dA and can not be elliminated by virtue of some star selections. and a chronograph equipped with a hand tappet. for example.Horizon systems (eqn.171 The determination of the hour angle (h) is dependent on the astronomic observations made. the sources of systematic errors affecting longitude determination will be in zenith distance (dz).sino coso cos~ sin~ (96) Now. ~ as a known quantity. an HF radio receiver. a star program (observing list) must be compiled prior to making observations. the reader is referred. = cosz . and TM as the observed quantities. the assumed latitude time (TM) and the chronometer correction (d6T). The primary equipment requirements for secondorder ( cr). other hand. taking z can be used for the determination of a star's hour angle. and o as catalogued. . coordinate transformation cosh From the Hour Angle . and taking the total derivative yields dA (d~). 222). = 3" or less) longitude determination are a geodetic theodolite. then d~ =0 (ii) the effects of dz can be elliminated by observing pairs of stars such that z 1 =z 2 • As with azimuth and latitude determination procedures in which pairs of stars have to be observed under certain conditions. to Mueller [1969] and Robbins [1976]. (97) Examining (97). a good mechanical or quartz chronometer.
the reader should note the following. ·dA cos 8 (99) (910) where dA is the rate for the star to travel 1' (4s) of arc in azimuth. error will be d~ and the observation of the stars transit of the meridian The (due partly to inaccurate meridian setting and partly to coll:i. from [Mueller. if the longitude difference determined from north and south 2.(TM + 6T) (98) Longitude by Meridian Transit Times When a star transits the meridian. Since the GAST used is free from polar This is accomplished motion. If pairs of stars are observed such that z 1 = (97) are elliminated. :. before describing a longitude determination procedure. Example For dA dhN = 1' = 4s = 5~85 dh s = 0~80. LAST must be freed from polar motion effects. h = Oh (or 12h) and a = LAST. by adding a polar motion correction (6A p : see Chapter 6) to the final determined longitude (not each observation). .172 Finally. then the effects of dz in The observation of time (TM) as a star transits the The main sources of meridian enables longitude computation using (98). Then.1 =a + h + 6Ap . such that the final form of equation (95) becomes A 9. yielding dh in seconds.· latter errors cause . the correctionsto A are as follows: S· stars is . z 2 .0.a timing error. 1969] dA A correction for this effect is computed dh or dh= = cos 15 cosec z sin z .Iiiation).
apply the correction 6A p (vi) to get the final value of longitude.g..173 (2.. (ii) set the instrument (vertical wire) in the meridian for the north star and set the zenith distance for the star.80) = .... The associated computation procedure is as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) compute the corrected time for each observed transit (e.::.:... compute the correction to longitude (dA) for each star of a pair (see example). Example 11..::. compute the longitude for each meridian transit using (98). compute dh for each star. ~T). TM + compute the apparent right ascension for each transit.. when the star enters the field of view.. repeat (ii) and (iii) for 1216 pairs of stars..0 X 0.80 A dn = 0 S2 4 • s (2. (v) compute the mean longitude from the 1216 pairs.=.0 X 5.. track it until it coincides with the vertical wire and record the time (hand tappet is pressed).85 + 0. and after each set of observations on a star pair.hA =:AN A 8 for each star pair. An example of this procedure is given in Mueller [1969..85 + 0. compute .80) A suggested field observation procedure for the determination of longitude by meridian transit times is [Mueller... 1969]: (i) make radiochronometer comparisons before._ = (5..:.2]...:.!.=:. (iii) set the instrument for the south reverse the (iv) instrumen~ star of the pair (do not and repeat (ii). during.. ..:. 85) 5.
. the reader is referred to Mueller [1969) and Robbins [1976). For complete coverage of this topic. the reader should be aware that there are several other methods for second order longitude determination.174 In closing.
Morgan. Washii1. Fricke.C. San Francisco. General Catalogue of 33342 stars for the epoch 1950. Inc. and H. Berkshire. AJ?parent Places of Fundamental ~ta~s '.A. Fourth Fundamental catalogue resulting from the revision of the Third Fundamental Catalogue (FK3) carried out under the supervision of w. Ahrend & Zoon. 1950. D.V. ·H. and A. [1974]. W. Washington. F. Volume XIIIPart IX. William (editor) [1975]. Morris. Astronomy of Star Positions. (FK4). Ontario·. A. New York. 2525 Dunwin Drive. New York. Catalog of 5268 Standard Stars. School of Military Survey. Kopff [1963]. Heidelberg. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac.. Based on the Norman System N30. Spherical and Practical Astronomy as Applied to Geodesy. w. Nautical Almanac Office [19"801.· . Fourth Ftindame.0. Kopff in collaboration with w. B.s· •. (APFS) ~ · Verlag G~ Braun. Sta~$·'·itLtbe. Wells [1971]. American Heritage Publishing Co. Veroeffentlichungen des Astronomischen ReckenInstituts. .s. The Star Almanac for Land Surveyors for the year 1981.E. Astronomy Applied to Land Surveying. [1937].gton. U.J.C. U. u. Fricke and A. Strobel and P.R. E. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Gondolatsch. W. Military Engineering. Physical Geodesy. Wed.981 :containing "the :1535 .0. Department of Surveying Engineering Lecture Notes No. Nautical Almanac Office [198~]. Naval Observatory.tibil :catalogue~·. Eichorn. H. New York. Governm~nt N. part 3.. Government Printing Office. The Astronomical Almanac Printing Office. for the Year 19. T.175 REFERENCES Astronomisches RechenInstitut. Moritz [1967]. University of New Brunswick. H. Mueller. Mississauga. Field and Geodetic Astronomy. Fredericton.H. [1976]. Co. [1969]. Robbins. 16. D.. Ivan I. H.K. Publications of the Carnegie Institute of Washington. Roelofs. Stumpff. Newbury. Hermitage. Reissued by Johnson Reprint Co.1. 13. and D. Heidelbe_rg [1979]. Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. R. Frederick Ungar Publishing w. 468. Company. J.R. Coordinate Systems in Geodesy. L5L 1T2.. Gliese. Boss.) Heiskanen. Freeman and Krakiwsky. ..Karlsruhe. [1952]. 10. London. (GC). ·Nowacki. _[1950]. The Heritage Illustrated Dictionary of the English Language.81. Amsterdam.M. (in canada: Pendragon House Ltd. Lederke.
hence CP makes a right angle with every line meeting it in that plane. OPC are right angles. Q and R are the projections of C onto OA and OB. The 27 relations derived Appendix. and Note that the angles CQP and CRP are equal to the angles A and B of the spherical triangle. Macmillan. Similarly it can be shown ORP is also a .1 Derivation of Relationships In Figure A1. right angle. 1943).R. as given in Todhunter and Leathem ("Spherical Trigonometry". is joined to the vertices A.176 APPENDIX A REVIEW OF SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY In this Appendix the various relationships between the six elements of a spherical triangle are derived. 0. using the simple and compact approach of A. CQP to obtain Co2 = OP2 + PC 2 C02 = OQ 2 + QC 2 QC 2 (A1) (A2) (A3) = QP 2 = OQ2 + PC 2 Equating (A1) and (A2). hence OQC and ORC are right angles. the centre of the unit sphere. Thus QPC. We show that OQP is also a right angle by using right triangles COP. and substituting for QC 2 from (A3) OP 2 + QP 2 that is OQP is a right angle. B. P is the projection of C onto the plane AOB. RPC. are listed at the end of the A. C of the spherical triangle. COQ. Clarke.
177 c A Figure A1 .
PC = RC OR Then from Figure A1 sin B = QC sin A (A4) and from Figure A2 = OS + QP sin c (A5) RP = SQ .QP cos c QP = TR . S is the projection of Q on OB and T is the projection of R on OA.sin b cos c cos A sin a cos B sin b cos A = cos a sin c .RP cos c We can now make the substitutions OR = cos a RC = sin a OQ = cos b QC QP RP (A6) (A7) = sin b = QC cos = RC cos A B = sin b cos A a cos B = sin OS = OQ cos c = cos b cos c SQ OT TR = OQ = OR = OR sin c cos c sin c = cos = cos = cos b sin c a cos c a sin c to obtain from (A4) to (A7) sin a sin B cos a = sin = cos b sin A (A8) (A9) (A10) (A11) Equation (A9) is = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A b sin c . and that angles AOB SQP = = TRP. Note that the angle AOB is equal to the side c of the spherical triangle.178 In Figure A2. Equations (A10) and . on the plane AOB. one of the three Laws of Cosines for Sides.sin a cos c cos B Equation (A8) is one of the three Laws of Sines.
179 0 8 c Figure A2 .
cos a it becomes cos(nA) = cos(nB)cos(nC)+sin(nB)sin(nC)cos(na) or cos A (A14) However. (A12). It can be shown that all the above Laws remain true when the angles are changed into the supplements of the corresponding sides and the sides into the supplements of the corresponding angles.180 (A11) are two of the twelve FiveElement Formulae. and (A13) will not generate new equations. (A8) to (A16) represent onethird of the The other twothirds are obtained by simultaneous . Equations (A10) and (A11) become sin A cos b = cos B sin C + sin B cos C cos a (A15) (A16) sin B cos a = cos A sin C + sin A cos C cos b which are two more of the twelve FiveElement Formulae.sin B cot A (A13) Equations (A12) and (A13) are two of the six FourElement Formulae.sin A cot B (A12) = sin c cot b . Equations relationships. when applied to Equation (A9) = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A = cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a Similarly which is one of the three Laws of Cosines for Angles. and dividing it by Equation (A8) to obtain sin A cot B rearranged as cos A cos c = sin c cot b . The FourElement Formulae can be derived by multiplying Equation (A10) by sin A.cos A cos c Similarly multiplying Equation (A11) by sin B and dividing by the transposed Equation (A8) we obtain cos B cos c = sin c cot a . Applying this to Equations (A8).
A. from Equation {A8) sin a sin B we obtain sin b sin C = sin c sin B sin c sin A = sin b sin A = sin a sin C The entire set of 27 relations obtained this way are stated below.4 FourElement Formulae cos A cos c = sin c cot b .2.cos B cos cos B = .2. B.sin c cot A cos B cos c = sin c cot a .2 Law of Cosines (sides) cos a = cos b cos c + sin b sin c cos A cos b = cos c cos a + sin c sin a cos B cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos c A.sin B cot A .1 Law of Sines sin a sin B sin b sin = sin b sin A c sin B c = sin sin c sin A = sin a sin c A.2.181 cyclic permutation of a.2. b. c and A.sin B cot cos c c cos b = sin b cot a .cos cos c + sin B sin c cos a c cos A + sin c sin A cos b c = cos A cos B + sin A sin B cos c A. C.2 Summary of Relationships A. For example.3 Law of Cosines (angles) cos A = .sin A cot B cos B cos a = sin a cot c .
sin b cos c cos c = cos c sin a .sin c cos a cos B a sin b sin a cos b cos sin c cos A c sin b cos A = cos a sin c .2.sin a cos c cos B sin c cos B = cos b sin a .sin b cos a cos C sin c cos b cos A sin a cos C = cos c sin b sin A cos b = cos B sin C + sin B cos C cos a sin B cos c = cos C sin A + sin C cos A cos b sin C cos a = cos A sin B + sin A cos B cos c sin B cos a sin C cos b sin A cos c = cos = cos = cos A sin C + sin A cos C cos b B sin A + sin B cos A cos c C sin B + sin C cos B cos a .182 cos c cos a = sin = sin = cos = cos a cot b sin c cot B cos A cos b b cot c .sin A cot c A A.5 FiveElement Formulae sin a cos B sin b cos b sin c .
of Supply and Services. Ottawa) .183 APPENDIX B CANADIAN TIME ZONES / I<J I I 120 110 I 100 I (Canada Year Book 197879. Dept.
283 + 292.oo.97 15.o.oo6 o.S77 ..001 0.024 tl".r •.637 .696 + 210.2 JO 2J II 489 5·6o 5·74 + 317.~49 10 375 377 376 378 '1' Vel 11 Ant 9 55 58.ooo 0.299 :o 3 54·340 10 4 ]6·533 10 S s8.Sr BS Ko ll 8 10 10 10 10 s 42.so6 ..003 0.0.(.6zs .Gs .8:6 49 sS.000 Hya BS Aop r.o..r 10 IS 8.989 + 29S..8oz + 345.ssr 10 16 + I.S2 .705 O.5S IS 1S.!\:i Gs Fs ss Pi 9b229 Ul\la 193 G.z:.945 9 22.104 .143 + 292..251 ~· dii .6z x6.001 o.OJ3 o.(x) 1>1 (:z) .758 + 0..ss: .>9S + 142.786 + 283.97 o...8 520 Ko Go Go Fo At. ct dx liT + 333!241 + JJ2.o.13~ .1599 1.1.<>Ss .S 1S o.000 0. 5.. Sex Grb 1586 UMa 19 LMi 9 sz J0..o.o.4J8 + 0445 .nG I .6tJ~ ·c.o!..710 9 13 S2·3H 9 ~~ 3J.899 191 G.o .799 + 164796 + ]86.50 17.'·347 + 0IH .o.162 2.001 0.z6S s6 :.4 2.oo6 0.s.846 0.6r.oo1 o.]18 + ]66. 52 '5·45 11.61 + + + + 426.!S o. 9·~ e Sox 187 G.116 +0.ooS o.234 0.3817 ]. p Leo 183 G.H 10.47 2%•33 I].043 o.134 .598 o.1 2 .o6G ..509 .011 .001 +0.oo6 0.J..269 o..r68 + 0.657 + 0.IH 9 46 59021 9 9 9 9 47 27JOZ 49 IJ45$ 48 42.oo6 +O.).jjJ .f>Og 0.+ 0.11S + ..Jiol .034 + J26.0 1.:li8 + 0.09 ..011 10 10 10 10 '3 54.t66 1733 1.1.0.6) . + o!16o + o.261 10 3 11..4 I'' •s 24.so .859 + 38.051 S·=S 6.118 O.29 :z1 .88 16.sss .184 APPENDIX C EXCERPT FROM THE FOURTH FUNDAMENTAL CATALOGUE (FK4) EQUINOX AND EPOCH I950.1. S·U 5. 5·J G.695 O.0]2 +O..0.6·4.13$ .156 J.41 19.1.o.oo1 0..?Z4 ~n.1.014 0.271 .0.6!)S .r.001 0.Jij 0374 ..I.201 .u 1455 19.481 + 292522 24·37 ]6.523 .o..0. Car + 29S.O.o... 251. h).0.014 7 49 20 :..1.001 +0.1!'9 + + 435134 u:.632 .482 + 0490 .o Fs ns Fo 9 54 37·76o 9 56 9479 6.:.40 10 14 zs.125 + :oo.ss )82 3~4 Car 10 12 33047 10 I] .482 J.35s 0·359 o.46 1338 18.403 424418 J0%.92 ].003 o.0.6)9 + zJz .6 1.oo6 .o.o.oo + 232.0.OJZ +O.07 12.o .6 1.1.003 +0.!)~1 + + + + 257419 257·639 311.: 9·3 11 Leo cz Leo 6 4 JSo :..004 +0.563 10 2 41.18 39 IS I + :.5 3·9 2.5475 + 0.407 .437 4·6 :z.201) + + + + 33361! 333·'84 .o.z.Sag :!.GS9 36o·754 + + 0.010 +0..6o2 9 53 41.823 5 uss 1259 20 1.SS7 + 164.010 +<l.00] +0.OO] u 10 9 40 6 13 16 2l ].]6o 9 53 ]8. Hya 18 G.o:6 +O.S~ 17.So6 .S 1.oos .5·542 .259 9 57 34·334 9 ss 53·564 8.IIJ 9·5 :r.487 + 0495 + 0.uss 1.oo6 0.9S 2342 o. d1' 0!001 t:r.oo .Y)f uG.289 0.9 1.0 4·139 0.1·345 ...367 + :00.380 .001 1·0.276 0. + o.2 z6.J.1~4 .075 + 282.561 + 397·034 + 277.0.gS.o.044 + o.S.463 .r.9 rr 19 18 10 uGo 1261 .001 o..000 0.289 0.11>9 + 398.489 .391 o..0.40S .jiO ~ 05~7 o.0.571 9 49 55·431 9 51 20.oSo ·t o.. 1253 1254 I Name I"···I I Sp.703 + x. r8.6g6 r.1.6oS t' •.o.~ ·H 14 Cleo ]lSJ 1.oo1 0.oS6 + 0.•·.691 10.s.:9·9>"~ 10 16 sS..1.Sg 6..140 + ]40.657 I() 16 1.235 l!..188 311.ooz 2.4 1. 379 s. Hya 111 + .OJI +0.SG4 0.0.845 ...SoS 0.jli + 319·462 + 319219 + 292. :.018 + 316.012 0.()93 .618 o..: + O.393 .1!)0 3·985 3955 0..659 10 J{J 2J.S] 3·56 4·09 s 8.767 .OOJ o.9 s rS 9 a6z 1:G3 1:6.o6z + zg8. Vel Az Fo A: A3 Fo Ks 10 r:t 37·99S 10 IJ 41. Ko Ko llo Ko Ko rJ'43"' s!141 9 44 28..Hs. Vel + 0.647 7 2.166 o.!)(ig .2.963 + o.001 ·o~o.000 D!l 10 •s .0 AND X975·0 No.O.0.039 .954 9 56 43347 9 55 + 210..4 6Su: 162 G.389 ·.004 0.223 .s 1..252 .415 + ]67..co 6.sa .oo6 +0.27 z6.0.137 + 277.29~ + o.215 .2.'315 9 9 59 34389 10 I '7·747 10 2 571¢ ro 2 2. o.57 20..64] + 341.107 14 + 25:.00] o.:.ooo 0.oo6 +0. llya (0 :.o...(111 ~.oSo .6 1.070 .9 ·I· Z75·2~4 + :.oS 16.]09 ]02..057 + o.0.'l6 o.553 9 45 21.187 + 327..3¢ :.o.oo6 OS.51 +O.035 10.O<J6 i:!•ct ..1Go + + 0.a.:.u.· us6 371 373 1257 372 374 HZ 410 516 7·03 5·96 5·19 370 9 49 13441 9 so 21..6 1.6:g .894 9 54 53107 9 53 57521 9 S6 10. \J!\1:..174 .~ II uss ]68 370 U!\la .p 20.003 o.000 +O.]80 . "\nt i I I I 5·"2 3·.o:6 o.z Ul\!:t I J.6J u Sex :r L~o As l\lo 9 57 47729 9 57 7·479 9 ss 25..So 4·72 3·58 134 Fo .OJ z.J.oor 7 :i·353 IS Js. (I•) + 19"2J34 I.003 I Car Br 1369 UMa to .. .1.215 4·14.012 1. + 535·718 + 5J0.725 1.oss j.001> 0.oo1 0.
10 +O.)~ I ·tO.65 166].z.i.8 13861 13899 13926 13982 14074 14076 14107 14113 14123 14129 14133 14144 8 4·53 o 48..jo 09·5' 17·74 zo.OI .83 +41 JO JI.12 +O.ss o.02 +0.19 1259 +54 .SJ 01.1.21 .C.J6 .~j ·zS H ~9.JJ O.So +2J 40 '·94 +2J 32 32.18 .05 1297 14..o.3 I i .8.6.¢.11 45 Si 33·54 46 4 3521 +26 14 :.0.S 0.OO :z.40 171348 1717..17 . +0.03 +O...8:' 1685·44 169J.?9 o.JO 1798.8!91 1665·53 16oo.00) . :8 51 59·3: I .4 5 II 69 69 47 54 41 52 41 59 :!I.+54 24 24 12 n.u 18 53 2534 . o.01 10.!)0 1998 1945 135:1 IJ33 .84 1696.o...56 3473 +17 0 26.oS + o..o8 178.:1.og n.01 +C.82 1677.65 +u 9 SJ·H +u 2 :ZJ.6..711 13.0:! +O.3 4·6 4·7 2.ll 405 40:Z :Z91 2.n.68 13.02 168748 169325 168448 1688.46 2.67 1733·33 1770..44 ljo6.4.l.)40 u. l.55 12 13 48..23 1721.S 7 s6 ~li.907 . 54 26 5370 35 39 J.o6 +O.4332 .OI I I 5·9 ::144S =450 4·5 I 25 .J\1 o.41 2.786 10.OJ +0.21 .46 0.84 1776. 19.3J 1726.1555 .92 ··lSc.27 1537 o6.J9 1.33 11.ss +46 IS JS.j.26 .2 2.12 +0.o6 +O.99 10.86 9 +U 12 44·54 +Ill 5 :ZJ90 12 6 22.77 1722.. (J) 711 (r)) 'n (I•'> GC N30 USJ +JS0 5.02 +0.26 12.9·44 + + + +  + 0.o1 o.66 35 46 15.7·59 ..8g 0..6J 171469 1721.15 2 1376 ..8.48· 16.9·95 11.84 178447 1788.18 3.2j + + + . + + J!.39 171152 170741 1712.JJ 952 9·56 IJ162 13497 13.! ~0..70 10.11 i I .!49 178770 1789..Ss o ..OI +o.o6 +O.65 1759·91 1765.41 + + + + + + + 45 3·3 :z6 16 7 13 r6 + 3 30 17.54 ISOJ.9·54 .89 1712..G.91 61 4 350'\ ·Gr u zs..03 +0.OJ +O.l7 +0.1 3·8 4·1 2.71 12.04 174S.IZ +0.5 =·7 4·6 :6 25 IZ 8 13 40 ant~ 2335 233'> 2345 2355 2357 ZJ6Z :lJ64 2.0~ 19.20 .g8 174275 1747·50 17464::: 1751·42 1756.4 72 2.Z 2.1.J5 4'>·54 25.12 +0.010 .7 24 26.i 49 6.12 1761.'·'9 .36 .IJ . + + O..ss 095 o.oo o.91 IJ..o6 +0.)l.90 :.O 27 IS 24 I ·17~~~~ l~.! dJ•' Ep.OJ +0.4324 0.66 +32 2 50.1. +o.OJ 21.6.367 2J71 2373 :1376 2377 2387 2389 2390 2391 1397 :1402 O.j6 .  ~. 73 7 i17 +7:a 59 5i·i4 17 40.J.oS +O.:z u6o 1261 379 34·25 :6 14 9 50·53 12 49 li50 .81 24·43 1487 1642 10.gz 1742.01 170.IO +0.g6 44 40 27 :r.14 16.90 .0..JS o.42 11..oS +26 7 J1.02 +0.o..IO +o.'5·48 3.J :r.OI +O.01 +O.32 II.oo 11.32 +0.9S 16.7 Jl 34·44 .J2 .p 31.38 +8 l j 576 +8 9 53·'3 +32 10 13.'C)f.02 +0.O:Z o.J 19 4486 .zo 11.10 +0.:Zii +6s 21 31.oo +0...6.946 .j 1728. 0.  u: 22 375 377 S.185 EQUINOX AND EPOCH 1950.o.J.58 +6j 14 1.j6 ·"ri7' 0!01 0.IJ 23 22 10 .424 ..6<) t.Z  o.94 u·i9 1051 10.14 09·7' li73 26.oS .66 I.12 l.6g oS..9·47 + o.67 13.t  6.61 1937 19.13 +O.01 .66 0..86 Jli./lo) ·.4.26 9·46 0.~g 8 12 J.9·57 .1.03 +0.&4 13674 13684 IJjOO 13711 13741 13746 371 373 1257 372 ~74 8 21 z6 12 as 46 18.7·55 .8.64 '·9 32 13755 13763 13827 138.oS ll39 n.82 370 ( 0 2952 4 7 32.29 •·7 2.29 ·18oJ.39 179l55 1799·75 lj9ll.o +009 +009 o.oo +O.84 .921 915 11.85 1702..22 &l\OJ:.23 1779·73 26.30 .' +IS 47 62 16 62 23 57. 6.0 AND 1975·0 tl:6 li tlll "d"T" 53~4l ! ii:io! IJ!JI 13.30 +0.32 +0.48 10.2 2.35 14.os .427 .JO 384 3.0...29 O.59 1148 .20 13558 13574 13590 136. t.9.18 J•03 J.11 O.17 +16 53 645 ro.26 lj2J.<>7 +0.14 + 3 37 28.SJ 1.6J "4·0 5·9 J.ot +O.91 1727.20 +59 J6 3031 +59 9 25.25 1209 I.oo o.6.JJ 15·36 1514 16.57 .17 ..17 18.()() :z¥>8 241:1 2414 2424 2434 ::1435 2440 2442 2445 2446 10.23 51. 0.OZ +O.S.04 5·99 5·96 422 421 0.IJ +46 8 lj.09 +009 +o.
90 100 18.34 113 39.00 89 131 •135 •1.34 35.140 32. 317 • 297 • 267 ~ 226 • 182 171 155 135 110 .267 . 39...806 ..61 12.687  . 42. .660 11 621 11..78 182 • 334 67.5 11.59 102 18.11 • 341 179 ·151 22.72 22.063 21. 36.13 • 128 24.95 Q.07 oj.84 • 2~ 22. 304 76. 10 04 1 1 1 1 7.A.70 11.023 o. ZlO 19..4 10 8.61 • 36.tano ~'ll~dtJ{o.51 ..578 • .~ No.85 Q.36 +133 •138 22.92 39.87 1 7 1 8 8 10.70 41.928 .187 23.A.90 80.186 APPENDIX D EXCERPT FROM APPARENT PLACES OF FUNDAMENTAL STARS APPARENT PLACES OF STARS..784 • 141 78.96 .131 32.29 12.42 •73 12.89 39. m o .30 35.<X3 38.84 + 36.. di(<) 19.2 380 a Leonis (Regulus) AOp 1.$ 45.1 2 1. .194 22.2 12 27. 1981 AT UPPER TRANSIT AT GREENWICH ·Tr.81 o h s  10 09 39.94 12.7 G 10.35 ·OAB february21 17..525 17.00 41. 126 17.J.408 .44 ::~ 8 29.32 .14 + 203 136 .116 .99 30.816 • 26.5 9 8.43.39 42.674 . b m + 300 Dec.42 35.3 19.123 31.876 23.J .85 : ~ 32.306 74.€C 40.786 18.65 1JJ 46. •  50 26 4 24 50 80.128 77...322 .454 .'3 19.97 .404 . Dec.99 11.21 _166 71.75 31.84 13.139 77.0 3. 013 Dbte.531 73. .001 .57 22.774 .94 •115 9 28.25 230 20.88 0 23 12.60 12..604 + 11.87 18. 241 20.680 79.765 + 296 61.23 116 21.47 February 22 35 iS Q.559 33.19 .65 34.43 •63 46.026 Moanf'1~ 185 179 16.1 18.' • 319 • u.545 18.000 19.84 36.34 233 18.'3.731 14057 • 319 14.'0 43. 2 22.64 56 21.465 • 61 17.37 128 .114 ·175 19.0.535 • 35 29.133 47.282 .9 4 21.453 .E80 . h s + Dec. • 273 • 2~: oecS.694 40.3 44.445 41.976 .647 .772 12.77 13.0 21.45 _100 36. .24 12.48 12.A.87 18. Dec.50 .64 :m 237 12 15 29. Hydrae KO 3..401 .ECO 40..61 .04 .8 5 11.s 73...85 : 2"Ji • 215 • 170 :2.35 :ea 40.601 21.673 + 111 79..s 2:2 12.09 24.98 •11! 43.53 143 37.085 33..8 o.60 .923 55 39.816 • 11.48 February21 21.76 _ ea 35.94 ·240 17.134 76.947 • 165 19.43 • ~ 34.08 • .551 17.020 .317 22.194 33.800 40.09 .802 12.26 ~ 27.27 • 65 • 62 ·48 l:i:!i .319 22.00 . 116 s ·157 136 112 .796 EC 39.97 "" 7! .82 .767 _ 67 _107 202 • 239 • 271 • 298 73.88 _ 1 ~ .10 32. 222 20.35 40.32 • 232 28.874 .515 • • • • • 231 264 293 311 328 31.7 6 20.83 381 i.483 73 80.46 Febwarv22 <>0"..11 • + 48.07 too 72 m • 27 42.0".108 • 335 64.30 17.89 115 128 137 "" .52 74.01 13.2 12 17.6 9.3 17.86 28.13 29. m 323 R.595 .0.6 74.375 + :m • 326 • 9S • i'O • 42 + • 78 a:: + 75 .431 .~7 • 84 72.535 .ceg + 309 20.67 220 1S".764 +46 11.685 • 1~ 7 18. 81 30.411 ·• 66 • 2.A.816 142 19.36 ..349 79.55 m 17.781 • 255 ~··~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 14.852 •1.573 17.52 34.1 11.85 _102 24.214 o.84 1!.92 • sg 40.) da(t).83 • ea 40.680 t' 39.952 : 11.872 •1.4 11.18 • 48 .51 40.10 .771 21.85 .673 39622 ·1 023 o.03 21.65 84 110 4· 1.80 • ill 45..40 •fa 17.73 37.388 39366.89 :a:: 41. 166 21.26 _2:0 43 66 .397 + 2C9 19.638 •n 64 111 22.7.!2 39.42 26. 12 21.100 • "' ""' .71 23.633 •1.72 I~S 42395 18.20 + 74 12. • 228 200 288 X6 323 • 326 34.54 + &l 22.303 o.721 40..coo oms 80.60 21.268 • 30.70 157 18.00 .8 d 12 58 10 06 + 16 50 o h 10 07 21.08 12. 24 18.107 .128 12.521 17.79 21 .52 36. R..96 185 66. m R.110 11.24 18.955 • 21 12.563 . 7.849 • 328 • 334 23.545 + 264 19.1 22.313 12. .86 18.140 22.88 •102 17.8 5 31. i28 . 2.7 6 30.63 .26 . 39372 : =: 22 6 32 39.997 =:~ .35 ·0.26 • 1!2  32.443 • 322 62.112 + :<Dl 18.328 135 32..64 23.7 14 + 1@ 35..507 30.96 17! 39.Speet.23 _127 42.6 • 21 • 49 36.59 36.21 •110 •00 •€/'i 34.27 17.88 23 48..177 • 315 274 30. 23) R.6 34. 58 21.425 22.82 .44 21.6 30.8 5 1. 323 22.717 .40 49 47.44 31.97 36.1 12.844 • 11?6 40 040 18.600 .613 • 11. 1261 379 11leonis 88 II Hydrae 4.952 .63 39 17 9 38 +116 +128 78.12 73.148 .883 + 202 34.702 40.Trans.3 7.T.55 m • 3~9 69.65 30.122 • 25..217 o 35 o.145 • 252 16.397 .35 o.905 .71 •0.115 31..83 29.48 .100 30.51 39 s::ss • !i4 17.66 + 37 21.49 18.557 .647 21.21 34.925 • 173 77.02 _238 21061 • ~~ 59.350 • + 12 03 35..545 17.009 .064 oo13 37.330 40.622 40.:0 22.651 27.045 o.914 22.oss oo13 ·IZ:: . • lZI 41..65 •152 24.58 U.344 • 187 73.839 • 273 75.570 .£.0 12.528 • 28..472 • '00 36.723 .1 26.573 39.134 32.44 .112 + 232 74.67 ·178 40.098 • 200 76.496 39.10 12.334 80.134 _ 138 47.18 28.10 • 3' 30.722 .80 • 33 .21 .422 33.16 34.120 .230 o.527 .21 .63 41.92 ~ 46.80 12.44 • 14 21.07 135 21.361 + 0 80.3 272 18.5 9 18.2 12 37.127 .126 75.96 12.78 35.9 22.16 • 67 40.9 "' 25.26 24.72 • • • 39.6 20.4 10 10 11 11 11 18.27 130 18.8 5 21.800 79.11 47.5 19.9 4 11.72 2:. o .96 • 93 44. i51 + 35 72.92 • 18 29.74 •S6 17.861 • ~ 14.32 167 23.492 • 288 239 33.888 + 67 12. 79 12.678 14. Name Mag.328 80. 2 3 3 3 11..27 . 93 21..34 88 3.583 22.80 •34 23 13 l ~6 39.ll5 40.50 30.28 21.. 66 20.
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